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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015

Proceeding Book  ISSN: 2146 ‐7382   

Published Date: October 5, 2015

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 Foreword

Dear Guests; Welcome to International Science and Technology Conference, ISTEC, International Distance Education Conference, IDEC, International Trends and Issues in Communication & Media Conference, ITICAM & International Teacher Education Conference, ITEC. Every year conferences are held at different locations around the world. This year we are in St. Petersburg/Russia. Here is the content of each one of conferences: International Science and Technology Conference, ISTEC, is a multidisciplinary meeting in fields of science and technology. The talks range from historical restoration projects to frontiers of science. International Distance Education Conference, IDEC, is about distance education and multitude of ways to improve the structure and quality of learning process. International Trends and Issues in Communication & Media Conference, ITICAM, hosts a multitude of contributions as regards latest trends in communication and media. International Teacher Education Conference, ITEC, is a platform where attendees can discuss latest trends in education. These conference are now well-known events and the number of paper submissions and attendees are increasing every year. During the sessions, the participants will share their knowledge, research and experiences with us. They also talk about the recents developments in these fields. We hope that we will meet again. Thank you for your participations and contributions for the success of this conference.

Prof. Dr. Aytekin İŞMAN Prof. Dr. Mustafa Şahin DÜNDAR

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Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC) 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 ISTEC 2015 Organizing Committee Honorary Prof. Dr. Elaine P. MAIMON, President, Governor State University, United States Prof. Dr. Kay A. PERSICHITTE, President, Elected AECT President, United States Prof. Dr. Mahmut AK, President, Istanbul University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Muzaffer ELMAS, Sakarya University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Sharon SMALDINO, Northern Illinois University, United States

General Coordinator

Prof. Dr. Aytekin İŞMAN, Sakarya University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Colleen SEXTON, Governors State University, United States Prof. Dr. J. Ana DONALDSON, AECT Former President, United States

ISTEC Coordinator Prof. Dr. M. Şahin DÜNDAR, Sakarya University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Deborah E. BORDELON, Governors State University, United States Prof. Dr. Gwo – Dong CHEN, National Central University, Chung- Li, Taiwan Prof. Dr. Hellmuth STACHEL, Vienna University of Tecnology, Austria Prof. Dr. J. Michael SPECTOR, University of Norht Texas, United States Prof. Dr. Saedah SIRAJ, University of Malayai Malaysia

ISTEC Associate Coordinators Prof. Dr. Paolo Di Sia, University of Verona, Italy

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Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC) 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 ISTEC Assistant Coordinators

Assist. Prof. Dr. Engin CAN, Sakarya University, Turkey Assist. Prof. Dr. İrfan ŞİMŞEK, Istanbul University, Turkey

ISTEC Conference Secretary

Dr. Kerim KARABACAK, Sakarya University, Turkey Res. Assist. Hüseyin ESKİ, Sakarya University, Turkey Lect. Mustafa OZTUNC, Sakarya University, Turkey Muhammet Ali KOLSAN, Sakarya University, Turkey

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 ISTEC 2015 Editorial Board Prof. Dr. Ahmet APAY, Sakarya University, TURKEY Prof. Dr. Antoinette J. MUNTJEWERFF, University of Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS Prof. Dr. Arvind SINGHAL, University of Texas, UNITED STATES Prof. Dr. Bilal GÜNEŞ, Gazi University, TURKEY Prof. Dr. Bilal TOKLU, Gazi University, TURKEY Prof. Dr. Brent G. WILSON, University of Colorado at Denver, UNITED STATES Prof. Dr. Cafer ÇELİK, Ataturk University, TURKEY Prof. Dr. Chih-Kai CHANG, National University of Taiwan, TAIWAN Prof. Dr. Chin-Min HSIUNG, National Pingtung University, TAIWAN Prof. Dr. Colin LATCHEM, Open Learning Consultant, AUSTRALIA Prof. Dr. Deborah E. BORDELON, Governors State University, UNITED STATES Prof. Dr. Don M. FLOURNOY, Ohio University, UNITED STATES Prof. Dr. Feng-Chiao CHUNG, National Pingtung University, TAIWAN Prof. Dr. Finland CHENG, National Pingtung University, TAIWAN

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Prof. Dr. Francine Shuchat SHAW, New York University, UNITED STATES Prof. Dr. Frank S.C. TSENG, National Kaohsiung First University os Science and Technology, TAIWAN Prof. Dr. Gianni Viardo VERCELLI, University of Genova, ITALY Prof. Dr. Gilbert Mbotho MASITSA, Universirty of The Free State, SOUTH AFRİCA Prof. Dr. Gregory ALEXANDER, University of The Free State, SOUTH AFRİCA Prof. Dr. Gwo-Dong CHEN, National Central University Chung-Li, TAIWAN Prof. Dr. Gwo-Jen HWANG, National Taiwan University od Science and Technolog, TAİWAN Prof. Dr. Hellmuth STACHEL, Vienna University of Technology, AUSTRIA Prof. Dr. J. Ana DONALDSON, AECT Former President, UNİTED STATES Prof. Dr. Mehmet Ali YALÇIN, Sakarya University, TURKEY Prof. Dr. Metin BAŞARIR, Sakarya University, TURKEY Prof. Dr. Nabi Bux JUMANI, International Islamic University, PAKİSTAN Prof. Dr. Orhan TORKUL, Sakarya University, TURKEY Prof. Dr. Paolo Di Sia, University of Verona, ITALY

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Zeki SAKA, Karadeniz Technical University, TURKEY Dr. Abdul Mutalib LEMAN, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, MALAYSIA

Dr. Fabricio M. DE ALMEIDA Dr. Fahad N. ALFAHAD, King Saud University, SAUDI ARABIA Dr. Fatimah HASHIM, Universiti Malaya, MALAYSIA

Dr. Abdülkadir MASKAN, Dicle University, TURKEY

Dr. Fatma AYAZ, Gazi University, TURKEY

Dr. Ali DEMIRSOY, Hacettepe University, TURKEY

Dr. Fonk SOON FOOK, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA

Dr. Alper Tolga KUMTEPE, Anadolu University, TURKEY Dr. Atilla YILMAZ, Hacettepe University, TURKEY Dr. Bekir SALIH, Hacettepe University, TURKEY

Dr. Galip AKAYDIN, Hacettepe University, TURKEY Dr. Gürer BUDAK, Gazi University, TURKEY Dr. Hasan MUJAJ, University of Prishtina, KOSOVO

Dr. Belma ASLIM, Gazi University, TURKEY

Dr. Hasan KIRMIZIBEKMEZ, Yeditepe University, TURKEY

Dr. Berrin ÖZCELİK, Gazi University, TURKEY

Dr. Hasan OKUYUCU, Gazi University, TURKEY

Dr. Burhan TURKSEN, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, TURKEY Dr. Chua Yan PIAW, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA Dr. Constantino Mendes REI, Instituto Politecnico da Guarda, PORTUGAL Dr. Daniel KIM, The State University of New York, SOUTH KOREA Dr. Dong-Hoon OH, Universiy of Seoul, SOUTH KOREA Dr. Ergun KASAP, Gazi University, TURKEY Dr. Evrim GENÇ KUMTEPE, Anadolu University, TURKEY www.iste‐c.net 

Dr. Ho Sooon MIN, INTI International University, MALAYSIA Dr. Ho-Joon CHOI, Kyonggi University, SOUTH KOREA Dr. HyoJin KOO, Woosuk University, SOUTH KOREA Dr. Jae-Eun LEE, Kyonggi University, SOUTH KOREA Dr. Jaroslav Vesely, BRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, CZECH REPUBLIC Dr. Jon Chao HONG, National Taiwan Normal University, TAIWAN Dr. Joseph S. LEE, National Central University, TAIWAN

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 Dr. Kendra A. WEBER, University of Minnesota, UNITED STATES Dr. Kim Sun HEE, Woosuk University, SOUTH KOREA

Dr. Murat DİKER, Hacettepe University, TURKEY Dr. Musa DOĞAN, Middle East Technical University, TURKEY

Dr. Latif KURT, Ankara University, TURKEY

Dr. Mustafa KALKAN, Dokuz Eylül Universiy, TURKEY

Dr. Levent AKSU, Gazi University, TURKEY

Dr. Nihat AYCAN, Muğla University, TURKEY

Dr. Li YING, China Central Radio and TV University, CHINA Dr. M. Oğuz KUTLU, Çukuroava University, AFGHANISTAN Dr. Man-Ki MOON, Chung-Ang University, SOUTH KOREA Dr. Martha PILAR MéNDEZ BAUTISTA, EAN University, Bogotá, COLOMBIA Dr. Md Nor Noorsuhada, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA Dr. Mehmet TURKER, Gazi University, TURKEY Dr. Mehmet YILMAZ, Gazi University, TURKEY Dr. Mohamad BIN BILAL ALI, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MALAYSIA Dr. Mohamed BOUOUDINA, University of Bahrain, BAHRAIN Dr. Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI, University of Tehran, IRAN Dr. Mohd Roslan MODH NOR, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA Dr. Muhammed JAVED, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, PAKISTAN

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Dr. Nilgün TOSUN, Trakya University, TURKEY Dr. Nursen SUCSUZ, Trakya University, TURKEY Dr. Orhan ARSLAN, Gazi University, TURKEY Dr. Osman ANKET, Gülhane Askeri Tıp Akademisi, TURKEY Dr. Piotr TOMSKI, Czestochowa University of Technology, POLAND Dr. Raja Rizwan HUSSAIN, King Saud University, SAUDI ARABIA Dr. Ramdane YOUNSI, Polytechnic University, CANADA Dr. Rıdvan KARAPINAR, Yuzuncu Yıl University, TURKEY Dr. Rıfat EFE, Dicle University, TURKEY Dr. Ruzman Md. NOOR, Universiti Malaya, MALAYSIA Dr. Sandeep KUMAR, Suny Downstate Medical Center, UNITED STATES Dr. Sanjeev Kumar SRIVASTAVA, Mitchell Cancer Institute, UNITED STATES

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 Dr. Selahattin GÖNEN, Dicle University, TURKEY Dr. Senay CETINUS, Cumhuriyet University, TURKEY Dr. Sevgi BAYARI, Hacettepe University, TURKEY Dr. Sevgi AKAYDIN, Gazi University, TURKEY Dr. Sharifah Norul AKMAR, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA Dr. Sheng QUEN YU, Beijing Normal University, CHINA Dr. Süleyman ÖZÇELİK, Gazi University, TURKEY Dr. Sun Young PARK, Konkuk University, SOUTH KOREA Dr. Tery L. ALLISON, Governors State University, UNITED STATES

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Dr. Türkay DERELİ, Gaziantep University, TURKEY Dr. Uner KAYABAS, Inonu University, TURKEY Dr. Wan Mohd Hirwani WAN HUSSAIN, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA Dr. Wan Zah WAN ALI, Universiti Putra Malaysia, MALAYSIA Dr. Yueah Miao CHEN, National Chung Cheng University, TAIWAN Dr. Yusuf KALENDER, Gazi University, TURKEY Dr. Yusup HASHIM, Asia University, MALAYSIA Dr. Zawawi ISMAIL, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA Dr. Zekai SEN, Istanbul Technical University, TURKEY

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 ISTEC 2015 Keynotes Preparation, Characterization Nanosized Materials for Solid Phase Extraction of Elements at Trace Levels in Environmental Samples Prof. Dr. Mustafa Soylak Erciyes University, Turkey

Crisis in Higher Education Prof. Dr. Ali Ekrem OZKUL Anadolu University, Turkey

The Future of Cultural Education Prof. Dr. Murat BARKAN Nişantaşı University, Turkey

How to equip students with visual literacy skills through infographics Prof. Dr. Buket AKKOYUNLU  Hacettepe University, Turkey

The History of Science and Technology Prof. Dr. Durmus GÜNAY  Council of Higher Education, Turkey

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015

Table of Content 10-12 YAŞ ÇOCUKLARDA SEKİZ HAFTALIK FUTBOL ANTRENMANIN DENGE, HIZ VE REAKSİYON ZAMANINA OLAN ETKİSİNİN İNCELENMESİ 1 Gönül Babaiyigit İrez, Reşat Kartal, Alper Kartal 2048 PLAY INSTANT SCORE ESTIMATION WITH BACK PROPAGATION ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

2

Ruya Samli A COMPARISON OF CURVE INTERPOLATION ALGORITHMS FOR LOW CURVATURE CURVES

8

Vojtech Wrnata, Petr Kretschmer A NEW FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR ADJUSTING OF PITCH ANGLE OF WIND TURBINE

9

Zafer Civelek, Ertuğrul Çam, Murat Lüy, Özge Pınar Arslan, Yağmur Arıkan, Göksu Görel A PLANAR ROBOT DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION WITH MAPLE

10

Engin CAN, Özkan CANAY A REAL-TIME REMOTE PHYSIOTHERAPY SYSTEM USING MOTION DETECTION SENSOR

17

Hüseyin Eski, Cemil Öz, Ümit Kocabıçak A RESEARCH ON ACCOUNTING LESSONS OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS: STUDENTS’ COMPREHENSION DIFFICULTIES 18 Okan Şeneldir A STOCHASTIC-OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL MICRO-SITING OF WIND TURBINES 19 Akiner Tuzuner, Issa Almassri, Selcuk Goren A STUDY OF FE DOPED ZNO THIN FILMS COATED BY SOL-GEL SPIN COATING

28

Erdal Sönmez, Güven Turgut A STUDY ON HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING ALUMINUM PART PRODUCTION BY COMPUTER SIMULATION 29 Ahmet Özel, Soner Özden Erturk A STUDY ON RECOVERED CELLULOSE FIBERS THAT TREATED BY BORON OMPUNDS

30

Halil Turgut Şahin, Mustafa Yılmaz ADSORPTION MATERIALS

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

SURFACTANTS

ON

DIFFERENT

PETROLUEM

RESERVOIR 31

Samya D. Elias, Ademola M. Rabiu, Oyekola Oluwaseun and Beverly Seima AKDENİZ BÖLGESİ BİYOKÜTLE YAKITLARININ GAZLAŞTIRILARAK ENERJİYE DÖNÜŞTÜRÜLMESİNİN SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR ÇEVRE ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİLERİ 41 İsmet Faruk YAKA, Afşin GÜNGÖR, Abdülkadir KOÇER AKILLI ULAŞIM SİSTEMLERİ

SİSTEMLERİNDE

iPHONE

VE

ANDROİD

TEMELLİ

SÜRÜCÜ

BİLGİLENDİRME 52

Gül Fatma TÜRKER, Akif KUTLU AN APPLICATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING SET

62

Aydın Güllü, Hilmi Kuşçu, Ozan Aki AN APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC DISPATCH USING GENETIC ALGORITHM Özge Pınar Arslan, Yağmur Arikan, Ertuğrul Çam

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63

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 AN EXAMPLE REGION WORK IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL MUNICIPALISM: CEYHAN MUNICIPALITY EXAMPLE 64 Ümmü Saliha EKEN İNAN AN INTERVENTION ANALYSIS OF KYOTO PROTOCOL ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

72

Mehmet Mert, Celil Zurnacı AN INVESTIGATION ON DETERMINING FACTORS AFFECTING BODY CONDITION SCORE IN FIRST PARITY HOLSTEIN COWS 73 Aşkın Galiç, Nurcan Karslıoğlu Kara AN OVERVIEW OF MONTE CARLO (MC) SIMULATION METHOD AND BASIC PRINCIPLES IN MEDICAL RADIATION AND RADIATION DETECTORS 74 Hüseyin Ozan Tekin, Ümit Kara, Asghar Mesbahi ANALYSIS ON CURRENT LIMITING CHARACTERISTICS OF INTEGRATED THREE PHASE FLUX-LOCK TYPE SFCLS WITH FAULT TYPES 75 Ho-Ik Du, Gong-Hyun Hong, Byoung-Sung Han ANALYZING EFFICIENCIES AND TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITIES OF STAR ALLIANCE MEMBER AIRLINES

76

Yağmur ÖZ, Can Deniz KÖKSAL ANEMİ VE TÜRLERİNİN TEŞHİSİNDE VERİ MADENCİLİĞİ TEKNİKLERİNİN KULLANIMI

85

Ertuğrul Ergün, Asiye Betül Ciga, Göksenin Ünlügüzel Üstün ARA ELEMAN YETİŞTİREN MYO’ LARDAN SEKTÖRÜN BEKLENTİLERİ

86

Selim Bacak, Ümit Kara, Alper Tongal ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE IN SIX BROWN LAYER LINES BY MICROSATELLITE MARKERS 87 Taki Karslı, Mrat Soner Balcıoglu ASSESSMENT OF PAIN MANAGEMENT IN ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE

88

Berrin Okka ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF DIATOMITE AND PUMICE IN STONE MASTIC ASPHALT AS STABILIZER

89

Bekir Aktaş, Şevket Aslan AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF CONFUSABLE SETS IN SMART SPELL CHECKING FOR KOREAN LEARNERS OF ENGLISH 90 Jee Eun Kim, Kong Joo Lee BİLGİSAYAR PROGRAMLAMANIN KOLAY ÖĞRENİMİ İÇİN, BENZETİM VE ÖRNEKLEME MODELLERİNİN C DİLİ ÜZERİNDE İNCELENMESİ 91 Faruk SENTÜRK BİLGİSAYAR TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN KARŞILAŞILAN SORUNLAR

EĞİTİM

ORTAMLARINDA

KULLANILMASI:

YÖNTEMLER

VE 102

Kamuran Soylu BİLİŞİM TEKNOLOJİLERİ EĞİTİMİNE YENİ BİR BAKIŞ: KIRKLARELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ MICROSOFT IT ACADEMY

103

Bora Aslan, Füsun Yavuzer Aslan, Gökhan Doğan, Ömer Kırmacı, Süleyman Aslan BİYOMEDİKAL CİHAZ TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN ETKİN VERİMLİ KULLANIMI

104

Alper Tongal, Selim Bacak, Ümit Kara BOR KATKILI BETONLARIN NÖTRON TUTUCULUĞUNUN İNCELENMESİ Hakan SARIKAYA, Raşit ALTINDAĞ

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105

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 CİNSİYETİN HEMŞİRELERİN İŞ DOYUMLARI ÜZERİNE ETKİSİ: BİR META ANALİZ ÇALIŞMASI

114

Filiz Kantek, Handan Kartal CLASSIFICATION OF EEG DATA USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK LEARNED BY HEURISTIC ALGORITHMS 115 Muhammer İLKUÇAR, Ali KAVURUR CLASSIFYING HAND SIGNS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

126

Ozan AKI,Aydın GÜLLÜ COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF CHESTNUT WOOD BY USING FIRE RETARDANT PAINT

131

R. Esen, Ş. Kurt, C. Özcan, F.Yapıcı COMPRESSION CHARACTERISTIC OF EXTRUDED SEMI-SOLID MG-7.5AL-0.3MN ALLOY

135

Jae-Chan Jo, Dae-Hwan Kim, Su-Gun Lim COMPUTATİONAL DESİGN OPTİMİZATİON OF ROAD SPEED BUMPS

136

Hakan Ersoy, Kayra Kurşun CREATING ONTOLOGY BASED CONCEPT MAPS WHICH CAN BE QUERIED IN COMPUTER ENVIROMENT 137 Mehmet Milli, Emre Ünsal, Özlem Aktaş ÇAĞDAŞ ARAP ŞİİRİNDE SOSYALİST GERÇEKÇİLİK

145

Salih TUR DESIGNING A SYSTEM WHICH GENERATES ELECTRIC ENERGY FROM WIND FORCE OF CARS

156

Fatih BAŞÇİFTÇİ, Muhammet GÜMÜŞSOY DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM TO BE USED TO DETERMINETHE BODY SIZE 160 Hakan YÜKSEL,Mehmet DAYIK,Oğuz ÇOLAK DETERMINATION OF COMPLEX VERTEBRAL MALFORMATION (CVM) GENETIC DISORDER IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE REARED IN ANTALYA REGION OF TURKEY 166 Murat Gökçe Eren, Murat Soner Balcioglu, Taki Karslı, Emine Şahin DEVELOPING A CLOUD-BASED SUPPLY CHAIN EVENT MANAGEMENT TOOL THROUGH INTEGRATED LOGISTICS PLANNING AND CONTROLLING TO MANAGE CYBER PHYSICAL LOGISTICS NETWORKS 167 Daniel Thomas Roy, Jan Reipert DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ELUENT WATER SAVING IN TEXTILE

168

Adem Çinarli, Demet Gürbüz, Reşat Uca DIAGNOSIS BREAST CANCER IN MAMMOGRAPHY IMAGES

169

Sevcan Aytac Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih Korkmaz EGZERSİZ BİSİKLETİNDEN ELEKTRİK ÜRETİMİ

170

Ahmet ÇAĞLAR, Erdoğan ÖZEN ELASTIC FOUNDATION EFFECTS ON THREE DIMENSIONAL ARCH DAMS Muhammet KARABULUT, Murat Emre KARTAL, Murat

CAVUSLI, Derya

173

TANRIVERMIS, Bayram KAYALAR

ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF CHAIRLIKE -GEC SHEETS: A FIRST PRINCIPLE STUDY

186

Turgut Fatih Kasalak, Arif Babanlı ELEKTRONİK TALEP YÖNETİM SİSTEMİ (ELECTRONIC REQUEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM)

187

Musa Çibuk, Zafer Cömert ERZİNCAN ÜNİVERSİTESİNDE DEMODEX FOLLICULORUM (ACARI, DEMODICIDAE) TARAMASI Erhan Zeytun, Salih Doğan, Engin Tilki, Sibel Ddilkaraoğlu, Adalet Özçiçek, Fatih Özçiçek

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188

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 ESKİ ANADOLU VE MEZOPOTAMYA TÜRKLERİNDE İLK YAZILI KANUNLAR- FERMAN VE YASAKLAR

189

Remziye Okkar EVALUATION OF EARTHQUAKE BEHAVIOR OF ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE DAM ON DIFFERENT WATER LEVELS 190 Murat CAVUSLI, Ismail Hakki OZOLCER, Murat Emre KARTAL, Muhammet KARABULUT, Emrah DAGLI EVALUATION OF EXPERIENCE REGARDING THE USE OF MOBILE BANKING: AN APPLICATION ON ACADEMICS 201 Vural ÇAĞLIYAN, Muammer ZERENLER, Zeynep ERGEN IŞIKLAR, Mehmet ÇOBAN EXAMINATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF POROUS NITI COATED BY USING INDUCTION WELDING METHOD ON 316L STAINLESS STEEL 212 İlyas Somunkiran, Ahmet Balin, Abdullah Melİk Özen, Mehmet Nur Kaplan EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DUCTILITY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH POLYPROPYLENE FIBERS 213 Rıfat SEZER, Abdulhamid ARYAN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VEGETATION EFFECT ON THE FLOOD PROPAGATION DUE TO THE FAILURE OF THE DISTORTED PHYSICAL MODEL OF URKMEZ DAM 218 M. Şükrü Güney, Gülpembe Neyiş EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF WINDOW AND DOOR HOLLOW EFFECT ON MASONRY BUILDING BEHAVIOR UNDER THE CYCLIC LOAD 219 Fatih Altun, Oktay Musa Kayirga FACTORS CAUSING WOMEN STUDENTS TO DROP OUT OF ENGINEERING IN SOUTH KOREA

220

Jong TaeYoun, Song Ah Choi, Ji Eun Jung FARKLI GÖZENEK YOĞUNLUĞUNA SAHİP METAL KÖPÜK BLOKLARDAN ZORLANMIŞ TAŞINIMLA ISI TRANSFERİNİN İNCELENMESİ 221 Ayla Doğan, Oğuzhan Özbalci, İbrahİm Atmaca FARKLI KESİT FORMLARI İLE ÜRETİLEN SANDALYELERİN MUKAVEMETİNİN SONLU ELEMANLAR YÖNTEMİ İLE BELİRLENMESİ 222 Erkan LIKOS, Murat AYDIN FARKLI ORANLARDAKİ ÇELTİK - KÖMÜR KARIŞIMININ GAZLAŞTIRMA VERİMİ AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ

228

Abdülkadir KOÇER, Afşin GÜNGÖR FORMER FIRST WRITTEN LAWS - FERMANA IN ANATOLIA AND MESOPOTAMI A TURKISH AND BANS

233

Remziye OKKAR FOUCAULT’DA MODERN TOPLUMUN ÖZNESİ BİREY Mİ İKTİDAR MI?

241

Fürkan Alyüz FINITE ELEMENT SOLUTION OF DIM DAM UNDER STATIC LOADING USING DUNCAN CHANG MODELLING 242 Ergin ERAYMAN, Mustafa YILDIZ, Uğur Ş. ÇAVUŞ, Ali YILDIZ FIREWALL PARADOX: AN EARTHQUAKE IN PHYSICS

249

Furkan Semih Dundar FRENCH MANDATORY EDUCATION: THE CASE OF SANJAK (HATAY) (1920-1939)

250

Yusuf KODAZ FRICTION AND WEAR PERFORMANCE OF POLYMER - ELASTOMER BLENDS HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE / STYRENE - BUTADİENE RUBBER Sezgin Ersoy

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 FUEL SAVINGS OF POWER TRAIN MODELING IN THE PARALLEL HYBRID TRACTOR

254

Hyeonseop Yi1, Jinseong Kim, Sukwon Cha, Yeongil Park GİRİŞİMCİLERDE BULUNMASI GEREKEN ÖZELLİKLER: GİRİŞİMCİ VE ÖĞRENCİ GÖRÜŞLERİ

255

Güven Özal GLOBAL GÜNEŞ DEĞERLENDİRMESİ

IŞINIM

DEĞERLERİ

TAHMİNİNDE

FARKLI

AMPİRİK

MODELLERİN 256

Abdülkadir KOÇER, Afşin GÜNGÖR, İsmet Faruk YAKA HACI MAHMUT AĞA TEKKESI VE MESCIDI RESTORASYON ÇALIŞMASI

261 

Serdar KASAP, Kübra BASOOĞLU, Funda ARSLAN YILMAZ HOT EXTRUSION CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMI SOLID MG-10AL-0.3MN ALLOY

268

Minsu Jo, Dae-hwan Kim, Su-gun Lim IMMOBILIZATION OF GLUTAMINASE ENZYME FROM HYPOCRIA JECORINA ON POLYACRYLIC ACID: PREPARATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION 269 Emine Karakuş, Mesut Karahan, Neşe Atacı IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY USE TOWARDS THE AGGRESSİON AND ANGER IN ADOLESCENTS

270

Mehmet Çağlar, Emete Gerçel INDEPENDENT COLLEGE, A UNIQUE INNOVATION, IN THE HISTORY OF CHINESE HIGHER EDUCATIİON: THE TEN-YEAR PRACTICE AND EXPLORATION OF NANKAI UNIVERSITY BINHAI COLLEGE 271 Ting Wen, Min Guo, Dongsheng Zhang INFLUENCE OF ANNEALING ATMOSPHERE ON THE HFO2 BASED GAS SENSORS

272

Irmak Karaduman, Özlem Barin, Metin Özer, Esra Yıldız, Selim Acar INVESTIGATION OF EVAPORATIVE COOLING EFFECTIVENESS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AIR – COOLED CHILLERS

273

İbrahim Atmaca, Sezgi Koçak Soylu, Ayla Doğan INVESTIGATION OF NEUTRON SHIELDING WITH BORON CONCRETE ADDITIVE

274

Hakan Sarıkaya, Raşit Altındağ INVESTIGATION OF NEW CHEMICALS THAT CAN BE USED INSTEAD OF SODA IN TEXTILE

275

Aydın Tavman, Adem Çınarlı, Reşat Uca INVESTIGATION OF PHYSICAL COMFORT CONDITIONS AND USERS’ SATISFACTION IN COTTAGE HOSPITALS: THE CASE OF NİLÜFER, BURSA,TURKEY 276 Filiz Şenkal Sezer, Yasemin Erbil İNSAN DOĞAL ORTAM ETKİLEŞİMİ BAKIMINDAN GELENEKSEL HARRAN KUBBE EVLERİ

277

Abdulkadir GÜZEL, Mehmet ÖZCANLI INVESTIGATION OF BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURES ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT LOCAL SITE CLASSES FOR L TYPE REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME BUILDING HAVING A1 AND A3 IRREGULARITIES 287 Rıfat SEZER, Ceyhun AKSOYLU, Nail KARA INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF CONVENTIONAL AND WIPER COATED CARBIDE TOOLS WITH DRY CUTTING ON CUTTING FORCES, SURFACE ROUGHNESS, AND MATERIAL HARDNEES IN TURNING 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL  300  Mustafa AY, Gültekin BASMACI INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATION DAMPING IN THE PASSENGER SEAT Lutfiye DAHIL, Abdurrahman KARABULUT, M. Serhat BASPINAR, I. MUTLU

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308

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 KARBON PREPREG DİSK YAYLARIN İNCELENMESİ

315

Haşim Fırat Karasu, Melih Belevi KAVRAM YANILGILARININ GİDERİLMESİ

ONTOLOJİK

AÇIDAN

TESPİTİ

VE

ARGÜMAN

ÇALIŞMALARI

İLE 316

Aysegul Kinik, Hale Bayram KLİNİK KARAR DESTEK SİSTEMLERİ ÜZERİNE TÜRKİYE’DE YAPILAN LİSANSÜSTÜ TEZLER

318

Öznur Körükçü, Kamile Kabukçuoğlu KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS LEVEL OF CONSUMERS IN SHOPPING MALLS IN KONYA ABOUT CONSUMER RIGHTS

319

Gök Gülden, Özen Ufuk, Yörük Erda KOCAELİ MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN ÖĞRENİLMİŞ GÜÇLÜLÜK DÜZEYLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA 331 Celal Mutlu, Tuğba Uzunkaya KURUMSAL BİLGİSAYAR AĞ SİSTEMLERİNDE YENİ NESİL GÜVENLİK ÖNLEMLERİ

332

Mustafa Coşar LOW COST WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS FOR ENVIRONMENT MONITORING Emre Ünsal, Mehmet Milli, Yalçın ÇEBİ MACWILLIAMS IDENTITIES OF LINEAR CODES OVER THE RING

 4 u  u2 1

337 344

Mehmet ÖZEN, Fatma Zehra UZEKMEK MANYETOREOLOJİK SIVININ DİNAMİK DAVRANIŞININ İNCELENMESİ

349

Nafel DOĞDU, İbrahim USLAN, Şefaatdin YÜKSEL, Tuncay KARAÇAY, Tamer TÜRKÜCÜ MEDICAL IMAGE TRANSFER IN RADIOLOGY: COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) SAMPLE

350

Fuat İnce MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU İNŞAAT BÖLÜMÜ ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN BÖLÜMLERİNİ TERCİH ETMEDE ETKİLİ OLAN FAKTÖRLERİN ANALİZİ

351

Bülent Koparan MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN E-ÖĞRENME ORTAMLARINA YÖNELİK “SOSYAL BULUNUŞLUK” DÜZEYLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

352

Azmi Bayram İLBAY, Hakkı BAĞCI, Özlem ASLAN BAĞCI MONETARY TRANSMISSION MECHANISM EXCHANGE RATE CHANNEL: THE CASE OF TURKEY

360

Yakup Koray Duman MONITORING OF SOIL AND SNOW COVER BY THE EIS METHOD

361

Jaroslav Vesely, Michael Novak, Jana Parilkova MONITORING SOIL ENVIRONMENT USING EIS METHOD

362

Jana Parilkova, Jaroslav Vesely, Michael Novak  MONTE CARLO SIMULATION METHODS IN MEDICAL IMAGING

363

Ümit Kara, Hüseyin Ozan Tekin, İskender Akkurt, Alper Tongal MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE TWO DIFFERENT HONEYBEE (Apis mellifera L.) POPULATIONS

364

Fehmi Gürel MÜHENDİSLİK UYGULAMALARINDA DARBELİ ELEKTİK ALAN (PEF) TEKNİĞİ

365

Özlem Kuşçu, Selçuk Çömlekçi, Alper Kuşçu NEMRUT DAĞI MİLLİ PARKI ve ÇEVRESİNİN (ADIYAMAN)JEO PARK POTANSİYELİNİN BELİRLENMESİ 366 Ahmet Serdar AYTAÇ, Esennur BOZDAĞ

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 NEW CHALLENGES IN DRILLING FLUID SELECTION AND FORMATION DAMAGE REDUCTION IN ALGERIAN FIELDS

380

Abderrahmane Mellak, Benyounes Khaled NEXT GENERATION SECURITY MEASURE IN CORPORATE COMPUTER NETWORKS

381

Mustafa Coşar OKUL ÖNCESİ ÖĞRENCİ VELİLERİNİN OKUL ÖNCESİ EĞİTİMDE BİLİŞİM TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN KULLANILMASINA YÖNELİK GÖRÜŞ VE BEKLENTİLERİ

382

Hakkı BAĞCI, Özlem ASLAN BAĞCI ON THE DIAGONALIZATION AND JORDAN NORMAL FORM OF MATRICES: MAPLE APPLICATIONS

392

Sinan Aydın, Yaşar Akkan ON THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF JORDANIAN ARCHITECTS IN THE CONTEMPORARY LOCAL ARCHITECTURE DABBAS ARCHITECTURE AND ITS MANIFESTATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

393

Mohammad Matrouk ON THE VIEW OF CHEMISTRY TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT STUDENTS OF VOCATIONAL HIGHS SCHOOL ON INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING METHOD

404

Serpil Sivrikaya ONTOLOGY BASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEM WITH USING DISSIMILAR USERS

405

Musa MILLI, Mehmet MILLI PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND: SAMPLE OF ANTALYA

411

Sabriye GÜVEN, Mehmet MERT PEF İLE ÖN ARITILMIŞ ET ENDÜSTRİSİ ATIK AKTİF ÇAMURUN ANAEROBİK ÇÜRÜME, SU VERME, FİLTRELENEBİLİRLİK VE ÇÖKELME ÖZELLİĞİNİN BULANIK MANTIK YÖNTEMİYLE İNCELENMESİ

423

Selçuk Çömlekçi, Özlem Selçuk Kuşçu PHENOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF VITIS VINIFERA L. SSP. NATIVE VINIFERA MINOR ALGERIA

425

El Heit Kaddour, Hamama Abdrazak, Abderrahmane Mellak, Sebki Salima, Meghezzi Saida POSITION OPTIMISATION OF GE DETECTORS IN NUCLEAR RESONANCE FLUORESCENCE (NRF) EXPERIMENT BY USING MONTE CARLO METHOD

426

Hüseyin Ozan Tekin, İskender Akkurt PROKUDIN-GORSKII IMGE KOLEKSIYONU İÇİN OTOMATİK İMGE HİZALAYAN VE KENAR BERİLEYEN GRAFİK KULLANICI ARAYÜZÜ

427

Mehmet Cem CATALBAS, Didem ISSEVER, Arif GULTEN PROCESS IMPROVEMENT: AN APPLICATION AT GAZİOSMANPAŞA UNIVERSITY

435

Münevver Çiçekdağı, Kadir Ardıç PYROLYSIS PROCESS OPTIMISATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DIESEL-RANGE HYDROCARBONS AND CHEMICALS FROM SCRAP TYRES

436

Ademola M. Rabiu, Riki Strydom, Lloyd Phillip, Yusuf Isa RAILROAD BALLAST FOULING AND ITS ADVERSE EFFECTS

447

Altan Yılmaz RAISING SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUALS: MONTESSORI EDUCATION MODEL

448

Figen GÜLEŞ, Dr. RECOGNITION BREAST CANCER IN HISTOLOGY IMAGES Sevcan Aytaç Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih Korkmaz

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452

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 ROMA VE BİZANS DÖNEMİ HARÇLARIN ÖZELLİKLERİNİN BELİRLENMESİNDE ANTALYA MYRA ÖRNEĞİ

453

Cem OĞUZ, Fikret TÜRKER, N.Uğur KOÇKAL SECONDARY EDUCATION STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS BIOLOGY LESSON

466

Ali Keleş SIZE EFFECTS OF COLUMNS ON BUCKLING

467

Ercan Işık SOME CANDIDATE GENES THAT RELATED WITH YIELDS OF LIVESTOCKS

468

Kemal Karabağ, Sezai Alkan SOME PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF FERROELECTRIC LIQUID CRYSTAL

469

Rıdvan Karapınar SOSYAL BİLİŞSEL KURAM YAKLAŞIMI İLE KÜÇÜK ÇOCUKLARDA SALDIRGAN DAVRANIŞ

470

Arzu AKCAN, Ayşe ERGÜN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT GUIDANCE IN HEALTH INSTITUTIONS MANAGEMENT: DETERMINATION OF MISSION-VISION-STRATEGY SELCUK UNIVERSITY MEDICAL FACULTY HOSPITAL SAMPLE

482

Hakkı GÖKBEL, Hasan Kürşat GÜLEŞ, Zeynep ERGEN IŞIKLAR, Tuğba ŞENER STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR DESIGNED EI CORE

490

Yusuf AVŞAR, Ahmet FENERCİOĞLU SURİYE İÇ SAVAŞI’NIN TÜRKİYE’NİN GÜNEYDOĞUSUNDAKİ SINIR VE SINIRA YAKIN İLLERİNİN SOSYOEKONOMİK YAPISINA ETKİSİ

495

Sedat BENEK, Ahmet ŞAHAP SURVEY OF BIOGENIC AMINES LEVELS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHEESES

504

Kamil Ekici, Hüseyin Gençcelep, Yakup Can Sancak SYSTEM ADEQUACY ASSESSMENT WITH WIND POWER GENERATION USING MONTE CARLO MARKOV CHAIN METHOD

505

Abdulaziz Almutairi, Mohamed Ahmed, Magdy Salama ŞANLIURFA İLİNİN TURİZM POTANSİYELİ

506

Mehmet Akbıyık TECHNOLOGY AND THE ARTS: THE CURRENT WORK OF ERIC WHITACRE AND JONTY HURWITZ

507

Mark Konewko TEDARİKÇİ DEĞERLENDİRMEDE STOKASTİK BİR KARAR VERME YAKLAŞIMI: STOKASTİK ÇOK KRİTERLİ KABUL EDİLEBİLİRLİK ANALİZİ

518

Ömür Tosun THE DETERMINATED COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF FIR WOOD IMPREGNATED WITH FIRE RETARDANTS

519

C. Özcan, Ş. Kurt, R. Esen, M. Korkmaz THE EFFECT OF TIN ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF MG6AL ALLOY

525

S. Can Kurnaz THE HEALTH INFORMATION PROFESSIONAL IN EHEALTH: ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR AN INTERJURISDICTIONAL SETTING

526

Eike-Henner Kluge THE IMPROVE OF COMBUSTION PROPERTIES ON WOODEN MATERIAL BY USING LIQUED NITROGEN AND BORIC ACID C. Özcan, Ş. Kurt, R. Esen , C. Özcan

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527

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 THE INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN NDVI IMAGE DATA AND FOREST MANAGEMENT – SITE INDEX DATA, THE CASE OF BARTİN REGION OF FORESTRY, TURKEY

534

Ayhan Atesoglu, Metin Tunay, Hüseyin Simsek THE INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATION DAMPING IN THE PASSENGER SEAT

540

Lütfiye Dahil, Abdurrahman Karabulut, M. Serhat Başpınar, İbrahim Mutlu THE ISSUE OF COSTS IN TEACHING ECONOMIC COURSES IN INFORMATICS

541

Mária Ďurišová, Alžbeta Kucharčíková THE MISSING PERSONS FINDING SENSITIVE TO MOVEMENTS WITH IMAGE RECOGNITION SYSTEM AND NUMERIC DATA PEOPLE OF LOSS IN TURKEY

542

Emre Avuçlu, Fatih Başçiftçi THE STUDIES OF THE REFORM OF KERKUK PRISON AND PRISONERS

543

Nurgül Bozkurt “THE SURVEY OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMICAL STATEMENT OF STUDENTS OF A VOCATIONAL SCHOOL IN TURKEY: IPSALA VOCATIONAL SCHOOL.”

544

Ahmet Civanoğlu THE TOP-EMISSION ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE OUTCOUPLING-ENHANCEMENT METHOD USING A GRADUAL-REFRACTIVE-INDEX DIELECTRIC

545

Ho-Nyeon Lee THE USE OF INNOVATIVE VEGETATIVE FLOWERPOT IN STUDIES ON THE REMEDIATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES

546

Anna Świercz THE USE OF SOCIAL NETWORK IN UNIVERSITY TEACHING AND LEARNING

547

Tülen Saner, Şerife Zihni Eyüpoğlu TIBBİ GÖRÜNTÜLEME SEKTÖRÜNDE EĞİTİM VE TEMEL SORUNLAR ÇÖZÜM ÖNERİLERi

548

Ümit Kara, Hüseyin Ozan Tekin, Alper Tongal TIME-DEPENDENT CHANGE OF SEISMIC VELOCITIES ON LOW STRENGTH CONCRETE

549

Nevbahar SABBAĞ, Osman UYANIK TURKISH STOCK MARKET DEPENDENCY TO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS AND EXCHANGE RATE

558

Mustafa Koray CETIN TÜRKİYE VE RUSYA ARASINDAKİ TARIM ÜRÜNÜ TİCARETİNİN ANALİZİ

565

Mehmet Özcanlı, Abdulkadir Güzel TÜRKİYE’DE BÖLGESEL VERGİ YÜKÜ VE ‘FORMÜL YÖNTEMİYLE VERGİ TAHSİSİ

566

Naci Tolga Saruç, İsa Sağbaş TÜRKİYE’DE BULUT BİLİŞİM TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN KOBİ ÇÖZÜMLERİ VE GÜVENLİK

567

Hakan ÇETİN, İbrahim GUNDAK TÜRKİYE’NİN ULUSLARARASI TURİZM TALEP TAHMİNLEMESİ VE ÖNGÖRÜMLEMESİ

575

Çiğdem Demir USE OF ACTIVE LEARNING METHODS FOR MECHANIC PROGRAMS IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

576

Yasar Bilgin USE OF PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN TEACHING AT THE UNIVERSITY

580

Alžbeta Kucharčíková, Emese Tokarčíková USING OF ACTIVE LEARNING METHODS IN MECHANICS DEPARTMENTS IN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

581

Yaşar Bilgin

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 USING VIKOR METHOD FOR ANALYZING OF QUALIFICATION LEVELS AND TRANSITION TO EMPLOYMENT OF EUROPEAN UNION AND CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

582

Emre IPEKCI CETIN, H. Hande CETIN UZAK YERLEŞKELERDEKİ FARKLI YEMEKHANELER İÇİNİNTRENET TABANLI DAĞITIK OTOMASYON SİSTEMİ

587

Muhammer İlkuçar UZAKTAN EĞİTİMDE MODERN DERS İÇERİKLERİ GELİŞTİRME YAZILIM UYGULAMASI

588

Kadir HALTAŞ, Murat LÜY, Atilla ERGÜZEN, Ertuğrul ÇAM, F. Mustafa AKALP UZAKTAN PSİKOLOJİK DANIŞMA HİZMETLERİ VE ETİK İLKELER: TÜRKİYE’DEKİ GÜNCEL UYGULAMALARIN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

596

Binnur Yeşilyaprak, Murat Konuk ÜNİVERSİTEDE DIŞ KAYNAK KULLANIMININ DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİNDE BÜTÜNLEŞİK BULANIK DEMATEL-TODIM YÖNTEMİ

597

Atıl TAŞER, Gözde KOCA ÜNİVERSİTELERDE CİNSEL TACİZİ ÖNLEME ÇALIŞMALARI İÇİN ONLİNE EĞİTİM PROJESİ

605

Arzu İnan WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

606

Öznur ŞENGEL, Muhammed Ali AYDIN WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ELECTRODIALYSIS SYSTEM AND FOULING PROBLEMS

614

Elif Öztekin, Süreyya Altın WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF BORON CARBIDE POWDER REİNFORCED COATING ON AISI 4140 PRODUCED BY PLASMA TRANSFERRED ARC

615

Gökçe Mehmet Ay, Osman Nuri Çelik WIND TURBINE MODELLING FOR FAULT STUDIES

616

Nduwayezu Eric, Mehmet Bayrak, Selahattin Küçük WIPING GRAVURE PRINTING METHOD FOR REALIZING TRENCH PATTERN IN PRINTED ELECTRONICS

617

Song Ah Choi, Jong Tae Youn YUMUŞAK GÜÇ UNSURU OLARAK MEDYANIN “ÜLKE MARKASI” OLUŞTURULMASINA STRATEJİK KATKISI

618

Abdullah Özkan 316L PASLANMAZ ÇELİK ÜZERİNE İNDÜKSİYON KAYNAK YÖNTEMİYLE KAPLANAN GÖZENEKLİ NiTi’NİN BAZI MEKANİK ÖZELLİKLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

620

Soner BUYTOZ, İlyas SOMUNKIRAN, Ahmet BALIN, Abdullah Melik ÖZEN 316L PASLANMAZ ÇELİK ÜZERİNE İNDÜKSİYON KAYNAK YÖNTEMİYLE KAPLANAN GÖZENEKLİ NiTi’NİN MİKROYAPISININ İNCELENMESİ

630

İlyas SOMUNKIRAN, Ahmet BALIN, Abdullah Melik ÖZEN, Mehmet Nur KAPLAN A COMPARISON OF CURVE INTERPOLATION ALGORITHMS FOR LOW CURVATURE CURVES

639

Vojtech Wrnata, Petr Kretschmer A NEW FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR ADJUSTING OF PITCH ANGLE OF WIND TURBINE

644

Zafer Civelek, Murat Lüy, Ertuğrul Çam, Göksu Görel AN APPLICATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING SET Aydın GÜLLÜ, Hilmi KUŞÇU, M. Ozan AKI

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652

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 AN APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC DISPATCH USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

657

Özge Pınar ARSLAN, Yağmur ARIKAN, Ertuğrul ÇAM, İbrahim EKE AN INQUARY STUDY OF NiO FILMS DEPOSITED WITH SOL-GEL SPIN COATING

661

Guven Turgut AN INTERVENTION ANALYSIS OF KYOTO PROTOCOL ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

668

Mehmet MERT, Celil ZURNACI AN OVERVIEW OF MONTE CARLO (MC) SIMULATION METHOD AND BASIC PRINCIPLES IN MEDICAL RADIATION AND RADIATION DETECTORS

682

Hüseyin Ozan Tekin, Ümit Kara, Asghar Mesbahi ARA ELEMAN YETİŞTİREN MYO’ LARDAN SEKTÖRÜN BEKLENTİLERİ

685

Selim Bacak, Ümit Kara, Alper Tongal ASSESMENT OF THE USE OF DIATOMITE AND PUMICE IN STONE MASTIC ASPHALT AS STABILIZER

688

Bekir AKTAŞ, Şevket ASLAN AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF CONFUSABLE SETS IN SMART SPELL CHECKING FOR KOREAN LEARNERS OF ENGLISH

692

Kong Joo Lee, Jee Eun Kim BİLİŞİM TEKNOLOJİLERİ EĞİTİMİNE YENİ BİR BAKIŞ: KIRKLARELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ MİCROSOFT IT ACADEMY

698

Bora ASLAN, Füsun YAVUZER ASLAN, Gökhan DOĞAN, Ömer KIRMACI, Süleyman ASLAN BİYOMEDİKAL CİHAZ TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN ETKİN, VERİMLİ KULLANIMI

705

Alper TONGAL, Selim BACAK, Ümit KARA CİNSİYETİN HEMŞİRELERİN İŞ DOYUMLARI ÜZERİNE ETKİSİ: BİR META ANALİZ ÇALIŞMASI

708

Filiz Kantek, Handan Kartal CLASSIFICATION OF EEG DATA USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK LEARNED BY HEURISTIC ALGORITHMS

713

Muhammer İLKUÇAR, Ali KAVURUR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF ROAD SPEED BUMPS

722

Hakan ERSOY, Kayra KURŞUN ELEKTRONIK TALEP YÖNETIM SISTEMI

728

Musa ÇIBUK, Zafer CÖMERT EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VEGETATION EFFECT ON THE FLOOD PROPAGATION DUE TO THE FAILURE OF THE DISTORTED PHYSICAL MODEL OF ÜRKMEZ DAM

735

M. Şükrü Güney, Gülpembe Neyiş EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF WINDOW AND DOOR OPENINGS EFFECT ON MASONRY BUILDING BEHAVIOR UNDER THE CYCLIC LOADING

748

Fatih ALTUN, Oktay M. KAYIRGA FARKLI GÖZENEK YOĞUNLUĞUNA SAHİP METAL KÖPÜK BLOKLARDAN ZORLANMIŞ TAŞINIMLA ISI TRANSFERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

755

Ayla DOĞAN, Oğuzhan ÖZBALCI, İbrahim ATMACA FORMER FIRST WRITTEN LAWS - FERMANA IN ANATOLIA AND MESOPOTAMI A TURKISH AND BANS

762

Remziye OKKAR FRICTION AND WEAR PERFORMANCE OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE /STYRENE - BUTADIENE RUBBER POLYMER BLENDS Sezgin Ersoy

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773

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 FUEL SAVINGS OF POWER TRAIN MODELING IN THE PARALLEL HYBRID TRACTOR

777

Hyeon-seop YI IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY USE TOWARDS THE AGGRESSION AND ANGER IN ADOLESCENTS

785

Emete GERÇEL, Mehmet ÇAĞLAR INDEPENDENT COLLEGE, A UNIQUE INNOVATION, IN THE HISTORY OF CHINESE HIGHER EDUCATION-THE TEN-YEAR PRACTICE AND EXPLORATION OF NANKAI UNIVERSITY BINHAI COLLEGE

794

Ting Wen, Min Guo, Dongsheng Zhang INVESTIGATION OF EVAPORATIVE COOLING EFFECTIVENESS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AIR – COOLED CHILLERS

803

Sezgi KOÇAK SOYLU, İbrahim ATMACA, Ayla DOĞAN INVESTIGATION OF PHYSICAL COMFORT CONDITIONS AND USERS’ SATISFACTION IN COTTAGE HOSPITALS: THE CASE OF NILUFER / BURSA, TURKEY

807

Filiz ŞENKAL SEZER, Yasemin ERBİL KARBON PREPREG DİSK YAYLARIN İNCELENMESİ

819

Haşim Fırat KARASU, Melih BELEVİ KLİNİK KARAR DESTEK SİSTEMLERİ ÜZERİNE TÜRKİYE’DE YAPILAN LİSANSÜSTÜ TEZLER

827

Öznur Körükçü, Kamile Kabukçuoğlu KOLON BOYUTLARININ BURKULMA ÜZERINDEKI ETKILERI

834

Ercan IŞIK MANYETOREOLOJİK SIVININ DİNAMİK DAVRANIŞININ İNCELENMESİ

842

Nafel DOĞDU, İbrahim USLAN, Şefaatdin YÜKSEL, Tuncay KARAÇAY, Tamer TÜRKÜCÜ MEDICAL IMAGE TRANSFER IN RADIOLOGY:COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) SAMPLE

852

Fuat İnce MONTE CARLO SIMULATION METHODS IN MEDICAL IMAGING

858

Ümit Kara, H. Ozan Tekin, Iskender Akkurt, Alper Tongal NEW CHALLENGES IN DRILLING FLUID SELECTION AND FORMATION DAMAGE REDUCTION IN ALGERIAN FIELDS

861

Abderrahmane MELLAK, M. KHODJA-SABER, M.AZZOUZ, K. BENYOUNES, M.KHODJA PARASAL AKTARIM MEKANIZMASI DÖVIZ KURU KANALI: TÜRKIYE ÖRNEĞI

867

Y. Koray Duman POSITION OPTIMISATION OF GE DETECTORS IN NUCLEAR RESONANCE FLUORESCENCE (NRF) EXPERIMENT BY USING MONTE CARLO METHOD

884

Hüseyin Ozan Tekin, İskender Akkurt PROCESS IMPROVEMENT: AN APPLICATION AT GAZİOSMANPAŞA UNIVERSITY

887

Münevver Çiçekdağı, Kadir Ardıç SOME PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF FERROELECTRIC LIQUID CRYSTAL

901

Ridvan KARAPINAR THE HEALTH INFORMATION PROFESSIONAL IN EHEALTH: ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR AN INTERJURISDICTIONAL SETTING

905

Eike-Henner W. Kluge THE ISSUE OF COSTS IN TEACHING ECONOMIC COURSES IN INFORMATICS Mária Ďurišová, Alžbeta Kucharčíková

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015 THE MISSING PERSONS FINDING SENSITIVE TO MOVEMENTSWITH IMAGE RECOGNITION SYSTEM AND NUMERIC DATA PEOPLE OF LOSS IN TURKEY

917

Emre AVUÇLU, Fatih BAŞÇİFTÇİ THE TOP-EMISSION ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE OUTCOUPLINGENHANCEMENT METHOD USING A GRADUAL-REFRACTIVE-INDEX DIELECTRIC

922

Ho Nyeon Lee TIBBİ GÖRÜNTÜLEME SEKTÖRÜNDE TEMEL SORUN ÇÖZÜM VE ÖNERİLERİ

925

Ümit Kara, H. Ozan Tekin, Alper Tongal TÜRKİYE’DE BÖLGESEL VERGİ YÜKÜ ve ‘FORMÜL YÖNTEMİYLE VERGİ TAHSİSİ

928

Naci Tolga SARUÇ, İsa SAĞBAŞ USE OF ACTIVE LEARNING METHODS FOR MECHANIC PROGRAMS IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

941

Yasar Bilgin USE OF PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN TEACHING AT THE UNIVERSITY

945

Alžbeta Kucharčíková, Emese Tokarčíková WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ELECTRODIALYSIS SYSTEM AND FOULING PROBLEMS

954

Elif OZTEKIN, Sureyya ALTIN WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BORON CARBIDE POWDER REINFORCED COATING ON AISI 4140 PRODUCED BY PLASMA TRANSFERRED ARC

965

Gökçe Mehmet AY, Osman Nuri ÇELİK WIND TURBINE MODELLING FOR FAULT STUDIES

974

Nduwayezu Eric, Mehmet Bayrak, Selahattin Küçük DIAGNOSIS BREAST CANCER IN MAMMOGRAPHY IMAGES USING STATISTICAL CLASSIFIER

985

M. F. Korkmaz, S. Aytac Korkmaz FOUCAULT’DA MODERN TOPLUMUN ÖZNESİ BİREY Mİ İKTİDAR MI?

993

Fürkan ALYÜZ RECOGNITION BREAST CANCER IN HISTOLOGY IMAGES

1002

M. F. Korkmaz, S. Aytac Korkmaz A STUDY ON HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING ALUMINUM PART PRODUCTION BY COMPUTER

1008

SIMULATION Ahmet ÖZEL, Soner Özden ERTÜRK ÖĞRETİM TASARIM MODELLERİNİN ÖĞRENME KURAMLARI PERSPEKTİFİNDEN ANALİZİ Mukaddes Erdem

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1014

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015

10-12 YAŞ ÇOCUKLARDA SEKİZ HAFTALIK FUTBOL ANTRENMANIN DENGE, HIZ VE REAKSİYON ZAMANINA OLAN ETKİSİNİN İNCELENMESİ Gönül Babaiyigit İrez [email protected] Reşat Kartal [email protected] Alper Kartal [email protected] Özet: Araştırmada 10-12 yaş çocuklarda 8 hafta süresince uygulanan (haftada üç gün, bir saat) futbol antrenmanının denge, sürat ve reaksiyon zamanına olan etkisinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmaya 10 ile 12 yaş arasında bulunan, 20 deney ve 20 kontrol grubu olarak toplam 40 öğrenci gönüllü olarak alınmıştır. Araştırmamıza gönüllü olarak katılan deneklerin denge, sürat ve reaksiyon zamanları (el ve ayak) ölçüm testleri yapılmıştır.Sonuçların karşılaştırılması için Wilcoxon testi kullanılmıştır. Deney grubunda 30 m sürat testinde (z= 2.19, p=0 ,02), Flamingo denge testi (z=3.59, p=0, 00) ve Nelson Reaksiyon testinde (el-ayak için) (z=3.64, p=0, 02). Olarak anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur.Bunun yanı sıra kontrol grubunda herhangi bir farklılığa rastlanmamıştır.Sonuç olarak çocuklarda düzenli futbol antrenmanı bazı motorik özellikleri etkilediği görülmüştür.  Anahtar Kelimeler: Futbol, Çocuk, Denge, Hız, Reaksiyon

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

2048 PLAY INSTANT SCORE ESTIMATION WITH BACK PROPAGATION ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS Ruya Samli Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Computer Engineering, 34320, Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey [email protected] Abstract 2048 is a mathematical-based computer game that is played on a 4×4 square board in which all squares can have a numerical value or be empty. The game purpose is to score maximum probable number by moving the board to up-down or left-right directions for bringing the identical valued squares next to eachother and merge them into one square. While doing this, the identical values will be added to eachother and the final value will have the sum value of them. A 2048 player tries to obtain 2048 number on the board first of all and have the maximum probable value on the board secondly. The 2048 game has many properties to be investigated in computer engineering manner like its mathematical, algorithmic and graphical properties. In this study the mathematical part of the game is handled and the instant score of the game is tried to be estimated with Artificial Neural Networks. The input parameters used for this application are : the number of squares on the board which has a numerical value and the sum of these numerical values. Keywords : Artificial Neural Networks; Estimating; 2048 Game; Computer Games

1. Introduction Computer games is one of the important study fields of computer engineering. Because they appeal to different points of computer engineering like algorithms, data structures, web engineering, mathematical relationships, artificial intelligence, usage of different type of computer languages, graphical properties and social effects on human brain, they are compelling subjects for computer engineering researchers. In the litetaure there can be found many studies that deals with computer games generally or takes care about one of the computer game like Tetris [1-4], Chess [5-10], Sokoban [11], Super Mario Bros [12,13], Sudoku [14-16], Hide-and-Seek [17] and Soccer [18-20] easily. While some of the computer games distinguish with their graphical properties, some of them gets popular with their mathematical algorithms like 2048. 2048 is a mathematical-based computer game which was developed by a 17 year Italian web developer Gabriele Cirulli in March 2014 and expanded to the whole world in a short time. Today it can be played from personel computers, tablets, mobile phones and in many similar devices and also different versions of 2048 like 2048 plus are developed. The Artificial Neural Networks is one of the most popular artificial intelligence techniques which is used in many research areas like computer engineering, chemical engineering, food engineering, civil and environmental engineering and so on. The Artificial Neural Networks technique is appropriate for especially modelling systems and processes, estimating results and completing missing data. In this study it is used for estimating the instant score of 2048 game. 2.Material And Method 2.1. 2048 Game The 2048 is a game whose purpose is to score maximum probable number by adding the square values which are identical to eachother on a board of 4×4 = 16 squares. These small squares can have a numerical value at a second of the game or remains empty when there is no value. In any second of the game, at least one small square has a value and to score masimum point, the identical value squares must be added to eachother by up-down and leftright direction moves. With every move (up-down or left-right) of the player, a new 2 is put on one of the empty squares on the board. (It is seen that sometimes 4 is put instead of 2, but statistically, it is avery small percentage so it is neglected in this paper).In every up-down move, all rows try to move up or down together. Appropriate squares (the ones who are next to eachother and have the identical numerical value) merge as one square. The new square has the sum value of the two. The other squares remain same. These operations are same for every leftright move. Every merged square increases the total instant score in the value of itself. The instant score is not directly related to the number of empty or filled squares. The score can be higher when there are more empty squares. But it is directly proportional with sum of the numbers and inversely proportional with the number of elements. So the mathematical modelling of the play can be analyzed.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   But because the number of input parameter type is small (only two) and the results are increasing exponentially, it is understood that to use heuristic methods insteead of classical mathematical methods is more appropriate. For this reason, Artificial Neural Networks which is a popular heuristic method is chosen for modelling. 2.2. Artificial Neural Networks In many problems, the accurate solution cannot be found usually and making estimation about the solution becomes necessary. To estimate the solution, a system that has the ability of being trained must be used. Artifical Neural Networks is an artificial intelligence method that has this ability together with others : completing missing data, modelling both linear and nonlinear systems. Because of these advantages of Artificial Neural Networks from other methods, it becomes a popular problem solving technique in especially recent years and the number of fields that use Artificial Neural Networks are increasing day by day. Some of the problems it solves can be summarized as modelling, estimation and image processing. For benefitting the estimating property of Artificial Neural Networks, a special type which is called back-propagation Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN) is generally used. BP-ANN is a supervised learning network and constituted of three different layers. The input layer is the processing layer of the system and represents the input variables of the problem while output layer represents the output parameters. The hidden layer(s) is/are used for adjusting the weights of neurons and providing the compatibility between input and output layers. The learning of BP-ANN is composed of training, validation and testing phases. The input parameters are grouped for these phases as 70%-80 % for training, 10%-15% for validation and 10%-15% for test generally. In this study a MATLAB simulation for a BP-ANN structure which has 2 input layers (the number of filled squares on the board and the sum of the values of these filled squares), 10 hidden layers and 1 output layer (instant score) is performed for estimating the score of the 2048 game.     3. Results and Discussion For performing the application, first of all 100 screenshots are taken from different 2048 games in random seconds. The two different input parameters of this board are calculated. The number of filled squares on the board and the sum of the values of these filled squares. With these secreenshots 100 of output parameter which is instant score are obtained too. Some of the sample screenshots are given in Figure 1.

The number of filled squares : 5 Sum of the number values : 26 The instant score : 48

The number of filled squares : 11 Sum of the number values : 92 The instant score : 232

The number of filled squares : 8 Sum of the number values : 114 The instant score : 400

Fig 1. Screenshots of sample 2048 games The input parameters are grouped as 70% for training, 15% for validation and 15% for test respectively. After the BP-ANN structure is trained with these parameters, 100 estimated results are obtained. The regression coefficients of training, validation, test and all of the BP-ANN (Figure 2) are calculated as very close to 1. This means the ANN is trained successfully. When the estimated results are compared to real results, the differences and the percentage of differences are calculated. The input parameters, output parameters, estimated output parameters, the difference as numerical and the difference as percentage are given in Table 2. It is seen that the difference percentages in all 100 situations are less than 10%, the average of the difference percentage is 3,3722% which is a very small and acceptable value for errors. This application gets very successful results if it is thought that the input parameter number are very small (only two types) and the output parameter values differ from 48 to 32216 which is an enormous interval for Artificial Neural Networks applications.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   4. Conclusion In this study the mathematical analysis of 2048 which is a number-based computer game is performed, the relationship between the 2048 parameters is analyzed and this relationship is modelled with a BP-ANN structure. 100 screenshots of the game which is obtained in different seconds (beginning state, final state or while the game is continued) constituted both input and output parameters of the system. With the help of these screenshots, it can be easily seen that there is a relationship between the instant score of the game and two parameters : the number of filled squares on the board, the sum of the values of these filled squares. By employing a back-propoagation Artificial Neural Networks structure to the system, the relationship between the input and output parameters are analyzed and the results are estimated successfully.

a) The training regression coefficient

b) The validation regression coefficient

c) The test regression coefficient

d) The regression coefficient of whole process

Fig 2. The regression coefficients of BP-ANN training for estimation the instant score

2048 is a high-value game for computer engineering because of its mathematical, algoritmic and graphical properties. It uses only (2 ) characteristic numbers (2 ) so it represents computer working style in some way. It is played on a 4 4 board so it represents square matrices in some way. It has small squares which can be filled with numbers or can be empty so it is a good board for image processing. In this study one of these properties (representing computer working style) is chosen and the instant score of the game is estimated with Artificial Neural Networks. In future work, 2048 will be investigated with its other properties, new studies will be performed about it and different type of games too.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   5. References [1] Baccherini, D., Merlini, D. (2008). Discrete Math. 308 (18), pp. 4165 – 4176. [2] Wentura, D., Voss, A., Rothermund, K. (2009). Acta Psychol. 131 (3), pp. 171–177. [3] Ou, Z.H., Chen, L.H. (2014). Inform. Sciences. 276, pp. 343–353. [4] Skorka-Brown, J., Andrade, J., May, J. (2014). Appetite. 76, pp. 161–165. [5] Bühren C., Frank, B., Krabel, S., Werner, A. (2012). Econ. Lett. 115 (3), pp. 356–358. [6] Hänggi, J., Brütsch, K., Siegel, A.M., Jäncke, L. (2014). Neuropsychologia. 62, pp. 152–162. [7] De Bruin, A.B.H., Kok, E.M., Leppink, J., Camp, G. (2014). Intelligence. 45, pp. 18–25. [8] Dailey, D., Hair, A., Watkins, M. (2014). Entertain Comput. 5 (3), pp. 159–171. [9] Granot, D., Gerchak, Y. (2014). Oper. Res. Lett. 42, pp. 12–15. [10] Barnes, D. J., Hernandez-Castro, J. (2015). Comput. Secur. 48 (1), pp. 58 -73. [11] Dor, D., Zwick, U. (1999). Comp. Geom-Theor. Appl.13 (4), pp. 215–228. [12] Lorant-Royer, S., Munch, C., Mesclé, H., Lieury, A. (2010). Rev. Appl. Psychol. 60 (4), pp. 221–232. [13] Ortega, J., Shaker, N., Togelius, J., Yannakakis, G.N. (2013). Entertain Comput. 4 (2), pp. 93–104. [14] Jones, S.K., Perkins, S., Roach, P. A. (2011). Discrete Math. 311 (13), pp. 1098–1110. [15] Li, H., Li, Q., Oua, Z. (2014). Stat. Probabil. Lett. 89, pp. 51–57. [16] Giampietro, M., Bukkens, S.G.F. (2015). Ecol. Inform. 26 (1), pp. 18–28. March. [17] Gunady, M.K., Gomaa, W., Takeuchi, I. (2014). Eng. Appl. Artif. Intel. 34, pp. 122–136. [18] Yılmaz, E., Molla, E., Yıldız, C., Isler, V. (2011). Comput. Graph. 35 (6), pp. 1063–1069. [19] Araghi, S., Khosravi, A., Johnstone, M. & Creighton, D. (2013). Eng.Appl.Artif.Intel. 26 (9), pp. 2164–2171. [20] Svaton, V., Martinovic, J., Slaninova, K., Bures, T. (2014). Procedia Comput. Sci. 35, pp. 1445 – 1454.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 1 The real instant scores, the estimated results and the differences between them in 100 sample 2048 game conditions Game No

Number of Elements

Sum of Values

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

5 10 9 8 11 8 10 8 8 10 12 9 8 10 8 8 10 9 7 10 11 11 10 9

26 60 64 72 92 88 104 114 128 142 172 178 182 194 220 240 238 260 306 384 398 402 444 462

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Instant Score (Game) 48 100 144 188 232 260 292 400 472 492 560 696 836 872 1052 1124 1128 1204 1848 2200 2208 2252 2396 2688

Instant Score (ANN) 45,89033 106,0212 133,3685 180,7946 233,4065 274,3573 313,5866 425,0579 505,7671 532,738 483,4535 717,3811 817,2459 842,172 1040,228 1160,234 1113,216 1223,54 1687,174 2074,669 2262,811 2289,228 2498,661 2629,179

Difference

Difference %

2,109665 6,021233 10,63151 7,205444 1,406466 14,35734 21,58658 25,05792 33,76713 40,738 76,54647 21,38109 18,75409 29,82801 11,77223 36,23358 14,78435 19,5395 160,8255 125,3306 54,81143 37,22806 102,6612 58,82118

4,395135715 6,021233229 7,38299274 3,832682956 0,606235338 5,52205336 7,392665095 6,264478963 7,154053175 8,280080958 13,66901289 3,071995836 2,243312305 3,420643419 1,119033376 3,223628269 1,31066965 1,622882075 8,702679863 5,696846032 2,482401736 1,653111234 4,28469128 2,188287857

Game No

Number of Elements

Sum of Values

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74

15 16 12 16 10 11 8 12 16 14 16 16 16 14 16 16 16 12 16 16 13 11 16 16

1288 1380 1282 1388 1356 1374 1360 1392 1486 1480 1448 1534 1534 1518 1556 1576 1604 1604 1678 1650 1756 1718 1852 1968

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Instant Score (Game) 8676 9096 10120 10564 10700 10736 10980 11000 11116 11192 11268 11400 11660 11756 11924 11968 12104 12200 12588 13212 13316 13656 14284 14916 6

Instant Score (ANN) 9014,157 9993,358 9313,11 10071,85 9945,305 10019,5 10919,55 10260,4 10992,68 10863,92 10644,15 11420,77 11420,77 11190,6 11613,48 11787,21 12028,56 12169,85 12659,48 12421,63 13501,65 13365,57 14128,06 15103,66

Difference

Difference %

338,1573 897,3584 806,8902 492,1498 754,6952 716,4977 60,45186 739,604 123,3209 328,0788 623,8547 20,76655 239,2334 565,4011 310,519 180,7886 75,43823 30,14941 71,48063 790,3657 185,6547 290,4342 155,9357 187,6572

3,897617311 9,865418251 7,973223313 4,658744352 7,053226235 6,673786046 0,550563343 6,723673034 1,109400089 2,931368412 5,536517095 0,182162726 2,051744848 4,809468476 2,604151465 1,510599747 0,623250383 0,247126298 0,567847401 5,982180316 1,394222776 2,126788004 1,091680751 1,258093328

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

10 12 9 11 12 11 15 10 10 10 12 10 12 13 12 11 10 13 13 11 16 11 16 14 12 16

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474 488 504 522 538 554 626 662 686 752 774 782 858 892 902 910 938 956 968 1006 1048 1072 1144 1192 1170 1241

2712 2744 2896 2980 3008 3116 3364 4476 4636 5108 5164 5204 5608 5704 5776 6184 6306 6424 6600 6796 6872 7160 7508 7648 7692 7796

2718,003 2796,654 2981,812 3081,389 3108,259 3295,841 3207,103 4240,501 4452,301 5037,297 5126,924 5298,383 5508,624 5626,395 5921,055 6132,242 6551,537 6243,842 6363,199 6932,041 6765,057 7466,842 7621,578 7774,941 7959,934 7577,47

6,003436 52,65419 85,81171 101,3886 100,2587 179,8408 156,8971 235,4995 183,6995 70,70255 37,07614 94,38344 99,37633 77,60524 145,0548 51,75832 245,5366 180,1584 236,8015 136,0413 106,9431 306,8424 113,5781 126,9408 267,9341 218,53

0,221365629 1,918884477 2,963111414 3,402302302 3,333068344 5,771527786 4,664005121 5,261382119 3,962456134 1,38415324 0,717973276 1,813671033 1,772045862 1,360540656 2,511336022 0,836971493 3,893698067 2,804458649 3,587901097 2,001785103 1,556214693 4,285508075 1,512761159 1,659790755 3,483282393 2,80310453

75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

12 14 12 15 16 16 12 11 10 13 13 13 16 10 13 11 11 11 10 12 14 12 12 13 15 16

1954 2120 2134 2186 2222 2240 2122 2134 2143 2216 2298 2362 2398 2150 2174 2246 2378 2530 2734 2956 3106 3222 3432 3596 3674 3680

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15456 16360 16420 16680 16808 17040 17108 17148 17328 17528 18100 18412 18504 20272 20320 20764 21636 22712 24648 25824 26996 29408 30760 31648 32208 32216

7

15620,53 16558,88 17265,3 16857,85 17226,13 17375,65 17392,33 17854,23 18143,46 17962,54 18799,4 19061,65 18686,85 19241,88 19537,79 19062,96 20447,51 21966,17 23692,32 25865,45 26779,24 28510,89 30905,53 32911,57 32556,44 31849,46

164,5264 198,8769 845,2979 177,847 418,1266 335,6462 284,3315 706,2301 815,4633 434,5434 699,3975 649,6472 182,8473 1030,124 782,2112 1701,043 1188,489 745,8291 955,6775 41,44582 216,7551 897,1079 145,5317 1263,565 348,4353 366,5357

1,064482439 1,215628826 5,147977759 1,066228934 2,487664449 1,969754438 1,661979773 4,118440207 4,706043971 2,479138806 3,864074544 3,528390271 0,988150187 5,081513534 3,849464461 8,192269648 5,493107698 3,283854994 3,877302263 0,160493433 0,80291555 3,050557326 0,473119843 3,992559673 1,081828507 1,137744343

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

A COMPARISON OF CURVE INTERPOLATION ALGORITHMS FOR LOW CURVATURE CURVES  Vojtech Wrnata1, Petr Kretschmer2  1 2

[email protected]  [email protected] 

Abstract:This paper presents a comparison of two algorithms for low curvature curves. The two compared algorithms are: linear interpolation and interpolation with Bézier curves. The comparison of the interpolation accuracy is verified on a calculation of the length of the reference curve with different curvature and degree of discretization. Arcs of a circle are used as reference curves. The comparison of the accuracy of the length of an interpolled curve and arc shows that interpolation with Bézier curves is always more accurate regardless the curve curvature.  Keywords: Algorithm; Arc length; Bézier; Curves; Interpolation

 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

A NEW FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR ADJUSTING OF PITCH ANGLE OF WIND TURBINE   Zafer Civelek1, Ertuğrul Çam2, Murat Lüy3, Özge Pınar Arslan4, Yağmur Arıkan5, Göksu Görel6 1

[email protected]  [email protected]  3 [email protected]  4 [email protected]  5 [email protected]  6 [email protected]  2

  Abstract:This paper presents a study on the control of the pitch angle of the wind turbine blades. As fuzzy logic control method is preferred. Output power is stabilized by controlling the pitch angle of the wind turbine blade. They were also able aerodynamic braking at high wind speeds. Fuzzy logic control method is selected as the reason; Fuzzy control is independent of changes in system parameters. The fuzzy is also a suitable control method for nonlinear system. Consequently, using the fuzzy controller wind turbine blade pitch angle has been successfully controlled. Thus, the output power stability and aerodynamic braking is achieved successfully.  Keywords: Wind turbine, pitch control, fuzzy control.  

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

A PLANAR ROBOT DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION WITH MAPLE Engin CAN1, Özkan CANAY2 1

Engin Can, Kaynarca School of Applied Sciences, Sakarya University, Turkey 2 Özkan Canay, Vocational School of Adapazarı, Sakarya University, Turkey E-mail: [email protected]

    Abstract: Maple is used to do numerical computation, plot graphs and do exact symbolic manipulations and word processing. In this study we demonstrate how Maple can be used for the simulation of a planar robot. This offers the possibility to become familiar of mathematical modelling. The mechanism under consideration is a so-called F-mechanisms (Can & Stachel, 2014), i.e., a planar parallel 3-RRR robot with three synchronously driven cranks. It turns out that at this example it is not possible to find the poses of the moving triangle exactly by graphical methods with traditional instruments only. Hence, numerical methods are essential for the analysis of motions which can be performed by a planar robot. Key words: Maple, scientific computing, mathematical modelling, planar mechanism, planar parallel 3RRR-robot. 

  INTRODUCTION F-mechanisms were first introduced and analyzed by Can (2012) and Can & Stachel (2014). These are high-speed planar mechanisms with modifiable compulsory courses based on parallel robots simultaneously driven cranks. Staicu (2008) has the kinematics of such robot treated; the website of Ahamed provides a controllable interactive simulation of parallel planar manipulators. In the following, we review the characteristics of F-mechanisms: Definition A Fehrer-mechanism (F-mechanism in short), is a kinematic chain with 8-links Σ0 ,…, Σ7 and 9 revolute joints A0, B0, C0, A1,…, C2 (see Figure 1) with the following properties: 1) There are three driving cranks A0A1 ⊂ Σ1, B0B1 ⊂ Σ2, and C0C1 ⊂ Σ3. They rotate with the same angular velocity ω about the respective anchor points A0, B0 and C0, all fixed in the frame Σ0. The links Σ1 and Σ3 rotate counterclockwise; Σ2 rotates either counter-clockwise (direct F-mechanism) or clockwise (indirect F-mechanism). 2) The bars A1A2 ⊂ Σ4, B1B2 ⊂ Σ5, and C1C2 ⊂ Σ6 connect the active cranks with the moving frame Σ7. The points A2, B2, C2 are attached to Σ7. 3) Variable phase shiftings between the cranks enable to modify the constrained motion Σ7/Σ0. , b1 = and c1 = . The bars' lengths are a2 = , b2 The lengths of the cranks are denoted by a1 = = and c2 = .

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Figure 1: A planar parallel 3-RRR robot (An indirect F-mechanism) _________________ a Corresponding author:

MAPLE PROCEDURE AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE MOTION After all mathematical representation was given by Can & Stachel (2014), we will only give design and construction of a planar parallel robot with Maple which is displayed in Figure 2 also addressed in Fig. 3 and Fig 4. Its dimensions are as follows: fixed triangle: A0 = (0.0, 0.0), B0 = (52.5, 8.0), C0 = (40.0, 99.0), lengths of cranks: a1 = 19.0, b1 = 14.0, c1 = 16.0, phase shifts: ä = 2430, = −150, lengths of bars: a2 = 35.0, b2 = 34.0, c2 = 54.0, moving triangle: A2 = (0.0, 0.0), B2 = (40.0, 18.0), C2 = (−7.0, 28.0).

Figure 2: An indirect F-mechanism displayed using Maple

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   From here we start to write the program with using Maple: > restart: > with(linalg):with(plots): > A0:=[0,0]: B0:=[52.5,8]: C0:=[40,99]: > A2g:=[0,0]: B2g:=[40,18]: C2g:=[-7,28]: > la1:=19: lb1:=14: lc1:=16: > la2:=35: lb2:=34: lc2:=54: > omegab:=-1: > phasgradb:=243: phasgradc:=-15: > phasb:=evalf(phasgradb*Pi/180): phasc:=evalf(phasgradc*Pi/180): > pi:=evalf(Pi): x:=eva200lf(326*Pi/180): > epsilon:=pi: mitte:=x: > start:=mitte-epsilon: ende:=mitte+epsilon: > anz:=200: > dif:=ende-start: w:=dif/anz: > idx0:=1: Now we set the points A1, B1 and C1 to depending on tangent f1, f2 and f3 half drive angle. In addition, the angle of introduced. Furthermore, we introduce the shifting vector trans = (u, v):= u0 and an orthogonal rotation is t := matrix dreh := A. > Arm:=[((1-f^2)/(1+f^2)),(2*f/(1+f^2))]: > A1:=A0+la1*(subs(f=f1,Arm)): > B1:=B0+lb1*(subs(f=f2,Arm)): > C1:=C0+lc1*(subs(f=f3,Arm)): > trans:=[u,v]: > co:=(1-t^2)/(1+t^2): si:=2*t/(1+t^2): > dreh:=matrix(2,2,[co,-si,si,co]): > A2:=simplify(matadd(evalm(dreh &* A2g),trans)): > B2:=simplify(matadd(evalm(dreh &* B2g),trans)): > C2:=simplify(matadd(evalm(dreh &* C2g),trans)): Equivalent to the system of equations (4) in Can & Stachel (2014) are now the equations AG1 = 0, AG2 = 0 and AG3 =0: > AG1:=numer(simplify(((A2[1]-A1[1])^2+(A2[2]-A1[2])^2)-la2^2)): > a1:=coeff(AG1,u^2): > AG2:=numer(simplify(((B2[1]-B1[1])^2+(B2[2]-B1[2])^2)-lb2^2)): > a2:=coeff(AG2,u^2): > AG3:=numer(simplify(((C2[1]-C1[1])^2+(C2[2]-C1[2])^2)-lc2^2)): > a3:=coeff(AG3,u^2):

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   It is followed by the elimination of u02 = u2 +v2 by subtraction. We take into account only the coefficients ai of u2. There remain two linear equations eq [1] and eq [2], we solve for u and v: > eq[1]:=eval(numer(combine(a1*AG2-a2*AG1))): > eq[2]:=eval(numer(combine(a1*AG3-a3*AG1))): > G1:=collect(expand(eq[1]),[u,v]): > G2:=collect(expand(eq[2]),[u,v]): > P:=coeff(G1,u): Q:=coeff(G1,v): > S:=coeff(G2,u): T:=coeff(G2,v): > R:=-subs(u=0,v=0,G1): U:=-subs(u=0,v=0,G2): > mat:=matrix(2,2,[P,Q,S,T]): > vec:=[R,U]: > loesung:=linsolve(mat,vec): > uu:=loesung[1]: > vv:=loesung[2]: > tt:=numer(simplify(subs(u=uu,v=vv,AG1))): We denote the individual values of the angle drive for the cranks A0A1, B0B1 and C0C1 respectively with ff1[i], ff1[i] and ff3[i], for i = 1, ..., anz (anz:=200:) and start the main loop of the program: > for i from 0 to anz do > ff1[i]:=start+i*w: > ff2[i]:=omegab*ff1[i]+phasb: > ff3[i]:=ff1[i]+phasc: > tt_werte[i]:=[fsolve(evalf(subs(f1=tan(ff1[i]/2),f2=tan(ff2[i]/2), f3=tan(ff3[i]/2),tt)))]; Case of i = 0 we choose one of the zeros arbitrary (see Figure 2). > t_neu[0]:=tt_werte[0][idx0]: Otherwise, we find the number of zeros from using > nbr[i]:= nops(tt_werte[i]); and search for fixed i the solution tt werte[i][j], 1 ≤ j ≤ nbr[i] that the calculated approximation value from the previous position naeh[i] := tneu[i − 1] + dtneu[i − 1] comes closest. This is done as follows: > naeh[i]:= t_neu[i-1] + dt_neu[i-1]; > idx[i]:= 1; > for j from 2 to nbr[i] do if abs(tt_werte[i][j]-naeh[i]) t_neu[i]:=tt_werte[i][idx[i]]:

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   The here proposed selection of the 'right' zero point must be observed four conditions: > idx[I]:= 1; > if abs(naeh[I])<2 then for j from 2 to nbr[I] do if abs(tt_werte[I][j]-naeh[I]) < abs(tt_werte[I][idx[I]]-naeh[I]) then idx[I]:= j fi od else for j from 2 to nbr[I] do if abs((1/tt_werte[I][j])-(1/naeh[I])) < abs((1/tt_werte[I][idx[I]])-(1/naeh[I])) then idx[I]:= j fi od fi; > t_neu[i]:=tt_werte[i][idx[i]];

VELOCITYANALYSIS OF THE MOTION In the following we calculate an approximate value of the next correct position. > A1:=A0+la1*(subs(f=tan(ff1[i]/2),Arm)); > B1:=B0+lb1*(subs(f=tan(ff2[i]/2),Arm)); > C1:=C0+lc1*(subs(f=tan(ff3[i]/2),Arm)); > d1:=A1-A0: d2:=B1-B0: d3:=C1-C0: > vA1:=w*[-d1[2],d1[1]]: > vB1:=w*omegab*[-d2[2],d2[1]]: > vC1:=w*[-d3[2],d3[1]]: > X[i]:=[x1[i],x2[i]]: > Y[i]:=matrix(2,2,[0,-x3[i],x3[i],0]): > u_werte:=evalf(subs(f1=tan(ff1[i]/2),f2=tan(ff2[i]/2), f3=tan(ff3[i]/2),t=t_neu[i],uu)); > v_werte:=evalf(subs(f1=tan(ff1[i]/2),f2=tan(ff2[i]/2), f3=tan(ff3[i]/2),t=t_neu[i],vv)); > transm:=[uu_werte,vv_werte]: > c2:=evalf(subs(t=t_neu[i],co)): > s2:=evalf(subs(t=t_neu[i],si)): > drehm:=matrix(2,2,[c2,-s2,s2,c2]): > A2:=convert(evalf((matadd(evalm(drehm &* A2g),transm))),list): > B2:=convert(evalf((matadd(evalm(drehm &* B2g),transm))),list): > C2:=convert(evalf((matadd(evalm(drehm &* C2g),transm))),list): > vA2:=simplify(matadd(evalm(Y[i] &* A2),X[i])): > vB2:=simplify(matadd(evalm(Y[i] &* B2),X[i])): > vC2:=simplify(matadd(evalm(Y[i] &* C2),X[i])): > V11:=matadd(vA2,-vA1): V12:=matadd(A2,-A1): > V21:=matadd(vB2,-vB1): V22:=matadd(B2,-B1): > V31:=matadd(vC2,-vC1): V32:=matadd(C2,-C1): > GL1:=simplify(innerprod(V11,V12)); > GL2:=simplify(innerprod(V21,V22)); > GL3:=simplify(innerprod(V31,V32)); > P1:=coeff(GL1,x1[i]): P2:=coeff(GL2,x1[i]): P3:=coeff(GL3,x1[i]): > Q1:=coeff(GL1,x2[i]): Q2:=coeff(GL2,x2[i]): Q3:=coeff(GL3,x2[i]): > R1:=coeff(GL1,x3[i]): R2:=coeff(GL2,x3[i]): R3:=coeff(GL3,x3[i]): > T1:=-subs(x1[i]=0,x2[i]=0,x3[i]=0,GL1): > T2:=-subs(x1[i]=0,x2[i]=0,x3[i]=0,GL2):

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   > T3:=-subs(x1[i]=0,x2[i]=0,x3[i]=0,GL3): > mat:=matrix(3,3,[P1,Q1,R1,P2,Q2,R2,P3,Q3,R3]): > vec:=[T1,T2,T3]: > losung:=linsolve(mat,vec): > x1[i]:= losung[1]: x2[i]:= losung[2]: > x3[i]:= losung[3]: > dt_neu[i]:= eval((1+t_neu[i]*t_neu[i])*x3[i]/2): > od:

DISPLAYING OF THE MOTION And finally should animation of the motion with Maple generated, one must proceed according to the calculation of the positions within the loop as follows: > for i from 0 to anz do > AA1[i]:=A0+la1*(subs(f=tan(ff1[i]/2),Arm)); > BB1[i]:=B0+lb1*(subs(f=tan(ff2[i]/2),Arm)); > CC1[i]:=C0+lc1*(subs(f=tan(ff3[i]/2),Arm)); > uu_werte:=evalf(subs(f1=tan(ff1[i]/2),f2=tan(ff2[i]/2), f3=tan(ff3[i]/2),t=t_neu[i],uu)); > vv_werte:=evalf(subs(f1=tan(ff1[i]/2),f2=tan(ff2[i]/2), f3=tan(ff3[i]/2),t=t_neu[i],vv)); > trans2:=[uu_werte,vv_werte]; > c2:=evalf(subs(t=t_neu[i],co)): > s2:=evalf(subs(t=t_neu[i],si)): > dreh2:=matrix(2,2,[c2,-s2,s2,c2]): > AA2[i]:=convert(evalf((matadd(evalm(dreh2&*A2g),trans2))),list): > BB2[i]:=convert(evalf((matadd(evalm(dreh2&*B2g),trans2))),list): > CC2[i]:=convert(evalf((matadd(evalm(dreh2&*C2g),trans2))),list): > Dreieck[i]:=polygonplot([AA2[i],BB2[i],CC2[i]],color=red): > Gelenk_a01[i]:=polygonplot([A0,AA1[i]],thickness=2): > Gelenk_a12[i]:=polygonplot([AA1[i],AA2[i]],thickness=2): > Gelenk_b01[i]:=polygonplot([B0,BB1[i]],thickness=2): > Gelenk_b12[i]:=polygonplot([BB1[i],BB2[i]],thickness=2): > Gelenk_c01[i]:=polygonplot([C0,CC1[i]],thickness=2): > Gelenk_c12[i]:=polygonplot([CC1[i],CC2[i]],thickness=2): > od: > Konfiguration:=seq(display(Dreieck[i],Gelenk_a01[i],Gelenk_b01[i], Gelenk_c01[i],Gelenk_a12[i],Gelenk_b12[i],Gelenk_c12[i]),i=1..anz): > display(Konfiguration,scaling=constrained,insequence=true);

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Figure 3: Different poses of given example

Figure 4: Diagram showing

in given example

are possible, for how many positions the moving If you want to have an overview how many rotational angle plane Σ7 for which drive angles (here with ff1[i] denotes), so it can be drawing in a graph (see Figure 4) discrete ff1value (in this case tt_werte[i][j]) . values the corresponding - each in degrees-

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work has been supported by the Research Fund of the Sakarya University with the project number 2014-17-02001. REFERENCES Can, E. & Stachel H. (2014). A planar parallel 3-RRR robot with synchronously driven cranks. Mechanism and Machine Theory 79 (pp. 29-45). Can, E. (2012). Analyse and Synthese eines schnelllaufenden ebenen Mechanismus mit modifizierbaren Zwangläufen. PhD Thesis, Vienna University of Technology. Can, E. (2015). Über die Verwendung von MAPLE für die Simulation von Mechanismen. Teaching Mathematics and Computer Sciences 13/1 (pp. 21-39). Ahamed, S. Simulation of a 3-DOF 3-RRR Planar Parallel Robot, www.parallemic.org/Java/3RRR.html Gander, W. & Hrebicek, J. (2004). Solving Problems in Scientific Computing Using Maple and Matlab. Heidelberg Springer, Berlin. Staicu, S. (2008). Kinematics of the 3-RRR planar parallel robot. U.P.B. Sci. Bull. Ser. D. 70/2 (pp. 3–14). Wunderlich, W. (1970). Ebene Kinematik. BI–Hochschultaschenbücher, Bd. 447. Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim.

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A REAL-TIME REMOTE PHYSIOTHERAPY SYSTEM USING MOTION DETECTION SENSOR  Hüseyin Eski1, Cemil Öz2, Ümit Kocabıçak3 1,2,3

Sakarya University, Department of Computer Engineering, Sakarya/Turkey 1

[email protected]  2

3

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract:Physiotherapy is a healthcare profession that assesses, diagnoses, treats, and works to prevent disease and disability through physical means.. Physiotherapists work with their patients, and assisting them to overcome movement disorders. Physiotherapy treatment is made in the hospitals or medical centers with classical methods and patients have to go to these centers. But, Most Physiotherapies’ patient are disable and old person. Therefore transportation is also a big problem. Generally, a physiotherapy is take long time and physiotherapy centers are less, due to this, getting an appointment is a big problem. Because of these problems, treatments mire down and diseases become more chronicle situation. Patients have to do the physical therapyexercises every day but physiotherapists cannot control whether they do or not. We developed a Physiotherapy monitoring system based on human motion analysis using Microsoft Kinect sensor. A Physiotherapies can schedule daily exercise for the patient. The system assist the patient to do the proper exercise, and it also repot their performance and achievement to physiotherapies.  Keywords: Physical Rehabilitation, Motion Detection, Remote Physiotherapy, Human Computer interaction

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A RESEARCH ON ACCOUNTING LESSONS OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS: STUDENTS’ COMPREHENSION DIFFICULTIES Okan Şeneldir [email protected]  Abstract: Determinants of student performance is a basic research subject for many academic researchers from many areas. In their studies, they have tried to determine which variables impact student performance in positive and negative meaning. In this study, it is aimed at determining the vocational high school students’ comprehension difficulties at accounting subjects and the reasons of the difficulties. For this purpose, 178 Kocaeli vocational high school students participated in this research. The basic open ended question asked the students in order to learn their ideas about comprehension difficulties and their reasons was “What are the comprehension difficulties you have while you study accounting. The results show that the students have various opinions about the comprehension difficulties and their reasons.   Keywords: vocational school, accounting lesson, comprehension difficulty 

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A STOCHASTIC-OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL MICRO-SITING OF WIND TURBINES Akiner Tuzuner1, Issa Almassri2, Selcuk Goren3 1

Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Department of Industrial Engineering, Istanbul/Turkey Tel.: +90-5452821975 Email: [email protected] 2

3

Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Graduate School of Science, Istanbul/Turkey Tel.: +90-5349260612 Email: [email protected]

Abdullah Gul University, Department of Industrial Engineering, Kayseri/Turkey Tel.: +90-5534810001 Email: [email protected]

Abstract: We propose a general model for the placement of wind turbines in a rectangular grid formation over a flat area. For better realism, we consider stochastic wind speeds and directions, in conjunction with the wake effects that upstream turbines impose on downstream ones. The objective is to pack as many turbines as economically optimal in a given area, i.e. to maximize the expected MW output per dollar of capital investment and O&M costs per meter square. Due to the complex structure of the mathematical model, we apply a hybrid approach of Monte-Carlo sampling of wind speeds and directions together with the Nelder-Mead heuristic method to search for the optimal horizontal and vertical spacing of the turbines. Results of a case study based on a real dataset of wind speeds and directions, a selected commercial turbine’s approximated power curve, and industry estimates of costs is discussed. Keywords: wind energy, wind power, wind investment, micro-siting, wake effect

INTRODUCTION Wind energy has gained great attention because it represents an important option for reducing the reliance on hydrocarbons for energy production, especially for electricity. With the current technology, one challenge faced in wind farm design is the appropriate placement of the individual wind turbines in order to optimally harvest the energy from the wind. Grouping the turbines leads to a reduction of the power produced by the downstream wind turbines due the so-called “wake” effect. That is, if a turbine is within the area of the turbulence caused by another turbine, or the area behind another turbine, the wind speed suffers a reduction, and therefore, there is a decrease in its electricity production. On the other hand, spacing the turbines too far apart requires a larger land area for the wind farm, which may not only bring added costs but also be just infeasible. Because of the considerable amount of power loss due to the wake effects in a large wind farm, it is considered one of the main issues that should be focused on when optimizing the wind turbine position. Several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to maximize energy production and the efficiency of the turbines. These studies have focused primarily on obtaining the optimal placement of turbines within a wind farm, based on their output efficiency. To state this problem, we define two objectives: (i) maximization of energy production, and (ii) minimization of the total cost and land area requirements. In the present research we use an objective function that represent the expected MW output per dollar of capital investment and O&M costs per meter square of land (i.e. MW/$m2). By use of the Nelder-Mead heuristic method adapted to stochastic wind speeds and directions, we search for the optimal vertical and horizontal spacing (respectively in the North-South and East-West coordinate axes) of a rectangular grid of wind turbines. That is, given a fixed number of turbines in a rectangular formation, the goal is maximize the area-density of the expected power return on the investment. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section two formulates the model of the wake model used in the wind farm. Section three presents describes the wind farm layout optimization model, including such components and parameters as the power curves, the wind direction and speed distribution, and cost estimation. Section four presents the two case scenarios and discusses the results of the optimization process. Finally, in section five we present our conclusions and discuss futures avenues of research on the problem.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   THE WAKE MODEL Wind turbine wakes are generally divided into three different regions, as described in Figure 1. These are the near wake region, the transition region, and the far wake region. This model assumes the wake region is an empirical linear expansion region, Jensen Model, starting from behind the wind turbine, as shown in Figure 2. Here the model is characterized by a uniform velocity profile at any distance in the downstream behind the turbine.

Figure 1: Wake Regions Behind a Wind Turbine To start analyzing the model we first write the wind speed at a distance behind the turbine. Let us consider Figure 2 again, where we have a turbine generating a wake region. We can write the equation of the wake radius at distance from turbine as: (1) Where is the rotor radius of turbine , and is a decay factor expressing how fast the wake breaks down. An analytical equation is given for concerning the height of the turbine generating the wake and the constant surface roughness , which depends on the terrain characteristics in the form of .

If we consider as the ambient wind speed and of mass equation as

(2)

.

as the wind speed at distance , then we can write a balance ,

where

(3)

is the wind speed just behind turbine .

Figure 2: Single Wind Turbine Wake Model A study of the aerodynamics of wind turbines provides us with an analytical equation connecting the ambient speed with the wind speed right behind the turbine. From this we can write 1

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Where the term

is the thrust coefficient of the turbine. Solving the previous equation for , we obtain 1

1 1

(4)

.

The previous equation expresses the wind speed at distance behind a turbine when the radius of the wake at that distance is . In case of a wind farm, where we have two turbines, and , and Turbine is in the wake region of Turbine , then the wind speed affecting Turbine is given by 1

1

1

(5)

.

From Equation 5 we can see how the speed received by Turbine is reduced due to the wake effect of Turbine . Therefore, the power output of Turbine j will be reduced too. Equation 5 gives the resulting wind speed at a given turbine when we considered that the turbine is totally covered and affected by the wake effects. Which means that the wind speed is the same over all the turbine surface. But in wind farm we can find partial shadowing which means the turbine surface is partially in the wake area and not totally. Therefore, the turbine will be affected by different wind speed at its rotor’s sweep area and the calculation of the power output needs more attention. To this end, the speed from the wake effects affecting the turbine can be rewritten to take the partial shadowing into account: 1

1

1

(6)

,

where is the total area of the turbine and is the shadowed area by the affecting turbine. Here we must note that there are different shadowing possibilities between the two turbines: complete shadowing, quasicomplete, partial shadowing and no shadowing. Therefore before applying the formula we must determine the type of shadowing depending on the horizontal and vertical distances between the two turbines and the direction of the wind. This study considers these detailed geometric calculations, whose details are not presented here.

 

Figure 3: Bird’s Eye View Illustration of Multiple Wakes within a Wind Farm

In a wind farm each turbine will produce a wake area, as shown in Figure 3. This will cause a turbine to possibly be under the effect of multiple wakes caused by different turbines. Therefore, a method to combine the different single wakes effects is required. One of the used methods is the sum of squares of velocity deficit, and this method is useful here since it provides a formula for the deficit wind speed as 1

1

1

.

(7)

And combining the multiple wakes effects, we obtain ∑

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,

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(8) 21

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Where is the collection of turbines affecting turbine by its wake. Then the total speed at Turbine given by 1 .

will be (9)

Combining our calculations, we conclude that the wind speed affecting Turbine is given by

1





1

1

.

(10)

WIND FARM LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION MODEL We consider a rectangular grid of a certain number of turbines where they are separated by a distance of on the horizontal dimension and a distance of on the vertical dimension (see Figure 4). For this study, we simply take the horizontal axis to be the exact East-West direction and the vertical axis to the North-South direction. While it is possible to choose the axes in a arguably more efficient fashion (e.g., setting the vertical axis to be the speedweighted mean of directions), or even defining an additional optimization variable for the “tilt” angle of the rectangular layout, these generalizations are left as a topic for further study. The objective is to find the most optimal values of and with respect to the objective of maximizing the economic return per grid area as explained previously. As also shown in Figure 4, the stochastic wind blows from the direction and with a speed of (i..e whose distribution depends on ) at a prespecified height equal to the turbines’ hubs. We also assume here that the wind’s direction and magnitude applied uniformly all over the wind farm in the vertical and horizontal planes. In other words, each turbine is assumed to receive a uniform wind direction and speed over its entire rotor speed area and all turbines receive the same direction and speed regardless of their position on the grid. In reality wind’s speed usually increases with height (i.e. upper sections of the turbines sweep area will receive higher speeds) and, due to the considerably high volatile nature of wind, distant locations in a given wind farm can be facing significantly different speeds (and perhaps directions) as wind travels throughout the farm’s considerable large area. Nevertheless, the uniformity assumption that we make are not just for mathematical simplicity, but, rather, because of the limited time- and height- resolution of typical wind data and also since the errors should partly cancel each other out. In our model, the turbines still receive different speeds due to the complex wake effects occurring within the wind farm. Given the “adjusted” speed for each turbine, we use the turbine’s specific “power curve” to estimate its power output of the turbine.

Figure 4: Wind Farm Grid Layout

 

The power curve of a wind turbine describes the turbine’s generated power versus the wind speed, p = f(v), when the wind is perpendicular to the rotational plane. When the speed of wind reaches a threshold of so-called “cutin” value, the turbine starts generating power, and as the speed increases the power generated increases nonlinearly to its maximum value at the so-called “saturation” speed (or, rated speed). Due to structural stability and other concerns, the turbine is regulated to generate a steady maximum (or, rated) output between the saturation speed and the so-called “cut-out” speed, beyond which the blades are stopped as operating the turbine at such “storm” winds poses mechanical and safety hazards.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Based on the theory laid out in Betz’s Law and also empirical evidence, the increasing portion of the power curve between the cut-in and saturation speeds is often modeled as a cubic function of the form , where c is a constant depending on the turbine’s mechanical properties and of the air flow (density, temperature, etc.) and v is the wind speed. In reality, however, the increasing portion begins deviating from the cubic behavior and curls rather smoothly the maximum plateau level. The shape of the increasing section of the power curve is suitably described by a (approximately cubic) convex lower section and a concave and flattening upper-section (see Figure 5). For this study, we considered several different models of Vestas turbines and we approximated their power curves by fitting suitable polynomials to their discrete speed-power data that was available from the manufacturer. Twopiece polynomials were fitted (using Mathematica 9) to the increasing portion of the data –one to the convex lower half and a another to the concave upper half. The polynomials vary between 4 and 8 in degrees in order to yield an exact fit to the data points and some degree of subjectivism was involved in identifying the two separate portions in order to obtain the best fit. The power curve fitting results for 8 Vestas models of various rated powers and other parameters are shown in Figure 5. For our case study, chose to use the Vestas V90 with 3MW maximum power output.

 

Figure 5: Estimated Power Curves for Several Vestas Wind Turbine Models For a better realism of the optimization process, we consider stochastic wind speeds and directions. Wind speed and direction measurements collected by the YEGM (Turkish Renewable Energy General Directorate) at various sites Turkey during 2003-2011 were obtained. The wind data is comprised of 10-minute apart measurements of speed and direction at 30 meters height. The total length of the measurement period (i.e. number of years) vary between sites, and the data had to be cleaned rigorously for missing or obviously erroneous values. To assure continuity of the used data, two suitable sites were chosen to be used in the case study. One is the Biga site, which is near the same-named town of the Çanakkale province in the Marmara region of Turkey. The second is the Tavas site, which is a town of the Denizli Province in the inner Aegean region of Turkey. The Biga site was selected partly because it is one of the strongest-wind sites in Turkey. The Tavas site, on the other hand, can be classified as a moderate-to-low wind site. This choice of this particular site pair is motivated by comparison purposes. We use one year’s length of data for each site, yielding a total of 52704 (10 minutes data over 366 days) speeddirection data points for each site. Moreover, since the data were taken at a 30 meters height, they were converted to a more meaningful hub height of 100 meters using the standard Equation 13 given below. In Equation 13, is an empirically derived coefficient that varies dependent upon the stability of the atmosphere. For this study, we adopt the standard value of 0.143 for this parameter. v

 

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100 30

(11)

 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Figure 6 below presents a more detailed picture of the two sites’ wind properties in the form of a modified “wind rose”, i.e. a joint circular histogram of the distribution of the wind direction and average wind speed at that site. The histograms consist of 5 bins for the direction, where the color of the bin corresponds to the average speed of the wind in that direction according to the given color scale.

 

Figure 6: Annual Wind Roses for the Biga and Tavas Sites

It is once apparent that the Biga site is considerably windier than the Tavas site and that the wind at both sites blow predominantly in the Northeast direction. Other observations from Figure include that for both locations wind almost never blows in the South-East quadrant of the direction coordinates (and for Tavas, also almost never in the North-West quadrant) and that there’s very moderate wind occurrence in the opposite direction of the predominant North-East. These other details of the presented Wind roses could be explained better in a moreinformed context of the geography and topography of the sites. To verify the commonly encountered Weibull behavior of the wind speeds, a fitting process of the Weibull distribution over the whole data was performed. Based on Figure 7, we can justify that the wind speed data agrees strongly with a Weibull distribution, and, therefore, we can safely perform random variate generation using the estimated Weibull parameters in order to use for our simulated samples.

 

 

Figure 7: Weibull Distribution Fit for the Biga Site Wind Speed Data Based on the analyses of Wiser and Bolinger (2013). for the wind farm development project carried out in the USA in 2012, the average capital cost for projects with more than 5 MW output is around 1,900 $ /kW. In our case, we take the cost to be around 2,000 $ /KW. In addition to this initial capital cost, we also take the O&M costs into account. Because O&M costs are realized over time, they are customarily reported in dollars per energy produced, i.e. $/MWh. To get an estimate for this rather elusive cost type, we again refer the issues of the D.O.E. reports (Wiser and Bolinger, 2012, 2013), which give the example of two wind farm operators reporting that the total operating costs are around 20 $/MWh. Assuming an economic life span of the turbines of 20 years and using a discount rate of 6%, the present worth of the total O&M costs can be calculated as

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   $2,000,000/ where



is the total power output and

11.469

∗ $20/

∗ 8,784

/



,

(14)

is the mean power production.

OPTIMIZATION SCENARIOS AND RESULTS Performing the optimization using the whole data set (52704 point) for every x-y pair of spacing of the turbines require a huge amount of calculation time. Therefore, make use of a hybrid approach of Monte-Carlo sampling of wind directions combined with a Weibull random-variate generation of the speed from the corresponding Weibull fit. We provide an itemized description of our approach for simulating one direction-speed pair as follows:  We divide the wind direction into 360 discrete categories (i.e. slices) in increments of 1 Celsius and calculate the frequency of the direction data in each category.  For each category we fit a Weibull distribution to the wind speed data corresponding to the direction data in that slice.  For each sample to be simulated, we first generate a random discrete direction via Monte-Carlo simulation using the categories’ relative frequencies (we take the simulated direction to be the middle of that slice, i.e. 0.5, 1.5,…., 359.5).  Next we generate a wind-speed random variate using the estimated Weibull distribution for that slice.  Based on the simulated direction and speed, we calculate the wake effects and the effective speed facing each individual turbine on the grid.  We next calculate each turbine’s output using the power curve and average the results over all the objective function.  We finally obtain the value of the objective function by dividing the average output by the total cost of a turbine and by the total area of the grid. The histogram in Figure 8, which is actually a “flattened-out” wind rose, shows the distribution of the wind direction and the average wind speed for the 360 1-degree slices for the Biga site. Each slice has its individual estimated Weibull speed distribution, which are not presented here.

Figure 8: distribution of wind speed over direction

 

Due to the complex nature of the model, mostly because of the incorporation of the wake effects, a differential calculus formulation of the objective function is not trivial. Due to the low variable-dimensionality of the problem and the considerable computational effort required to perform the calculations for each single simulated sample, the Nelder-Mead heuristic method presents itself as a suitable algorithm. With two decision variables (x and y) the method requires only 3 points in the x-y plane to implement. For our stochastic model, however, the objective function value for each Nelder-Mead point needs to be defined as the average of many simulations. Deciding that 1000 simulations for each point is a reasonable compromise between representative accuracy and computational power, we implemented the algorithm with the stopping criterion that the objective function value has not improved by more than 0.01% for the past 100 iterations.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   In this study, we present the results for two square cases of the grid, a 10x10 grid and a 30x30 grid. The optimization results for the Biga and Tavas sites are presented in, respectively, Table 1 and Table 2 below. Table 1: Case Study Results for the Biga Site (Vestas V90 – 90 m Rotor Diameter). Number of turbines Number of turbines Spacing distance in Spacing distance in in x-axis in y-axis the x-axis the y-axis 10 10 584.3 m 211.4 m 30 30 590.6 m 221.9 m From Table 1, we see that the x-spacing is considerable larger than the y-spacing for both grid sizes (the ratio x/y is 2.77 for the 10x10 grid and 2.67 for the 30x30 grid). This result is consistent with the predominant wind directions at the Biga site as evident from Figures 6 and 7 –winds are stronger and more frequent in the EastNorth-East direction (first octant of the compass). A larger x-spacing would thus help reduce wake effects more than a larger y-spacing. Given 90-meter rotor diameter of the Vestas V90 – 3MW turbine, this indicates a spacing of 6.49 diameters along the x-axis and a spacing of 2.34 diameters along the y-axis for the 10x10 grid and very close values for the 30x30 grid. These numbers also compare reasonably with the industry rule of thumb of spacing the turbines by 2 diameters in the perpendicular line to the prevailing wind direction and by 7 diameters along this direction (note that our grids is not oriented to face the “prevalent” wind direction perpendicularly, but are in the fixed East-West and North-South axes). The result that turbines are slightly more packed in a smaller grid can be explained by the “boundary” effect as follows: Turbines at certain borders of the grid will be impacted much less (the East and South borders in the case of Biga) from the wake effects as compared to turbines in the interior and on the opposite borders. The fact that the “border” turbines constitute a greater fraction of the total number of turbines in a smaller grid as compared to a larger grid will compensate better for internal wake losses, and, thus, it may allow tighter optimal packing of the whole turbine set. Results for the Tavas site in Table 2 are quite close to the values for the Biga site and bear largely similar interpretations. However, comparing the two sites is somewhat confusing. Both the x- and y-spacing for the Tavas 10x10 grid is slightly larger than their counterparts for the Biga site, possibly owing to the fact that the prevailing winds at the Tavas site are slightly more in the North direction as compared to Biga. However, both of spacing values are for the 30x30 grid are slightly less at the Tavas site than at Biga, thus, running counterintuitive to the previous explanation. It is also noteworthy that while the y-spacing at Tavas increases slightly from the 10x10 to the 30x30 grid, as consistent with the “border turbines” effect, the x-spacing decreases slightly. Given the complex nature of the model and the non-deterministic behavior of a heuristic algorithm, we caution from over-comparing the two sites and postulating unsupported conclusions. Table 2: Case Study Results for the Tavas Site (Vestas V90 – 90 m Rotor Diameter). Number of turbines Number of turbines Spacing distance in Spacing distance in in x-axis in y-axis the x-axis the y-axis 10 10 591.5 m 215.6 m 30 30 583.4 m 218.8 m CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH The general problem of the optimal micro-siting of wind turbines a complicated one due to several reasons. This paper aims to develop a mathematical for a special case of the model where turbines of the same type are placed at uniformly spaced grid points over a flat wind farm area in the form of a rectangle whose edges sit on the EastWest and North-South directions. The model’s main focus is to incorporate the complex wake effects that may occur within a wind farm that critically impact the total output. This paper also differs from other studies that consider only the total output in that we consider an economic objective, the return on investment per area required. The wake effects are modeled in an idealized –yet mathematically quite complicated– formulation a la Jensen (Katic et al., 1986). The consideration of stochastic wind speeds and directions, and the use in the case study of real measurement data from 2 sites in Turkey, is yet another aspect of the study that increases its realism. The numerical and analytical complexities introduced by the incorporation of wake effects and the use of real data are dealt with by adopting a hybrid approach of using the heuristic Nelder-Mead optimization method based on Monte-Carlo simulation of random samples of wind direction-speed pairs.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Despite the fixed orientation of the grid, the model’s result seem to validate the industry’ simplistic rule of thumb practice of spacing the turbines by 2 and 7 rotor diameters along, respectively, the perpendicular and parallel direction of the “prevalent” winds. Introducing a third decision variable corresponding to the “tilt” angle of the rectangular grid, which would be optimized together with the horizontal and vertical turbine spacings, could yield even-more confirming results, but this is the subject of future generalizations of the model. The case study results also indicate –albeit with an exception– that a larger wind farm (i.e. having more turbines) requires larger spacing between the turbines in order to operate optimally, possibly owing to the fact that a greater portion of the turbines in a larger wind farm are in the farm’s interior region where the wake effects are stronger than on the boundaries. Nevertheless, we offer these interpretations with some degree of caution as the aforementioned observations and possible other ones ask for a more generalized model as well as many more site cases to be analyzed, which again, are among planned extensions of the present study. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study is part of a larger research project funded by TÜBİTAK (Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council) under Grant No. 113M503. The authors would also like to thank Istanbul Kemerburgaz University for its logistical support including the provision of the facilities where the project is carried out. REFERENCES Attias, K. (2011). Optimal Layout for Wind Turbine Farms, Ben-Gurion University. Donovan, S. (2005). 40th Annual Conference: Wind Farm Optimization, Operational Research Society of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand. Katic, I., Hojstrup, J., & Jensen N. O. (1986). European wind energy conference and exhibition: A simple model for cluster efficiency. Rome, p. 407-10. Kulunk E. (2011). Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power: Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines, ISBN: 978-953-307-508-2. Kusiak A., (2010). Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture, The University of Iowa. Liu, F. and Wang, Z. (2014). Offshore Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Adapted Genetic Algorithm: A Different Perspective, Virginia Commonwealth university. Renkema, D. J. (2007). Validation of wind turbine wake models using wind farm data and wind tunnel measurements, Delft University of Technology. Samorani, M. (2013) The Wind Farm Layout Optimization Problem, University of Alberta. Schlez, W. New Developments in Precision Wind Farm Modelling, Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd. Tao, H. (2011). The Assessment of Dynamic Wake Effects on Loading, Delft University of Technology, The Sailhawt Website, http://sites.google.com/site/sailhawt The Windpower Program Website, http://www.wind-power-program.com/turbine_characteristics.htm Zhang, X. & Wang, W. (2009). Wind Farm and Wake Effect Modeling for Simulation of a Studied Power System, Xi’an Jiaotong University.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

A STUDY OF FE DOPED ZNO THIN FILMS COATED BY SOL-GEL SPIN COATİNG  Erdal Sönmez1, Güven Turgut2  1 2

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

  Abstract:In present work, Fe incorporated ZnO thin films with different Fe concentrations were fabricated by sol-gel spin coating technique. The crystal, morphological, optical features of films were characterized by means of XRD, AFM and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The nano-sized hexagonal wurtzite ZnO particles with (002) preferential orientation were observed on the surface of films. The optical band gap and transmittance values of films changed with Fe contribution content. As a result of this study, Fe doped ZnO films can be utilized in several technological areas  Keywords: ZnO; Fe doping; Spin coating 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

A STUDY ON HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING ALUMINUM PART PRODUCTION BY COMPUTER SIMULATION  Ahmet Özel1, Soner Özden Erturk2 1

2

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[email protected] 

Abstract:High pressure die casting offers reduced costs due to its small tolerances and smooth surface finish. In this study, the use of computer simulation and design tools on design of HPDC was studied. The influence of casting process steps in die design was studied and the casting simulation software was used to improve design and to solve problems. By using the simulation software in die design, the final design was reached in hours and thus the design process was shortened and mold production was carried out without any revision on die material. Radiographic test was applied on the casting parts and the result show good correlation between simulations of solidification result data. Also the results proved that the application of squeeze pressure in the intensification phase of HPDC process can be examined in the casting simulation.  Keywords: pressure die casting, casting simulation, radiographic test

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

A STUDY ON RECOVERED CELLULOSE FIBERS THAT TREATED BY BORON COMPUNDS  Halil Turgut Şahin1, Mustafa Yılmaz2 1

2

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[email protected] 

Abstract:Utilization of forest resources more efficiently and conservation natural resources have been paid special attention. Forests which are not limitless in the world, need to be long period of time for plantation, resulting generation an issue on preservation environment. For that reason, the use of recyled paper products can be beneficial for preventing forest resources. There is a growing interest on use of recyled fibers in paper industry. It is important to know physicochemical properties of seconder cellulose fibers. However, thus recovered cellulose has used usually some low-quality paper products. But an alternative approach on recovered cellulose fibers can be effects added value products.  In this study, classified waste paper products that have recyled on plant conditions were utilized. In this case, the mechanical and physical properties of reproduced papers have been studied. Hence, the secondary cellulose fibers from waste paper were utilized for strength developments treated with boron compounds during recycling process, recovered fibers that were treated with water (control), 5 and 10% concentration (weight/weight) boron compounds. As a result of these process, continuously dried and rewetted cellulose fibers’s history were known and effects of added chemical well studied. Pulps that treated with boron compunds during recycling showed some level improvement of optical properties. In paper brightness values, in depend on recycling level, 1-5 points improvement were determined. Opacity and CIE L*a*b* color values were in changed marginal level.However, strength of paper that produced from recovered papers showed increasing properties up to recycling level.   Keywords: Recyled fiber, cellulose, boron compunds, paper strength, paper properties

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

ADSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SURFACTANTS ON DIFFERENT PETROLUEM RESERVOIR MATERIALS Samya D. Elias, Ademola M. Rabiu, Oyekola Oluwaseun and Beverly Seima Department of Chemical Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of Technology Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa

Abstract: The loss of injected chemical(s) in the reservoir during injection due to the adsorption of the surfactant (and co-surfactants) unto the rock materials weighs heavily on the economics and environmental footprint of the process and remains a focus of research attention. It is necessary that the surfactant loss in the reservoir during injection is minimized to improve on the process economics and ensure its wider application. In this study the adsorption of cationic and anionic surfactants onto the common reservoir rock material and drilling mud weighing agent is investigated at various surfactant concentration and salinity. The effect of pH was also studied by formulating an alkaline-surfactant mixture using various concentration of NaOH. The indirect method of residual equilibrium surfactant concentration measurement was employed to obtain the adsorption isotherm of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on kaolin, silica, alumina and ilmenite. Surfactant concentration was varied from 50-600 ppm and the conductivity of the equilibrated media at room temperature is measured at various brine concentration and pH. Both surfactants were found to adsorb strongly onto the rock materials while stabilization in the level of adsorption in the region above the CMC was observed as the monomer concentration falls due to micelles formation. At same level of salinity, it was found that cationic surfactant adsorbed more strongly on the rock materials that the anionic surfactant. The volume adsorbed was found to increase up to a maximum of 1.170 mg/g and 1.8249 mg/g for SDS and CTAB respectively on kaolin and ilmenite for instance, as the concentration was increased at constant salinity. The same trend was noted as the brine concentration was varied with adsorption increasing with salinity for anionic surfactant. As pH increases the volume adsorption for SDS decreases while the opposite was the case with the cationic surfactant, CTAB which increase with the alkalinity of the solution.

INTRODUCTION Surfactant flooding is widely employ to manipulate the phase behaviour of the reservoir fluids to counteract the high capillary force trapping oil in the pores of the reservoir during enhanced oil recovery process (Babu et al., 2015;Kamari et al., 2015;Zargartalebi et al., 2015). The surface active chemical promote the formation of microemulsions at the crude oil and the displacing fluid (mostly water) interface (Ahmadi & Shadizadeh, 2015;Spildo et al., 2014) thus causing a significant lowering of the fluids interfacial tension (IFT). This is required to efficiently mobilize a substantial percentage of the residual oil towards the production wells to enhance overall crude recovery (Lu et al., 2014). The major problem that affects the efficiency of tertiary oil recovery during micellar flooding, steam-surfactant flooding, alkaline-surfactant (AS), surfactant-polymer (SP) or alkalinesurfactant-polymer (ASP) is the loss of surfactant through interaction with reservoir rock (Ponce F et al., 2014), along with surfactant partitioning into the oil interface (Bera et al., 2013). In surfactant-water-solid systems, the quantity of surfactant adsorbed depends on the rock properties (surface charge for instance), the character of the surfactant (kind of surfactant, the chain structure), temperature, salinity in addition to the pH (Qiao et al., 2012;Sheng, 2011). Other mechanisms that may cause surfactant losses include precipitation of surfactant when in the presence of electrolyte ions and surfactant diffusion in to dead-end pores (ShamsiJazeyi et al., 2014;Tichelkamp et al., 2015). High adsorption of surfactants onto the reservoir rock causes surfactant chromatographic retardation while they are carried through a reservoir formation, thus turning the EOR project unproductive and economically not viable (Ma et al., 2013). Dynamic and balanced surfactants adsorption at the solid/liquid interface is mainly dependent on the surfactants nature as well as on the nature of the reservoir rock surface (Hosna Talebian et al., 2015;Romero-Zerón & Kittisrisawai, 2015;Zhang & Somasundaran, 2006). Hence, the choice and selection of surfactant for Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (CEOR) operation is influenced by the oil reservoir materials and conditions as well (Kamari et al., 2015). Depending on the rock formation, oil reservoirs are typically categorized into two types: carbonate and sandstone (Dandekar, 2013;Lashkarbolooki et al., 2014). Anionic surfactants are generally preferred in sandstone reservoir

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   formations owing to the fact that they are relatively less adsorbed in comparison to any of nonionics, cationics as well as zwitterionics surfactants (Ma et al., 2013). These reservoirs comprises of huge quantities of quartz (silica) and less of silicate and carbonate rock crystals and the arrangement is dependent on the sedimentology of the reservoir formation. The majority of solid surfaces of reservoir rocks are charged, for instance silica is predominantly negative charge, while calcite, alumina and dolomite are positively charged at neutral pH (Cappelletti et al., 2006;Yoshihara et al., 1996). If the surfactant being injected and the reservoir material (adsorbent) have different charges, the degree of adsorption is very rapid and the time of equilibrium time is reduced (Muherei & Junin, 2009). In contrast, if the surfactant and the reservoir material have the same charge, repulsive interaction occur which results in negligible adsorption (Wesson & Harwell, 2010). Surfactant adsorption has been found to increase as the surface charge of the reservoir rock increases in the direction of the more positive charges (Pei et al., 2014), which is in accordance with the mechanism of electrostatic. Bastrzyk and Sadowski (2012) reported that CTAB exhibited higher adsorption comparing to SDS on both natural dolomite and magnesite in a low-salinity solution consisting of 0.0001 M of sodium chloride. Significant adsorption of cationic surfactants may be expected to occur if the carbonate formation is rich in clay and/or silica (Ma et al., 2013). To fully comprehend the scheme of surfactant adsorption taking place on carbonates and precisely select the right surfactants for CEOR processes in carbonate rock formations, Ma et al. (2013) studied the adsorption of anionic and cationic surfactants using natural and synthetic carbonate materials. They also looked into likely impurities in natural carbonate, for example clay and silica. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were selected as the cationic and anionic surfactants, correspondingly. CPC showed insignificant adsorption when synthetic calcite was used but then again quite high adsorption on a number of natural carbonates. It was observed that the adsorption plateau of CPC on carbonates was highly dependent on the amount of silica in the carbonate samples as a result of the strong electrostatic interaction among CPC and the negative binding sites in clay and/or silica. Other researchers have studied the effect of pH and salinity on the adsorption of surfactants (Delshad et al., 2013;Dong et al., 2013;Olajire, 2014;Sheng, 2013a; 2013b;Yuan et al., 2015;Zhao et al., 2015). Generally, addition of alkali to raise the pH is able to change the surface charge to alter the adsorption quantity; the salinity may alter the electrical potential of surface sites for the adsorption (Wesson & Harwell, 2010;Yuan et al., 2015). Adding salts of multivalent cations can sometimes cause a significant increase in the adsorption of anionic surfactants but a considerably decrease in the adsorption of cationic surfactants (Salari et al., 2011). In general, the most used technique to determine the surfactant loss through adsorption onto the porous medium during a surfactant core flood, is the method of depletion, where the change in the amount of surfactant after it comes in contact with adsorbents is registered and said to be adsorbed. The results obtained from determining the adsorption experimentally are usually represented as adsorption isotherms, where the quantity of surfactant adsorbed is given as a function of equilibrium concentrations (Bera et al., 2013;Salari et al., 2011;Xiao et al., 2003). Adsorption isotherms are determined by maintaining solution environment states, for instance pH, temperature and ionic strength constant (Touhami et al., 1998). When determining surfactant adsorption in dispersed systems, a known quantity of surfactant is added to the system and allowed to reach equilibrium. Afterwards the dispersed solids are separated and the surfactant concentration in the solution measured (Salari et al., 2011). Surfactant adsorption is given by the relationship: Γ 10 (1) where, is the adsorption density (mg/g), is the initial surfactant concentration (ppm), is the equilibrium surfactant is the mass of the surfactant solution (g) and is the mass of the dry concentration in solution (ppm), absorbents (g). Adsorption models are normally needed to estimate the loading on the adsorption medium at a certain concentration of the element being studied. The two most common adsorption isotherms which are utilized to model the equilibrium adsorption relation are the well-known monolayer Langmuir and empirical Freundlich models (Salari et al., 2011). The Langmuir isotherm has been extensively used in various adsorption studies. The Langmuir theory works with the assumption that the sorption occurs at precise homogeneous sites on the adsorbent (Zhang & Somasundaran, 2006). A basic assumption of the Freundlich isotherm is that the adsorbent has a heterogeneous surface constituted of diverse classes of adsorption sites (Salari et al., 2011). He showed that at different solution concentrations the ratio of the quantity of solute adsorbed onto a certain amount of an adsorbent (or porous) material to the concentration of the solute in the solution changes. His theory does not estimate any overload of the adsorbent material by the adsorbate. Hence, infinite surface coverage can be estimated using mathematical terms, which indicates multilayer sorption of the surface (Rawajfih & Nsour, 2006). 32 Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC)  www.iste‐c.net 

 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   This study investigated the adsorption characteristics of anionic and cationic surfactants on different reservoir materials including alumina, silica and kaolin, a form of clay that is found in reservoirs all over the world. Since surfactant is typically added to drilling mud, its adsorption on the emerging drilling mud weighing agent, ilmenite is also investigated, at different pH and salinity. Modelling of the equilibria of adsorption processes on the mentioned materials is investigated. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were utilized to model adsorption data to determine the isotherm which gives the best correlation with experimental data. MATERIALS AND METHODS Anionic surfactant, Sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS (Sigma Aldrich, 98%) and cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB (Sigma Aldrich, 98%) are employed. The alkalinity (that is pH) was adjusted with NaOH (Sigma Alrich, 97%) while NaCl (Sigma Alrich, 99%) was used to prepare the synthetic brine solution for salinity adjustment. In this study three types of adsorbents material (to represent reservoir rock materials) is used: alumina powder (Sigma Aldrich, 99.5% metals basis), fine silica flour (Sigma Aldrich, 99.8 %, with a surface area of 175-225 m2/g), kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) (Sigma-Aldrich, 98%) and ilmenite (FeTiO3) obtained from South Africa ore is used as typical drilling fluid weighing agent. The kaolin powder is dried in a convection electric oven at 120 0C overnight so as to eliminate water and any other adsorbed substances. The result from BET analysis of the kaolin powder is measured using a Quantachrome Autosorb-3b BET Surface Analyzer (Table 2). Table 1: BET characterization of kaolin clay Parameter Kaolin Clay Area, m2/g 14.91 Total pore volume, cm3/g 0.082731 Average Pore size, Å 221.9 Static adsorption experiments were run to analyze the adsorption characteristics of SDS and CTAB surfactants from aqueous solution onto synthetic kaolin clay, silica, alumina and ilmenite surfaces. Initial surfactant concentrations prepared from a 30 mL surfactant solution in 2 wt.% NaCl ranged from 50-600 ppm were used. The absorbent-dispersed surfactant solution samples were combined at a mass (solid-liquid) ratio of 1:20 in 500 mL glass bottles and shaken at 240 rpm (revolutions/minute) for 24 h at a temperature of 25 ± 2°C using a temperature controller horizontal electrical shaker machine. To ensure equilibrium, the absorbent-surfactant solution mixtures were agitated for 24 h at room temperature and ambient pressure. After adsorption, the surfactant-solid system was separated by means of filtration using a vacuum pump. Surfactant sample aliquots are taken for determination of surfactant concentration before and after adsorption. The equilibrium surfactant concentrations of both surfactants were evaluated so as to determine the maximum quantity of surfactant adsorbed into reservoir material. The effects of pH and NaCl concentrations on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent (kaolin clay) to the anionic and cationic surfactants were also investigated. To adjust the required pH values of the maximum adsorption of the surfactant solutions were considered and NaOH (0.2 M) solutions ranging from 0 wt. % to 1 wt. % were used. The salinity of the solution was altered with NaCl (0.2 M) solutions from 0-5 wt. %. A conductivity meter (Mi 170 Bench Meter, EC/TDS/NaCl/Temperature) from Martini Instruments was used to obtain the residual surfactant concentration before and after contact with the reservoir materials. The amount of surfactant adsorbed (adsorption density) was expressed as the unit of mass of surfactant adsorbed per 1 gram of solid absorbent (mg/g). Adsorption density on reservoir materials was determined by using the expression in Equation (1). Adsorption data have been evaluated by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models.

FINDINGS In Figures 1 and through 4 illustrates the adsorption isotherm for SDS and CTAB on the representative reservoir rock materials, that is, synthetic kaolin powder, alumina and silica and the weighing agent, ilmenite at ambient temperature and constant pH of 6.0. The solution salinity was kept constant with 2 vol % NaCl solution. It could be seen from the Figure 1 that both the anionic and cationic surfactant exhibit significant adsorption unto the kaolin clay. This is due to the presence of both negative and positive binding sites happen on this mineral surface at the prevailing pH. This was reported to be the case in other published works (for instance, (Xu et al., 1991), Zhou and

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

2,5

2,5

2,0

2,0

1,5

1,5

Γ (mg/g)

Γ (mg/g)

Gunter (1992), Jiang et al. (2010), Ma et al. (2013)). The same happened when ilmenite was used (see Figure 2) as its surface is net negatively charged. With an increase in surfactant concentration, it could be seen that SDS adsorption density increased from 0.3960 mg/g at 50 ppm to 1.170 mg/g at surfactant concentration of 250 ppm when kaolin clay was used. On ilmenite however, a very small increase in the adsorption of SDS is observed from 0.27 mg/g to 0.99 mg/g over 50 to 300 ppm.

1,0 SDS

0,5

0,5

0,0 0

Figure 1: Static adsorption on Kaolin clay

0

  

2,0

CTAB

0,5

Γ (mg/g)

2,0

SDS

0

100

200

300

400

500

Surfactant concentration (ppm) Figure 3: Static adsorption on Silica

600

200

300

400

500

600

   

1,5 1,0 0,5

0,0

100

Figure 2: Static adsorption on Ilmenite

2,5

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CTAB

Surfactant concentration (ppm)

2,5

1,5

SDS

0,0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Surfactant concentration (ppm)

Γ (mg/g)

1,0

CTAB

CTAB

SDS

0,0 0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Surfactant concentration (ppm)

Figure 4: Static adsorption on Alumina

At low surfactant concentration, adsorption takes places mostly because of individual ion interchange without contact between the adsorbed molecules (Tichelkamp et al., 2015). SDS can be adsorbed by kaolin clay as well as on ilmenite as an anion due to the capability of the mineral to generate a variable charge and to adsorb totally disassociated anions by means of ligand exchange {Sastry, 1995 #329; Ko, 2014 #564}. An increase of surfactant monomer adsorption happens for all the rock crystals as soon as the surfactant concentration in solution rises up to a point when the surfactant concentration in the equilibrium solution attains a value near to or somewhat higher than the CMC (Liljeblad, 2006). Initially SDS adsorption occurs through scatter interactions between the hydrophobic kaolin surface and the non-polar hydrocarbon chain of the probe particle. Then, as the SDS concentration exceeded 250 ppm, the adsorption became more stabilized with the escalation in the amount of surfactant. This shows that the adsorption overcome the electrostatic repulsion between the anionic heads groups of the SDS and the alike charges existing on the edge surface of the kaolin and ilmenite mineral until saturation adsorption is attained. The adsorption isotherm also indicates that once the SDS surfactant concentration reaches 600 ppm, the volume adsorbed peaked and stabilized. However, SDS exhibits a lower adsorption plateau compare to CTAB, which is

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   most probably because of the strong electrostatic repulsion between the anionic SDS and the negatively-charged kaolin ions. The maximum amount of SDS surfactant adsorbed on the kaolin clay and ilmenite surfaces is found to be 1.17 mg/g at concentration of 250 ppm and 0.99 g and attained at concentration of 300 ppm, respectively. In case of CTAB, a higher and substantial increase in adsorption density with surfactant concentration in contrast to SDS can be observed from 0.3975 mg/g to 1.8249 mg/g while on ilmenite was 0.3675mg/g to 1.6233 mg/g from at concentrations of 50 ppm to 275 ppm. The basal planes of kaolin clay, ilmenite as well as silica are totally negatively charged, which causes a significant adsorption of CTAB (Ma et al., 2013) as presented in Fig. 1, 2 and 3. The CTAB adsorption occurs mostly due to the presence of some charged components of kaolin and ilmenite particles such as silica (on kaolin) and TiO2 (on ilmenite) which are negative in nature at neutral pH or in water. Salari et al. (2011) also noticed the same pattern where the CTAB adsorption density increase with surfactant concentration on carbonate material. According to Ma et al. (2013) if kaolin is present as a contaminant in natural carbonate material, its negative binding sites possibly will cause substantial CTAB adsorption particularly in alkaline systems. Here, the adsorption occurs via electrostatic interaction between the positively charged CTAB head groups and the negatively charged kaolin surfaces. This attraction follows Henry’s law that the adsorption increases linearly with concentration (Paria & Khilar, 2004). From Figures 1 and 2, CTAB adsorption attains its maximum and equilibrium state at 350 ppm and 275 ppm with an adsorption density of 1.8871 mg/g-kaolin and 1.6233 mg/g-ilmenite, respectively. It can be said that the adsorption density in this system is a function of the amount and availability of CTAB, as well as kaolin clay and ilmenite to surfactant solution proportion (Salari et al., 2011). As the hydrophobic mass increases, the hydrophobic attraction between the surfactant and the absorbent molecules increases which in turn also causes an increase in the adsorption density. Here, increasing the surfactant concentrations appears to also cause an increase in the quantity of surfactant adsorbed. As the CMC is attained, the adsorption density stabilizes (or saturates) owing to the surfactant ions having filled all of the kaolin surface sites as well as the chemical potential of the surfactant monomers present in solution are practically steady beyond the CMC (Liljeblad, 2006). In this region as additional surfactant is injected beyond the CMC, a slight or no increase in adsorption with increasing surfactant concentration is observed. The micelle concentration (MC) increases and begin to agglomerate in bulk solution but then again the concentration of monomer stays almost steady because these micelles act as a chemical potential sink for any additional surfactant introduced into the system. The positively-charged CTAB is also strongly adsorbed onto synthetic silica whereas the negatively-charged SDS shows minor adsorption (Fig. 3). The high adsorption capacity of CTAB on silica particles can be described on grounds of electrostatic interaction which happens between the positively-charged head group of CTAB and the negatively-charged silica (Bera et al., 2013). Silica is mostly negatively charged over a large range of pH and at that pH of 6 the surface of the silica is strongly negatively charged, which goes in accordance with the literature of Ma et al. (2013). Thus, the electrostatic repulsion among the formation containing silica material and the anionic surfactant constrains the adsorption. The behaviour of SDS is totally different over alumina is used as the solid material (Fig. 4). At low CTAB concentrations the surfactant adsorbs randomly, with no associated structure. As the surfactant concentration increases, the existence of hemimicelles on the surface is noticed. Consequently, if natural carbonates have a considerable quantity of silica, substantial adsorption of CTAB may be expected to take place. The adsorption plateau of CTAB is slightly similar to that exhibited on kaolin, however it is to some extent higher with and adsorption density of 2.2305 mg/g at surfactant concentration of 300 ppm and the maximum adsorption for SDS surfactant was 0.19 mg/g at 325 ppm. However, SDS adsorption on synthetic alumina is higher in comparison to that of CTAB as presented in Fig. 5, which is in compliance with the literature (Paria and Khilar, 2004). This is because negatively charged surfactant strongly adsorbs on positively charged alumina at pH 6. The adsorption of CTAB on alumina is quite low due to the fact that its concentration in the vicinity of alumina surface is inferior to that in the bulk. This is probably attributed to the resilient electrostatic repulsion among the cationic CTAB surfactant and the positively-charged aluminium ions on alumina. The pH of the aqueous solution is one of the key controlling factors during surfactant adsorption to the reservoir rocks. In Fig. 5 the effect of pH on the adsorption isotherms of the two different surfactants (anionic and cationic) on synthetic kaolin clay surface is represented. Different sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations ranging from 0 wt. % to 1 wt. % were used in this study and

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   measurement carried out at ambient temperature. The SDS and CTAB surfactant concentrations was kept constant at 250 ppm and 350 ppm, correspondingly. 3,0

Γ (mg/g-kaolin

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CTAB

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0,4

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Alkali concentration, % Figure 5: Adsorption isotherms of SDS and CTAB on kaolin at different pH The adsorption of anionic surfactants decreases with the increase in concentration of alkali to raise the pH (to about 10-12). This makes the mineral surface (absorbent) more negatively charged; which in turn repulses the anionic surfactant and drive more surfactant to the solution, causing a decrease in the adsorption. Fig 5 shows that at an alkali concentration of 0.2 wt %, the SDS surfactant adsorption was instantly decreased from 1.17 mg/g-kaolin to 0.99 mg/g-kaolin. Then as the alkali concentration exceeded 0.6 wt. %, the adsorption of the surfactant on kaolin reaches saturation and its maximum adsorption is assessed to be about 0.4305 mg/g-kaolin. However in case of CTAB, as the pH of the solution increases the CTAB adsorption capacity also increases due to the fact that the cationic surfactant positively-charged head groups are strongly attracted at high pH with negatively-charged kaolin clay surface. Fig 5 also shows that at alkali concentration of 0.2 wt %, the CTAB surfactant adsorption increased from 1.887 mg/g-kaolin to 1.974 mg/g-kaolin. When the alkali concentration is raised to 0.6wt. %, the adsorption of the cationic surfactant on kaolin clay attains equilibrium and its maximum adsorption is evaluated to be around 2.523 mg/g-kaolin. Consequently, it can be concluded that ionic surfactant adsorption on mineral rock surfaces can be minimized or modified by adjusting the pH of the solution which is a very crucial to the economic viability of surfactant use in EOR processes. Generally, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is carried out using brine injection or sea water which contains hard ions. In actual fact, nought concentration of divalent ions in a genuine application of an EOR process is very uncommon. For that reason, it is indispensable to study the effect of divalent ions on surfactant adsorption. Adsorption isotherms for SDS and CTAB surfactant solutions at different salinities on synthetic kaolin clay is presented in Figure 6. The addition of salts of multivalent cations may in some instances originate a substantial increase in the anionic surfactants adsorption while causing a decrease in the adsorption capacity of cationic surfactants (Bera et al., 2013). At the interface between surfactant and the kaolin particles, there is always an imbalanced dispersal of electrical charges. This uneven charge distribution contributes to the rise of a potential through the interface and creates a so-called electrical double layer (Pethkar and Paknikar, 1998). When the concentration of NaCl is increased, the electrical double layer on the adsorbent’s surface is compressed, thus causing a decrease in the electrostatic repulsion between the adsorbed surfactant species and the absorbent. This results in an increase of adsorption capacity of anionic surfactants. Thus, there is a monotonic increase in the adsorption capacity of SDS as more NaCl solution is added. This is attributed to the fact that the concentration of divalent ions (Na+) in the solution increases with increase in the added quantity of sodium chloride. A raise of the adsorption plateau of anionic surfactants with increase in the equilibrium amount of hard ions was reported by (Bera et al., 2013). However a different trend is observed with CTAB, increase in the NaCl salt concentration causes the electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed surfactant species to fall resulting in the decrease of the adsorption capacity for CTAB. The surface of the kaolin clay becomes more positively-charged and as a result it repulses the cationic surfactant,

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   thus causing a decrease in its adsorption. 3,0

Γ (mg/g-kaolin)

2,5 2,0

SDS

CTAB

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1

2

3

4

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6

NaCl concentration, wt.% Figure 6: Adsorption isotherms of SDS and CTAB on kaolin at different salinity Adsorption data obtained were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir models and suitability of the isotherm equations were related by comparing the correlation coefficients, R2. The best-fitted parameters in conjunction with the regression coefficients for the anionic and cationic-surfactant systems adsorbed in synthetic kaolin clay, silica, alumina and ilmenite are presented in Tables 2 through 5 (for Langmuir models) and Table 6 through 8 (for Freundlich models). Surfactants SDS CTAB

KL (g/L) 29.58 200.66

Surfactants SDS CTAB

Table 3: Parameters for Langmuir model fitted to silica data Fitted Langmuir Equation RL2 Γmax (mg/g) (1/Γ) = 61.109×1/Ce+6.9879 0.0324 0.19 (1/Γ) = 19.233×1/Ce+0.5654 0.5031 2.23

KL (g/L) -253.21 187.70

Surfactants SDS CTAB

Table 4: Parameters for Langmuir model fitted to alumina data Γmax (mg/g) Fitted Langmuir Equation RL2 (1/Γ) = 53.41×1/Ce+0.8787 0.9191 2.17 (1/Γ) = 58.277×1/Ce+0.3687 0.7461 0.92

KL (g/L) 214.51 -11.2

Surfactants SDS CTAB

Table 5: Parameters for Langmuir model fitted to ilmenite data Γmax (mg/g) Fitted Langmuir Equation RL2 (1/Γ) = 121.69×1/Ce+1.0542 0.715 0.99 (1/Γ) = 64.109×1/Ce+0.4755 0.9152 1.6233

KL (g/L) -2.355 105.20

Surfactants SDS CTAB Surfactants SDS CTAB

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Table 2: Parameters for Langmuir model fitted to synthetic kaolin clay data Fitted Langmuir Equation RL2 Γmax (mg/g) (1/Γ) = 52.397×1/Ce+0.7469 0.7364 1.17 (1/Γ) = 60.0.72×1/Ce+0.407 0.7877 1.89

Table 6: Parameters for Freundlich model fitted to synthetic kaolin clay data Fitted Freundlich Equation RF2 1/n Log(Γ) = 0.4488×LogCe-1.0448 0.8521 2.23 Log(Γ) = 0.6363×LogCe-1.2975 0.834 1.57 Table 7: Parameters for Freundlich model fitted to silica data Fitted Freundlich Equation RF2 1/n Log(Γ) = 0.056×LogCe-0.9871 0.0318 17.86 Log(Γ) = 0.5191×LogCe-0.9422 0.7884 1.93

KF (L/Kg) 0.1157 0.0597 KF (L/Kg) 0.1377 0.1648

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Surfactants SDS CTAB

Table 8: Parameters for Freundlich model fitted to alumina data Fitted Freundlich Equation RF2 1/n Log(Γ) = 0.3291×LogCe-0.8389 0.8286 3.04 Log(Γ) = 0.6787×LogCe-1.3523 0.8253 1.47

KF (L/Kg) 0.2698 0.0318

Surfactants SDS CTAB

Table 9: Parameters for Freundlich model fitted to ilmenite data Fitted Freundlich Equation RF2 1/n Log(Γ) = 0.5686×LogCe-1.5353 0.8471 1.76 Log(Γ) = 0.5803×LogCe-1.2463 0.8903 1.72

KF (L/Kg) 0.0444 0.0823

The adsorption data acquired from the two surfactant-systems were fitted to the Langmuir model by plotting 1/Γ against 1/Ce which gives a slope of 1/(ΓmaxKL) and a intercept of 1/Γmax. Langmuir isotherm makes possible to evaluate the adsorption grade through the aforementioned KL and Γmax factors. KL is a constant in the Langmuir model which shows the adsorption capability of the solid material to the corresponding solutes: the higher the KF/KL the higher the Γ value. KL values of SDS on alumina and CTAB on kaolin are by far higher than those of SDS on silica and ilmenite and CTAB on the alumina surface. This due to the fact that on these minerals their adsorption capacity is almost negligible. The adsorption data was also fitted to the Freundlich isotherm by plotting a graph of logΓ against logCe which yields a slope = 1/n and an intercept = log KF. KF is equivalent to KL in the Langmuir model which is related to the bonding energy. KF can be described as an adsorption coefficient plus it denotes the amount of adsorbate adsorbed on adsorbents for a unit equilibrium concentration. Alike the Langmuir isotherm model, from Tables 6 to 9, the KF values of SDS on alumina and CTAB surfactant when it is adsorbed on silica are the highest. From the obtained results it can be noticed that there is a high adsorption capacity of alumina for the anionic surfactants in comparison to silica. The slope 1/n, starting from 0.9422 to 1.5353 is an indication of the surface heterogeneity and intensity of adsorption and as its value approximate to zero. According to Muherei (2009) if the value of 1/n is lower than 1, the Freundlich/Langmuir isotherm is considered to be normal whereas if it is above 1 means that there was cooperative adsorption. Moreover, a greater value of n (and considerably small slope) is an indication that the adsorption is good over the series of concentrations studied, but a low value of n (and sharp slope) reveals that the adsorption is good at high concentration but then again is considered to be much poorer at very low concentrations. From Tables 2 to 9 it can be concluded that the adsorption of adsorption of SDS onto ilmenite involves cooperative adsorption (1/n=1.5353). The Langmuir constant, Γmax, is an indication of the highest amount of the surfactant adsorbed. As observed in Table 4 to 7, Γmax values are higher for CTAB adsorbed on silica and SDS on alumina which indicates silica and alumina higher capacity to adsorb cationic and anionic surfactants.

5. CONCLUSIONS In summary, the amount of adsorption in terms of mass per unit surface area varies a lot with different minerals. From this study, it can be concluded that cationic surfactants had a tendency to be strongly adsorbed to silica > kaolin > ilmenite surfaces compared with the anionic surfactant. With increase in the surfactant concentration, adsorption on the surface of reservoir materials particles increases until the saturation point is reached. With increasing alkali concentration (pH) of the solution the anionic surfactant adsorption on synthetic kaolin clay surface decreases on account of an increase in the electrostatic repulsive forces among the absorbent and the adsorbed surfactant molecules whereas the contrary occurs when cationic surfactant is used. With the addition of NaCl salt to the surfactant solution, the adsorption of anionic surfactant on synthetic kaolin clay surface increases owing to the low electrostatic repulsion between the adsorbed surfactant species and the reservoir material surface. While an opposite trend was observed in the adsorption plateau of the cationic surfactant. Thus, these facts suggests that the adsorption capacity of anionic surfactant increases (or is favoured) with the increase in salinity while the adsorption capacity of cationic surfactant is favoured with the increase in alkalinity of the system at ambient temperature. Adsorption factors for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined thru the use of adsorption experimental data.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   REFERENCES Ahmadi, M.A.& Shadizadeh, S.R. (2015). Experimental investigation of a natural surfactant adsorption on shalesandstone reservoir rocks: Static and dynamic conditions. Fuel, 159, (pp 15-26). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.06.035 Babu, K., Pal, N., Bera, A., Saxena, V.K.& Mandal, A. (2015). Studies on interfacial tension and contact angle of synthesized surfactant and polymeric from castor oil for enhanced oil recovery. Applied Surface Science, 353, (pp 1126-1136). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.06.196 Bastrzyk, A.P.I.S.E.& Sadowski, Z. (2012). Adsorption and co-adsorption of peo-ppo-peo block copolymers and surfactants and their influence on zeta potential of magnesite and dolomite. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, 48(1), (pp 281). Bera, A., Kumar, T., Ojha, K.& Mandal, A. (2013). Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies. Applied Surface Science, 284, (pp 87-99). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.07.029 Cappelletti, G., Bianchi, C.L.& Ardizzone, S. (2006). Xps study of the surfactant film adsorbed onto growing titania nanoparticles. Applied Surface Science, 253(2), (pp 519-524). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.12.098 Dandekar, A.Y. (2013). Petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties, 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis. Delshad, M., Han, C., Veedu, F.K.& Pope, G.A. (2013). A simplified model for simulations of alkaline–surfactant– polymer floods. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 108, (pp 1-9). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2013.04.006 Dong, Z., Wang, X., Liu, Z., Xu, B.& Zhao, J. (2013). Synthesis and physic-chemical properties of anion–nonionic surfactants under the influence of alkali/salt. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 419, (pp 233-237). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.11.062 Hosna Talebian, S., Mohd Tan, I., Sagir, M.& Muhammad, M. (2015). Static and dynamic foam/oil interactions: Potential of CO2-philic surfactants as mobility control agents. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 135, (pp 118-126). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.08.011 Jiang, T., Hirasaki, G.J.& Miller, C.A. (2010). Characterization of kaolinite ζ potential for interpretation of wettability alteration in diluted bitumen emulsion separation. Energy & Fuels, 24(4), (pp 2350-2360). doi: 10.1021/ef900999h Kamari, A., Sattari, M., Mohammadi, A.H.& Ramjugernath, D. (2015). Reliable method for the determination of surfactant retention in porous media during chemical flooding oil recovery. Fuel, 158, (pp 122-128). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.05.013 Lashkarbolooki, M., Ayatollahi, S.& Riazi, M. (2014). The impacts of aqueous ions on interfacial tension and wettability of an asphaltenic–acidic crude oil reservoir during smart water injection. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 59(11), (pp 3624-3634). doi: 10.1021/je500730e Lu, J., Goudarzi, A., Chen, P., Kim, D.H., Delshad, M., Mohanty, K.K., Sepehrnoori, K., Weerasooriya, U.P.& Pope, G.A. (2014). Enhanced oil recovery from high-temperature, high-salinity naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs by surfactant flood. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 124, (pp 122131). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.10.016 Ma, K., Cui, L., Dong, Y., Wang, T., Da, C., Hirasaki, G.J.& Biswal, S.L. (2013). Adsorption of cationic and anionic surfactants on natural and synthetic carbonate materials. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 408, (pp 164-172). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2013.07.006 Muherei, M.& Junin, R. (2009). Equilibrium adsorption isotherms of anionic, nonionic surfactants and their mixtures to shale and sandstone. Modern Applied Science, 3(2), (pp 158-167). Olajire, A.A. (2014). Review of ASP EOR (alkaline surfactant polymer enhanced oil recovery) technology in the petroleum industry: Prospects and challenges. Energy, 77, (pp 963-982). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.09.005 Paria, S.& Khilar, K.C. (2004). A review on experimental studies of surfactant adsorption at the hydrophilic solid– water interface. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 110(3), (pp 75-95). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2004.03.001 Pei, X.M., Yu, J.J., Hu, X.& Cui, Z.G. (2014). Performance of palmitoyl diglycol amide and its anionic and nonionic derivatives in reducing crude oil/water interfacial tension in absence of alkali. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 444, (pp 269-275). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.12.068

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Ponce F, R.V., Carvalho, M.S.& Alvarado, V. (2014). Oil recovery modeling of macro-emulsion flooding at low capillary number. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 119, (pp 112-122). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.04.020 Qiao, W., Cui, Y., Zhu, Y.& Cai, H. (2012). Dynamic interfacial tension behaviors between guerbet betaine surfactants solution and daqing crude oil. Fuel, 102, (pp 746-750). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.05.046 Rawajfih, Z.& Nsour, N. (2006). Characteristics of phenol and chlorinated phenols sorption onto surfactantmodified bentonite. Journal of Colloid Interface Sci, 298, (pp 39-49). Romero-Zerón, L.B.& Kittisrisawai, S. (2015). Evaluation of a surfactant carrier for the effective propagation and target release of surfactants within porous media during enhanced oil recovery. Part I: Dynamic adsorption study. Fuel, 148, (pp 238-245). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.01.034 Salari, Z., Ahmadi, M.A., Kharrat, R.& Abbaszadeh, S.A. (2011). Experimental studies of cationic surfactant adsorption onto carbonate rocks. 5(12), (pp 808-813). ShamsiJazeyi, H., Verduzco, R.& Hirasaki, G.J. (2014). Reducing adsorption of anionic surfactant for enhanced oil recovery: Part I. Competitive adsorption mechanism. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 453, (pp 162-167). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.10.042 Sheng, J.J. (2011). Chapter 12 - alkaline-surfactant flooding. In J. J. Sheng (Ed.), Modern chemical enhanced oil recovery (pp 473-500). Boston: Gulf Professional Publishing. Sheng, J.J. (2013a). Chapter 8 - alkaline-surfactant flooding. In J. J. Sheng (Ed.), Enhanced oil recovery field case studies (pp 179-188). Boston: Gulf Professional Publishing. Sheng, J.J. (2013b). Chapter 9 - ASP fundamentals and field cases outside china. In J. J. Sheng (Ed.), Enhanced oil recovery field case studies (pp 189-201). Boston: Gulf Professional Publishing. Spildo, K., Sun, L., Djurhuus, K.& Skauge, A. (2014). A strategy for low cost, effective surfactant injection. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 117, (pp 8-14). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.03.006 Tichelkamp, T., Teigen, E., Nourani, M.& Øye, G. (2015). Systematic study of the effect of electrolyte composition on interfacial tensions between surfactant solutions and crude oils. Chemical Engineering Science, 132, (pp 244-249). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2015.04.032 Touhami, Y., Hornof, V.& Neale, G.H. (1998). Dynamic interfacial tension behavior of acidified oil/surfactantenhanced alkaline systems 2. Theoretical studies. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 133(3), (pp 211-231). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(97)00166-0 Wesson, L.L.& Harwell, J.H. (2010). “Surfactant adsorption in porous media”, surfactants: Fundamentals and applications in the petroleum industry". University Press Cambrigde. Xiao, L., Xu, G., Zhang, Z., Wang, Y.& Li, G. (2003). Adsorption of sodium oleate at the interface of oil sand/aqueous solution. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 224(1–3), (pp 199-206). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(03)00328-5 Xu, Q., Vasudevan, T.V.& Somasundaran, P. (1991). Adsorption of anionic—nonionic and cationic—nonionic surfactant mixtures on kaolinite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 142(2), (pp 528-534). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(91)90083-K Yoshihara, K., Momozawa, N., Watanabe, T., Kamogawa, K., Sakai, H.& Abe, M. (1996). Determination of binding constants of sodium and chloride ions and aggregation numbers of amphoteric surfactant microemulsions by a novel numerical analysis. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 109, (pp 235-243). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0927-7757(95)03457-9 Yuan, F.-Q., Cheng, Y.-Q., Wang, H.-Y., Xu, Z.-C., Zhang, L., Zhang, L.& Zhao, S. (2015). Effect of organic alkali on interfacial tensions of surfactant solutions against crude oils. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 470, (pp 171-178). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2015.01.059 Zargartalebi, M., Kharrat, R.& Barati, N. (2015). Enhancement of surfactant flooding performance by the use of silica nanoparticles. Fuel, 143, (pp 21-27). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.11.040 Zhang, R.& Somasundaran, P. (2006). Advances in adsorption of surfactants and their mixtures at solid/solution interfaces. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 123-126(SPEC. ISS.), (pp 213-229). doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2006.07.004 Zhao, F., Ma, Y., Hou, J., Tang, J.& Xie, D. (2015). Feasibility and mechanism of compound flooding of hightemperature reservoirs using organic alkali. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 135, (pp 88100). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.08.014

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

AKDENİZ BÖLGESİ BİYOKÜTLE YAKITLARININ GAZLAŞTIRILARAK ENERJİYE DÖNÜŞTÜRÜLMESİNİN SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR ÇEVRE ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİLERİ İsmet Faruk YAKA1, Afşin GÜNGÖR1, Abdülkadir KOÇER2 1

Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Dumlupınar Bulvarı 07058 Kampüs, Antalya, [email protected], [email protected] 2 Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Teknik Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu Dumlupınar Bulvarı 07058 Kampüs, Antalya, [email protected]

Özet: Dünyanın her geçen gün nüfusu artmakta ve bununla doğru orantılı olarak enerji ihtiyacı da artmaktadır. Bu ihtiyaç fosil yakıtlardan sağlanmaktadır. Ancak fosil yakıtların sınırlı olması bilim insanlarını yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının kullanımına yöneltmiştir. Bu yeni enerji kaynaklarından bir tanesi de biyokütle enerjisidir. Bu çalışmada Akdeniz bölgesi için biyokütle potansiyeli belirlenecektir. Bu potansiyelin gazlaştırma yöntemiyle enerji dönüşümüne değinilecektir. Ayrıca bu dönüşümün çevre için etkileri incelenecektir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Biyokütle, Gazlaştırma, Enerji Abstract: The world population is increasing with each passing day and with increasing energy needs in direct proportion with it. These needs are provided by fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels are limited scientists led to the use of renewable energy sources. This new energy source is biomass energy one. In this study, the potential of biomass for the Mediterranean region will be determined. This potential energy transformation will be the method of gasification. In addition, this transformation will be examined for effects on the environment. Keywords: Biomass, Gasification, Energy

GİRİŞ Dünya nüfusunun artışı ve teknolojideki gelişmeyle birlikte enerji tüketimi artmış ve artan bu talebi karşılamanın en kolay yolu fosil yakıtlar olarak görülmüştür. Bu kaynakların sınırlı olması, petrol krizleri, enerji fiyatlarındaki artışlar ve bunun dünya ekonomisindeki etkileri, çevre kirliliği, iklim değişikliği vb. faktörlerle birlikte göz önüne alındığında bu gibi olumsuz durumlardan kurtulabilmek için enerji verimliliğine ve yenilenebilir kaynaklara yönelmekten başka çözüm görülmemektedir. Bu yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarından biri olan biyokütle, fosil kökenli karbonun enerji içeren formu olarak tanımlanabilir(Öztürk 2013) ve dünyada dördüncü en büyük enerji kaynağı olarak görülerek önemini üzerine çekmektedir (Karayılmazlar 2011). Biyokütle, Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynaklarının elektrik enerjisi üretimi amaçlı kullanımına ilişkin kanunda, organik atıkların yanı sıra bitkisel yağ atıkları, tarımsal hasat artıkları dahil olmak üzere, tarım ve orman ürünlerinden ve bu ürünlerin işlenmesi sonucu ortaya çıkan yan ürünlerden elde edilen katı, sıvı ve gaz halindeki yakıtları kapsamaktadır. Biyokütle, 100 yıllık periyottan daha kısa sürede yenilenebilen, karada ve suda yetişen bitkiler, hayvansal atıklar, gıda endüstrisi ve orman yan ürünleri ile kentsel atıkları içeren, biyolojik kökenli fosil olmayan tüm organik madde kitlesi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bitkisel kaynaklar, tarımsal ve hayvansal atıklar, organik kökenli şehir ve endüstri atıkları gibi biyokütle kaynaklarından elde edilen enerji ise biyokütle enerjisi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Biyokütle enerjisinin temeli bitkilerin fotosentez olayına dayandığı için, biyokütle enerjisi, güneş enerjisinin kimyasal enerji halinde depolandığı organik maddelerin enerjisi olarak da ifade edilebilmektedir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Deniz ve/veya karada bulunabilen bitkisel veya hayvansal biyokütle enerji kaynakları şunlardır: • Odun (enerji ormanları, ağaç artıkları) • Yağlı tohum bitkileri (ayçiçek, kolza, soya, aspir, pamuk, v.b) • Karbonhidrat bitkileri (patates, buğday, mısır, pancar, v.b) • Elyaf bitkileri (keten, kenaf, kenevir, sorgum, v.b.) • Bitkisel artıklar (dal, sap, saman, kök, kabuk v.b) • Hayvansal atıklar • Şehirsel ve endüstriyel atıklar Biyokütle enerji kaynakları, kömür, petrol, doğal gaz gibi fosil kökenli alışılagelmiş enerji kaynaklarından farklı bazı özellikler taşımaktadır. Biyokütle kaynakları, genellikle homojen olmayan bir yapıda, yüksek su ve oksijen içerikli, düşük yoğunluklu, düşük ısıl değerlidir; bu özellikler yakıt kalitesine olumsuz etki etmektedir. Biyokütlenin olumsuz özellikleri fiziksel süreçler ve dönüşüm süreçleri ile ortadan kaldırabilmektedir. Biyokütleden; fiziksel süreçler (boyut küçültme-kırma ve öğütme, kurutma, filtrasyon, ekstraksiyon ve biriketleme) ve dönüşüm süreçleri (biyokimyasal ve termokimyasal süreçler) ile yakıt elde edilmektedir. (Batı Akdeniz Kalkınma Ajansı) Gazlaştırma yöntemi yenilenebilir enerji teknolojileri arasında, farklı hammadde kombinasyonlarının kullanılabildiği bir teknolojidir. Fosil yakıtlar kükürt dioksit, azot oksitler ve radyoaktif alanlar (nükleer) atmosferi kirletilirken, direk yakma yerine gazlaştırma teknolojisi kullanımında emisyonlar büyük bir şekilde sıfırlanabilmektedir. Gazlaştırma yöntemi ile elde edilen gazın kalitesi iyileştirildiğinden, makinalarda kullanımında daha verimli ısı ve elektrik enerjisi elde edilebilmektedir. Fosil yakıtlar ve radyoaktif gücün yerine biyokütlenin konulabilmesini sağlayabilecek bir teknolojidir. Gazlaştırma atıkların çevirim teknolojisinde (kentsel atıklardan zirai artıklara kadar) kullanışlı ve yüksek kaliteli enerji sağlaması bakımından çok önemlidir. (Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı Yenilenebilir Enerji Genel Müdürlüğü)

MATERYAL VE METOD Bu çalışma kapsamında Akdeniz bölgesindeki orman, hayvan, tarım atıkları ve kentsel organik atıklardan elektrik üretim potansiyeli değerlendirilecektir. Bunun için öncelikli olarak bölgedeki atık potansiyelinin belirlenmesi gerekmektedir. Akdeniz Bölgesi 8 ilden oluşmaktadır. Bunlar sırasıyla: Adana, Antalya Burdur, Hatay, Isparta, Mersin, Osmaniye ve Kahramanmaraş’tır. Aşağıdaki tablolarda bu illerin hayvan orman tarım atıkları ve kentsel organik atıkların miktarları ve Ton Eşdeğer Petrol (TEP) olarak karşılıkları verilmiştir. Aşağıda verilen tablolardaki değerler T.C. Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı Yenilenebilir Enerji Genel Müdürlüğü (YEGM), Batı Akdeniz Kalkınma Ajansı (BAKA), Doğu Akdeniz Kalkınma Ajansı (DOĞAKA) ve Çukurova Kalkınma Ajansından (CKA)’dan alınmıştır. BULGULAR VE TARTIŞMA Büyükbaş, Küçükbaş ve Kümes hayvanlarından elde edilen atıkların metan veya sıvı formda kojenarasyon tesislerinde yakılması ile elektrik ve ısı üretimi yapılabilmektedir. Akdeniz bölgesinde büyükbaş hayvan sayısı Adana, Kahramanmaraş ve Burdur illerinde yoğunluk göstermektedir. Bu illere büyük kojenerasyon tesisleri yapılarak diğer illerle entegre bir şekilde enerji üretimi gerçekleştirilebilir. Akdeniz bölgesinde büyükbaş hayvan miktarı 1.477.665,00 adettir. Bu hayvanlardan elde edilen atık miktarı ise 9.746.471,30 Ton/yıl’dır. Büyükbaş hayvansal atıklarının enerji değeri ise toplam 82.401,63 TEP/yıl’dır. Bu değerler Tablo 1.’de detaylı olarak verilmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 1. Akdeniz Bölgesi İllere Göre Büyükbaş Hayvan Kaynaklı Biyokütle Miktarı İller

Büyükbaş Hayvan Sayısı (Adet)

Hayvansal Atık Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Hayvansal Atıkların Enerji Değeri (TEP/yıl)

Adana

300997.00

2078634.49

16690.84

Antalya

165653.00

1158601.62

9437.71

Burdur

224195.00

1978652.96

18346.29

Hatay

134036.00

932694.72

7538.51

Isparta

141632.00

1067537.77

9061.13

Kahramanmaraş

300997.00

825902.66

6182.85

Mersin

140288.00

1166370.28

10545.48

Osmaniye

69867.00

538076.80

4598.82

Toplam

1477665.00

9746471.30

82401.63

Akdeniz bölgesinde küçükbaş hayvan sayısı Antalya ve Mersin illerinde yoğunluk göstermektedir. Bu illere büyük kojenerasyon tesisleri yapılarak diğer illerle entegre bir şekilde enerji üretimi gerçekleştirilebilir. Akdeniz bölgesinde küçükbaş hayvan miktarı 4.270.788,00 adettir. Bu hayvanlardan elde edilen atık miktarı ise 3.812.210,04 Ton/yıl’dır. Küçükbaş hayvansal atıklarının enerji değeri ise toplam 9.064,86 TEP/yıl’dır. Bu değerler Tablo 2’de detaylı olarak verilmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 2. Akdeniz Bölgesi İllere Göre Küçükbaş Hayvan Kaynaklı Biyokütle Miktarı İller

Küçükbaş Hayvan Sayısı (Adet)

Hayvansal Atık Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Hayvansal Atıkların Enerji Değeri (TEP/yıl)

Adana

573.078,00

505.554,57

1.188,41

Antalya

813.219,00

710.281,24

1.653,16

Burdur

310.560,00

288.598,20

712,32

Hatay

483.500,00

425.407,50

997,41

Isparta

364.562,00

336.705,57

826,50

Kahramanmaraş

493.148,00

462.425,44

1.150,50

Mersin

1.065.751,00

926.245,54

2.145,04

Osmaniye

166.970,00

156.991,98

391,52

Toplam

4.270.788,00

3.812.210,04

9.064,86

Akdeniz bölgesinde kanatlı hayvan sayısı Adana ve Mersin illerinde yoğunluk göstermektedir. Bu illere büyük kojenerasyon tesisleri yapılarak diğer illerle entegre bir şekilde enerji üretimi gerçekleştirilebilir. Akdeniz bölgesinde Kanatlı hayvan miktarı 18.739.182,00 adettir. Bu hayvanlardan elde edilen atık miktarı ise 590.990,63 Ton/yıl’dır. Kanatlı hayvansal atıklarının enerji değeri ise toplam 16.621,62 TEP/yıl’dır. Bu değerler Tablo 3’de detaylı olarak verilmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 3. Akdeniz Bölgesi İllere Göre Kanatlı Hayvan Kaynaklı Biyokütle Miktarı İller

Kanatlı Hayvan Sayısı (Adet)

Hayvansal Atık Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Hayvansal Atıkların Enerji Değeri (TEP/yıl)

Adana

4.812.005,00

163.729,09

4.604,88

Antalya

538.983,00

28.435,10

799,74

Burdur

199.338,00

10.175,62

286,19

Hatay

684.796,00

23.664,34

665,56

Isparta

195.156,00

10.601,42

298,17

Kahramanmaraş

304.210,00

13.204,99

371,39

Mersin

11.557.411,00

324.114,08

9.115,71

Osmaniye

447.283,00

17.065,99

479,98

Toplam

18.739.182,00

590.990,63

16.621,62

Tarımsal atıkların toplanıp içeresindeki nem oranının düşürülerek pelet haline getirilip yakılması ile kojenerasyon tesislerinde elektrik üretimi yapılması mümkündür. Akdeniz bölgesinde tarla bitkilerinin yüksek miktarda ekimi yapılan ve enerji potansiyeli yüksek olan türleri buğday, arpa, pirinç, pamuk, susam, yer fıstığı ve haşhaştır. Bu bitkilerin ve diğer üretimi yapılan tarla bitkilerinin toplam üretim miktarı 9.098.683,63 Ton/yıl’dır. Bu ürünlerden oluşan atık ise 13.304.391,03 Ton/yıl’dır. Atıklardan elde edilebilecek toplam enerji miktarı 1.436.791,82 TEP/yıl‘dır. Bu değerler Tablo 4’de detaylı olarak verilmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 4. Akdeniz Bölgesi İllere Göre Tarla Bitkileri Kaynaklı Biyokütle Miktarı İller

Tarla Bitkileri Üretim Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Bitkisel Atık Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Bitkisel Atıkların Enerji Değeri (TEP/yıl)

Adana

2.721.460,00

4.153.581,20

441.325,16

Antalya

955.794,00

1.349.605,60

146.475,43

Burdur

895.520,23

1.155.610,43

128.798,58

Hatay

999.909,00

1.658.985,80

177.942,47

Isparta

572.278,40

753.223,70

83.064,55

Kahramanmaraş

1.430.209,00

1.913.001,90

211.866,84

Mersin

793.290,00

1.197.097,90

127.748,09

Osmaniye

730.223,00

1.123.284,50

119.570,70

Toplam

9.098.683,63

13.304.391,03

1.436.791,82

Akdeniz bölgesinde bahçe bitkilerinin yüksek miktarda üretimi yapılan ve enerji potansiyeli yüksek olan türleri zeytin, üzüm, muz, ve turunçgillerdir. Bu bitkilerin ve diğer üretimi yapılan bahçe bitkilerinin toplam üretim miktarı 6.325.365,00 Ton/yıl’dır. Bu ürünlerden oluşan atık ise 1.573.547,64 Ton/yıl’dır. Atıklardan elde edilebilecek toplam enerji miktarı 194.348,24 TEP/yıl‘dır. Bu değerler Tablo 5’de detaylı olarak verilmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 5. Akdeniz Bölgesi İllere Göre Bahçe Bitkileri Kaynaklı Biyokütle Miktarı İller

Bahçe Bitkileri Üretim Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Bitkisel Atık Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Bitkisel Atıkların Enerji Değeri (TEP/yıl)

Adana

1.038.237,00

50.904,71

5.791,50

Antalya

1.283.552,00

379.112,90

46.939,81

Burdur

78.079,00

18.593,04

2.315,52

Hatay

904.035,00

56.798,26

6.591,86

Isparta

764.382,00

55.890,79

6.943,40

Kahramanmaraş

377.745,00

85.293,69

10.637,63

Mersin

1.769.646,00

921.634,85

114.527,56

Osmaniye

109.689,00

5.319,40

600,96

Toplam

6.325.365,00

1.573.547,64

194.348,24

Akdeniz bölgesinde sebze bitkilerinin yüksek miktarda üretimi yapılan ve enerji potansiyeli yüksek olan türleri başta domates ve salatalık olmak üzere biber, kabak, patlıcan, havuç, marul gibi tüm mutfak sebzelerdir. Bu bitkilerin ve diğer üretimi yapılan sebze bitkilerinin toplam üretim miktarı 8.676.052,00 Ton/yıl’dır. Bu ürünlerden oluşan atık ise 3.921.291,18 Ton/yıl’dır. Atıklardan elde edilebilecek toplam enerji miktarı 490.161,40 TEP/yıl‘dır. Bu değerler Tablo 6’da detaylı olarak verilmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 6. Akdeniz Bölgesi İllere Göre Sebze Bitkileri Kaynaklı Biyokütle Miktarı İller

Sebze Bitkileri Üretim Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Bitkisel Atık Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Bitkisel Atıkların Enerji Değeri (TEP/yıl)

Adana

1.414.161,00

528.537,72

66.067,22

Antalya

4.020.668,00

1.799.032,96

224.879,12

Burdur

197.815,00

113.954,04

14.244,26

Hatay

743.475,00

442.576,26

55.322,03

Isparta

133.247,00

57.791,66

7.223,96

Kahramanmaraş

233.959,00

105.127,37

13.140,92

Mersin

1.703.049,00

800.054,19

100.006,77

Osmaniye

229.678,00

74.216,98

9.277,12

Toplam

8.676.052,00

3.921.291,18

490.161,40

Nüfus yoğunluğunun en yüksek olduğu yerleşim yerleri olan şehirlerde kullanım sonucu bir sürü atık meydana gelmektedir. Bu atıkları belediyeler organik ve inorganik olarak ayırmaktadırlar. Organik atıklardan gazlaştırma sonucu enerji elde edilir. En çok organik atık miktarı Antalya ve Adana illerindedir. Bu illere büyük biyokütle santralleri kurulabilir. Akdeniz bölgesinde kentsel organik atık miktarı 1.496.723,24 Ton /yıl’dır. Bu atıkların enerji değeri ise toplam 249.284,71 TEP/yıl’dır.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 7. Akdeniz Bölgesi İllere Göre Kentsel Organik Atık Kaynaklı Biyokütle Miktarı İller

Kentsel Organik Atık Miktarı (ton/yıl)

Kentsel Organik Atıkların Enerji Değeri (TEP/yıl)

Adana

328.187,42

55.791,86

Antalya

343.699,20

58.428,86

Burdur

37.597,96

5.263,71

Hatay

219.324,11

37.285,10

Isparta

61.593,21

8.623,05

Kahramanmaraş

157.163,70

26.717,83

Mersin

276.407,78

46.989,32

Osmaniye

72.749,86

10.184,98

Toplam

1.496.723,24

249.284,71

Ormanlık alanlardan elde edilen biyokütlenin bir kısmı hasat sırasında ormanda bırakılmaktadır. Ormanda bırakılan atık biyokütlenin toplanılması zorlu bir süreçtir. Ormandaki atık miktarının belirlenmesinden sonra bu atıklar için uygun toplama merkezleri oluşturulmalıdır. Atıkların nem değerlerini mümkün olduğunca minimum miktarda tutmak için çeşitli önlemler alınmalıdır. Bu yöntemler biyokütlenin ısıl değerini arttırsa da depolama ve nem azaltma işleminde bir maliyet ortaya çıkacaktır. Tüm bu maliyetler ve sınırlamalar göz önüne alınarak bu atıkların değerlendirilmesi için gazlaştırma yöntemiyle çalışan bir biyokütle santrali kurulabilir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 8. Akdeniz Bölgesi Orman Bölge Müdürlüklerine Göre Orman Kaynaklı Biyokütle Miktarı

İller

Üretime Konu Edilmeyen Üretim Artıkları (ster/yıl)

Süceyrattan Elde Edilebilecek Yıllık Üretim (ster/yıl)

Orman Atıklarının Enerji Değeri (TEP/yıl)

Adana Bölge Müdürlüğü

730.000,00

58.000,00

175.995,00

Antalya Bölge Müdürlüğü

209.785,00

10.706,00

49.370,00

Isparta Bölge Müdürlüğü

5.800,00

1.000,00

1.508,00

Kahramanmaraş Bölge Müdürlüğü

32.456,00

5.525,00

8.421,00

Mersin Bölge Müdürlüğü

198.800,00

47.500,00

54.349,00

Toplam

1.176.841,00

122.731,00

289.643,00

Tablo 9. Akdeniz Bölgesi Biyokütle Potansiyeli Enerji Kaynağı

Enerji Değeri (TEP/yıl)

Büyükbaş Hayvan Kaynaklı Hayvansal Atıkların Enerji

82401.63

Küçükbaş Hayvan Kaynaklı Hayvansal Atıkların Enerji

9064.86

Kanatlı Hayvan Kaynaklı Hayvansal Atıkların Enerji

16621.62

Tarla Bitkileri Kaynaklı Bitkisel Atıkların Enerji

1436791.82

Bahçe Bitkileri Kaynaklı Bitkisel Atıkların Enerji

194348.24

Sebze Bitkileri Kaynaklı Bitkisel Atıkların Enerji

490161.40

Kentsel Organik Atıkların Enerji

249284.71

Orman Atıklarının Enerji

289643.00

Toplam

2768317.28

Akdeniz bölgesi biyokütle potansiyeli toplam olarak 2768317.28 TEP/yıl’dır. Bu biyokütle potansiyelinin büyük bir miktarı enerjiye dönüştürülebilir. Bunun için kullanılması uygun olan yöntemlerden bir tanesi de gazlaştırma yöntemidir. Biyokütle potansiyelinin %96’sını Orman, Bitki ve Kentsel atıklar oluşturmaktadır. Bu atıklar hayvansal kaynaklı atıklara göre daha kuru olduğu için gazlaştırıcı da daha kolay bir şekilde yanma performansı gösterir. Bu açıdan gazlaştırma sistemi Akdeniz bölgesi için oldukça uygundur.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Akdeniz Bölgesi Biyokütle Potansiyeli 3% 0%

1%

Büyükbaş

10% 9%

Küçükbaş Kanatlı

18%

52%

Tarla Bitkileri Bahçe Bitkileri

7%

Sebze Bitkileri Organik Atıklar Orman Atıkları

Şekil 1. Akdeniz Bölgesi Biyokütle Potansiyeli SONUÇ Dünyada her geçen gün enerji ihtiyacı artmaktadır. Artan bu ihtiyacı karşılamak için enerji üretimi de artmakta ve daha çok fosil yakıt kullanılmaktadır. Enerji üretiminin artması çevrenin kirletilmesine sebep olmaktadır. Kirlenen çevre neticesinde dünya iklimi değişmekte olup doğal afetlere sebep olmaktadır. Bu durum gelecek nesillerin yaşamını tehlikeye atmaktadır. Sürdürülebilir bir çevre için bu durum oldukça vahimdir. Sonuç olarak bu çalışmada Akdeniz bölgesi biyokütle potansiyeli belirlenmiştir. Bu potansiyel sürdürülebilir bir çevre için çok önemlidir. Tamamen temiz ve yenilenebilir bir enerji kaynağı olan biyokütle enerjisi daha temiz bir çevre ve daha yaşanabilir bir dünya hedefine ulaşılmak için insanoğlunun en büyük yardımcılarından birisi olacaktır. KAYNAKLAR Batı Akdeniz Kalkınma Ajansı (BAKA) Çukurova Kalkınma Ajansından (CKA) Doğu Akdeniz Kalkınma Ajansı (DOĞAKA) Karayılmazlar, S., Saraçoğlu, N., Çabuk, Y., Kurt, R. (2011). Biyokütlenin Türkiye’de enerji üretiminde değerlendirilmesi. Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, c.13, sayı:19, s.63-75. OGM, Orman Genel Müdürlüğü, Biyoenerji Çalışma Grubu, (2009). Orman Genel Müdürlüğü’nde Biyoenerji Konusunda Yapılan Çalışmalar. Öztürk, H.H. (2013). Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynakları, Birsen Yayınevi, s.365-369. T.C. Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı Yenilenebilir Enerji Genel Müdürlüğü (YEGM) World Energy Council, (2014). Türkiye Enerji Raporu 2013.

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AKILLI ULAŞIM SİSTEMLERİNDE iPHONE VE ANDROİD TEMELLİ SÜRÜCÜ BİLGİLENDİRME SİSTEMLERİ Gül Fatma TÜRKER, Akif KUTLU Electronic and Communication Engineering Süleyman Demirel University Turkey [email protected], [email protected] Özet: Günümüzde artan araç sayısı ile oluşan trafik promleminin çözümü olarak, elektronik ve bilgisayar teknoljileri ile desteklenen uygulamaların yer aldığı Akıllı Ulaşım Sistemleri (ITS-Intelligent Transportation System) çalışmaları sürdürülmektedir. Sürücü, yaya ve yolcu açısından daha güvenli bir seyahat ortamı sağlamak ve trafiğin düzenli akışını sürdürmek için Trafik Yönetim ve Denetim Sistemleri (TMS-Traffic Management System) ile merkezi bir noktadan kontroller sağlanmaktadır. Bir trafik ağında veri toplama, veri işleme, iletişim, bilgi dağıtımı ve bilgi kullanımı süreçlerinin koordineli olarak sürdürülmesini hedefleyen Akıllı Ulaşım Sistemleri, araç ve çevre haberleşmelerinde VANET(Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network), DSRC(Dedicated Short Range Communication) gibi teknolojiler ile ön plana çıkmaktadır. Ayrıca trafik haberleşme sistemleri içerisinde hızla ilerlemekte olan mobil teknolojisi geliştirilebilir ve entegre edilebilir özelliği ile araç bilgisi, çevre bilgisi, tarfik ortamı hakkında sürücü bilgilendirme sistemlerini desteklemektedir. Bu çalışma ile iPhone ve Android akıllı telefonları kullanılarak yapılan sürücü bilgilendirme sistemleri araştırılmış ve OBD II(Onboard Diagnostic) aracılığı ile araç network bilgisinin dahil edildiği uygulamalar incelenmiştir. Çalışmalar içinde OBD II standartlı diyagnostik cihazlarının iPhone ve Android telefonlar ile bağlantı sağlayarak araç ECU(Electronic Control Unit) bilgilerine erişilmesine dikkat çekilerek araç içi network olan CAN Bus(Controller Area Network Veri Yolu) bilgilerinin trafik yönetim ve denetimi sağlayan birçok çalışmada kullanıbileceğine değinilmiştir. Sürücüler trafik yoğunluk haritaları üzerinden tarfiği takip edebildikleri gibi olası kaza durumlarına karşı farklı kaynaklardan anlık elde edilen veriler ile uyarılmaktadır. Böylece kazaların en aza indirilmesi ve güvenliğin sağlanması için trafikte araç durumu, yol durumu, çevre bilgisi gibi pek çok değişkenin sürücü tarafından takibi sağlanmaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Akıllı Ulaşım Sistemleri, OBD II, DSRC, iPhone, Android

IPHONE AND ANDROID BASED DRIVER INFORMATION APPLICATIONS IN INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Abstract: Today for the solution of traffic problem occured as a result of increasing number of vehicle, studies of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) involving applications which supported with electronic and computer technologies are going on. Controls from a central point is provided via Traffic Management System (TMS) to maintain the steady traffic flow and a safer travel environment in terms of drivers, pedestrians and passengers. ITS that aims maintain a coordinated processes of data collection, data processing, communication, information dissemination and use of information in a traffic network, comes to the fore by technologies like VANET(Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network), DSRC(Dedicated Short Range Communication) in vehicle and environment communication. Also mobile technology advancing rapidly in traffic communication systems support driver information system about the traffic environment with its developable and integratable features. In this study, driver information systems are investigated using iPhone and Android smartphones and OBD II (Onboard Diagnostic) applications via vehicle network information is included have been examined. In the studies, attention is drawn to accessing vehicle ECU information via diagnostic devices using OBD II standart by communicating with iPhone and Android devices and it is mentioned that the vehicle network CAN Bus informations can be usable for a lot of study providing traffic management and control. Drivers not only can watch the traffic on traffic congestion maps but also warned via the instant data obtained from different sources against possible accidents. Thus it is provided that drivers can follow plenty of variables such vehicle condition, road conditions, environmental knowledge to ensure security and minimize accident numbers. Keywords: ITS, OBD II, DSRC, iPhone, Android

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   GİRİŞ Akıllı Ulaşım Sistemleri - AUS (ITS - Intelligent Transportation Systems) trafik akışında güvenli ve düzenli bir ortam oluşturmaya yönelik ulaşım çözümleri üreten bir sistemdir. AUS otomotiv teknolojisi ile birlikte elektronik ve bilgisayar teknolojilerinin ulaşımı düzenleme ve yönlendirme kullanımına dayanan kameralar, yol sensörleri, değişken mesaj sistemleri, mobil bilgi sistemleri, sinyalizasyon sistemler gibi çeşitli sistemlerle desteklenmektedir (Plan-2014). AUS uygulamaları trafik dengesizliklerinin oluşumunu ortadan kaldırmak için potansiyel bir çözümdür ve bunun için analitik metotlar kullanılmaktadır (Ngoduy, 2013). Akıllı ulaşım sistem teknolojisini kullanmakta olan gelişmiş yardım sistemleri (ADAS-Advanced Driver Assistance System) ve gelişmiş gezgin bilgi sistemi (ATISs- Advanced Traveller Information Systems) uygulamları mevcuttur (Fukushima, 2011, Cantarella, 2013). Akıllı yaya geçidi sistemleri, mobil trafik bilgi sistemleri, şerit uyarı sistemleri, kör nokta bilgi sistemleri, uydu teknolojileri, 3G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth’u içeren mobil teknolojiler ve e-call gibi uygulamaları örnek gösterilebilir (Plan-2014). Akıllı Ulaşım Sistemlerinin temelini bilgi ve kontrol teknolojileri oluşturmaktadır, ancak insan faktörünün hayati bir önemi olduğundan oldukça karmaşık bir durum ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu nedenle temel AUS teknolojileri profesyonel bir ulaşım sağlamak için AUS ekipman ve imkanlarının her aşamada insan faktörünü katmalıdır (Jarasuniene, 2007). Gelişen mobil cihazlar kablosuz haberleşme teknolojilerinden Wi-Fi, 3G ve 4G internet veri iletişim standartlarını ve GPS konum belirleme teknolojilerini desteklemektedir. Akıllı telefonlarda gelişen yazılım ve donanım esnekliği ile araç haberleşmesi yol trafiği, araç kazası, yol yapısından kaynaklanan gecikme ya da kaza gibi araç bilgi ağından faydalı bilgileri görüntüleyebilmekte ve özellikle AUS için daha iyi bir trafik yönetimi ve denetimi sağlanmasına yardımcı olmaktadır (Keeratiwintakorn, 2009). Yüksek hesaplama hızı ve kablosuz haberleşme imkanı sağlayan akıllı telefonlar ile uygun bir arabirim kullanılarak mevcut araçların bilgisi sürüş esnasında kullanıcıya iletilmektedir (Zaldivar, 2011). Symbian, Windows Mobile, Android ve iOS işletim sistemleri için geliştirilmiş farklı veri kaynaklı trafik uygulamaları geliştirilmektedir (Rao, 2014). Çok yaygın kullanılmakta olan Navigasyon uygulamalarının yanı sıra cep telefonları üzerinden Akıllı Ulaşım Sistemleri tarafından alınan verilerin Trafik Kontrol Merkezleri tarafından değerlendirilmesi sonucu sürücüleri bilgilendirme uygulamaları desteklenmektedir. Cep telefonlarından canlı trafik görüntüleri, trafik ve yol bilgileri, hava durumu bilgileri, hedef nokta için tahmini en kısa ulaşım süresi gibi çok sayıda anlık veriler izlenebilmektedir (Campolo, 2012, Chuang, 2013). Dünyada gün geçtikçe otomotiv sanayi ürünleri talebi artmakta ve motorlu araç satışlarına bakıldığında en fazla satılan aracın otomobil olduğu görülmektedir (İnternet-1, 2015). Çok sayıda teknoloji ile desteklenmekte olan günümüz araçları trafikte sürüş güvenliğini ön plana çıkarmaktadır. Ancak Trafikte kazaları en aza indirmek için araçların teknoloji olarak donanımlı olması yeterli değildir (Hunphrey, 2003, Goroner, 2008). Kazalarda en fazla insan faktörü sebep olarak gösterilmektedir (İstatistik, 2015). Sürücünün, trafik yoğunluğu, trafikteki araç durum bilgileri ve yol durum bilgilerine sürüş esnasında sahip olması hata yapma riskini azaltmaktadır (Yang, 2013, Zhang, 2012). Trafikteki diğer araçlara ait bilgiler mevcut iletişim teknolojileri kullanılarak elde edilebilir. Kazaların en aza indirilmesi ve güvenliğin sağlanması için trafikte araç durumu, yol durumu, çevre bilgisi gibi pek çok değişkenin sürücü tarafından bilinmesi önem taşımaktadır (Fukushima, 2011, Milanes, 2012, Cho, 2009, Huth, 2013). Bu çalışmada, veri toplama, veri işleme, ve iletişim yetenekleri olan mobil teknolojilerin geliştirlebilir ve entegre edilebilir sistemler olarak sürücü bilgilendirme sistelerine olan katkısı araştırılmıştır. İlk bölümde araç içi kullanılan haberleşme sistemleri ve araçlar arası kullanılan haberleşme sistemleri açıklanmıştır. Trafikte araçların birbirleri ile haberleşmelerinin önemine değinilmiştir. Sonraki bölümde iPhone akıllı telefonu üzerinden haberleşme sağlayan uygulmaların bir literature taraması verilmiştir. Son bölümde de yine sürücü bilgilendirme, araçlar arası iletişimi sağlama, tarfikte anlık durum takibi gibi çalışmların android işletim sistemi için geliştirlmiş uygulamları verilmiştir. ARAÇ HABERLEŞME SİSTEMLERİ a) Araç içi haberleşme Teknolojileri Araçlarda yer alan sensörler çevrelerini algılarken aktivatörler(uygulayıcılar) sensörlerden gelen bilgiler ile farklı eylemler gerçekleştirirler. Araç içi kompanentlerin birbirleri ile haberleşmesini sağlayan ECU (Electronic Control Unit) yani elektronik kontrol sistemi veri sinyali üreten sensörlerden aldığı bilgiyi değerlendirerek aktivatörlere aktarılması ile uygun hareketin yapılmasını sağlar (İnternet-2, 2015). SAE (Society Automotive Enstitue) tarafından araç network bilgilerine erişim için OBD II (On-Board Diagnostic) standardı geliştirilmiştir. Şekil 1’de verilen araç tanı-teşhis bağlantı konnektörü (DLC-Diagnostik Link Connector) SAE J1962 olarak bilinen ortak bir tasarım ve pin çıkışlarına sahiptir (SAE, 2014).

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PIN Tanımlama PIN Tanımlama 1 Vendor Option 9 Vendor Option 2 J1850 Bus + 10 J 1850 Bus 3 Vendor Option 11 Vendor Option 4 Chasis Ground 12 Vendor Option 5 Signal Ground 13 Vendor Option 6 CAN (J-2234) High 14 CAN (J-2234) Low 7 ISO 9141-2 K-Line 15 ISO 9141-2 K-Line 8 Vendor Option 16 Battery Power Şekil 1 OBD II SAE J1962 standart Diyagnostik Konnektör Araç veri yolu sistemleri: CAN, LIN(Local Interconnect Network), FlexRay ve MOST(Media Oriented Systems Transport) isimli hatlar olmak üzere 4 çeşit haberleşme veri yolu kullanılmaktadır. CAN- ISO 11898 : Elektronik Kontrol Ünitesi’nin iletişimde kullanılan network olarak bilinmektedir. Tanı ve teşhis sistemlerinde yüksek hızlarda veri aktarımını sağlamaktadır. 1980’de kurularak 1991 yılında OBD’nin standartlaşmasını sağlayan Robert Bosch GmbH Kontrol Alan Ağı veri hattını (ISO 11898) tanımlamıştır (Rodelgo, 2007, İnternet-2, 2010). Kontrol Alan Ağı protokolü otomotiv uygulamalarında güçlü bir seri veri iletiminin oluşturulması amacıyla tasarlanmıştır. KAA düğümler 1 Mbit/s veri iletim hızı ile 40 m ve 40 Kbit/s veri iletim hızı ile 1000 m’lik bir veri yolu üzerinden bağlanabilirler. KAA veri hattı 2008’den beri OBD için tek yetkili arabirimdir ve özellikle yaklaşık tüm kişisel ve ticari araç üreticileri tarafından kullanılmaktadır (İnternet4, 2015, Hilpert, 2011). LIN : Araç network’ü içerisinde sensör ve akivatörlerin düşük maliyet ile entegrasyonunu sağlamak için kullanılır. Küçük ölçekli subnet’ler oluşturur. Flexray : Güvenliğin kritik olduğu uygulamalar için bu yüzyılda geliştirilmiş bir Bus sistemidir. Cevapları belirli bir zamanda sağlar ve yedekli olacak şekilde tasarlanmıştır. MOST : Yüksek veri oranları ve özel haberleşme mekanizmaları sayesinde araç içerisine ECU eğlence sisteminin entegre edilmesi olarak tanımlanmıştır [İnternet-5, 2015]. Yukarıda kullanım alanları verilen verilen araç içi haberleşme ağlarının hız, kablo tipi ve uygulama alanı özellikleri Tablo 2’de verilmiştir. LIN 

CAN 

   Hız 

19.2 Kbps Üzeri 

1000 Kbps Üzeri 

Kablo Tipi 

Tek Damarlı Kablo,12 V 

Bükümlü Kablo, 5V 

Uygulamalar 

Elektrikli Koltuklar,  Aynalar, Bagaj Kapağı 

Motor Kontrol,  ABS, Güç Aktarımı 

FLEXRAY  10 Mbps Üzeri 

MOST  23 Mbps Üzeri 

2‐4 Kablo  Direksiyon  Kontrolü, Çekiş  Kontrolü, Aktif  Suspansiyon 

Fiber Optik Koaksiyel  Medya Oynatıcı,  Elence 

Tablo 1 Araç içi Haberleşme Ağları ve Özellikleri b) Araçlar arası Haberleşme Teknolojileri Kablosuz iletişim teknolojileri AUS’nin her alanında gereklilik göstermektedir. Bunlar içerisinde araç bilgi haberleşme sistemleri (Vehicle information Communication Systems-VICS), yol kenarı uyaran(beacon-fener), onboard antenler, elektronik geçiş ücreti toplama sistemleri (Electronic Toll Collection Systems-ETC), IR beacon, GPS (Global Positioning System) özellikli hücresel telefonlar gibi pek çok teknoloji yer almaktadır. 2003 yılında DSRC (Dedicated Short Communication) teknolojisi V2I ve V2V haberleşmeleri için kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. DSRC 5.850-5.925GHz frekans bandı (5.9 GHz band) halk güvenliği ve özel uygulamalar için bir standart olarak kullanılmaktadır. Ulaşım sistemlerinde kablosuz haberleşme yeteneği sağlayan bir standart olarak DSRC servisi otoyollarda 1 km’lik mesafede haberleşme sağlamaktadır (Fukushima, 2011, Raw, 2011). AUS’de temel kullanılan sistemler; örneğin konum referansı dijital haritalardan, coğrafik bilgi sistemlerinden, ulaşım veri tabanlarından alınabilmektedir. Veri alma aşamasında trafik dedektörleri, hava tahmin kanalları, otomatik olay raporlayıcıları kullanılarak elde edilen veriler işleme koyulur.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Haberleşme aşaması, DSRC teknolojisi, hücresel ağlar, mikrodalga, optik fiber ağlar gibi teknolojiler kullanılır ve son olarak bilgi paylaşımı kısmı dinamik mesaj sinyalleri, internet ve kiosk vb. teknolojiler aracılığı ile sağlanır (Jarasuniene, 2007). Akıllı ulaşım sistemlerinde haberleşme; araçlar arası (Vehicle to Vehicle –V2V), araç ve altyapı arası(Vehicle to Infrustructure – V2I) ve araç ile çevre arası (Vehicle to Environment-V2X) olarak farklı haberleşme teknikleri ile güvenli ve etkili trafik akışına izin verir. Trafikte araç ve çevre arasındaki haberleşme çeşitli metotlar ile sağlanır (Fukushima, 2011). Özellikle araçlar arası haberleşme günümüz araştırmalarında ön plana çıkmaktadır. Çünkü, araç ve çevre arası yaklaşımlar ticari çözümler olarak zaten geliştirilmektedir. Hücresel ağlar genellikle V2I uygulamalarında tercih edilirken, V2V haberleşmelerde ad-hoc ağlar pratik bir teknoloji olarak düşünülmektedir (Santa, 2008). DSRC Teknolojisi: 1999 yılında, Federal İletişim Komisyonu(FCD-Federal Communication Commission) kablosuz haberleşmeyi sağlayan araçlar arası (V2V-Vehicle to Vehicle) ve araç ile yol kenarı arası (V2R-Vehicle to Roadside) bir frekans spektrumu tahsis etmiştir. Komisyon 2003 yılında da tahsis edilmiş kısa mesafe iletişim (DSRC-Dedicated Short Range Communication) hizmetini kurmuştur. DSRC 5.850-5.925GHz frekans bandını kullanan(5.9 GHz) kamu güvenliği ve özel uygulamalar için geliştirilmiş bir iletişim servisidir (Raw, 2011). DSRC teknolojisi, İletişim ortamında araçlar arası haberleşmenin güvenliğini destekleyen orta mesafeli haberleşme hizmeti olarak ortaya çıkmıştır (Yang, 2004). DSRC Özellikleri Haberleşme Frekansı 5.9 GHz Bant Genişliği 75 MHz(5850-5925) Kanal Sayısı 7 Adet 10 MHz Veri İletim Hızı 6-27 Mbps Başarılı Veri İletim Oranı %50-%60 İletim Yöntemi Yarı çift yönlü Menzil 1 km Tablo 2 DSRC Özellikleri ve Haberleşme Frekansları



Yol Kenarı DSRC  Anten

Yol Kenarı DSRC  Anten

Yol Kenarı DSRC  Anten Yol Kenarı DSRC  Anten

  Şekil 2 Karayolu DSRC Teknolojisi Kullanımı Hücresel Haberleşme Teknolojisi: Hücresel haberleşme her zaman altyapı yolu ile araçların haberleşmesi için bilgi aktarımını etkileyen merkezi koordinasyonu kullanır. Coğrafi bir alanı kapsayan bir hücre ağı oluşturulmaktadır. Antenler tarafından hücre merkez haberleşme noktaları belirlenmiştir. Kullanıcı cihazları bir radyo arabirimi ile hücre baz istasyonlarına bağlanırlar. Baz istasyonları çoğunlukla kablolu olarak bir ağa bağlanır. Çekirdek ağ internet ya da telefon ağı için erişim ve yönetimi sağlamaktadır. Bir hücresel ağ işlem yağabilmek için kesin bir frekansta bantgenişliğine ihtiyaç duyar. 55 Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC)  www.iste‐c.net 

 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   GSM sistemi içerisindeki hücreler farklı frekanslarda işlem yapabilmektedirler. Aynı frekans sadece hücreler arası girişimi engellemek için iki hücre arasındaki kesin bir uzaklıkta tekrar kullanılır. Hücresel ağların işlem frekansı tipik olarak 800MHz ile 2.6GHz aralığındadır. Gerçekte düşük frekans, özellikle 800-900MHz olan aralık az yol kayıpları ile sesin yayılması için yeterlidir. Şehirlerde hücre baz istasyon antenleri normalde binaların üzerlerine konumlandırılmışlardır. Performans açısından özellikle yüksek alıcı hassasiyetini içeren, özel sinyal işleme yeteneğine sahip baz istasyonlarında mobil cihazlar için düşük enerji tüketimi düşünülmüştür (Mangel, 2012). Araç uygulamalarında hücresel iletişimin performansı oldukça önemlidir. V2I uygulamaları hücresel haberleşme sistemleri tarafından makine tipi iletişim olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Şekil 3’de buna örnek olarak hücresel iletişim ile araç ve ilkyardım birimi haberleşmesi verilmiştir. GPS GSM  BAZ İSTASYONU

SES

ARAÇ  BİLGİSİ

KAZA YAPAN ARAÇ

BİLGİ

SES

İLKYARDIM BİRİMİ

Şekil 3 Hücresel İletişim ile Araç ve İlkyardım Birimi Haberleşmesi VANET Teknolojisi: Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) Akıllı Ulaşım Sistemleri’nin geliştirilmesinde önemli bir altyapı teknolojisi olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. VANET araçlar için yeni hizmetler etkinleştirmek ve güvenlik iyileştirmeleri için sayısız fırsatlar oluşturmaktadır. VANETs çarpışma uyarısı, trafik ve hava durumu bilgilerinin güncellenmesi ya da navigasyon hizmetleri gibi aktif güvenlik hizmetlerini ve sürücü desteğini sağlamak için kullanılır. Ad-Hoc ağlar bir aracın diğer araçlar ile ya da çevresindeki sabit bir erişim noktası ile kendiliğinden ve doğrudan iletişim sağlayabilirler (Kausar, 2012). Araçlar arasında kablosuz iletişim sağlayan VANETs düşük maliyetli dinamik trafik veri transferi sağlayan ve yüksek doğruluklu çalışan bir teknolojidir (Placzek, 2012). SÜRÜCÜ BİLGİLENDİRME SİSTEMLERİNDE İPHONE Apple firmasının mobil cihazlar için kullandığı iOS işletim sistemi iPhone, iPad ve iPod Touch üzerinde çalışmaktadır. iOS işletim sistemi üzerinde yazılım geliştirmek için iOS SDK(iOS Software Development Kit) olarak bilinen iOS yazılım kitinden faydalanılır. Bu yazılım geliştirme kiti C ve Objective C programlama dilleri kullanılarak yazılmıştır. iOS işletim sistemi için geliştirilen uygulamalar Objective C dili kullanılarak yazılır ve iOS SDK içerisindeki hazır kütüphane ve sınıflardan faydalanılır. Wang (2010), yapmış olduğu çalışmasında, insansız bir araç kontrolü için iDriver adında bir iphone yazılımı geliştirmişlerdir. Geliştirilen iPhone yazılımı ile direksiyon, gaz ve fren pedalları, vites ve sinyaller uzaktan control edilebilmekte ve ayrıca aracın üstüne yerleştirilen 2 kamera ile tekrar iphone’a broadcast yayın yapılabilmektedir (Wang, 2010). Ceuca vd. (2013), yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, OBD II CAN veri yolundan alınan verileri okumak ve kıyaslamak için OBD veri yolunun uzaktan görüntülenmesini sağlayan gömülü bir system geliştirmişlerdir. Çalışmanın asıl amacı araç seyir halindeyken araçtan alınan verileri enerjinin geri kazanımıyla ilişkilendirerek yakıt tüketimini azaltmaktır (Ceuca, 2013). Menard ve Miller (2011), yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, araçların gerçek zamanlı izlenebilmesi için geliştirilen sistemde iphone 4G ile iphone 3G ‘yi kıyaslamışlardır. Iphone 4G’den aldıkları verilerin doğruluğu ve güvenirliliği test edilerek bu verileri iphone 3G ile kıyaslamışlardır. Bu verileri aracın yol güzergahında 1.59 km’yi ne kadar sürede alabileceği hesaplanmıştır. Iphone 4 veriyi her 10 saniyede iphone ise her 8 saniyede bir göndermesine karşılık iphone 4 ün iphone 3G’ye karşı hata oranında %4.94’e %1.1’lik üstünlüğü olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Eğer üçüncü parti OBD cihazı arabaya takılırsa iphone’un sadece yer tespiti yapabilmesinin yanında başka veriler de alınabilmesine imkan vereceği öngörülmüştür (Menard, 2011). Jeong ve Jang (2012), yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, sürücülerin arabadaki arızaları rahatça okuyabilmesi için OBDII protokolü dönüştürücü aracılığı ile Wi-Fi bağlantısı üzerinden OBDII verilerini okuyan iPhone uygulaması geliştirmişlerdir. Bu system araç kullanıcılarının aracın durumunu control edebilmesini ve anlamasını ve böylece aracı her durumda tamire götürerek zaman ve para kaybetmeden araçla ilgilenebilmeleri sağlanmıştır (Jeong, 2012). Enriquez vd. (2012), yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, programlanabilir ve genişletilebilir bir OBD cihazı 56 Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC)  www.iste‐c.net 

 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   geliştirmişlerdir. Bu cihaz ECU üzerindeki araç parametrelerini okuyup gerçek zamanlı olarak aracın kayıp kaymadığı bilgisini takip etmektedir. CANOPNR isimli çalışmada, aracın kayma bilgisi testler sonucunda doğru ve güvenilir bir şekilde okunduğunu göstermiştir. Bilgiler hem yol hem de aracın durumunu görüntüleyebilmek için GPS bilgisiyle beraber hücresel ağ ile merkezi sunucuya gönderilir. Ayrıca geliştirilen sistem ABS bilgisini de okuyabilir ve kullanıcı tarafından konfigüre edilebilir şekilde tasarlanmıştır. İleriki zamanlarda digger çalışmalara yardımcı olabilmesi için sistem açık kaynak kod kullanılarak tasarlanmıştır (Enriquez, 2012). Fernandes vd. (2011), yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, bir arabayı kablosuz olarak uzaktan kontrolü sağlamak için, iphone kullanarak IOS SDK platformunda yazılım geliştirip BlackWidow 1.0 mikro denetleyicisi ile uygun şekilde bağlantı kuran bir pilot proje geliştirmişlerdir. Deneyde 802.11b kablosuz haberleşme standardı kullanılmıştır (Fernandes, 2011). Ruta vd. (2012), yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, akıllı telefon aracılığıyla sürücü asistanlığı için bilgi tabanlı bir sitem geliştirmişlerdir. Akıllı telefon ile OBDII üzerinden gelen araç bilgisi internet ortamına aktarılır. Veri füzyon ve sınıflandırma algoritmaları eş zamanlı olaylara ve içeriklere uygun çıkarımları koymaya ve ayrımını yapabilmeye izin verir. Bilgi tabanlı araç izleme ve sürücü bilglendirme sistemi, bir Apple iPhone uygulaması içinde geliştirilmiş ve gerçek zamanlı test sürüşleri ile değerlendirilmiştir (Ruta, 2012). Menard ve Miller (2010),’in yapmış oldukları bir başka çalışmada, iPhoneTM 3G nin uygun ve düzgün bir şekilde sonuç verip vermediğini GPS ile ortak çalışabilen araç propları ile değerlendirmiş ve sonuçları kontrol etmişlerdir. Çalışmada sürücüler için iPhoneTM 3G mobil telefon ve taşıt izleme cihaz donanımları yerleştirilmiştir. PhoneTM cihazının her saniye lokasyonu rapor etme yeteneğinin aksine, taşıt izleme cihazları hızı ve lokasyonu 10 sn’de bir raporlamaktadır. Taşıt izleme cihazının hata faktörü 4.43% olarak, iPhoneTM cihazının hata faktörü 4.18% olarak tespit edilmiştir. Tüm çalışmalar sonucunda iPhoneTM mobil telefonunun daha doğru sonuçlar verdiği belirtilmiştir (Menard, 2010). Shaut ve Bodenmiller (1996), yaptıkları çalışmada, sürücülerin dikkatsiz, ve güvenli olmayan sürüşlerine karşı pratik ve ekonomik bir yöntem geliştirmişlerdir. Bu yöntemde mobil uygulama OBD II ile ortak kullanılmıştır. Sürücü sürüşü değerlendirilen bu sistem ile ölçümler sonucu sürücüler uyarılarak sürüş performansının artırılması sağlanmıştır (Shaut, 2011). SÜRÜCÜ BİLGİLENDİRME SİSTEMLERİNDE ANDROİD Tahat vd. (2012) yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, araçtan alınan verilerin sürücü tarafından izlenmesini ve olası arızaların üreticiye gönderilmesini sağlayan mobil cihaz tabanlı düşük maliyetli bir sistem geliştirmişlerdir. Bu işlemi, ECU’dan aldıkları anlık veriyi OBD üzerinden bluetooth aracılığıyla internet erişimi olan bir Android cihaza göndererek yapmışlardır. Araç verileri hücresel internet bağlantısı kullanılarak bir sunucuya iletilmiştir. Aracın hayati önem teşkil eden elektromekanik parametlerinin üreticilere iletilmesi ile araçta oluşabilecek arızaların belirlenmesi ve tahmin edilmesi sağlanmıştır (Tahat, 2011). Teng vd. (2011), hazırlamış oldukları bildirilerindeki amaç araçtaki ECU biriminden veriyi okuyan Android tabanlı bir mobil cihaz uygulaması geliştirmektir. ECU’dan alınan veriler ile trafik güvenliği, navigasyon, uzaktan kontrol sağlamak için gerekli bilgileri iletmek için telematik uygulamalarından yararlanmışlardır. Sonuçlar grafiksel olarak mobil panelde sanal bir değer olarak görüntülenmiştir (Teng, 2011). Cheng vd. (2010), yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, birden çok ağ kaynağını ve Google hizmetlerini kullanabilmek için Bluetooth, WLAN, DSRC, GPS gibi teknolojileri bir araya getirerek Android işletim sistemi tabanlı taşınabilir bir telematik system tasarlamayı amaçlamıştır. Bunu gerçekleştirirken dolaşım ve paylaşım fonksiyonlarını içeren heterojen ağ yönetim algoritması kullanmışlardır. Ayrıca haberleşme paylaşımı ve multimedya akışının MOST ağıyla entegrasyonu da yapılmıştır (Cheng, 2010). Gabala ve Gamec (2012), yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, Bluetooth haberleşmesine dayanan bir otomotiv diyagnostik cihazı kullanan OBD II arabirimi yoluyla araç haberleşmesindeki sorun analizlerini incelemişlerdir. Otomotiv sektöründe yaygın kullanımı olan ve Bluetooth haberleşmesini kullanan OBD II arayüzünü kullanarak Android işletim sistemli mobil cihazlarda kullanılabilen ve gerçek zamanlı veri aktarmaya imkan veren bir yazılım kullanmışlardır. CAN OBD II arayüzü ile haberleşmeyi ELM 327 işlemcisi olan bir diyagnostik cihaz ile gerçekleştirmişlerdir (Cabala, 2012). Magana vd. (2012), sezgiye dayalı eko-sürüş asistanının mimarisi üzerine yaptıkları çalışmada yüksek viteste sürüş, sabit hızla sürüş yumuşak bir şekilde yavaşlama gibi klasik eko sürüş önerilerini değerlendirir. Aracın ilerlediği çevreyi modelleyebilmek için Bluetooth, Wi-fi gibi çoklu ağ bağşantıları ve kamera, GPS gibi sensörleri içeren Android cihazlar kullanılmıştır. Aracın bilgilerini toplayabilmek için OBD II portu kullanılmıştır. Araç çeşidinden bağımsız olarak kullanılabilen bu sistem yakıt tüketimini düşürebildiği ve güvenliği arttırabildiği gözlenmiştir (Magana, 2012). Diewald vd. (2012), yapmış oldukları Android tabanlı V2X tabanlı sürücü asistanı sisteminde Merkez Trafik Servisleri’nden (CTSs-Central Traffic Services) alınan trafik bilgileri V2X haberleşme servisi ile sürücünün akıllı cihazına iletilmektedir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Kullanıcının akıllı cihazında sürücüye hem aracın bulunduğu konumun harita üzerinde çevresel bilgileri gösterilmekte hem de trafik kaza durumu gibi önemli uyarılar mesaj şeklinde gösterilmektedir (Diewald, 2012). Zaldivar vd. (2011), OBDII arayüzü üzerinden taşıt bilgilerini görüntüleyebilen kazaları tespit edebilen android tabanlı bir uygulama geliştirmişleridir. Kazayı algılamak için çarpışma anında yolcuların maruz kaldığı G kuvvetini tahmin edebilmekte ve hava yastıklarının tetiklenmesini hesaplayabilmektedir. Sistem kazadan hemen sonra 3 saniye içinde kazayı algılayarak acil servisi arayıp belirlenen adreslere SMS veya e-posta atabilmektedir (Zaldivar, 2011). Kim vd. (2014), yapmış oldukları makalelerinde, android platform tabanlı çok girişli genişletilebilir bir araç eğlence sistemi uygulamışlardır. Bu sistem sayesinde sürücülerin çok fazla ücret ödemelerinin ve araçlarına eğlence sistemlerini ekleme durumunda sürücelerin karmaşık işlemlerle uğraşmalarının önüne geçilmesi sağlanmıştır (Kim, 2011). Yang vd. (2013), yapmış oldukları makalelerinde, Android tabanlı bir mobil cihaz ile hibrit elektrikli araçlar için OBD II tanı sistemi kullanılarak uzaktan kontrollü CAN veriyolu izleme ve diyagnostik sistemi geliştirilmiştir. Bu sistem, ELM327 diyagnostik haberleşme cihazı kullanılan ve kablosuz uzak merkeze bağlantı sağlayan ucuz, kullanılabilir ve akıllı cihazlarla genişletilebilir niteliktedir. OBD II ve android telefonlar kullanılmıştır. ELM327 ile haberleşen ve kablosuz görüntülemede kullanılan onu öne geçiren etkenlerdir. Java ile geliştirilen istemci ve sunucu prototipi gerçek zamanlı toplanan veriler ile test edilmiştir (Yang, 2013). Su vd. (2012), yapmış oldukları çalışmalarında, IEEE tarafından bir standart haline getirilen 802.11p AUS sistemleri destekleyen araç ortamlarına kablosuz erişim (WAVE-Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment) sağladığına değinerek, bu sistemin kullanılması için 802.11p’yi destekleyen donanıma ihtiyaç olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. Bu nedenle farklı bir yöntem olarak çalışmalarında, Android telefon kullanarak Wi-Fi üzerinden araçlar arası haberleşen bir araç içi sistem geliştirmişlerdir. Deney sonuçları bu sistemin hem kolay uygulanabilir olduğunu hem de VANET için diğer sistemlerden daha rahat adapte edilebilir olduğunu göstermiştir (Su, 2012). SONUÇ Bu çalışmada araştırılan iPhone ve Android akıllı telefonları kullanılarak yapılan sürücü bilgilendirme sistemleri OBD II diyagnostik cihazları ile aracın ECU birimine ait verileri CAN veriyolu üzerinden verilerin izlenmesini sağlamaktadır. OBD II(Onboard Diagnostic) aracılığı ile araç network erişimi sayesinde araç bilgilerinin sürcülere aktarılmasını sağlaması trafikte olası arıza durumlarının erken tespitini kolaylaştırmaktadır. Akıllı Ulaşım Sistemlerinde yapılan mobil çalışmalar incelendiğinde yol, çevre, hava durum gibi bilgilerin yanısıra aracın CAN veri yolu bilgilerine erişim sağlama çalışmalarının geliştirildiği görülmüştür. Trafik yönetim merkezleri tarafından yol durum, hava durum, çevre durum bilgileri kolaylıkla elde edilmekte ve trafikte sürücüler ile elektronik panolar ya da radio ortak yayını üzerinden paylaşılabilmektedir. Ancak her araca ait araç içi veri trafiğine ait bilgiler trafik yönetim merkezlerine iletimi için her araçta OBD II diyagnostik dönüşütürücü cihazların bulunması gerekmektedir. Mobil cihazların kablosuz Wi-Fi ve Bluetooth teknolojilerini desteklemeleri sayesinde OBD II diyagnostik cihazlarına erişim kolaylaşmıştır. iPhone ve Android temelli incelenen uygulmaların aracın CAN veri yoluna kablosuz erişimi ile araca ait anlık olarak hız, RPM, motor sıcaklığı, fren sistemi, hava yastık bilgileri, lastik basınçları ve motor yağı seviyesi gibi daha birçok elektronik sensör verilerine erişim imkanı sağlar. Yapılan çalışmalarda ihtiyaç duyulan veriler alınarak olası hata ve kazaların önüne geçilmesi için iPhone ve Android akıllı telefonlar üzerinden sürücü uyarı sistemleri geliştirmişlerdir. Mobil cihazların en büyük avantajlarından biri olarak görülen GPS teknolojisi ile yer ve konum belirleme özelliği trafik uygulamalarında kolaylık sağlamaktadır. Android mobil teknoloji telematik sistemlerine uyarlamak için diğer GPS, DSRC, VLAN gibi teknoljiler ile heterojen çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Sürücüler trafik yoğunluk haritaları üzerinden tarfiği takip edebildikleri gibi olası kaza durumlarına karşı farklı kaynaklardan anlık elde edilen veriler ile uyarılmaktadır. Böylece kazaların en aza indirilmesi ve güvenliğin sağlanması için trafikte araç durumu, yol durumu, çevre bilgisi gibi pek çok değişkenin sürücü tarafından takibi sağlanmaktadır. Sonuç olarak mobil cihazların kablosuz veri iletişimi, GPS desteği, ivme desteği, GPRS desteği gibi özellikleri sayesinde trafik takip ve sürücü bilgilendirme sistemlerinde kullanımı yaygınlaşmaktadır. Mobil teknolojinin bir çok trafik haberleşme uygulmasında yer alarak sürücüleri olası hata kaza durumlarına karşı desteklemekte olduğu yapılan çalışmalardanda anlaşılmaktadır.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   KAYNAKLAR Ulaştırma, Denizcilik ve Haberleşme Bakanlığı, Ulusal Akıllı Ulaşım Sistemleri Strateji Belgesi(2014-2023). Ngoduy, D. (2013). Analytical studies on the instabilities of heterogeneous intelligent traffic flow. Elsevier, Commun Nonlineear Sci Numer Simulat 18 pp(2699-2706). Fukushima, M. (2011). The latest trend of v2x driver assistance systems in Japan, Elsevier, Computer Netwroks 55, pp (3134-3141). Cantarella, E.G. (2013) Day-to-day Dynamic Models for Intelligent Transportation Systems Design and Appraisal, Transportation Research Part C 29, pp(117-130) Jarasuniene, A. (2007). Research into Intelligent Transport systems (ITS) Technologies and Efficiency, Transport 22-2, pp(61-67). Keeratiwintakorn, P., Thepnorarat, E., & Russameesawang, A. (2009, March). Ubiquitous communication for V2V and V2I for Thailand intelligent transportation system. In NTC International Conference, Thailand. Zaldivar J., T. Calafate C., Carlos Cano J., Manzoni P., “ Providing Accident Detection in Vehicular Networks Through OBD-II Devices and Android-based Smartphones ”, 5th IEEE Workshop On User MObility and VEhicular Networks, 2011. Rao, K. C., & Panem, C. A. (2014). Accident Detection in Vehicular Networks Using Android-based Smartphones. International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, vol 2-1.pp (24-26). Campolo, C., Iera, A., Molinaro, A., Paratore, S. Y., & Ruggeri, G. (2012, November). SMaRTCaR: An integrated smartphone-based platform to support traffic management applications. In Vehicular Traffic Management for Smart Cities (VTM), 2012 First International Workshop on (pp. 1-6). IEEE. Chuang, Y. T., Yi, C. W., Lu, Y. C., & Tsai, P. C. (2013, October). iTraffic: A Smartphone-based Traffic Information System. In Parallel Processing (ICPP), 2013 42nd International Conference on (pp. 917-922). IEEE. İnternet 1: http://www.odd.org.tr/web_2837_1/neuralnetwork.aspx?type=36, Erişim Temmuz 2015. Hunphrey, J. & Memedovic, O. (2003). The Global Automotive Industry Value Chain, united Nations Industral Development Organization, Vienna. Gorener, A. & Gorener, O. (2008). Türk Otomotiv Sektörünün ülke Ekonomisine Katkıları ve Geleceğe Yönelik Sektörel Beklnetiler. Journal Yasar University vol 3(10), (pp 1213-1232). Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü (2015). Trafik İstatik Bülteni, Mayıs. Yang, S. (2013). On feature selection for traffic congestion prediction. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 26, 160-169. Zhang, X., Zhao, J., Tang, J., & Liu, B. (2012). You Take Care of the Drive, I Take Care of the Rule: A TrafficRule Awareness System Using Vehicular Sensors and Mobile Phones. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2012. Milanés, V., Villagrá, J., Godoy, J., Simó, J., Pérez, J., & Onieva, E. (2012). An intelligent V2I-based traffic management system. Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 13(1), 49-58. Cho, W., Han, K. S., Choi, H. K., & Oh, H. S. (2009, October). Realization of anti-collision warning application using v2v communication. In Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC 2009) (pp. 1-5). Huth, V., & Gelau, C. (2013). Predicting the acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 50, 51-58. İnternet 2: http://www.megep.meb.gov.tr/mte_program_modul/moduller_pdf/Araç%20Yönetim%20Sistemleri.pdf. Erişim Mayıs 2015. Diagnostic Connector Equivalent to ISO/DIS 15031–3, SAE Standards, J1962, Dec. 14, 2001. Rodelgo-Lacruz, F. J. Gil-Castineira, F. J. Gonzalez- Castano, J. M. Pousada-Carballo, J. Contreras, A. Gomez, M. V. Bueno-Delgado, E. Egea-Lopez, J. Vales-Alonso, J. Garcıa-Haro, “Base technologies for vehicular networking applications: review and case studies”, Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2007, pp. 25672572. İnternet 3: United States Environmental Protection Agency, "On- Board Diagnostics", http://www.epa.gov/obd, Erişim Mayıs 2015. İnternet-4: SAE International, “Overview of Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance for Automotive Systems”, http://www.sae.org/ technical/papers/2005-01-1428, 2005, Erişim Mayıs 2015. Hilpert, H., Thoroe, L., & Schumann, M. (2011, January). Real-time data collection for product carbon footprints in transportation processes based on OBD2 and smartphones. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 1-10). IEEE. İnternet 5: http://automotive.softing.com, Erişim Haziran 2015. Santa, J., Gómez-Skarmeta, A. F., & Sánchez-Artigas, M. (2008). Architecture and evaluation of a unified V2V

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   and V2I communication system based on cellular networks. Computer Communications, 31(12), 28502861. Raw, R. S., & Das, S. (2011). Performance comparison of Position based routing Protocols in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) Communication. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3(1), 435-444. Yang, X., Liu, J., Vaidya, N. H., & Zhao, F. (2004, August). A vehicle-to-vehicle communication protocol for cooperative collision warning. In Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services, 2004. MOBIQUITOUS 2004. The First Annual International Conference on (pp. 114-123). IEEE. Mangel, T. (2012) İnter Vehicle Communication at Intersections: An Evaluation of Ad-Hoc Cellular Communication. Kausar, T., Gupta, P., Arora, D., & Kumar, R. (2012). A VANET based Cooperative Collision Avoidance System for a 4-Lane Highway. Płaczek, B. (2012). Selective data collection in vehicular networks for traffic control applications. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 23, 14-28. Wang, M. (2010). Remote controlling an autonomous car with an iPhone. Ceuca, E., Tulbure, A., Taut, A., Pop, O., & Farkas, I. (2013, May). Embedded system for remote monitoring of OBD bus. In Electronics Technology (ISSE), 2013 36th International Spring Seminar on (pp. 305-308). IEEE. Menard, T., & Miller, J. (2011, June). Comparing the GPS Capabilities of the iPhone 4 and iPhone 3G for Vehicle Tracking using FreeSim_Mobile. In Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2011 IEEE (pp. 278-283). IEEE. Jeong, D. W., & Jang, J. W. (2012, July). Mobile-based vehicle supplies check management system. In Ubiquitous and Future Network. Enriquez, D. J., Bautista, A., Field, P., Kim, S. I., Jensen, S., Ali, M., & Miller, J. (2012, September). CANOPNR: CAN-OBD programmable-expandable network-enabled reader for real-time tracking of slippery road conditions using vehicular parameters. In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2012 15th International IEEE Conference on (pp. 260-264). IEEE.ks (ICUFN), 2012 Fourth International Conference on (pp. 140-144). IEEE. Fernandes, C., Ng, K. Y., & Khoo, B. H. (2011, November). Development of a convenient wireless control of an autonomous vehicle using apple iOS SDK. In TENCON 2011-2011 IEEE Region 10 Conference (pp. 10251029). IEEE. Ruta, M., Scioscia, F., Gramegna, F., Loseto, G., & Di Sciascio, E. (2012). Knowledge-based Real-Time Car Monitoring and Driving Assistance. In SEBD (pp. 289-294). Menard, T., & Miller, J. (2010, December). FreeSim_Mobile: A novel approach to real-time traffic gathering using the apple iPhone™. In Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), 2010 IEEE (pp. 57-63). IEEE. Shaout, A. K., & Bodenmiller, A. E. (2011). A mobile application for monitoring inefficient and unsafe driving behaviour. Tahat, A., Said, A., Jaouni, F., & Qadamani, W. (2012, June). Android-based universal vehicle diagnostic and tracking system. In Consumer Electronics (ISCE), 2012 IEEE 16th International Symposium on (pp. 137143). IEEE. Teng, H. F., Wang, M. J., & Lin, C. M. (2011, December). An implementation of android-based mobile virtual instrument for telematics applications. In Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications (IBICA), 2011 Second International Conference on (pp. 306-308). IEEE. Cheng, Y. H., Kuo, W. K., & Su, S. L. (2010, October). A heterogeneous internet device design based on android OS. In Intelligent Computing and Integrated Systems (ICISS), 2010 International Conference on (pp. 832835). IEEE. Čabala, M., & Gamec, J. (2012). Wireless real-time vehicle monitoring based on android mobile device. Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica, 12(4), 7-11. Magaña, V., C., Organero, M., ., Fernández-Montes, A., & Ortega, J., A. (2012). ARTEMISA: Architecture of an Eco-driving Assistant Based on the Anticipation, Actas de XIV. Jornadas de ARCA Sistemas, 5. Diewald, S., Möller, A., Roalter, L., & Kranz, M. (2012, September). DriveAssist-A V2X-Based Driver Assistance System for Android. In Mensch & Computer Workshopband (pp. 373-380). Zaldivar, J., Calafate, C. T., Cano, J. C., & Manzoni, P. (2011, October). Providing accident detection in vehicular networks through OBD-II devices and Android-based smartphones. In Local Computer Networks (LCN), 2011 IEEE 36th Conference on (pp. 813-819). IEEE. Kim, M., Nam, J. H., & Jang, J. W. (2014). Implementation of smart car infotainment system including black box and self-diagnosis function. Int. J. Softw. Eng. Appl, 18, 267-274. Yang, Y., Chen, B., Su, L., & Qin, D. (2013). Research and Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles CAN-Bus Data Monitor and Diagnostic System through OBD-II and Android-Based Smartphones. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 5, 741240.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Su, K. C., Wu, H. M., Chang, W. L., & Chou, Y. H. (2012, December). Vehicle-to-vehicle communication system through wi-fi network using android smartphone. In Connected Vehicles and Expo (ICCVE), 2012 International Conference on (pp. 191-196). IEEE.

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AN APPLICATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING SET  Aydın Güllü1, Hilmi Kuşçu2, Ozan Aki3 1

[email protected]  2 3

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract: In this study, a design, flexible and can work on many platforms, has been made for process control education. Design is an electronic board, communicated with equipment of proses control training set made by the Bytronic. Electronic card is capable of such these features; sensor reading (PT100), temperature control and fluid flow control etc. Software has been developed inside microcontroller located on the electronic board. This software can be achieved data transfer by connecting with the computer via USB. Thus, process control training set can be made from programs such as Matlab Labview, .Net etc. This provide a great convenience and flexibility for students. In this study will be described electronic cards and computerized control methods designed.  Keywords: Process Control Training Set 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

AN APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC DISPATCH USING GENETIC ALGORITHM  Özge Pınar Arslan1, Yağmur Arikan2, Ertuğrul Çam3 1

[email protected] 2

[email protected] 

3

[email protected]

  Abstract:In the economic load dispatch, power plants are operated at minimum cost, but environmental pollution caused by fossil-fueled electric power plants is not considered. Therefore, new solution suggestions have come up due to the growing environmental problems in recent years. One of this suggestions is environmental economic load dispatch which aims to both operation of plants at minimum cost and trying to minimize the amount of emissions. In this study, 6-generator system with three load demands 500, 700 and 900 MW is tested to solve environmental economic load dispatch problem. Genetic algorithm from heuristic optimization methods is preferred for this problem. The results which transmission losses are considered are compared with the other studies in the literature. These results show the effectiveness and superiority of the method over economy and reduction of the emission.  Keywords: Environmental Economic Dispatch, Genetic Algorithms, Optimization, Emission

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

AN EXAMPLE REGION WORK IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL MUNICIPALISM: CEYHAN MUNICIPALITY EXAMPLE Ümmü Saliha EKEN İNAN Academic Selçuk Üniversity [email protected] Breaking politic layers under the effect of globalism has led the understanding of social state to become clearer.Within this period the result of orthographic projection of social state reflected from center to local.These reflections presents differences on the application size.Especially demographic features (age,sex,socio-cultural structure….) ,social features (being aware of enviromental and local problems ,volunteering ,focusing on solution.,,,), handling the physical conditions and economic conditions the understanding of local social municipality work and voters perception of these developments can be easily observed and getting negative or positive feedback can be faster. Our work will be evaluated by studying the social municipalism applications in a local municipality that produces and practices new and sustainable projects with the understanding of social municipalism, voters number, collecting data in a selected small town that was evaluated economically and politically. The municipality we examine in our study is a small town that especially has a worldwide politic importance as it lies on Ceyhan-Baku pipe line.For this reason ,getting a lot of immigration and voters number related to this was considered and by evaluating political composition and doing essential conversations early access was supplied .

SOSYAL BELEDİYECİLİK BAĞLAMINDA BİR ÖRNEK ALAN ÇALIŞMASI: CEYHAN BELEDİYESİ ÖRNEĞİ Ümmü Saliha EKEN İNAN Öğretim Görevlisi Selçuk Üniversitesi [email protected] Küreselleşmenin etkisiyle politik katmanların kırılması sosyal devlet anlayışının daha belirginleşmesine yol açmıştır. Bu süreçte sosyal devlet anlayışının dikey izdüşüm sonucu, merkezden yerele doğru yansımıştır. Bu yansımalar uygulama boyutunda farklılıklar arzetmiştir. Özellikle demografik özellikler (yaş, cinsiyet, sosyo-kültürel yapı...), toplumsal özellikler (çevresel ve yöresel sorunların farkında olmak, gönüllü katılım, çözüm odaklılık...),fiziki koşullar ve ekonomik koşullar ele alındığında yerel sosyal belediyecilik anlayışı ve seçmenlerin bu gelişmeler karşısında algıları çok daha rahat gözlenebilmekte ve olumlu yada olumsuz geribildirim alınması çok daha hızlı olmaktadır. Çalışmamız yerel bir belediyede sosyal belediyecilik uygulamalarının incelenmesi, sosyal belediyecilik anlayışında sürekli yeni ve sürdürülebilir projeler üretilmesi ve uygulanması esasından hareket eden; seçmen sayısı, ekonomik ve politik önemi açısından değerlendirilerek seçilmiş bir ilçedeki verilerin toplanması, değerlendirilmesi çerçevesinde gerçekleştirilecektir. Çalışmamızda incelediğimiz belediye özellikle Ceyhan_Bakü Boru Hattının içinden geçmesi dolayısıyla Dünya çapında politik öneme sahip olan bir ilçe belediyemizdir. Bu sebepten çok fazla göç alması, buna bağlı olarak seçmen sayısı göz önünde bulundurulmuş dolayısıyla siyasi kompozisyonu değerlendirilerek gerekli görüşmeler sağlanmış ve veri toplama konusunda kolay erişim sağlanmıştır.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   INTRODUCTION Among economic developments ,as one of the triggering powers of globalisation there are liberalisation of market movement and liberalisation of capital movement.World governments are opening their borders without resisting fast and constant economic development. The same mobility is not only limited with the politic levels crash but also brings regional crash. The management skills and politic tools of central actors are different from the management skills and politic tools of local actors. The regional migrations due to geographic and economic conditions in Turkey causes some negative economic and kind of social results.This position makes effect differences on the service that is given to citizens from central administration to local administration.Local governments by means of narrow-scoped and result-oriented solutions managed to attract citizens by this they reached active participant feedbacks. Especially on the purpose of overcoming family problems ,projects on setting living conditions suitable for human life,joining organizational life,supplying the needs of poor people ,to maintain social peace and trust and justice gave effective results by the help of municipality laws and provincial special administration. In our work, some social politics developed by appearing social municipality system in social government just like “the charity market Project” that is applied by Ceyhan municipality and other sustainable social projects will be searched and evaluated. In the implementation part in our work ,data was collected by interviewing face to face deeply.This data was evaluated by considering the area of examples and reached aimed group. SOCIAL STATE Social state is a state that organizational power is used to govern market powers in at least three areas by politics and administration. One of them is to guarantee a minimum income to individuals and families regardless of their market value ,secondly to decrease spreading of insecurity that will cause individual and family problems unless it is done by supporting individuals and families to overcome social risks (aging,illness and unemployment). Thirdly to provide the best standarts to all citizens without considering the status and class differences in the generally approved social services frame (Gough, 2008). In this regard social state takes the mission of eliminating social injustice democratically,providing social peace and social justice by considering all negative life styles that they will be able to face independently from their socio-economic and cultural structure. Another definition for social state is that "Social State" or "Social welfare State" is a state that takes on social tasks and responsibilities, aims to provide minimum welfare conditions including physical , civil ,cultural needs to its citizens(Öksüz, 2007: 80). Social state leads up to application of sustainable social politics by using authority, arbitrament and control mechanism that is used by organizational administrations. One of the results of global effect is the process from community state to social state and this caused to complete the breakings of 19 th century in 20 th century and accordingly be the state term in constitution. In 1982 Constitution first part second item it says that "Turkish Republic is a Social law state" Second part it says that "Turkish Republic is a democratic, secular and social law state" (http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/kanunlar.aspx). In addition to this we met "social state" in 1961 Constitution. In 1961 Constitution beside citizens rights to live independently, term of state that provides its citizens a life that can be lived humanly is also mentioned. SOCIAL MUNICIPALITY Local administrations , prepare and implement different social programs like social blocks, social services, social aid, health, education and protecting environment especially for disadvantaged groups. Municipalities that fulfill social politics in local level takes the name of social municipality as the reflection of social state understanding (Seyyar, 2008:240). Social municipality finds itself a place by providing basic needs of poor people more than social state practice (Kesgin, 2012:178). When the nature of local administrations considered; from one side they are administrative units, from another side they are politic corporations that have collective abilities to decide by their organs (Marcou, 1993:56, Akt. Sezer and Önder, 2012). In this regard when horizontal and vertical functionality is evaluated, in vertical functionality regard while they are in administrative presence in applying substructure works, they are more politic and result-oriented in horizontal regard while they are listening and providing public needs. This results in municipalities expressed as social municipality in social states hierarchical coordination from center to local.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Social municipality is a model that gives the mission of planning and organizing to local authority, converts the public expenses to charities, invest on projects that will implement socio-cultural activities and impowers social justice and security (Öksüz,2007:89). In this regard just as Tocquevilla says: "local administrations are democracy schools " social municipality is "a transparent school" that democracy is showed, rich people reach poor people, has peace and participation. Social municipality is a model that gives the mission to local administrations to plan and organize, to canalize public expenses to health, education and protecting environment, to help unemployed and homeless, to provide substructure investments for social solidarity and integration with socio-cultural activities and to strengthen social security and justice among society (Akdoğan,2002:35). In Turkey social municipality aims to repair the failure and devastation of capitalism instead of be an alternative to it. In Klientalist platform for this reason delivered local welfare is not systematical and fair. Social municipality that provides society’s needs partially contributes by delivering some of the income that was obtained from the activities of local and central actors (Kesgin,2012:176). Municipalities have to deal with the problems of individuals, families and groups coming from three different sources (Ateş,2009:92), for this reason problems should be described. First one of these problems is poverty, unemployment and beggary that needs to be interfered urgently especially in big cities that are originated from implementation and structure of system; second , the problems of individuals and families because of natural disasters among their service region and the last one is the position of children, old people and disabled people. The implementation of social municipality is basically social services and helps that are solution-oriented for the problems that are coming from these three sources (Çelik,2014:6). The activities that are used to implement public services and social politics in our country ,in other words ,the changes that happens in their functions in time can be studied by dividing it into three parts. First one is from the early years of Turkish Republic to The World War 2 that local administrations are active to provide local services, second is until the early years of 1990s that central administration is dominant on local one to provide services, the last one is since 1990s that municipality activities are increased especially in metropolis ( Ersöz, 2011). SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL POLITICS Sustainability is described as providing modern-day needs without sacrificing the needs of future generations at the same time it is described by OECD that (2001a:13) sustainable development strategies are a chance and it will be effective to decrease the poverty of national capitals. Sustainability is studied in three axes. From social, economical and environmental view. As social politics are appeared as a movement to produce solutions for the negative effects of liberal industrial capitalism , it was evaluated as a politics to maintain capitalism and devastate the problems it caused. But nowadays it has a wider meaning and content (http://sosyalpolitika.weebly.com/uploads/1/4/2/0/14207594/sosyal_politika_11.pdf). By macro perspective social politics are government policies that gives from rich to poor to maintain social justice (Morris, 1985, akt.Ali Seyyar). The basic aim of public services is to improve citizens living conditions according to modern values and increase the welfare. A good administration is an administration that provides transparency, satisfaction from services and a participating. In local services of municipalities providing help and service to "the poor" is a must for being a social state. Social help and service includes providing service to both disadvantaged groups and everybody that are needed (Negiz, 2011: 323). There are two important titles among the reports of European Union Ministry Social, Regional and Innovative Politics Presidency that were published within sustainable social politics. One of them is "active aging" the other is " the strategy of social sex equality". Active aging is a definition that is developed by WHO in the late 1990s. WHO is describing active aging as a process that aims to improve chances of health, participation security on top that is implemented to improve the life quality. This position while providing enough protection, security and caring , enables them to live in welfare, realization of themselves and enables their needs by themselves, in another report to sex equality and women "… to reach wise, sustainable and covering aims of European 2020 strategies the need of using women’s abilities and potential more effectively " http://www.ab.gov.tr.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Social policies have some responsibilities, services and rights refer to metropolis municipality and special provincial administration laws. It says in municipality law 5393 9 th item " municipality provides the need of neighborhoods and supports financially " and the 13 th item of the same law with Townsman Law title says that "everybody is the townsman of his/her area and has the right to get all services from local administration. The helps should be given in human conditions without offending the citizens." According to 14 th item "…..municipality provides the services for city substructure like town planning, water and sewer system ; geography and city information systems; environment and environmental health, cleaning and solid waste; city police, fire department, emergency, salvation and ambulance; city traffic; graveyards; wooding, parks and green areas, accommodation, culture and art, tourism and publicity, hostels for young and university students , social services and help, marriage, having occupation and skill, developing economy and commerce. Metropolis municipalities and municipalities over 100,000 population should open guesthouses for women and children. Other municipalities also can open guesthouses for women and children by considering their financial position. They can build and repair any grade of state school building, can supply all kinds of tools they need, can open and manage all kinds of places related to health services, can build and repair all kinds of house of worship, can protect the culture and environment assets and places that are important for historical and cultural part of city. If it is needed they give sports equipments to encourage young people and supports the amateur sports clubs, can give awards to sports people, trainers, technical directors, students who have championship or medals at home or abroad by the decision of municipality committee. Food banking can be done. The priority in giving service depends on municipality’s financial position and urgency of service. Municipality services are given to citizens in the most appropriate place and way. The way of giving service is chosen according to disabled, old and poor people’s position. In 5216 Metropolis Law it says that the local policies will be implemented by municipalities. The law gives the mission of social problem solving and providing social needs to municipalities. The law number 5216 gives the responsibility of implementing social and cultural services and developing and opening courses and other facilities for adults, old people, disabled people, women, young people and children to metropolis municipalities. Town municipalities also can give services for young and children. In the law number 5216 with 24 th item and 5393 with 60 th item the social services and helps for poor, disadvantaged, homeless and disabled people are in the expenses of municipality. The municipality law number 5393 mentions that municipalities can cooperate with other institutions. According to the 75 th item of the law municipalities in their mission and responsibility can implement projects with public professional organizations and associations working for public benefit. In the municipality law number 5393, 77 th item it says that municipalities can include voluntary corporations into sustainable policies and can be integrated with these corporations; with this item municipalities will implement programs to supply unity and participation in the city that are suitable to voluntary participation in services like health, education, sports, environment, social services and help, library, parks, traffic, cultural services for old people, women, children, disabled people, poor and disadvantaged. The same responsibility is given to special provincial administration ın law number 5302 65 th item. By this housewives will be encouraged as potential and ideal voluntary group in social works. THE EXAMPLE OF CEYHAN MUNICIPALITY IN SOCIAL MUNICIPAL WORK The town we studied, Ceyhan, is 43 km away from Adana ,1426 square meter and it has 112 neighborhood. Its population is 162.000 according to 2012 census and it is on a strategic area that constantly gets migration. Especially because of Baku-Ceyhan pipe line it also has an importance as it is close to İskenderun and Mersin port near Botaş. From regional view our town has worldwide politic and economic importance, until the South east Anatolian Project it got a lot of migration. And it was seen that the public that came by migration has not returned back and considered as “townsman” by municipality law. This is of course a synthesis for cultural richness but configuration change in social structure can show fragility. The most significant indicator of this is change in configuration because of financial differences. Related to this some conflicts occur between the disadvantaged public and ones who have income over minimum and it is inevitable that income distribution is not fair, the tolerance and acceptance of these groups because of their cultural differences is difficult and some expectations of the migrated public and as they are not qualified workers some problems of employment. When all these factors come together local administrations should be closer to public and be aware of public’s differences and expectations. Location is one of the most suitable areas for investing. When it’s geographically and physically considered it is close to the region that energy, petrol, petrochemical, iron-steel, marine, textile and their by-products . AdanaYumurtalık free trade zone is Turkey’s first free trade zone for industry (Ceyhan Report, 2013 ). Beside this as Adana Industrial Area and Osmaniye Industrial Area reached enough volume, it brings up the foundation of Ceyhan Industrial Area.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Ceyhan town is the 64 th among 872 town in our country as unemployment considered. This gives enough information about family incomes. When the emergency action plans in this report are implemented, public will participate in organizational working life and social welfare will be better. Local administrations are the part of Public Administrations. The essential principle of Public administration is to implement the public service from the closest unit, the principle of decentralization is to implement service by self-governing units that are elected. Citizens have opportunity to convey their needs, complaints and wishes easily to local administrations (Karaer, 1987, akt:Henden, 2005 ). Ceyhan Municipality changed after 2014 local elections. And now they are both giving routine municipality services and sustainable social politics projects. The first thing a social municipality should do is to draw a map of social configuration. It means that it should get information about income, culture, education level, age, sex. By this it will know how to give service to public in justice and effectively (Uçaktürk vd.,2009:3). The topics that municipality consider urgently according to social politics are :          

to find solutions for the problems of poor, needy, homeless, old and disabled people. to increase the productivity of children and teenagers in education. to increase the life quality of disadvantaged groups especially women and old and make them produce again. to prevent addiction of young people by increasing cultural, art and sport activities. to strengthen public connections by helping parents who have babies. to listen public complaints in its place and find solutions. to increase the public awareness by increasing the study rates. to increase social sensitivity by giving mobility to public in keeping the environment clean and feeding the street animals. to provide public participation in cleaning schools, temples and patient care. to provide peace in public by helding meetings and calling experts from different areas.

In our study we used qualitative technique to collect data as interviewing face to face deeply. For this purpose we asked an appointment from Hatice tül Kübra Öztürk, cultural and social coordinator of Ceyhan Municipality, for some data. Our study is about municipality that works according to social politics and example area is Ceyhan town. Fast results were taken. The interview last three days at intervals and nearly eight hours. Some questions were asked to know their municipality from my side but as our study is mostly about social municipality works and sustainable policies evaluation you will find only the answers of questions about these;             

What is your understanding of local administration? What kind of election campaign did you carry on? Did you prepare a progress plan? What is your social municipality understanding? What are your projects as a social municipality? What are the demographic features of local public? How do you provide the needs ? What are the reached target in your social policies and your expectations ? Are there voluntary participations ? if yes, how did you manage to provide it ? Did you provide voluntary participation from public, charities, syndicates and non-governmental organizations ? How did you coordinate the members of voluntary unity? Is budget given within social municipality budget enough? Can you give some information about your "charity market" project?

The answers as a summary we get from Ms. Kübra Öztürk are like these ; We started our work by a democratic election 17 months ago. Turkish Republic is a secular and social law state. As a reflection of social state Ceyhan municipality is also a social municipality. We are municipality with 162000 population and 112 neighborhood. As a municipality in our legal borders we scanned orphans, disadvantages, disabled ones, old people, divorced, children and women and we traveled house by house and listened our citizens problems.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   We founded a team for this task . The team was including both municipality workers and voluntary people. For voluntary work we organized housewives. Among 112 neighborhood all houses were visited and asked their needs and problems. The urgent ones were sold immediately the others were programmed in time. And will be solved in this program. The application has not finished of course the target is to make this program sustainable and move at the same time with public. Finally we founded an emergency call center. All calling citizens are giving information about their needs and our friends are conveying them one by one. Data bank works systematically here. Citizens’ needs differ from each other sometimes coal, wood, clothes for their children, cash money… sometimes meat, milk, stationary, door, paint, sofa, household equipments and other needs….. As a result of our scan it is seen that old and disadvantaged people need some help at home like repairing, cleaning or caring…..513 sick people are visited regularly and listened and their needs are tried to be provided. If they asked or needed to be transferred to hospital, they were transferred by our patient vehicles.193 people’s winter wood was provided by pruned trees. 53 houses door , window and other parts damaged by fire was repaired ( by the law number 5216 7 th item) free course education is given to 2400 students…shoes, clothes and stationary are given to 825 needy students on several occasions like 23 rd April …87 schools were given 150 token for amusement park entrance…both in center and suburbs books were delivered and seminars were held to establish a conscious public…Only in 100 th Çanakkale Anniversary five author meetings were held and fifteen thousand books were delivered…conferences were given by experts in their area about drug addiction, exam stress, happy family, peaceful public…6300 publication was given as gift to increase the reading rate in villages. For one year ( 13 months ) with " welcome to Ceyhan baby" campaign 2329 new born and their mother were visited at their home and given towels, baby clothes, swaddle, shampoo, temperature, curb, baby bottle and wet towel. The cleaning of schools, temples, mosques are done freely.23 sacrificing meat was delivered to 115 families…every Ramadan in 23 neighborhood between 600 and 1000 people were given dinner. By the law number 5216 item 7 theatre clubs were founded to add cultural values to young people. Until now 53 students got their certificates from theatre club and performed three plays 11 times on the stage. Our municipality is giving NLP education to our personal to develop individual improvement and effective communication abilities. The satisfaction survey is done by visiting citizens in their place. For this work we contracted with a private company. There are 3754 recorded unemployed, by Ceykam ( Ceyhan Career Center ) we bring togerher our citizens and companies. In our projects we also have sustainable environment projects. Some of them are ; boxes for collecting bread for street dogs were left….there are 67 dogs in our shelter…there are waste bottle boxes so that our citizens who earn their life from these don’t have to look for dustbins. "charity market" because of its name can be understood as only old items are donated but it is not like that donations from businessmen and our citizens are delivered fairly according to our citizens need. Until now 32719 people need were provided…clothes, household equipments, bed, television…For example 7813 people were put on, totally delivered clothes are 17691, total given household equipments are 128, bed 42, orphans clothed 517, television given 23, table given 27, total 257 furniture. As a result of our scan 7850 family were retained that their income is below 3000 TL and need education support. 2213 students at schools, 187 graduated students, total 2400 students were given free courses. 40 % of these students were prep university students. They started university with 60 % success. Total 1200 orphans got our municipalities support. 430 of them got free English, diction, drama lessons.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   OUTCOME AND EVALUATION As the municipality that we studied is a town municipality by the metropolis municipality law number 5216 social policies will be delivered by local administrations. By law individuals social needs will be provided by municipalities. Ceyhan municipality with its mission in social municipality one of the rare examples that we can come across. The basic functions of municipality are to protect basic public dynamics, establish a vision, overcome the economic and social differences, be fair to provide the requirements. With the same basic functions social municipality can be studied under these titles ( Akdoğan, 2006 ).    

Socializing, social control and rehabilitation. Conveying and guiding. Helping and observing. Investing

From these titles it is good to evaluate Ceyhan municipality "charity market project" . socializing progress is individuals behaviors that are expected. If municipalities can confirm social harmony they can implement social policies and social control and rehabilitation. Social environments are places like family, school, occupation community. Municipality is seen that implemented socializing in these environment. We reached this solution by seeing that citizens’ needs are provided without offending their honor. Municipality gives 100 % support to poor, disadvantaged, disabled. Furthermore this is not only once it is sustainable. As guiding and conveying municipalities give services and tell public how can they get help. In this regard municipality brings together recorded unemployed people and companies. By this they contributed economically and psychologically. As this is a constant problem in our country ,municipality’s afford can not be denied. Central administration should do something and start Ceyhan Industrial Area as soon as possible. So the problems of migrated public will be solved easier. Municipality supports public by providing their needs like coal, wood, food, medicine, stationary. While doing this people were not offended. The numbers about this was given in the "Charity market" part. To sum up municipalities are giving services in investing to provide people’s needs. For example they open bread factories, sales stores, soup kitchens, health cabins, neighborhood libraries. In most of the Ceyhan municipality social municipality work projects " Charity Market "is the evaluation of sustainability and success. In this regard it is a successful project to reach public and provide their needs and solve their problems. They provided voluntary participation in this project. REFERENCES Akdoğan, Y. (2002), "Ulusal Soruna Yerel Çözüm: Sosyal Belediyecilik", Eminönü Bülteni, Şubat Sayısı. Akdoğan, Y. (2006), "Sosyal Belediyecilik", Yerel Siyaset, Year: 1, Vol:3, March 2006, pp. 44-45. Akbaş, G. (2010), " Avrupa Birliği Toplumsal Cinsiyet Eşitliği Stratejisi", T.C. Başbakanlık Avrupa Birliği Genel Sekreterliği Sosyal, Bölgesel ve Yenilikçi Politikalar Başkanlığı, October 2010, Ankara, pp. 2. Ateş,

H. (2009), "Sosyal Belediyecilik", Çerçeve Dergisi, January, http://www.musiad.org.tr/contentimages/arastirmalaryayin/pdf/cerceve_dergisi_49.pdf date:12.08.2015.

pp.

88-95. Access

Ceyhan 2023 Kalkınma Planı, August 2013. Çelik, A. (20149, "Sosyal Belediyecilik Anlayışı: Şanlıurfa Belediyesi Örneği", Gazi Üniversitesi İktisadi İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi , S.16/1, pp.1-20. Ersöz, H.Y. (2011), "5272 Sayılı Yasa Öncesinde Türkiye' de Belediyelerin Sosyal Politika Alanındaki Deneyimleri", Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Y. 2011, C. 16, S.2, pp.323-341.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Gough, I. (2008), "Refah Devleti" , (çev. Kamil Güngör), New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Vol 4,. Henden, H.B. (2005), "Katılımcı Yerel Yönetim Anlayışında E-Belediyeciliğin Yeri ve Önemi", Uluslar arası insan Bilimleri Dergisi, ISSN: 1303-5134, pp.3. Http://www.ab.gov.tr/files/SBYPB/Sosyal%20Politika%20ve%20%C4%B0stihdam/ab_cinsiyet_esitligi_stratejis i.pdf Access date:08.08.2015. Http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Kanunlar.aspx Access date:08.08.2015. Http://sosyalpolitika.weebly.com/uploads/1/4/2/0/14207594/sosyal_politika_11.pdf Access date:09.08.2015. Https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/kanunlar_sd.sorgu_baslangic Access date:08.08.2015. Kesgin, B. (2012), "Kentsel Yoksulluğa Yönelik Yerinden ve Yerel Müdahale: Sosyal Belediyecilik", Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, August 2012, S. 26, pp.169-180. Negiz, N. (2011), "Sosyal Yardım ve Sosyal Hizmet Faaliyetleri Açısından Isparta Belediyesi: Farkındalık, Yararlanma ve Değerlenirme Açısından Bir Araştırma", Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Y. 2011, C.16, S.5, pp.323-341. OECD(2001a), Strategies for Sustainable Development-Practical Guidance for Development Cooperation. http://www.oecd.org/environment/environment-development/2669958.pdf Access date:17.08.2015. Öksüz, Ö. (2007), "Yerel Yönetimlerimizin Çoğu, Alt Yapı Açısından Yerel Sosyal Politikalar Uygulamaya Hazır ve Müsait Değil", Sosyal Politikalar Dergisi, S:2, Kış, pp. 80-90. Seyyar, A. (2008), "Sosyal Siyaset Ekseninde Yerel Özürlüler Politikası", Yerel Siyaset Dergisi, Mart 2008, pp. 80-85, http://www.yerelsiyaset.com/pdf/mart2008/18.pdf Access date:08.08.2015. Seyyar, A. (2011), "Yerel Siyasetin Gelişiminde Sosyal Politikaların Önemi", Yerel Siyaset Dergisi, Aralık 2011, pp. 30-44. Sezer, Ö. ve Önder, Ö. (2012), "Sosyal Belediyecilik Bağlamında Yerel Hizmetlere Gönüllü Katılımın İncelenmesi", AİBÜ Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 2012, Vol:12, 20.Yıl Özel Sayı, 12:255279. Tocqueville, Alexis de, "Democracy in America", Volume II, 1840. Uçaktürk, T., A. Uçaktürk ve M. Özkan (2009) "Yerel Yönetimlerde Sosyal Sorumluluk Bağlamında Sosyal Belediyecilik: Biga Belediyesi Örneği", VI. Uluslararası Sivil Toplum Kuruluşları Kongresi, Çanakkale: 18 Mart Üniversitesi. 2012 Avrupa Aktif Yaşlanma ve Nesiller Arası Dayanışma Yılı Hakkında Bilgi Notu, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Avrupa Birliği Bakanlığı, Ağustos 2011, Ankara.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

AN INTERVENTION ANALYSIS OF KYOTO PROTOCOL ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS  Mehmet Mert1, Celil Zurnacı2 1

2

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

  Abstract:The objective of this study is to analyze the impacts of Kyoto protocol, an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted in 1997 to go into effect in 2005, on greenhouse gas emissions of industrialized countries. The protocol also contains for developed country parties listed in the Annex a target for reducing the total greenhouse gases emissions 5.2% below 1990 levels until the end of 2012 at the first commitment period. The purpose of this study is to examine any significant effect of Kyoto Protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Intervention model and to estimate the carbon reduction performances of Kyoto Annex countries after the protocol went into effect. Annual carbon dioxide emissions (metric tons per capita) of 29 Annex I countries during 19602010 period have been used as data. It was observed that only 10 of 29 countries achieved the goal to reduce their carbon emissions significantly after Kyoto protocol went into effect and also the performance order of the Countries according to their performance rates were atteined for carbon dioxide reductions.  Keywords: CO2 emissions, Kyoto protocol, forecasting

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

AN INVESTIGATION ON DETERMINING FACTORS AFFECTING BODY CONDITION SCORE IN FIRST PARITY HOLSTEIN COWS  Aşkın Galiç1, Nurcan Karslıoğlu Kara2 1

[email protected] 

2

[email protected] 

Abstract:Body condition scoring is very important for monitoring of feeding programs in an effective manner. In addition, the relationship between the various traits increases the importance of body condition score.   This study was conducted to determine the effects of lactation period, calving age and calving season on body condition score in first parity Holstein cows. Fort this aim, body conditions of 107 cows were used as material. Animals were selected from a farm that is a member of the Cattle Breeders’ Association of Antalya. Animals were scored on the same day using the scale of 1-9.  The averages of first calving age and body condition score were determined as 26.81±0.52 months and 5.20±0.11, respectively. Also, it was found that averages of body condition scores at different periods of lactation were ranged from 3.78 to 7.75 which were increased with advancing lactation period. In addition, results showed that body conditions were affected by the lactation period significantly, while the effects of calving age and calving season on body condition score were not significant.  Keywords: Dairy cattle, Body condition, Herd management

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

AN OVERVIEW OF MONTE CARLO (MC) SIMULATION METHOD AND BASIC PRINCIPLES IN MEDICAL RADIATION AND RADIATION DETECTORS   Hüseyin Ozan Tekin1, Ümit Kara2, Asghar Mesbahi3 1

[email protected]  2

3

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract:Monte Carlo (MC) method is a numerical test to simulate an event by using the numbers from 0-1. Monte Carlo method in studies for optimizing the device to be used in experimental studies, or studies to be carried out before it is used extensively as experimental. Also widely used in the medical imaging field next to the particle detectors in nuclear physics studies. Monte Carlo method extensively in studies for optimizing the device to be used in experimental studies or studies to be carried out before it is used as experimental. In recent years, MC method is widely used to simulate interaction of medical radiation with tissues and environment. In this study we discussed some spesific samples along with general information. It can be concluded that MC is a powerful tool for pre-experimental studies.  Keywords: Monte Carlo Method, Medical Radiation, Radiation Detectors 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

ANALYSIS ON CURRENT LIMITING CHARACTERISTICS OF INTEGRATED THREE PHASE FLUX-LOCK TYPE SFCLS WITH FAULT TYPES    Ho-Ik Du, Gong-Hyun Hong, Byoung-Sung Han   Department of Electrical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea  [email protected], [email protected] 

    Abstract:Fault accidents in electric power system contain line-to-ground and line-to-line faults. Lineto-ground fault is a balance one and accounts for 70-80 % of the faults, whereas line-to-ground is an unbalance fault. If those fault accidents are not restricted in the beginning effectively, it will affect the other facilities in the power grid due to the occurrence of the abnormal voltage in sound phases. In this study, an integrated three phase flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter(SFCL) was proposed for the protection from the line-to-ground and line-to-line faults. Two types of the integrated three phase flux-lock type SFCL, made by additive polarity winding and subtractive polarity winding connections, were applied to the simulation. From the analysis, we could find out that the SFCL with additive polarity winding showed better performance than the one with subtractive polarity winding.  Keywords: Additive polarity winding, Subtractive polarity winding, Fault accidents, Flux-lock type, Superconducting fault current limiter

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

ANALYZING EFFICIENCIES AND TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITIES OF STAR ALLIANCE MEMBER AIRLINES 1

Yağmur ÖZ, 2Can Deniz KÖKSAL 1 [email protected],  2 [email protected] Akdeniz University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Department of Business Antalya – TURKEY

Abstract: Comparing the efficiency levels and productivities of domestic and international airline companies is an active research area in services sector and has lots of interests in business administration field. In this study, Data Envelopment Analysis and Total Factor Productivity Analysis are used to compare the efficiencies and productivities of Star Alliance member international airline companies. Eight variables, including both inputs and outputs named as Number of Annual Passengers, Daily Departures, Number of Countries Served, Number of Airports Served, Revenue Passenger (Km), Sales Revenue ($), Number of Employees and Fleet of 26 airline companies are taken place in analysis for the years 2013 and 2014. Because of price differences in access the resources of services and goods that the companies used, the Variable Returns to Scale Method of Data Envelopment Analysis is used instead of Constant Returns to Scale Method to figure out efficiencies in years. Results show that there are differences in efficiencies and productivities of airline companies by the means of using their inputs to produce outputs while some of them are wasting their resource and some others are not.

INTRODUCTION Efficiency in the services sectors is getting much more significant issue in global trade year by year. As one of the most and rapid growing establishments in global service sector, the domestic and international airline companies have the pioneering role as in Turkey and in the world. Airline companies which are operated singular or operated as the member of an alliance group still are in the competition in locally and globally. The growing demand to this service sector creates the difficulties and makes the expenses of operating facilities higher under the competitive stress. Therefore, yearly and continuously, the efficiencies of these companies have growing importance by investors, creditors, business partners, and the governments. It is also have great importance from the view point of the airline’s management, so they can gauge their own performance and compare it against other airline companies. Operated domestic or/and international, it is the responsibility of every organization to allocate, monitor and evaluate their annual expenditure and service delivery. For this reason, in this study, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Total Factor Productivity Index (TFPI) are the generating mechanisms for efficiency scores and methodology for seeking sources of inefficiency of each and following operating year. Numerous studies have adopted DEA technique in the field of airline operations, mainly focusing on airline management and airport operation (Chiou and Chen, 2006). The main reason to select DEA technique is that it is easily applicable in many situations where the inputs and outputs cannot be converted to a common scale, as is the case here (Barros and Peypoch, 2009). And as a computational detail, the Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) Method of Data Envelopment Analysis is used instead of Constant Returns to Scale (CRS) Method to figure out efficiencies in years, because of price differences in access the resources of services and goods that the companies used. This study aims to identify the inputs which are used inefficient by the inefficient airlines and to advice them how to be efficient by adopting the scales of efficient airlines. The structure of the study is organized as follows: Airline Industry as an Alliance, Literature Survey, Data Envelopment Analysis for Efficiency Measurement, Theoretical Model, Data and Results, Conclusion and References.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   THE STUDY Airline Industry as an Alliance: Domestic and International passenger airlines are a critical mode of transportation and play an important role in modern society. As an alliance within the concept of airline industry, the Star Alliance network is the leading global airline network, with the highest number of member airlines, daily flights, destinations and countries flown to. It was established in 1997 as the first truly global airline alliance to offer customers convenient worldwide reach and a smoother travel experience. In 1997, a group of five worldclass airlines united to create something never seen before - an alliance that brings together networks, lounge access, check-in services, ticketing and dozens of other services to improve the travel experience for customers, wherever they are in the world. Star Alliance Services GmbH was created to manage the Star Alliance network on behalf of its members. It was the first alliance in the world to create this type of organization. The team is based in Frankfurt, Germany and is made up of around 70 employees from over 20 different countries. Having the mission of “Executing leadership in managing a portfolio of alliance products and services using an agreed process” Star Alliance member airlines fly to more destinations than any other airline alliance in the world – which means easier travel and quicker connections. The main goal has always been to make your travel experience smoother. To achieve this, Star Alliance member airlines are located closer together in airports and connections teams are installed for faster transfers. Common airport facilities, coordinating schedules and a range of new technologies are also frequently introduced. The member airlines of the Star Alliance network are among the most respected in the world. In order to become members, all airlines must comply with the highest industry standards of customer service, security and technical infrastructure. Together, they offer convenient and comfortable travel to almost any destination in the world. Its acceptance by the market has been recognized by numerous awards, including the Air Transport World Market Leadership Award and Best Airline Alliance by both Business Traveller Magazine and Skytrax. The member airlines are: Adria Airways, Aegean Airlines, Air Canada, Air China, Air India, Air New Zealand, ANA, Asiana Airlines, Austrian, Avianca, Avianca in Brazil, Brussels Airlines, Copa Airlines, Croatia Airlines, EGYPTAIR, Ethiopian Airlines, EVA Air, LOT Polish Airlines, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways, SWISS, TAP Portugal, Turkish Airlines, THAI and United (http://www.staralliance.com/en/about/organisation). Table-1: Some Statistical Figures of Star Alliance as Combined by the End of 2014 Total revenue

179.05 BUSD

Revenue Passenger Km

1,364.83 bn

Daily departures

More than 18.500

Annual Passengers

641.10 m

Countries served

192

Number of employees

432,603

Airports served

1330

Fleet (Number of Aircraft)

4,657

Lounges

More than 1000

Source: http://www.staralliance.com/en/about/member_airlines/

Literature Survey Related with the Airline Industry Efficiencies: Up to now, many studies on Airline Industry have been conducted and published with academic purposes. Some most recent of them published by the year 2010 are listed as given chronological order including author, number of Decision Making Units (DMU’s), study periods, methodology used, remarks and focuses: Hong and Zhang (2010): 29 international airlines, 1998-02, Standard DEA, Airlines with high share of cargo business are significantly more efficient. Merkert and Hensher (2011): 58 international airlines, 2007-09, Standard DEA and Bootstrapped Tobit Regression, Size of airlines and fleet mix decisions have an impact on technical efficiency. Zhu (2011): 21 US airlines, 2007-08, Two-stage network DEA Multi-stage network DEA models provide deeper insight into functioning of an airline. Assaf and Josiassen (2012): 31 European and US airlines, 2001-08, Bayesian Distance Frontier Model, European airlines have slightly higher efficiency and productivity growth than US airlines. Barros and Couto (2013): 23 European airlines, 200011, Luenberger Productivity Index and Malmquist Productivity Index, Managerial causes of technical efficiency may be due to variations in the strategies adopted by the different airlines. Barros et al. (2013): 10 US airlines, 1998-10, B-convex Model, Efficiency can be influenced by the size of the airline, mergers, and acquisitions. Choi et al. (2013): 12 US airlines, 2008-11, Service quality-adjusted DEA and Mann-Whitney test, SQ-DEA places a greater emphasis on service quality as a factor that relates to service productivity.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Airlines can overcome the tradeoff between quality and productivity. Arjomandi and Seufert (2014): 48 international airlines, 2007-10, Bootstrapped DEA, Low-cost carriers are operating under increasing returns to scale. Tavassoli et al. (2014): 11 Middle Eastern airlines, 2010, Slacks-Based Measure (SBM), network DEA Deals with shared inputs and outputs with selected weights. Wu and Liao (2014): 38 international airlines, 2010, Standard DEA and Balance Score Card (BSC), Leading and lagging factors of BSC were adapted to the evaluation of operational performance of airlines along with DEA. Chang et al. (2014): 27 international airlines, 2010, SlacksBased Measure (SBM), DEA Trade-offs between labor and capital measures poses a challenge. Fuel consumption and revenue structure are major causes of inefficient airlines. Lee and Worthington (2014): 42 US and European airlines, 2001-05, Bootstrapped DEA and Bootstrapped Truncated Regression, DEA scores are estimated simultaneously with a bootstrapped truncated regression model to explain efficiency drivers. Large airlines need to significantly reorganize and rescale their operations to remain competitive. Lu et al. (2014): 30 US airlines, 2010, Two-stage network DEA, Two-stage network model examines production and marketing efficiencies. Data Envelopment Analysis for Efficiency Measurement: The technique, which is referred to as DEA, is able to compare the efficiency of multiple service units that provide similar services by considering their use of multiple inputs and to produce multiple outputs (Bosetti, Cassinelli & Lanza, 2003). Besides being more comprehensive and reliable than a set of operating ratios or profit measures, the DEA measure has the ability to incorporate multiple inputs and multiple outputs into both the numerator and denominator of the efficiency ratio without the need for converting to a common scale basis (Fitzsimmons & Fitzsimmons, 1998). DEA is a linear programming model that attempts to maximize a service unit’s efficiency with the performance of a group of similar service units that are delivering the same service. In the process, some units achieve 100% efficiency and are referred to as the relatively efficient units, whereas other units with efficiency scores of less than 100% are referred to as inefficient ones (Norman & Stoker, 1991). Efficiency is defined as the ratio of weighted sum of outputs to weighted sum of inputs in the model and components of this model can be explained as follows (Metters, Frei & Vargas, 1999):    Efficiency = Weighted Sum of Outputs / Weighted Sum of Inputs       Efficiency of Unit ( j ) = (u1.y1j + u2.y2j + …) /(v1.x1j + v2.x2j + …)        Variables in equation indicate;  u1 = weight of output i    y1j = quantity of output‐1 derived from unit j  v1 = weight of input j   x1j = quantity of input‐1 used by unit j 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   An efficiency model simplified as the above equation can be solved as a Linear Program by means of the following maximization approach (Yolalan, 1993).   s

   

Max hk = 



u rk .Y rk  

r 1

   

 

 

Subject to;   

s

   



m

u rk .Y rj ‐

r 1

        

 

   





v ik . X ij  0;           

i 1

 

for k and j = 1,2,..., n        Decision Making Units 

m

vik . Xik = 1      

 

 

Weighted Sum of Inputs Set to Unity 

i 1

       

   

   

U rk       0   ; r = 1, 2, ..., s   Outputs  V ik       0   ; i = 1, 2, ..., m    Inputs 

DEA evaluates the relative efficiency of organizational units, called decision making units (DMUs), with multiple inputs and outputs (Charnes et al., 1978). DEA is a linear programming based non-parametric methodology and treats each DMU as a black box, focusing entirely on the DMU's inputs, outputs, and its relative efficiency. Each DMU converts a specific level of each input into a specific level of output under appropriate assumptions. The two main DEA model assumptions are model orientation and returns-to-scale (Charnes et al., 1994; Cook et al., 2014). DEA models commonly are either input or output oriented (Cook et al., 2014) and input oriented models seek to reduce inputs while the output oriented models seek to increase outputs (Sarkis, 2007). To achieve high operational efficiency of domestic and international airlines, the airline managers must seek to reduce inputs and increase outputs simultaneously (Forsyth et al., 1986; Hirst, 2008). Variable Returns to Scale Assumption: In economics, returns to scale and economies of scale are related but different terms that describe what happens as the scale of production increases in the long run, when all input levels including physical capital usage are variable (chosen by the firm). The term returns to scale arises in the context of a firm's production function. It explains the behavior of the rate of increase in output (production) relative to the associated increase in the inputs (the factors of production) in the long run. In the long run all factors of production are variable and subject to change due to a given increase in size (scale). While economies of scale show the effect of an increased output level on unit costs, returns to scale focus only on the relation between input and output quantities. The laws of returns to scale are a set of three interrelated and sequential laws: Law of Increasing Returns to Scale, Law of Constant Returns to Scale, and Law of Diminishing returns to Scale. If output increases by that same proportional change as all inputs change then there are constant returns to scale (CRS). If output increases by less than that proportional change in inputs, there are decreasing returns to scale (DRS). If output increases by more than that proportional change in inputs, there are increasing returns to scale (IRS). A firm's production function could exhibit different types of returns to scale in different ranges of output. Typically, there could be increasing returns at relatively low output levels, decreasing returns at relatively high output levels, and constant returns at one output level between those ranges (Zelenyuk, 2014). In mainstream microeconomics, the returns to scale faced by a firm are purely technologically imposed and are not influenced by economic decisions or by market conditions (i.e., conclusions about returns to scale are derived from the specific mathematical structure of the production function in isolation) (Gelles, Gregory M.; Mitchell, Douglas W., 1996). Total Factor Productivity Index: In economics, total-factor productivity (TFP), also called multi-factor productivity, is a variable which accounts for effects in total output not caused by traditionally measured inputs of labor and capital. If all inputs are accounted for, then TFP can be taken as a measure of an economy’s long-term technological change or technological dynamism. TFP cannot be measured directly. Instead it is a residual, often called the Solow residual, which accounts for effects in total output not caused by inputs.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   The equation below (in Cobb–Douglas form) represents total output (Y) as a function of total-factor productivity (A), capital input (K), labor input (L), and the two inputs' respective shares of output (α and β are the capital input share of contribution for K and L respectively). An increase in either A, K or L will lead to an increase in output. While capital and labor input are tangible, TFP appears to be more intangible as it can range from technology to knowledge of worker (human capital).

Technology growth and efficiency are regarded as two of the biggest sub-sections of Total Factor Productivity, the former possessing "special" inherent features such as positive externalities and non-rivalness which enhance its position as a driver of economic growth. Total Factor Productivity is often seen as the real driver of growth within an economy and studies reveal that whilst labor and investment are important contributors, Total Factor Productivity may account for up to 60% of growth within economies. TFP is more accurately measured in long term, since TFP can vary substantially from one year to another. It has been shown that there is a historical correlation between TFP and energy conversion efficiency (Machek, 2012). Theoretical Model: The theoretical model of this study aims to seek the sources of inefficiency by analyzing the efficiency measurements and total factor productivity scores for each Star Alliance member airline year by year and within the upcoming time periods. The airline efficiency model consists of from four input and four output variables. Table 2 depicts the airline operating efficiency model by its input and output variables including 26 airline companies within the body of Star Alliance. The input variables used in this study are the capital assets of an airline company. By using them an airline company wants to increase the number and the value of its outputs. Table 2: Input and Output Variables for Efficiency Evaluation of Airline Companies

Inputs (Xi) X1: Fleet (Number of Aircrafts)

Outputs (Yj) Y1: Number of Annual Passengers (x 1.000)

X2: Number of Employees

Y2: Daily Departures

X3: Number of Airports Served

Y3: Revenue Passenger (Miles)* ( x 1.000.000)

X4: Number of Countries Served

Y4: Sales Revenue ($) (x 1.000.000)

*Revenue Passenger Miles: RPM are measures of traffic for an airline flight, bus or train calculated by multiplying the number of revenue-paying passengers aboard the vehicle by the distance traveled. RPM can be considered the basic amount of "production" that an airline creates. In other words, RPM are defined as a summation of the products of available seat miles (ASM) between two destinations and the number of revenue passengers served on that trip. RPM represent the service demand of an airline. ASM and RPM are perishable quantities, meaning that they are nonstorable and must be used instantaneously. ASM and RPM are the two vital indicators that measure the relevant operational performance of an airline. Methodology and Data: In this study, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used as the analysis technique for a number of reasons, including the fact that; there is no restriction on the types of variables which can be included in the analysis. In DEA studies, variables can be measured in different units and there is no need to convert them into a common scale, as is the case here. The proposed model has parameters with different units of measurement such as USA Dollar, Revenue Passenger Miles, number of aircrafts and number of passengers, etc. In this study, we also applied the VRS assumption instead of CRS while there are no fixed or standardized market prices for some of these quantities. The data for this study was obtained from the Star Alliance web site for the years 2013 and 2014 including the 26 of 28 airline companies which’s data were available for both years. In this organization the member airline companies update their basic data twice a year.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   FINDINGS The determination of each airline company’s efficiency for year 2013 and for 2014 is done by applying input oriented and Variable Returns to Scale DEA model separately. The inputs and outputs values and technical efficiency scores are showed in Table 3 as a whole. Sectoral slacks are and annual efficiency means are also given at the bottom line of the related table. The brand names of Decision Making Units (DMU’s) are named as given below;

DMU01: Adria Airways DMU02: Aegean Airlines DMU03: Air Canada

DMU10: Brussels Airlines DMU11: Copa Airlines DMU12: Croatia Airlines

DMU04: Air China DMU05: Air New Zealand DMU06: All Nippon AirwaysANA DMU07: Asiana Airlines

DMU13: EGYPTAIR DMU14: Ethiopian Airlines DMU15: EVA Air

DMU08: Austrian DMU09: Avianca

DMU19: Shenzhen Airlines DMU20: Singapore Airlines DMU21: South African Airways DMU22: SWISS DMU23: TAP Portugal DMU24: THAI

DMU16: LOT Polish DMU25: Turkish Airlines THY DMU17: Lufthansa DMU26: United DMU18: Scandinavian Airlines

Airlines-

As it is seen from Table-3, which also contains input and output variables used in the analysis, 14 airline companies out of 26 were found technically efficient in years 2013 and 2014, respectively. Together with this, only 12 airline companies out of 14 efficient ones were found technically efficient in both years. This means %85 of them kept their relative efficiency for both years. Related with this, the average efficiency scores for these years are 0,919 and 0,910, respectively by showing a slight decrease from year 2013 to year 2014. According to the efficiency score means, the Star Alliance Group has % 9 inefficiency while it can be gained with a proper operational management. Another question can be asked as; “Which airline company is more successful among all?” The answer is not clear at first but, when the results are evaluated together, the airline companies which are found efficient in both years and which’s TFP index scores over 1,000 can be sorted out as the successful ones. Only three airline companies with names “All Nippon Airways-ANA”, “Singapore Airlines” and “Turkish Airlines-THY” provide abovementioned conditions. And, we need to look out their peer counts to find out the most successful one among best three. As a final decision, Singapore Airlines was chosen as the number one airline company by its operational capability, because it has more total peer counts (19) than All Nippon Airways-ANA (12) and Turkish AirlinesTHY (1). Ethiopian Airlines has the worst technical efficiency scores (0,449 and 0,467 for the years 2013 and 2014, respectively) among all despite its TFP index is shown 1,161. All in all, the airline managers can use the reference values of efficient airline companies as given the outputs of the DEA analysis to reduce their input values while keeping the volume and quantity of their output values in order to be efficient as the peer one(s). To do that, they also have to understand the policies and operating capabilities of the efficient ones. It is also mentioned that the airlines which operate in areas where the population is dense and world trade has main attraction could be the potential successful airlines in the future.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 3: Data and Analysis Results of Star Alliance Member Airline Companies for the years 2013 and 2014 Airline

Year

Y1

Y2

(1.000)

Y4

X1

X2

X3

X4

TE ( VRS )

Peer Counts

TFP ( Index ) 0.986

Adria Airways

2013

1160

54

1220

228

13

400

18

17

1,000

5

2014

1030

54

1060

181

10

405

18

16

1,000

6

Aegean Airlines

2013

6100

195

6990

849

30

1347

75

21

1,000

7

2014

6900

210

7810

849

36

1357

120

33

1,000

5

Air Canada

2013

35000

1530

89600

12100

351

27000

179

45

0,960

0

2014

35800

1500

88500

11900

364

27000

186

48

0,917

0

Air China

2013

48680

900

95230

16030

301

25269

145

29

1,000

1

2014

51010

900

103060

16090

316

25830

154

31

0,995

0

Air New Zealand

2013

13300

574

27000

3900

103

11000

54

16

1,000

5

2014

13700

523

28080

3700

104

11000

51

16

1,000

0

All Nippon Airways-ANA

2013

45000

1000

62500

15800

232

33000

78

14

1,000

3

2014

46000

950

65530

16000

241

14000

87

16

1,000

9

Asiana Airlines

2013

15000

260

31200

5080

79

10381

71

23

0,972

0

2014

17000

260

32800

5720

84

10183

75

24

1,000

2

2013

11500

400

17950

2690

77

6236

130

57

0,888

0

2014

11300

370

17710

2069

80

6108

130

56

0,808

0

2013

23100

568

29100

4300

143

15400

85

18

0,866

0

2014

24600

710

31200

4600

165

19000

100

26

0,862

0

Brussels Airlines

2013

6000

240

5370

1310

43

3500

70

40

0,891

0

2014

6000

240

9770

1440

45

3500

78

39

0,889

0

Copa Airlines

2013

7140

327

20100

2250

86

8240

65

29

0,732

0

2014

11600

333

25300

2600

98

9484

69

30

0,676

0

Croatia Airlines

2013

1950

80

1440

303

12

1071

25

16

1,000

6

2014

1800

80

1320

288

12

973

32

18

1,000

5

2013

8300

250

17600

2000

81

8000

80

64

0,576

0

2014

8400

128

17760

1800

81

9000

78

52

0,553

0

Ethiopian Airlines

2013

4600

63

13200

1900

58

6557

85

52

0,449

0

2014

6000

190

21300

2400

77

8066

89

63

0,467

0

EVA Air

2013

7500

104

26000

2200

61

6292

63

18

0,910

0

2014

8902

137

28000

2598

67

7815

65

18

0,929

0

LOT Polish Airlines

2013

5000

240

7290

1010

37

1700

52

34

1,000

7

2014

5000

210

7290

1010

35

1700

46

32

1,000

3

2013

74740

1886

149780

22630

360

40622

218

82

1,000

9

2014

76300

2086

149780

17260

430

40622

235

78

1,000

2

Scandinavian Airlines

2013

25500

781

27800

5750

156

14100

101

34

0,995

0

2014

27100

785

30700

5940

142

12548

123

34

1,000

6

Shenzhen Airlines

2013

18300

475

26400

3000

104

10052

67

3

1,000

4

2014

21350

620

31770

3210

141

13660

67

5

1,000

3

Singapore Airlines

2013

18200

220

93760

11930

102

14156

62

34

1,000

7

2014

18200

621

95060

9200

105

14628

60

33

1,000

12

South African Airways

2013

6500

150

21500

3000

51

10868

42

30

0,781

0

2014

7000

165

23100

3000

52

9273

39

27

0,809

0

SWISS

2013 2014

15800 15970

420 400

33500 35100

5180 5170

92 90

8067 8250

74 84

38 40

1,000 0,943

0 0

TAP Portugal

2013

10170

320

25960

3190

71

7055

77

34

0,867

0

2014

10700

350

28150

3070

77

6889

88

38

0,799

0

2013

20620

270

60680

6940

95

25412

76

34

1,000

2

2014 2013

21510 39050

284 845

63480 74400

6420 7980

101 233

25323 15857

79 245

34 105

1,000 1,000

1 0

2014 2013

46160 140000

1168 5300

89960 331000

9560 37200

260 1265

19658 88000

264 368

108 62

1,000 1,000

1 3

2014

140000

5100

330000

38300

1265

85000

374

59

1,000

2

Austrian Avianca

EGYPTAIR

Lufthansa

THAI Turkish Airlines-THY United

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Y3

(1.000.000) (1.000.000)

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0.967 0.963 1.023 0.930 1.258

1.061 0.901 0.992

0.969 0.942 0.983

0.923 1.161 1.009

0.959 0.957 1.056 0.844 1.064 1.041 0.995 1.010 0.970 1.048 1.000

82

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   CONCLUSIONS The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the relative operating efficiencies of the Star Alliance group member airlines using their panel data for the years 2013 and 2014. This study also investigates whether there is a difference between consecutive years. We achieved that by applying the DEA method with its Variable Returns the Scale (VRS) assumption and Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index (TFPI) to reveal these things mentioned. By doing that, this research intends to figure out the relative efficiency conditions of member airline companies in a competitive business environment. The main constraint of this study is that the data issued by the companies asynchronously. Therefore, the results should be examined carefully by the operational managers and policy makers. It is also advised that the derived results should not be used immediately at the tactical levels by the management of the inefficient airline companies. Due to the panel data used in this study is limited to 2 years; it is advised to use a broader time period for a reliable study outcome for the further studies on this area. Finally, airline companies which carry more passengers, depart more (frequent) and have more RPK, while they use aircrafts with more passenger capacity, employ fewer staff, own fewer aircraft and serve fewer number of countries are the potential candidates for efficiency. REFERENCES Arjomandi, A. & Seufert, J.H. (2014). An evaluation of the world's major airlines' technical and environmental performance (pp. 133-144). Econ. Model 41. Assaf, A.G. & Josiassen, A. (2012). European vs. US airlines: performance comparison in a dynamic market (pp. 317-326). Tourism Management 33. Barros, C.P. & Peypoch, N. (2009). An evaluation of European airlines’ operational performance (pp.525-533). International Journal of Production Economics 122. Barros, C.P. & Couto, E. (2013). Productivity analysis of European airlines, 2000-2011 (pp.11-13). Journal of Air Transport Management 31. Barros, C.P., Liang, Q.B. & Peypoch, N. (2013). The technical efficiency of US airlines (pp.139-148). Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 50. Bosetti, V., Cassinelli, M. & Lanza, A. (2003). Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Evaluate Environmentally Conscious Tourism Management, Conference for Tourism and Sustainable Development. Chang, Y.-T., Park, H.-S., Jeong, J.-B. & Lee, J.-W. (2014). Evaluating economic and environmental efficiency of global airlines: a SBM-DEA approach (pp.46-50). Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 27. Charnes, A., Cooper, W.W. & Rhodes, E. (1978). Measuring the efficiency of decision making units (pp.429-444). European Journal of Operational Research 2. Charnes, F., Cooper, W.W., Lewin, A.Y. & Seiford, L.M. (1994). Data Envelopment Analysis: Theory, Methodology, and Application. Kluwer Academic. Chiou, Y.-C. & Chen, Y.-H. (2006). Route-Based Performance Evaluation of Taiwanese Domestic Airlines Using Data Envelopment Analysis (pp.116-127). Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 42(2). Choi, K., Lee, D. & Olson, D.L. (2013). Service quality and productivity in the US airline industry: a service quality-adjusted DEA model (pp.1-24). Service Business. Cook, W.D., Tone, K. & Zhu, J. (2014). Data envelopment analysis: prior to choosing a model (pp.1-4). Omega 44. Fitzsimons, J. A. & Fitzsimmons, M. J. (1998). Service Management Operations, Strategy and Information Technology, New York, Irwin McGraw-Hill. Forsyth, P.J., Hill, R. & Trengove, C. (1986). Measuring airline efficiency (pp.61-81). Fiscal Studies 7 Gelles, Gregory M. & Mitchell, Douglas W. (1996). Returns to scale and economies of scale: Further observations (pp. 259–261). Journal of Economic Education 27 (3). Hirst, M. (2008). The Air Transport System. Library of Flight, Virginia. Hong, S. & Zhang, A. (2010). An efficiency study of airlines and air cargo/passenger divisions: a DEA approach (pp. 137-149). World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research 3. Lee, B.L. & Worthington, A.C. (2014). Technical efficiency of mainstream airlines and low-cost carriers: new evidence using bootstrap data envelopment analysis truncated regression (pp. 15-20). Journal of Air Transport Management 38. Lu, W.-M., Hung, S.-W., Kweh, Q.L., Wang, W.-K. & Lu, E.-T. (2014). Production and marketing efficiencies of the U.S. airline industry: a two-stage network DEA approach (pp.537-567). In: Cook, W.D., Zhu, J. (Eds.), Data

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Envelopment Analysis. Springer, New York. Machek O. (2012). Data Issues in Total Factor Productivity Benchmarking: A Central European Perspective (pp. 224-230). The Annals of the University of Oradea. Economic Sciences 21. Merkert, R. & Hensher, D.A. (2011). The impact of strategic management and fleet planning on airline efficiency-a random effects Tobit model based on DEA efficiency scores (pp.686-695). Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 45. Metters, R.D., Frei, F.X. & Vargas, V.A. (1999). Measurement of multiple sites in Service Firms with Data Envelopment Analysis. Production and Operation Management 3. Norman , M. & Stoker, B. (1991). Data Envelopment Analysis, The Assessment of Performance, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey. Sarkis, J. (2007). Preparing Your Data for DEA, Modeling Data Irregularities and Structural Complexities in Data Envelopment Analysis (pp.305-320). Springer. Star Alliance. (2015, August 20). Star Alliance Services GmbH. Retrieved from http://www.staralliance.com/en/about/organisation Star Alliance. (2015, August 20). Travel the World with Star Alliance Network. Retrieved from http://www.staralliance.com/en/about/member_airlines/ Tavassoli, M., Faramarzi, G.R. & Farzipoor Saen, R. (2014). Efficiency and effectiveness in airline performance using a SBM-NDEA model in the presence of shared input (pp.146-153). Journal of Air Transport Management. Wu, W.-Y. & Liao, Y.-K. (2014). A balanced scorecard envelopment approach to assess airlines' performance (pp.123-143). Industrial Management & Data Systems Journal 114. Yolalan, R. (1993). Isletmeler Arası Göreli Etkinlik Olçümü, MPM Yayinlari No: 483. Ankara. Zelenyuk V. (2014). Scale efficiency and homotheticity: equivalence of primal and dual measures (pp.15-24). Journal of Productivity Analysis 42(1). Zhu, J. (2011). Airlines performance via two-stage network DEA approach (pp.260-269). J. CENTRUM Cathedra 4.

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ANEMİ VE TÜRLERİNİN TEŞHİSİNDE VERİ MADENCİLİĞİ TEKNİKLERİNİN KULLANIMI  Ertuğrul Ergün1, Asiye Betül Ciga2, Göksenin Ünlügüzel Üstün3 1

[email protected]  2

3

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Özet:Veri madenciliği teknikleri son yıllarda büyük miktarda veri üretilen hemen her alanda kullanılmaktadır. İnsan algısının bazı detayları kaçırma olasılığına karşın gözden kaçan detayların tespit edilip hastalıkların teşhisi, erken teşhis ve tedavi sürecindeki değişiklikler veri madenciliği yaklaşımı ile daha olası hale gelmiştir.  Bu araştırmada; bir kamu hastanesinin altı aylık laboratuvar verileriyle; bilinen ve az sayıdaki tetkikle yapılan çalışmalardan farklı olarak, daha fazla biyokimya tetkik değerleri analizlere eklenerek anemi ve türlerinin teşhisinde etkin rolü olan parametrelerin tespit edilmesi için modeller oluşturulmuştur. Anemi ve sınıflandırmasında istenilen test kalabalığı içerisinde tanıyı gözden kaçırmamaya yardımcı olmak amacıyla sağlık alanında veri madenciliği çalışması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Modellemede WEKA açık kaynak veri madenciliği programı kullanılmış olup, sınıflandırma algoritmaları tek tek uygulanarak sonuçlar karışılaştırılmış ve en yüksek performans değerine sahip sınıflandırma algoritmalarının trees.J48 ile rules.PART algoritmaları olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kümeleme analizi sonuçlarından FilteredClusterer kümeleme algoritmasının veri seti ile %100 uyumlu olduğu görülmüştür. Tertius birliktelik kuralları uzman görüşü ile doğrulanırken, veri setindeki kısıtlamalardan dolayı FilteredAssociator birliktelik analizlerinin ve karar ağaçlarından elde edilen kuralların pratikte tam olarak doğru ve kullanılabilir olmadığı görülmüştür.  Keywords: Veri madenciliği, Anemi, Anemi Türleri, WEKA

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ARA ELEMAN YETİŞTİREN MYO’ LARDAN SEKTÖRÜN BEKLENTİLERİ Selim Bacak1, Ümit Kara2, Alper Tongal3 1

[email protected] 2

3

[email protected]

[email protected]

Özet:Türkiye de Üniversite eğitimi ile mesleki eğitimin önemi kıyaslandığında, mesleki eğitimin her zaman daha geri planda kalmıştır. Bu gerçekten yola çıkılarak Sektör - Üniversite işbirliği sürekli olarak gündeme gelmektedir. Bazı bölgelerde sektörler kendi ara elemanlarını kendileri yetiştirmek adına iş garantili ön lisans eğitimi veren okullar açmaktadırlar. Buda göstermektedir ki sektördeki firmaların istediği kalitede kalifiyeli ara eleman MYO ‘ların bir çoğunda imkansızlıklar dan dolayı yetiştirilememektedir. Türkiye de 650'ın üzerinde MYO ve yaklaşık 700.000 civarında öğrencisi bulunan mesleki eğitimde, ara eleman olarak yetiştirilen ve sektörün ihtiyacını karşılaması beklenen ön lisans öğrencilerinin birçoğu mezun olduktan sonra alanları dışında işlerde çalışmak zorunda kalmaktadırlar. Keywords: MYO, mesleki eğitim, sektörel problemler

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE IN SIX BROWN LAYER LINES BY MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  Taki Karslı1, Mrat Soner Balcıoglu2 1

[email protected]  2

[email protected] 

Abstract:The aim of this study were to determine genetic diversity and population structure in six brown layer chicken lines [two Rhode Island Red (RIRI and RIRII) lines, two Barred Ploymouth Rock (BARI and BARII) lines, Colombian Rock (COL) and Line-54 (L-54)] by using twenty two microsatellite markers. A total of 180 chicken including 30 from each purebred line were used. A total of 233 alleles were observed and all microsatellite loci were polymorphic. The mean of number alleles per locus was 10.591±4.886. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.309 (RIRII) to 0.496 (BARII), the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.540 (RIRII) to 0.645 (RIRI), the inbreeding coefficients ranged from 0.167 (BARII) to 0.443 (RIRII) and PIC values ranged from 0.487 (RIRII) to 0.587 (RIRI) per line. These findings indicated homozygous excess and severe inbreeding in six lines. Pairwise Fst value between pairs of lines ranged from 0.115 to 0.352. The lowest pairwise Fst value (0.115) was between BARI and BARII lines. These values show the genetic differentiation between studied populations. Phylogenetic tree (NJ) constructed using genetic distance (D), Bayesian modelbased clustering on multilocus genotypes of individuals and Factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) indicates four genetic clusters consistent with genetic origin of lines (first group RIRI and RIRII lines; second group BARI and BARII lines; third group L-54 line and the last group COL line). Results from this study showed that microsatellite markers very useful for determination of genetic diversity and populations structure in purebred chicken lines.  Keywords: Chicken lines; microsatellite; genetic diversity; population structure

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

ASSESSMENT OF PAIN MANAGEMENT IN ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE  Berrin Okka [email protected] 

  Abstract:In medicine, pain relates to a sensation that hurts and comes as the most uncomfortable problem of patients that affects the quality of life of patients. It is a physical, psychological and social subject that affects not only the patient but also the relatives of the patient. Treatment of pain can be considered as hard and complex by health professionals.   The ethics of pain management has begun to receive more attention from physicians and researchers in recent years.   The aim of this paper is to discuss the ethical principles in pain treatment.  Keywords: Medical ethics, pain management, ethical principles

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88

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF DIATOMITE AND PUMICE IN STONE MASTIC ASPHALT AS STABILIZER  Bekir Aktaş1, Şevket Aslan2 1 2

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract:Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) began to be preferred recently because of its better resistance to rutting due to slow, heavy and high volume of traffic. Structure of SMA consists of high coarse aggregate, high asphalt contents and fiber additives as stabilizers. The stabilizing additives generally composed of cellulose fibers, mineral fibers or polymers are added to SMA mixtures to prevent draindown from the mixture. In this study, usability of ditomite and pumice are investigated in SMA as stabilizer. Initially, Marshall samples of SMA mixtures with cellulose fibers with varying binder content are prepared. The optimum binder content is determined keeping the suggested air void content in the mix. Thereafter, the draindown characteristics are studied with ditomite and pumice added SMA mixtures. It is observed that there is a high possibility use of 0.25 % diatomite and 0.20 % pumice in SMA at determined optimum binder as stabilizer.   Keywords: Stone Mastic Asphalt, Diatomite, Pumice, Draindown

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89

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF CONFUSABLE SETS IN SMART SPELL CHECKING FOR KOREAN LEARNERS OF ENGLISH  Jee Eun Kim1, Kong Joo Lee2 1

[email protected] 

2

[email protected] 

Abstract:This paper presents an automatically generated English confusable word set to be used for smart spell checking. A confusable set includes pairs or subsets of frequently misused English words. When Koreans learn English as L2, they produce various types of errors, some of which are caused by negative language transfer. The language system of Korean interferes with English which results in creating a peculiar system. In particular, Korean and English present distinct phonetic and phonemic inventories from each other. The distinctions influence not only the pronunciation of a word, but also its spelling. For certain types of spelling errors, smarter suggestions can be provided when a confusable set is modified for Korean learners. The Double Metaphone algorithm is adopted and revised to implement the phonetic and phonemic properties of Korean. The result is used to automatically generate a confusable set which provides customized suggestions to be used in spell checking.   Keywords: Double Metaphone, confusable words, spell checking, usage errors, phonemic distinctions

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90

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

BİLGİSAYAR PROGRAMLAMANIN KOLAY ÖĞRENİMİ İÇİN, BENZETİM VE ÖRNEKLEME MODELLERİNİN C DİLİ ÜZERİNDE İNCELENMESİ Faruk SENTÜRK Pamukkale Üniversitesi, Bilgisayar ve Öğretim Teknolojileri Eğitimi bölümü, Kınıklı-Denizli E-posta: [email protected]

Giriş Bilgisayar Programlama derslerinde değişkenler, döngüler, dizinler, If gibi genel yapıları başlangıçta anlama ve anlatma, hem çok zor olmakta, hemde uzun zaman almaktadır. Bu kavramlar anlaşıldıktan sonra ise, ileri programlama veya görsel programlama veya farklı programlama dillerini öğrenmek daha hızlı, daha kolay, daha anlaşılabilir olmaktadır. Bu kavramlar anlatılırken, öğrenci yeni öğrenmeye çalıştığı bilgileri, ya matematik gibi diğer alanlar ile ilişkisellik oluşturarak öğrenmeye veya ezberleme yöntemi ile öğrenmeye çalışmaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Programlama, Benzeşim, C dili

Normal Değişkenlerin kullanılması Bir değişkene program içerisinden değer girişi C dili program kodu örneği (Zidar ,1983:3)

#include #include main() { int a; a=4; printf(" Deger..:%d",a); printf("\n\n Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız"); getch(); }

 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

Program çalışması

Deger..: 4 Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız

Benzetim (İnan ve Demirli, 2003)

a kutusu

“a

değişkenini bir kutuya benzetiyoruz ,,

 Boş değişken veya boş kutu oluşması  

int a; Açıklama : Bilgisayarın ram alanı içerisinde boş bir a kutusu oluşur. 

İçerisinde sayı olan değişken veya kutu oluşması int a=20;

Açıklama : Bilgisayarın ram alanı içerisinde, içinde 20 sayısı olan a kutusu oluşur.  Oluşmuş olan değişken veya boş kutuya sayı girilmesi a = 4 ;

Açıklama : a eşittir 4 değil, a kutusu içerisine 4 sayısı girer.  Değişken veya kutu içerisinde bulunan değerin yazdırılması printf(" Deger..:%d",a); Açıklama : a kutusunda bulunan 4 sayısı ekrana yazar.

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92

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

Birden fazla değişken kullanarak işlem yapma C dili program kodu örneği (Zidar ,1983:4)  

#include #include main() { int a,b,c; a=4 ; b=2 ; c=a+b; printf("\n a sayisi..:%d",a); printf("\n b sayisi..:%d",b); printf("\n c sayisi..:%d",c); printf("\n\n Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız"); getch(); }

 

a sayisi..:4 b sayisi..:2 c sayisi..:6

Program çalışması

Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız  

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

 Boş olarak a,b,c kutuları oluşturma

Benzetim (Özel,1991) 

int a,b,c;  a ve b kutularına 4 ve 2 sayısı girme

a=4 ; b=2 ;  a , b kutularındaki 4 ve 2 sayılarını alarak toplama işlemi yapma ve c kutusına yerleştirme

c=a+b;

 3 kutudaki değerleri ekrana yazdırma printf("\n a sayisi..:%d",a); printf("\n b sayisi..:%d",b); printf("\n c sayisi..:%d",c); Bir değişken üzerinde işlem yapma C dili program kodu örneği (Zidar ,1983:11)

#include #include main() { int a; a=1 ;

a=a+1; printf("\n a sayisi..:%d",a); printf("\n\n Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız"); getch(); } Program çalışması www.iste‐c.net   

a sayisi..:2 Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız

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94

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

Benzetim

 a kutusu üzerinde işlem yapma a=a+1;

Açıklama : a kutusu veya a değişkeni içerisinde bulunan 1 sayisi, 1 ile toplanıp , 2 sayısı olarak tekrar a kutusuna yerleştirilir. a kutusunda bulunan 1 sayısı artık tamamen silinmiş yani kaybolmuş olur. ( Şentürk, 2009). Dizinli (Indexli) Değişkenlerin kullanılması Normal, Tek boyutlu(tek yönlü dizin), İki boyutlu(çift yönlü dizin) değişkenler C dili program kodu örneği (Marchall ,2008)

#include #include main() { int a,b,c,d,e,f,t1,t2,t3; int k[6]; int h[3][2]; a=2; b=4; c=6; d=8; e=10; f=12; t1=a+b+c+d+e+f; k[0]=2; k[1]=4; k[2]=6; k[3]=8; k[4]=10; k[5]=12; t2=k[0]+k[1]+k[2]+k[3]+k[4]+k[5]; h[0][0]=2; h[0][1]=4;

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h[1][0]=6; h[1][1]=8; h[2][0]=10; h[2][1]=12; t3=h[0][0]+h[0][1]+h[1][0]+h[1][1]+h[2][0]+h[2][1]; printf("\n Normal degisken toplamı..:%d",t1); printf("\n Tek boyutlu dizin toplamı..:%d",t2); printf("\n cift boyutlu dizin toplamı.:%d",t3); printf("\n\n Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız"); getch(); } Program çalışması

Normal degisken toplamı ..:42 Tek boyutlu dizin toplamı ..:42 cift boyutlu dizin toplamı .:42 Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız

Benzetim

1.Benzetim : a ,b ,c, d, e, f, t1, t2, t3 değişkenlerini ayrı ayrı birer kutuya(NORMAL DEĞİŞKEN), k değişkenini ise 0,1,2,3,4,5 parca noları olan, 6 parçalı uzun tek bir kutuya(TEK YÖNLÜ DİZİN DEGİŞKEN), h değişkenini ise, 0-0, 0-1, 1-0, 1-1, 2-0, 2-1 parca noları olan 6 parcalı 2 şerli sıralanmış bir kutuya benzetiyoruz(CİFT YÖNLÜ DİZİN DEGİŞKEN) .(Demirkol,2006:72-82) .

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

2.Benzetim :a ,b,c,d,e,f değişkenlerini , her biri ayrı tek katlı evlere, k değişkenini ise; 0,1,2,3,4,5 katları olan (zemin kat,1.kat,2.kat,3.kat,4.kat,5.kat) 6 katlı tek daireli bir apartmana , h değişkenini ise; 0,1,2 katları ve her katta 0 ve 1 nolu daire olan, çift daireli bir apartmana benzetiyoruz. .(Demirkol,2006:83)  

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97

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

Döngüler C dili program kodu örneği (Zidar ,1983:19)

#include #include main() { int a,b; printf("\n NORMAL DÖNGÜ "); for(a=1;a<=3;a++) // 3 kez döner { printf("\n Deniz"); } printf("\n\n ARKA ARKAYA DÖNGÜ "); for(a=1;a<=3;a++) // 3 kez döner { printf("\n Deniz"); } for(b=1;b<=2;b++) // 2 kez döner { printf("\n nehir"); } printf("\n\n İÇ İÇE DÖNGÜ "); // toplamda 6 kez döner for(a=1;a<=3;a++) // 3 kez döner { printf("\n\n Deniz"); for(b=1;b<=2;b++) // 2 kez döner { printf("\n nehir"); } } printf("\n\n Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız"); getch(); }

Program çalışması

NORMAL DÖNGÜ Deniz Deniz Deniz ARKA ARKAYA DÖNGÜ Deniz Deniz

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98

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

Deniz nehir nehir IÇ IÇE DÖNGÜ Deniz nehir nehir Deniz nehir nehir Deniz nehir nehir Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız Benzetim

1.Benzetim : Davul ve Gitar müzik aletleri olan iki kişilik bir orkestra grubu vardır. 3’lü Normal döngü : Muzigin bir yerinde 3 kez davul sesi geliyor. Arka arkaya 3’lü ve 2’li döngü: Muzigin bir yerinde 3 kez davul sesi, arkasından 2 kez gitar teli sesi geliyor. İç içe 3 ve 2’li Döngüler : Muziğjn bir yerinde önce davul sesi , arkasından 2 kez gitar teli sesi geliyor. Tekrar bir davul sesi ,arkasından 2 kez gitar teli sesi geliyor. Yine arkasından bir davul sesi ve 2 kez gitar teli sesi geliyor. 2.Benzetim : Bir futbol takımı antranörü forvet iki oyuncusuna değişik taktikler veriyor. 3’lü Normal döngü : Topu alan oyuncu, 3 rakibi bireysel geçsin ve topu kaleye vursun. Arka arkaya 3’lü ve 2’li döngü: Topu alan ilk oyuncu 3 rakibi bireysel geçsin ve pasını arkadaşına versin. Arkadaşı 2 rakip oyuncuyu geçsin ve topu kaleye vursun. İç içe 3 ve 2’li Döngüler : Topu alan oyuncu bir rakibi geçsin ve ve pasını versin. Pası alan oyuncu 2 rakip

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99

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

oyuncuyu geçsin ve tekrar 1.kişiye pasını versinr.Bu oyun 3 kez aynı şekilde devam etsin. Karşılaştırmalar - If C dili Program kodu örneği

#include #include

(Marchall ,2008)

main() { int a; printf(" Plaka nosu giriniz:");scanf("%d",&a); if (a==20) { printf("\n Denizli iline bağlıdır"); } else printf("\nAfyon iline bağlıdır"); printf("\n Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız"); getch(); }

Program çalışması

Plaka nosu giriniz : 20 Denizli iline bağlıdır Cıkıs için bir tuşa basınız

Benzetim (Marshall ,2008)

İf’li yapıları , yolda bulunan bir kavşağa benezetebiliriz.

Açıklama: Program içerisinde çok gerekmedikçe if kullanılması tercih edilmez. Program çalışmasında fazla if satırların olması programın çalışma hızını düşürür. Program ilk yazılım esnasında, başlangıcında veritabanı dosyaları, dosya değişkenleri programın hızlı, güvenilir, sade olması yönünde dizayn edilirler. Buna rağmen gerekli durumlarda if ,switch yapılarını kullanırız. If’li yapıyı, Otoyolda belirli hızda giden aracın ışıksız veya kırmızı yanıp sönen bir kavşağa gelmesine benzetebiliriz. Belirli bir hızda giden aracın bir kavşaga gelmesi durumunda hızını

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   düşürerek kontrollu geçeçektir. Bu durum aracın hızının düşmesine yol açacaktır. Sonuç Programlama derslerindeki konuların ilk önce kendi yapılarında , daha sonra benzetim,örnekleme yöntemlerini kullanarak anlatılması öğrencilerde öğrenmeyi hızlandırdığı, eğitimin kalıcılığını artırdığı Benzetim esnasında

görülmektedir.

öğrencilerin moyivasyonu,enerjisi artmakta , o sessiz ortam bir anda canlı ortama

dönüşebilmektedir. Ayrıca öğrencilerin farklı örneklemeler ifade ederek, konuya katkıda bulunmaya çalıştıkları görülmektedir. Kaynakça Demirkol,Zafer (2006). C# ile asp.net.İstanbul. Pusula Yayıncılık ve İletişim San. İnan,Yüksel ve Demirli,Nihat (2003) . Visual c#.NET 2003.Ankara.Ümit Ofset Matbaacilik. Marshall, Donis (2008) . Programming Microsoft® Visual C#. Washington: Microsoft Press. Özel,Galip (1991).Turbo C. İstanbul. Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım A.Ş. Şentürk, Faruk (2009) . C# ile Asp.Net Web Programlama .İstanbul .Türkmen Kitabevi. Zidar,Jim (1983). C Programming Student Manual. Dayton-Ohio. NCR Press. MacDonald,Matthew (2006). Beginning ASP.NET 2.0 in C# 2005. NewYork . Apress. Otaner,Kayra(2002). PHP ve MySQL ile Web yazılım Geliştirme. İstanbul. Sistem Yayıncılık.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

BİLGİSAYAR TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN EĞİTİM ORTAMLARINDA KULLANILMASI: YÖNTEMLER VE KARŞILAŞILAN SORUNLAR  Kamuran Soylu [email protected] 

  Özet:Bilgisayar eğitim öğretim yöntemleri olarak tercih edilmesinden ölçme-değerlendirmede aracı olarak kullanılmasına kadar eğitimin her aşamasında etkin ve verimli bir şekilde yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada, bilgisayar teknolojilerinin eğitim öğretim faaliyetlerinde kullanılması, kullanılma biçimleri ve sağladığı avantajlar ve sebep olduğu sorunlar genel hatlarıyla değerlendirilmektedir.  Genel bir bakış açısıyla bilgisayar, web tabanlı öğretim programlarının bütün aşamalarında, dersler için özel programların yapılması ve sunulması gibi temel alanlarda yer almaktadır. Bununla birlikte, eğitim faaliyetlerinde yer alan yöneticiler, öğretmenler ve öğrenciler kendi ihtiyaçları doğrultusunda bilgisayar teknolojilerinden faydalanmaktadırlar. Özellikle ilköğretim çağındaki öğrenciler için bilgisayardan faydalanma kontrol edilmediği durumlarda önemli sorun olarak tanımlanabilecek zararlara sebep olmaktadır.  Keywords: Bilgisayar kullanımı, eğitim-öğretim teknolojileri, öğrenme ve öğretme yöntemleri  

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102

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

BİLİŞİM TEKNOLOJİLERİ EĞİTİMİNE YENİ BİR BAKIŞ: KIRKLARELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ MICROSOFT IT ACADEMY  Bora Aslan1, Füsun Yavuzer Aslan2, Gökhan Doğan3, Ömer Kırmacı4, Süleyman Aslan5 1 2

[email protected] 

3

[email protected] 

4 5

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Özet:Günümüz teknolojilerini kullanmakta sıkıntı yaşamayan bireyler teknoloji kullanım bilgilerini ve becerilerini belgelendirme konusunda sıkıntı yaşamaktadır. İstihdam edilmekte aranılan ilk şartlardan biri olan teknoloji kullanım yeterliliğini ispatlamak konusunda geçmiş tecrübelerini referans olarak göstermek en çok kullanılan yol olmuştur. Fakat yeni mezunların iş tecrübesi olmaması ya da tecrübenin kolay kolay elde edilememesi gibi nedenler iş hayatına atılacak genç bireyler açısından sıkıntılar yaratmaktadır. Bu nedenle Sertifikasyon Programları önemli vazifeler görmektedir.  Teknoloji kurumları başlattıkları sertifikasyon programları ile teknoloji dünyasına yön veren ürünlerini yeterli bir şekilde kullanabilen kalifiye bireyler yetiştirmeyi amaç edinmiştir. Microsoft Sertifikasyonu iş dünyasında en çok aranan nitelikli sertifikaların başında gelmektedir. İş dünyasında ki istihdam ilanlarına bakıldığında direkt olarak sertifika kodu ile aranılan nitelikleri yazılmaktadır. Bu durum gösteriyor ki öğrenilen Temel düzey bilgisayar kullanımından yazılım geliştirme araçlarının kullanımına kadar olan Microsoft becerilerinin belgelendirilmesi bir ihtiyaç haline gelmektedir.  Microsoft, sertifikasyon konusunda detaylı bir yelpazeye sahiptir. İş dünyasında bulunan bütün iş kollarına yönelik sertifikasyon programı mevcuttur. Microsoft IT Academy Programı ile Microsoft Sertifikasyon programı sınavlarına hazırlamak üzere Eğitim kurumları ile anlaşmalar yaparak anlaşma yaptığı kurumlara eğitim materyali, sertifikasyon danışmanlığı, e-kitap, Microsoft ürünleri gibi desteklerde bulunmaktadır.   Kırklareli Üniversitesi, Bilgi İşlem Daire Başkanlığı ve Uzaktan Eğitim Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezinin katkıları ile Microsoft IT Academy üyesi olmuştur. Bu program ile öğrencilere Microsoft Sertifikasyon Sınavlarına yönelik, Microsoft Eğitimleri verilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Microsoft IT Academy üyesi kurumlara sunulan hizmetlerden öğrencilerin maksimum derecede faydalanması ve sonuç olarak mezunların teknoloji kullanımlarını belgelendirmesi birincil amacımız olmaktadır.  Bu uygulamanın başlangıç noktasından sonucuna ulaşılana dek sürdürülen eğitim, materyal, değerlendirme kriterleri ve alınan sonuçlar bu çalışma kapsamı içinde anlatılacak ve tartışılacaktır.  Keywords: teknoloji, Microsoft, eğitim, sertifikasyon

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BİYOMEDİKAL CİHAZ TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN ETKİN VERİMLİ KULLANIMI    Alper Tongal1, Selim Bacak2, Ümit Kara3 1

[email protected] 

2

[email protected]  3

[email protected] 

 

Özet:Sağlık alanında, Biyomedikal Cihaz teknolojisinin etkin ve verimli kullanımı insanoğlunun yaşam süresini ve kalitesini olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Hiç kuşkusuz teknolojinin verimli kullanımı yetişmiş kalifiyeli teknik personel ile mümkündür. Donanımlı teknik personel yetiştiren eğitim kurumları teknolojik gelişmeleri takip etmeli, sektörle birlikte hareket edip eğitim planlarını güncel tutmalıdır. Bu anlamda eğitim veren kurumlar eğitim-öğretim planlarını etkili bir şekilde sektörün ihtiyaçları gözeterek hazırlamalıdır. Sağlık personeli de sektörün beklentisini karşılayabilmek için, teknolojinin getirdiği pahalı olan tıbbi cihazları ve teknolojiyi verimli kullanmak zorundadır. Sağlık teknolojisinin hızlı gelişimi sonucunda; başarılı bir sağlık hizmetinin verilebilmesi için en önemli ön şart yukarıda belirtilen durumlardır.  Keywords: Biyomedikal Teknoloji, Eğitim, Tıbbi Cihaz, Verimlilik, Sağlık Hizmetleri

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BOR KATKILI BETONLARIN NÖTRON TUTUCULUĞUNUN İNCELENMESİ 1

Hakan SARIKAYA, 2Raşit ALTINDAĞ Uşak Üniversitesi, Banaz Meslek Yüksekokulu, Uşak 2 Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Maden Mühendisliği Bölümü, Isparta 1 [email protected] 1

Özet: Doğal kaynaklar ülkelerin ekonomik kalkınmasında önemli bir yere sahiptir. Günümüzde ekonomik kalkınma o ülkenin sahip olduğu maden kaynakları miktarı ve maden ürünlerinin tüketimi ile paralellik göstermektedir. Yapılan araştırmalar sonucu ülkemizin dünya toplam bor rezervlerindeki payı % 72,2’dir. Nötron tutma özelliği zırh betonları için önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, bor yataklarından elde edilen bor mineralleri farklı oranlarda kullanılarak çeşitli amaçlara yönelik özellikli betonlar üretilmiş ve üretilen betonların nötron tutma katsayıları incelenmiştir. Ölçümlerde NaI(Tl) tipi nötron gama detektörü ve 5 Ci’lik 239 Pu-Be (alfa-n) nötron kaynağı kullanılmıştır. Sonuç olarak, ülkemizin önemli rezervlerine sahip olduğu bor minerallerinin inşaat sektöründe çeşitli mühendislik yapılarında kullanılabilecek özellikli beton üretilebilirliği irdelenerek, bor cevherlerinin kullanımında farklı bir açılım getirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Beton içerisine katılan üleksit ve kolemanit bor bileşikleri betonun nötron tutuculuğunu artırdığı gözlenmiştir.

INVESTIGATION OF NEUTRON SHIELDING WITH BORON CONCRETE ADDITIVE Abstract: Natural resources have an important role in the economical development of the countries. Today economical development is in connection with the amount of mineral resources that a country owns and the consumption of those mineral products. As a result of the researches in the total boron reserves of the world the share of our country is 72,2 %. In this study, by using boron minerals in different proportions, featured concretes inclined towards different purposes have been produced and the neutron holding coefficients of the produced concretes have been investigated. In the measurements NaI (Tl) type neutron gamma detector 5 Ci'lik 239 Pu-Be (alpha-n) neutron source has been used. Consequently, investigating the producibility of featured concrete that can be used in various engineering structures, a distinctive approach has been put forward for the use of boron minerals a great amount of which our country owns. Ulexite and colemanite boron compounds added in the concrete have been observed to increase neutron holdind of concrete.

GİRİŞ İnsanoğlunun var oluşundan bu yana yeme içme ihtiyacından sonra ikincil temel ihtiyacı barınma olmuştur. Böylece yapı sektörü hep gündemde kalmış ve her an daha güzel, pratik yöntemler geliştirmeye yönelik çalışmalar devam etmiştir. Günümüz dünyasında ise her alanda olduğu gibi bu alanda da temel gaye, en kısa zamanda en az harcama ile çözüme ulaşmaktır. Günümüzde kullanımda ortaya çıkan ihtiyaçlar nedeni ile, çeşitli özelikleri geliştirilmiş veya üretim ve uygulama teknikleri farklı bazı özel betonlar yaygın biçimde kullanılmaktadır. Üretilen betonların kullanım amacına yönelik olarak tasarımının yapılması ve ekonomik olması çok önemlidir (Sarıkaya, 2014). Beton; çimento, su, agrega ve gerektiğinde katkı maddelerinin (mineral, kimyasal, fiber vb) belirli şartlar ve oranlarda karıştırılmasıyla elde edilen, başlangıçta şekil verilebilen plastik formda olup, zamanla çimento ve su arasındaki kimyasal reaksiyonun gelişmesiyle (hidratasyon) sertleşerek mukavemet kazanan, harç fazı ve agregadan oluşan kompozit bir yapı malzemesidir (Özel, 2007). Beton henüz yeni karıldığında taze beton adını alırken, katılaşıp sertleşince sertleşmiş beton adını alır (Neville, 1993). Betonda bileşime giren malzemeler özel olarak oranlandığı zaman karışım herhangi bir yere dökülebilir ve ebadı ile kalıpların şeklini alabilen plastik bir kütle meydana getirir (Baradan, 1997). Bor madeni, periyodik tabloda B simgesiyle gösterilen, atom numarası 5, atom ağırlığı 10.81, yoğunluğu 2.84 gr/cm3, ergime noktası 2300 °C, kaynama noktası 2550 °C olan, metalle ametal arası yarı iletken özelliklere sahip bir elementtir (Etimaden, 2012). Genellikle doğada tek başına değil, başka elementlerle bileşikler halinde bulunan

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   bor madeni, çeşitli metal veya ametal elementlerle yaptığı bileşiklerin gösterdiği değişik özellikler nedeniyle, endüstrinin birçok alanında kullanılmaktadır. Doğadaki yaklaşık 150 mineralin bor elementi içerdiği bilinmesine rağmen, endüstriyel açıdan önemli ve ticari değeri olan bor bileşikleri arasında boraks, kolemanit, tinkal, üleksit, kernit, pandermit, probertit, szyabelit ve hidroborasit yer almaktadır. Bor mineraleri doğadaki halleriyle ticari önem taşımalarına rağmen, farklı tipteki rafine bor bileşiklerinin üretilmesi için bazen teknolojik işlemlere tabi tutulmaktadır. Öte yandan bu bor bileşikleri içerdikleri B2O3 (borik oksit) miktarına, taşıdıkları fiziksel veya kimyasal özelliklerine göre farklı alanlarda kullanılmaktadır (Boraxs, 2011). Türkiye Dünya bor madeni rezervinin %72’sine sahiptir. Bu özelliği ile Dünya ham bor madeni üretiminde birinci sırada yer almaktadır. Öte yandan, tek başına dünya bor talebini 567 yıl karşılayabilmesi söz konusudur. Dünya bor madeni rezervinin %7’sine sahip olan ABD ise, yakın gelecekte bor rezervlerinin tükenmesi ile karşı karşıyadır. ABD’deki bor rezervlerinin dünya bor talebini karşılayabilme süresi ise yalnızca 53 yıldır (Etimaden, 2012). Türkiye’de bulunan bor madenleri diğer ülke rezervlerine göre karşılaştırmalı üstünlüğe sahiptir. Ülkemizde bulunan bor madenlerinin yerleşim yerlerinin hemen yanında yer alması, rezervlerin kolaylıkla işletilebilmesini sağlamaktadır. Ayrıca Türkiye’deki bor madenlerinin içindeki borik oksit oranının yüksek olması, boraks ve borik asit üretilmesi için madenlerin ek işlemlerden geçirilme zorunluluğunu da ortadan kaldırmaktadır. Bütün bu özelliklere rağmen, Türkiye’nin bor ürünleri piyasasında aldığı pay ise yalnızca % 7’dir. Oysa ABD’nin aynı piyasadan aldığı pay yaklaşık % 60–70 civarındadır (Etimaden, 2012). Bu çalışmada, bor yataklarından elde edilen bor minerallerinden Kolemanit ve Üleksit, % 2,5 ve % 5 oranlarında boru öğütüldükten sonra 50 mikron elekten eleyerek, betonda ince malzeme yerine konularak betonlar üretilmiştir. MATERYALLER Çalışmada normal beton üretiminde Aydın ili Söke ilçesi Çorapçı Boğazı merkezinden elde edilen Karakaşlar kum çakıl ocağından temin edilen agrega ve ve Balıkesir Bigadiç Bor işletmesinden getirilen bor agregası çeneli kırıcılarda kırıldıktan sonra agrega haline getirilerek kullanılmıştır. Karışımlarda % 40’ ı ince agrega (0–4 mm) ve % 60’ ı kaba agrega (4–16 mm) kullanılmıştır. Deneysel çalışmalarda suya ilave katkı olarak Draco Yapı Kimyasalları’ nın ürettiği Levelcon 1200 yüksek performanslı beton üretiminde kıvam korumalı ve yüksek oranda su azaltan kimyasal katı kullanılmıştır. Çimento olarak Burdur Bucak’ta bulunan As Çimento Fabrikası’nda üretilmiş CEM I 42,5 R çimentosu kullanılmıştır. Kullanılan çimento ve borun kimyasal özellikleri Çizelge 1’de ve çimentonun fiziksel ve mekanik özellikleri Çizelge 2.’ de verilmiştir. Kimyasal Bileşen B2O3 SiO2 Fe2O3 Al2O3 CaO MgO SO3 SrO Na2O H 2O

PÇ42,5 (%) 20,02 3,52 5,16 63,46 1,03 2,74 -

Çizelge 1. Çimento ve borun kimyasal özellikleri Kolemanit (%) Üleksit (%) Konsantre Tüvenan Konsantre Tüvenan 42,23 29,70 38,88 32,25 4,94 10,51 2,02 5,21 0,006 0,11 0,009 0,09 27,74 24,58 16,67 20,84 2,04 5,47 1,01 2,76 0,52 0,54 0,31 0,48 0,62 1,26 0,13 0,19 3,44 24,44 -

Çizelge 2. CEM I 42,5 R çimentosunun fiziksel ve mekanik özelikleri (As Çimento, 2010) Bileşen PÇ 42,5 Özgül Ağırlık (gr/cm3) 3,124 Donma Başlangıcı (dakika) 180 Donma Sonu (dakika) 280 Hacim Genleşmesi (mm) 1,10

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   7 günlük basınç dayanımı (N/mm2) 28 günlük basınç dayanımı (N/mm2)

26,60 49,60

Beton bileşimlerinde normal agrega kullanılarak TS EN 206-1’ e göre C35 betonları üretilmesi hedeflenmiştir. C35 betonu için w/c oranı 0,35 alınmış ve üretilecek betonun kuru plastik kıvamda ve maksimum dane çapı 16 mm olacak şekilde TS 802’ deki birim hacim ağırlık yöntemine göre yapılmıştır. İyileştirilmiş ve beton yapımında kullanılacak olan normal agrega ve borun granülometri eğrisi ise Şekil 1’ de verilmiştir.

Elekten Geçen (%)

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

A 16 B 16 C 16 Agrega

pan 0,25

0,5 1 2 4 Elek açıklığı (mm)

8

16

Şekil 1. İyileştirilmiş ve beton yapımında kullanılacak olan normal agrega ve borun granülometri eğrisi Betonların üretimi ile fiziksel ve mekanik özelliklerinin tespiti için yapılan deneyler Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Maden Mühendisliği Bölümü Kazı ve Doğal Taşlar Teknolojisi laboratuarında ve Aydın As Beton Yapı Malzemeleri Laboratuarında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada 9 seri beton üretilmiştir. Bunlar C35, katkılı beton serileridir. Üretilen borlu betonların agrega yüzdeleri Çizelge 3’ de Üretilen borlu betonların kodlar Çizelge 4’ de, karışıma giren borlu betonların 1 m3 beton bileşenleri ise Çizelge 5.’ de verilmiştir. Karışıma giren agrega, bor, su ve çimento üretilecek betonun koduna göre önceden tartılıp hazırlanmıştır. Karışım suyu As Beton Sondaj suyu kullanılmıştır. Karılma işlemi düşey eksenli cebri karıştırmalı mikser yardımıyla yapılmıştır. Numunelerin kıvamını belirlemek amacıyla abrams konisi ile çökme miktarları, birim hacim ağırlıkları ve betonun sıcaklıkları ölçülmüştür. Çeşitli deneylerde kullanılmak üzere sarsma tablası üzerindeki 100 mm  100 mm  100 mm boyutlu küp kalıplara harç üç aşamada konmuş ve her aşamada 10 saniye sarsma tablası aleti ile sarsılmıştır. Her seri beton için 10 adet küp numune üretilmiştir. Numunelerin üstü ıslak keten örtü ile örtülerek 24 saat kalıp içinde bırakılmış, bu sürenin sonunda lastik takozlar yardımıyla kalıptan çıkarılmıştır. Numuneler deneylerin yapılacağı güne kadar kür havuzunda saklanmıştır Karılma işlemi (Özel 2007)’deki gibi 30 s kuru (iri agrega, ince agraga, bağlayıcı madde), 90 s (ilk bir dakika su ilavesi), 60 s dinlenme ve 120 s karışım olmak üzere toplam 300 s’de (5 dk) yapılmıştır (Şekil 2).



Karışım metodu

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Kuru karışım 

Su ilavesi 

Karışım

Dinlenme 

Son karışım

30 s

60 s

120 s 

 

30 s 

60 s 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Şekil 2. Betonun karılma işlem aşamaları

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Agrega Boyutu 0 – 0,25mm 0,25mm – 0,5mm 0,5mm - 1mm 1mm - 2mm 2mm - 4mm 4mm - 8mm 8mm - 16mm

Kodu N35 B35-1 B35-2 B35-3 B35-4 Kodu B35-5 B35-6 B35-7 B35-8

Beton kodu N35 B35-1 B35-2 B35-3 B35-4 B35-5 B35-6 B35-7 B35-8

Çizelge 3. Beton yapımında kullanılan agrega yüzdeleri Agrega Sınıfı Karışımda Kullanılan Agrega Yüzdesi 4 8 İnce 40 8 10 10 25 Kaba 60 35

Çizelge 4. Üretilen betonların karışım yüzdeleri Agrega Bor (%) (%) (Üleksit-Konsantre) (İnce malzeme olarak) C35 100 C35 97,5 2,5 C35 95 5 C35 97,5 C35 95 Beton Sınıfı Agrega Bor (%) (%) (Kolemanit-Konsantre) (İnce malzeme olarak) C35 97,5 2,5 C35 95 5 C35 97,5 C35 95 Beton Sınıfı

Su 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158

Yığışım 4 12 20 30 40 65 100

Bor (%) (Üleksit-Tüvenan) (İnce malzeme olarak) 2,5 5 Bor (%) (Kolemanit-Tüvenan) (İnce malzeme olarak) 2,5 5

Çizelge 5. Üretilen betonların karışım miktarları (kg/m3) İnce Kalın Çimento Katkı İnce Bor Agrega Agrega 450 3,6 706 1088 450 3,6 688 1088 18 450 3,6 671 1088 36 3,6 688 1088 18 450 450 3,6 671 1088 36 450 3,6 688 1088 18 3,6 671 1088 36 450 450 3,6 688 1088 18 450 3,6 671 1088 36

Kalın Bor -

Nükleer güç reaktörlerinde, yapısal ve nükleer özelliklerinin uygunluğu nedeniyle, en ucuz zırh malzemesi betondur (Komarovskii, 1961) ve (Jaeger,1975). Deneylerde kullanılan gama spektrometre sistemi NaI(Tl) detektörüyle etkileşen gamma ışınlarını enerjilerine göre spektral olarak ayırabilen bir sistemdir. Detektör bir yüksek gerilim kaynağı (HV) tarafından beslenmektedir. Yükselteç detektörden gelen atmaları güçlendirir ve bu sinyaller çok kanallı analizör (ÇKA) tarafından veri analiz sistemine gönderilir. Kullanılan malzemeye göre radyasyon detektörlerini gazlı, yarı-iletken ve sintilasyon (parıldayıcı) detektörler olmak üzere üç ana gruba ayırmak mümkündür. Bu çalışma kapsamında, üretilmiş olan değişik tip betonların nötron tutma (µ) katsayıları araştırılmıştır. Betonların nötron tutma deneyleri Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Enerji Enstitüsü Nükleer Araştırmalar A.B.D. Laboratuarında bulunan NaI(Tl) detektörü ile yapılmıştır. Deneysel çalışmalarda NaI(Tl) tipi nötron gama detektörü ve 5 Ci’lik 239 Pu-Be (alfa-n) nötron kaynağı kullanılmıştır. Nötron tutma deneyinin hesaplamaları ise Microsoft Excel programında Eşitlik 1’ deki denklem ile gerçekleştirilmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Nötron tutma deneyinde ölçümü yapılan 1cm kalınlığındaki numuneler Şekil 3’ de, Nötron tutma deneyinde kullanılan cihazlarlar ise Şekil 4’ de verilmiştir.

         1             I0  (1) µ = ‐‐‐‐‐‐  ln  ‐‐‐‐‐‐  I

Şekil 3. Nötron tutma deneyinde ölçümü yapılan 1cm kalınlığındaki numuneler

Şekil 4. Nötron tutma deneyinde deneyin de kullanılan cihazlar

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   BULGULAR Bu çalışma kapsamında üretilen borlu betonlar üzerinde NaI(Tl) detektörü ile her beton numunesinden 3 ölçüm alınmak suretiyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Alınan 3 değerin aritmetik ortalaması Eşitlik 1’ de yerine konularak her bir numunenin nötron tutma kapasitesi hesaplanmış ve deney sonuçları Çizelge 6’ da verilmiştir. Borlu betonların nötron tutma katsayısı sonuçları ise Şekil 5-9’ da verilmiştir.

Numunenin Kodu N35 B35-1 B35-2 B35-3 B35-4 B35-5 B35-6 B35-7 B35-8

Çizelge 6. Borlu betonların nötron tutma deney sonuçları Su Çökme Birim Emme miktarları Ağırlıkları (%) ( mm ) (kg/m3) 2,508 1,82 210 2,459 3,14 55 2,448 3,20 55 2,523 4,43 35 2,489 4,62 60 2,484 4,02 25 2,353 4,02 25 2,483 3,28 50 2,478 3,20 55

µ (cm-1) 0,064461 0,076869 0,130728 0,076869 0,137337 0,084387 0,126783 0,104718 0,134688

Şekil 5. Borlu betonların nötron tutma katsayısı sonuçları (Üleksit Konsantre)

Şekil 6. Borlu betonların nötron tutma katsayısı sonuçları (Üleksit Tüvenan)

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Şekil 7. Borlu betonların nötron tutma katsayısı sonuçları (Kolemanit Konsantre)

Şekil 8. Borlu betonların nötron tutma katsayısı sonuçları (Kolemanit Tüvenan)

Şekil 9. Borlu betonların nötron tutma katsayısı sonuçlarının birbiri ile ilişkileri

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   SONUÇLAR C35 borlu betonlarda bor miktarı arttıkça nötron tutma katsayısı sonuçlarında olumlu yönde bir artış görülmektedir. Elde edilen sonuçların Abdullah (2010) ve Zeybek’ in (2006) yapmış olduğu çalışmaya paralel olduğu görülmüştür. Çalışmada kullanılan bor mineralleri % 28 ile % 39 oranları arasında B2O3 içermektedir. Bu borların çevreye vereceği zararlarda oldukça büyüktür. Bu zararlı etkileri ortadan kaldırmak ve ekonomiye yeniden kazandırmak amacıyla beton endüstrisinde bir katkı malzemesi olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Borlu betonların deneysel araştırmalarda nötron tutuculuğundan dolayı kolaylıkla kullanılabilir bir zırh malzemesi olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. KAYNAKLAR Abdullah, Y., Reusmaazran, M., Muhamad, A., Samsu, Z., Abdullah, N., (2010). Cement-Boron Carbide Concrete as Radiation Shielding Material, Journal of Nuclear and Related Technologies, 7, No. 2, December. Baradan, B., (1997). Yapı Malzemesi II Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Yayınları, İzmir. Boraxs Araştırma Merkezi, (2011). Bor Çeşitleri. www.boraxtr.com.tr. Erişim tarihi: 10.02. 2011. Etimaden, 2012.http://www.etimaden.gov.tr/dünyada-bor-rezervi-55s.htm, Erişim Tarihi. 01.01.2013. Jaeger, R.G., Blizard E.P., (1975). “Engineering Compendium On Radiation Shielding”, Vol.II, Shielding Materials, Spring-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin. Komarovskii A.N., (1961). “Shielding Materials For Nuclear Reactors”, Pergamon Pres, London. Neville, A.M., (1993). Properties of Concrete, ISBN 0-582-23070-5, 3rd edition London, Özel, C., (2007). Katkılı Betonların Reolojik Özeliklerinin Taze Beton Deney Yöntemlerine Göre Belirlenmesi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İnşaat Mühendisliği, Doktora Tezi, Isparta. Sarıkaya, H., (2014). Bor Katkılı Özellikli Beton Üretimi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Maden Mühendisliği, Doktora Tezi, Isparta. TS EN 206-1, (2002). Beton-Bölüm 1:Özellik, Performans, İmalat ve Uygunluk, Türk Standartları Enstitüsü, 68 s., Nisan, Ankara. TS 802, (1985). Beton Karışım Hesapları. Türk Standartları Enstitüsü, Nisan, Ankara. Zeybek, M.S., Erdoğan, Y., Şengil, İ.A., Özmal, F., Erdoğan, M.S., (2006). Bor Endüstri Atıkları Kullanılarak Üretilen Katkılı Çimentoların Nötron Tutma Kapasitelerinin İncelenmesi, Yedinci Ulusal Kimya Mühendisliği Kongresi, 5-8 Eylül, Anadolu Üniversitesi, Eskişehir.

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CİNSİYETİN HEMŞİRELERİN İŞ DOYUMLARI ÜZERİNE ETKİSİ: BİR META ANALİZ ÇALIŞMASI  Filiz Kantek1, Handan Kartal2 1

[email protected]  2

[email protected] 

Özet:Bu çalışmanın amacı hemşirelerin iş doyumları üzerine cinsiyetin etkisini analiz etmektir. Araştırmaya dahil edilen çalışmaları analiz etmek için meta analiz yöntemi kullanılmıştır. 01-30 Haziran 2015 tarihleri arasında Türk tıp dizini, google akademik, Akdeniz Üniversitesi kütüphanesi arama motoru, YÖK tez tarama, pubmed, EBSCO HOST, Web of Science veri tabanları taranmıştır. Tarama yapılırken “iş doyumu”, “iş tatmini”, “hemşire” “hemşireler” anahtar sözcükleri Türkçe ve İngilizce olarak kullanılmıştır. Çalışma verileri CMA (The Comprehensive Meta–Analysis software) kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Hemşirelerin genel doyumu için araştırmaya dahil edilen 9 çalışmanın toplam örneklem sayısı 3230 olup, 342‘si erkek ve 2888’i kadın hemşiredir. İçsel ve dışsal doyum için dahil edilen 6 çalışmanın her boyut için toplam örneklem sayısı 1849 olup, 190’nı erkek ve 1659’u kadın hemşiredir. Bireysel çalışmaların etki büyüklükleri incelendiğinde, genel iş doyumunda 5 çalışma, içsel doyumda 4 çalışma ve dışsal doyumda 3 çalışma kadınlar lehineydi. Heterojenlik testi sonucunda genel, içsel ve dışsal doyum için yapılan çalışmaların heterojen özellik gösterdiği belirlendi. Rastgele etkiler modeline göre % 95 önem derecesinde cinsiyetin iş doyumuna olan ortalama etki büyüklükleri genel iş doyumu için -0,170, içsel doyum için -0,041 ve dışsal doyum için -0,054 olarak hesaplandı. Çalışma cinsiyetin genel, içsel ve dışsal doyuma etkisinin kadınlar lehine önemsiz düzeyde olduğunu ortaya koymuştur.   Keywords: hemşire, iş doyumu, cinsiyet, meta analiz

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CLASSIFICATION OF EEG DATA USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK LEARNED BY HEURISTIC ALGORITHMS 1

Muhammer İLKUÇAR, 2Ali KAVURUR

Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Technical Sciences Vocational High School, Burdur, TURKEY 1

[email protected], [email protected]

Özet: İnsan beyni düşünme, mimikler, uzuvların hareketi gibi işlemleri yaparken beynin değişik bölgelerinde farklı elektrik sinyalleri üretir. Bu sinyaller EEG cihazları ile okunarak beyin aktivitelerinin elektriksel karşılıkları dış dünya ortamına aktarılabilmektedir. Böylece düşünce gücü ile cihazların kontrol edilebilme imkanı ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmada Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset cihazı ile göz açma-kapama mimiklerinin beyinde oluşturduğu elektrik sinyallerinden elde edilen UCI verilerinin, ileri beslemeli geri yayılımlı yapay sinir ağı (YSA) ve harmoni arama (HA) algoritması yöntemiyle öğretilmiş ileri beslemeli YSA ile verilerin sınıflandırılması yapılmış ve sonuçlar karşılaştırılmıştır. YSA ile sınıflandırma için matlab programından yararlanılmış, HA ile öğretilmiş ileri beslemeli YSA algoritması için MS Visual C#.NET programlama dili kullanılarak geliştirdiğimiz yazılım kullanılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: EEG, Yapay Sinir Ağları, Sınıflandırma, Harmoni Arama Algoritması

GİRİŞ Son yıllarda elektronik ve bilgisayar alanındaki gelişmeler birçok alanda olduğu gibi tıp alanında da yaygın alarak kullanılmaktadır. Elektronik ve bilişim teknolojilerinin tıp alanında kullanılmaya başlaması ile tıptaki ilerleme hız kazanmıştır. Beynin çalışması ile ilgili sırlar çözüldükçe, beyin bilgisayar arabirimleri ile (Brain Computer Interface-BCI) beyin aktiviteleri elektrik sinyallerini dönüştürülerek bilgisayar ortamında işlenebilir hale gelmiştir. Piyasada farklı firmalar, beyin aktivitelerini ölçebilen, herkesin kolaylıkla ulaşabileceği electroencephalography (EEG) cihazlar üretmektedir. Son zamanlarda, beyin aktivitelerinden elde edilen elektriksel sinyallerin işlenerek, tıp, mühendislik, askeri gibi farklı alanlarda kullanılmaktadır. Örneğin; beyin sinyalleri ile çalışan protez bacak, protez kol, robot, bilgisayar oyunu, bilgisayar yazılımı vb. uygulamalar mevcuttur (Wang ve diğ. 2013; Wodlinger ve diğ. 2015). Yine sağlık alanında çalışılmış bir örnek olarak; Harikumar ve Vijayakumar (2013) EEG cihazı ile beyin aktivitelerinden elde edilen sinyalleri, fuzzy (Ross 2010) çıkışı destekli, farklı yapay siniri ağı modelleri ile sınıflandırarak hastaların Epilepsi hastalığı risk seviyelerinin tespiti ile ilgili bir çalışma yapılmıştır. Gözü hareketlerinin beyinde oluşturduğu aktivitelerden elde edilen bilgilerin analiz edilerek göz kontrollü cihazlar ve yazılımlar geliştirilmektedir. Örneğin göz hareketlerinin beyin aktivitelerinden elde edilen sinyaller kullanarak, işitme engellilerin bilgisayar gibi cihazları göz kontrolü ile kullanma olanağı sağlanabilmektedir (Cordis, 2015). Yine şoförlerin araç sürerken uyuyarak kazalara sebep olabilmektedir. Gözün açık veya kapalı olması durumu beyin aktivitelerinden elde edilirse, şoförlerin uyuduğu tespit edilerek kazalar önlenebilir. Gözün açık/kapalı olmasının beyin aktiviteleri ile ilgili bir çok çalışma vardır. Chadwick ve diğ. (2011) yalnız gözün ve başla ile birlikte gözün x-y düzlem üzerindeki hareketleri ile birlikte göz açma kapama mimiklerinin beyinde oluşturduğu elektriksel aktiviteleri EEG cihazı ile ölçüp bunları sınıflandırmışlardır. Rösler ve Suendermann (2013) tarafından gözün açık veya kapalı olmasının beyindeki aktiviteleri, Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset [Şekil 1] cihazı ile ölçülmüştür. Ölçüm işlemi aralıksız 117 saniye boyunca beyin oluşturduğu elektrik sinyalleri alınarak kayıt yapılmıştır. Ölçüm ile eş zamanlı olarak, gözün durumu da kamera ile takip edilip, daha sonra kamera görüntüleri incelenerek göz açık ‘0’, göz kapalı ‘1’ şeklinde verilere ilave edilmiştir. Böylece EEG ile beynin 14 farklı bölgesinden [Şekil 2] 14980 farklı ölçüm gerçekleştirilerek bir veri seti oluşturulmuş ve daha sonra araştırmacıların hizmetine sunmak için UCI makine öğrenmesi veri tabanına yüklenmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Çalışmada kullanılan veriler UCI makine öğrenme veri tabanından (UCI,2015, Roesler,2014) alınmıştır. Bu veriler üzerinde farklı sınıflandırma yöntemleri kullanılarak yapılmış birkaç çalışma mevcuttur. Rösler ve Suendermann (2013) Weka (Weka, 2015) paket programı içinde bulunan farklı sınıflandırma algoritmaları ile bu verileri sınıflandırmış ve en kötü 50% dolaylarında, en iyi de 3,4% oranında sınıflandırmışlardır. Aynı verileri, Wang ve arkadaşları (2014) zaman-serileri sınıflandırma yöntemi kullanarak 29,5046% oranında sınıflandırmışlardır. Bu çalışmada 14 farklı bölgeden elde edilen 148980 verinin, daha önce çalışılmamış olan, çok katmanlı ileri beslemeli geri yayılımlı yapay sinir ağı ve harmoni arama algoritması ile öğretilmiş çok katmanlı ileri beslemeli yapay sinir ağı ile eğitilerek sınıflandırması işlemi gerçekleştirilmiştir.

Şekil 1: Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset cihazı (http://www.emotiv.com, 18/06/2015).

Şekil 2: Emotiv EEG neuroheadset cihazın sensör pozisyonu ile ilgili davranış gruplarını göstermektedir. Göz açıldığı zaman beyinde oluşturduğu aktivitelerin durumu ile ilgili olarak; mavi bölgelerde (F3, F4, F7, FC6, T8, DRL, P8, O2, CMS) maximum artış, kırmızı (O1, P7, T7, FC5, AF3, AF4, F8) alanlar minimum azalış göstermektedir (Rösler ve Suendermann, 2013). METEDOLOJİ Çalışmada dataların sınıflandırılması için çok katmanlı ileri beslemeli geri yayılımlı yapay sinir ağı ve harmoni arama algoritması ile öğretilmiş çok katmanlı yapay sinir ağı kullanılmıştır. Harmoni Arama Algoritması Biyolojideki ve doğadaki olayların birbirleri ile uyumu ve kusursuz çalışma biçimleri, gerçek hayattaki pek çok problemin çözümünde, bilim insanlarına ilham kaynağı olmuştur. Farklı enstrümanlardan oluşmuş müzik korosundan bir senfoni çıkabilmesi için koroyu oluşturan enstrümanları bir harmoni uyumunda icra edilmelidir. Bunun için her enstrüman kendi içinde ayarlamalar (pitch) yaparak kusursuz harmoniyi oluştururlar. Doğadaki seslerin uyum içindeki o eşsiz senfonisi veya bir koronun oluşturduğu harmoniden esinlenerek Geem ve arkadaşları (2001) Harmoni Arama (HA) algoritmasını geliştirmişlerdir. Korodaki enstrümanların kendi içinde küçük akortlar yapılarak sonuçta en iyi senfoniyi vermesi, bir optimizasyon problemi gibi düşünülebilir. Şekil3’de müzik harmonisi ile optimizasyon problemi arasındaki ilişki gösterilmiştir. Müzikteki her bir enstrümanın farklı sesi alınarak senfoni oluşur. HS algoritmasında da problemin çözüm kümesini (harmoni) oluşturabilecek veriler içerisinden en uygun değerler aranarak optimum çözüm elde edilmeye çalışılır. Görüldüğü gibi HA algoritması popülasyon temelli evrimsel bir algoritmadır. Evrimsel algoritmalarda güçlü olanlar yaşamını sürdürür zayıf olanlar elenir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Şekil 3’e göre optimizasyon karar değişkenleri (x1 , x2 , x3) ile müzik korosundaki enstrümanlar ile ilişkilendirilmiştir. Enstrüman-1={Do, Re, Mi}; enstrüman-2={Mi, Fa, Sol} ve enstrüman-3={Sol, La, Si, Do, Re} seslerinden yeni bir senfoni oluşturmak için; enstrüman-1={Do}, enstrüman-2={Mi} ve enstrüman-3={Sol} notaları alınarak, yeni harmoni={Do, Mi, Sol} şeklinde elde edilir. Benzer şekilde optimizasyon karşılığında karar değişkenleri için; x1={1.2, 2.2, 3.1}; x2={3.2, 2.4, 1.8} ve x3={1.7, 2.8, 2.3} verileri vardır. Buna göre olası bir çözüm için F(x)={ x1, x2, x3}={1.2, 3.0, 1.6} ) olacaktır. Burada x1=1.2 harmoni hafızadan alınmış, x2=3.2 harmoni hafızadan alınmış ve üzerinde (pitch adjasting) akordu yapılarak x2=3.0 şekline getirilmiş ve x3=1.6 değeri harmoni hafızadan değil çözüm kümesinden seçilmiştir.

Şekil 3: Müzik ve optimizasyon arasındaki benzerlik (Alatas,2010) HA algoritması aşağıdaki gibi dört adımda işlem görür (Geem ve diğ., 2001): Adım 1: Harmoni Memory oluştur (HM). Adım 2: Harmoni Memory’ dan yeni bir Harmoni oluştur(H). Adım 3: Eğer yeni Harmoni HM’ deki en iyi harmoniden daha iyi ise yeni harmoniyi hafıza ekle ve hafızadan en kötü harmoniyi çıkar. Adım 4: Sonlanma kriteri sağlanmadı ise Adım 2’ ye git. HA algoritmasında kullanılan parametreler; F(x ) xi N Xi HMS HMCR PAR Bw

:Amaç fonksiyonu :Karar değişkenleri ( i=1,2,…,N) :Karar değişkeni sayısı : Çözüm Kümesi : Harmoni hafıza sayısı (Harmony Memory Size) : Harmoni hafızadan seçme oranı [0;1] (Harmony Memory Considering Rate) : Ton ayarı [0;1] (Pith Adjastment Rate) : Bant genişliği [0;1](Band With)

Harmoni Hafıza başlangıç değeri Problemin, parametreler belirlendikten sonra çözüm kümesinden (Xi) rastgele değerlerle harmoni hafıza oluşturulur Denklem-1. Harmoni hafızasındaki harmonilerin amaç fonksiyonları hesaplanmış ve sıralanmıştır.

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(1) Yeni Harmoni Oluşturma Yeni harmoni Denklem 2 (

) oluştururken harmonideki her bir karar değişkeni değeri Denklem-3, Denklem-4 ve

göre ,

değeri için HMCR olasılığında HMCR ve PAR olasılık oranlarına göre oluşturulur. Örneğin kümesinden yada (1- HMCR) olasılığında çözüm kümesinden rastgele seçilir. ,…,

x

x ∈ x ,x ,…,x

=

x

x , x , … , x

(2)

HMCR olasılığunda x ∈ x ,x ,…,x x ∈ X 1 HMCR olasılığında

(3)

Yeni harmoni oluşturulurken her bir karar değişkeni yeni değeri

belirli bir miktar değiştirilir (pitch

adjasting). Bu işlem sürekli problemler için Denklem-5, ayrık problemler için Denklem-6 kullanılarak yapılmalıdır. x

Evet, PAR olasılığunda; x ← x rand 0,1 ∗ bw Hayır , 1 PAR olasılığında aynen kalır

(4)

Harmonideki bir karar değişkeni , (1-PAR) olasılığında herhangi bir değişiklik yapılmaz. PAR olasılığında Denklem-5’deki gibi değişiklik yapılır. Bu değişiklik sürekli problemler içindir. Ayrık problemlerde ise Denklem6’daki gibi, harmoni hafızadan 0,1 ∗ kadar önceki veya sonraki değer alınır. x ← x x ← x

rand 0,1 ∗ bw , ∗

(5) ∈

,

,…,

(6)

Harmoni Hafıza Güncellemesi Amaç fonksiyonuna göre yeni harmoni hesaplanıp, HM’ye eklenir. Daha sonra HM deki en kötü değere (amaç fonksiyonuna göre hesaplanmış) sahip harmoni HM’den atılır. Bu işlemler sonlanma kriteri sağlana kadar devam edilir. Liste 1’de HS algoritması verilmiştir. Liste 1: Harmoni Arama Algoritması. F, Amaç fonksiyonunu belirle HMS, Başlangıç (Harmony Memeory Size ) Harmoni Memory Büyüklüğünü belirle HMCR, (Harmony Memeory Considering Rate) Harmoni Memory’ den seçme oranı belirle PAR, (Pitch Adjusting Rate) küçük ayarlamaları belirle BW, (Band With) Band Genişliği belirle HM, Harmony Memory oluştur rastgele harmoni ile doldur. H, Harmoni vektörü oluştur While (sonlanma kriteri) begin while ( i <= Harmoni vektörü büyüklüğü) begin if(random
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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   begin H[i] ← H[i] ± BW* Random[0;1] end end else H[i] ← çözüm uzayından rastgele seç end F(H), F amaç fonksiyonuna göre H (harmoniyi) hesapla H’yi HM’ye ekle HM’den en kötü Harmoniyi sil end Harmoni Hafızadaki en iyi harmoni optimum çözümü veren vektördür. Yapay Sinir Ağları Özellikle son yıllarda bilgisayar teknolojisindeki ve hesaplama sistemlerindeki büyük gelişmeler sayesinde yapay sinir ağı uygulamaları da buna paralel olarak artmıştır (Navrátil ve diğ., 2010). Yapay sinir ağları yaklaşımlarının istatistiksel lineer yöntemlere göre pek çok avantajları vardır. Veriler bozuk, eksik olduğu durumlarda bile yapay sinir ağları ile çözümü mümkün olabilmektedir. Yapay sinir ağları, insan beynin yapısından esinlenerek geliştirilmiş, öğrenebilen ve analiz edebilen bir algılayıcıdır. YSA çalışma sırasında paralel işlem yapabilir. YSA Şekil 3’deki gibi bir ağ yapısı oluşturularak bu ağın bir beyin gibi davranmasıdır. Yapay sinir ağları doğrusal olmayan problemlerin çözümünde, özellikle son zamanlarda, oldukça popüler hale geldi. YSA mühendislik, beşeri bilimler, savunma, tıp vb. gibi birçok disiplinde kendisine uygulama alanı bulmuştur. Literatürde YSA ile makine öğrenmesi, sınıflandırma, tahmin, karakter tanıma, ses işleme (Uncini, 2003), görüntü işleme (Shi ve He 2010; Ramírez ve diğ., 2012) gibi çok sayıda uygulamaya rastlamak mümkündür. Problemin özelliğine göre değişik uygulamalar için farklı yapay sinir ağ yapısı ve farklı öğrenme yöntemleri geliştirilmiştir. Literatürde yaygın olarak, çok katmanlı ileri beslemeli geri yayılım algoritmasına (Rumelhart ve diğ.,1986) göre öğrenen YSA’nın kullanıldığı görülmektedir. Şekil-4’de çok katmanlı bir YSA yapısı verilmiştir. Çok katmanlı YSA genel olarak giriş, gizli ve çıkış katmanlarında oluşur. Giriş katmanı dışardan gelen verileri (x0,x1,…,xn) çoğaltarak gizli katmandaki nöronlara iletmekle görevlidir, herhangi bir işlem yapmaz, pasiftir.  

Toplam  

X0

 

 

 

w0n

.

w10

 

 

 

Giriş katmanı

w1n

Toplam

y0

 ∑

.

Xn

Sigmoid

w00

Sigmoid



w0  ∑

z0



 ∑

y1

w1

Gizli katman

Çıkış katmanı

Şekil 4: n girişli, bir çıkışlı (z0), çok katmanlı (giriş, gizli, çıkış), w ve w’ ağırlıklı, algılayıcı çıkışları (transfer fonksiyonu) sigmoid fonksiyon olan Yapay Sinir Ağı (Neilsen,1993). Gizli katman aktif nöronlardan oluşur ve bir ağda birden çok gizli katman olabilir. Gizli katman sayısı problemin özelliğine göre değişiklik gösterebilir. Bu katmandaki nöronlar (algılayıcılar), kendisine gelen giriş verileri ile ağın nöronları arasındaki ağırlıkların (wi) çarpımlarının toplamını alır (Denklem 7). Denklemdeki değeri eşik değeri olup, s toplamının sıfır olma olasılığına karşı toplamın kadar ötelenmesini sağlar. s

θ

∑ w ∗ x ; θ: eşik değer bias , w ∶ ağırlık, x ∶ giriş verisi

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Elde edilen bu değer bir transfer fonksiyonundan geçirilerek bir sonraki katmadaki nöronlara girişi verisi olarak kullanılır. Burada transfer fonksiyonu olarak, lineer, eşik, sigmoid, hiperbolik tanjant vb. gibi fonksiyonlar kullanılabilir. Transfer fonksiyonu -∞ ile +∞ arasındaki verileri 0 ve 1 aralığına dönüştürür. Çok katmanlı yapay sinir ağlarında genellikle sigmoid transfer fonksiyon kullanılır (Denklem 8). Bunun nedeni, sigmoid fonksiyonunun türevi kolay hesaplanabilir olmasındadır (Denklem 9).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   f x y

(8) f x

f x 1

f x

(9)

Gizli katmandan elde edilen y değeri çıkış katmanı giriş verisi olarak kullanılır. Bu veri gizli katman-çıkış katmanı arasındaki ağın ağırlık değerli çarpımı ile toplamları (Denklem 7) (aynen gizli katmanda olduğu gibi) transfer fonksiyonundan geçirilerek (Denklem 8) bir çıkış değeri (Z) elde edilir. Olması gereken değer ile hesaplanan çıkış değeri arasındaki fark hata miktarını verir (Denklem 10). Error E

t

Z ; t ∶ olması gereken değer, Z: hesaplanan çıkış değeri

(10)

Ağın eğitimi, hata miktarını en aza indiren, mümkünse sıfır yapan ağırlık değerlerinin bulunması işleminden başka bir şey değildir. Veri setindeki veriler ağa adım adım verilip, her bir veri için hata miktarı hesaplanarak, hata miktarları ağın ağırlık değerlerine geriye doğru yansıtılarak ağırlık değerleri yeniden hesaplanır. Bu işleme tüm veri seti bitene kadar devam edilir. Daha sonra hatalar Denklem 11’ deki formüle göre hesaplanır. Burada hataların karelerinin toplamları alınmıştır. Bunun sebebi Denklem 10’ a göre toplam hata sıfır olma ihtimaline karşı önlem amaçlıdır. Yapay sinir ağının öğretilmesi, tüm girdiler için minimum hatayı veren ağırlık değerlerinin tespiti ilkesine dayanır. Hata denklemi yapay sinir ağının öğrenme algoritmasını oluşturur. Dolayısıyla literatürde farklı hata minimizasyon türleri vardır. Denklemdeki Örneğin hataların karelerin toplamının ortalaması öğrenme yöntemi olmasıdır. Min

∑ t

Z ; x: giriş veri seti

(11)

Aslında ağın eğitimi, ağın farklı girdileri için istenen uygun çıktıyı verecek, nöronlar arasındaki uygun ağırlık (wi) değerlerinin optimizasyonu şeklinde düşünebiliriz. Bütün girdi verileri için hata minimizasyonu yapan bir yöntem ile ağ eğitilebilir. O halde ağı eğitmek için farklı optimizasyon yöntemlerinden yararlanılabilir. Orozco ve arkadaşları (2006), Sulaiman ve arkadaşları (2012), Zhang ve Müuhlenbein (1993), Chow ve Lee (2002) çok katmanlı YSA eğitimini genetik algoritma yardımı ile gerçekleştirmişlerdir. Çalışmada çok katmanlı yapay sinir ağı harmoni arama algoritması kullanılarak eğitilmiştir. HARMONİ ARAMA ALGORİTMASI İLE YSA EĞİTİLMESİ Şekil 5’de çok katmanlı bir YSA ağı görülmektedir. Girişi katmanı dış ortamdan gelen verilerin ağa verildiği katmandır ve buradaki düğüm sayısı ağa sunulan verilerin özellik sayısı kadardır. Çalışmada 14 farklı özellik olduğundan bizim ağımızın giriş katmanı 14 düğümden oluşmaktadır. Gizli katman; operasyon katmanlarından oluşur. Gizli katman sayısı ve gizli katmandaki düğüm sayısı için belirli bir kriter yoktur, problemin özelliğine göre değişebilir. Çalışmada bir gizli katman ve bu gizli katmanda farklı düğüm sayıları için testler yapılmıştır. Çıkış katmanı ise bir operasyon katmanıdır. Bu katmanda yapılan işlemin sonucu dış ortama çıktı olarak aktarılır. Bu katman düğüm sayısı problemin özelliğine göre değişmektedir.

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Wi,j

x

1

Wj,k

x

y

2

x

n

i: Giriş Katmanı(x1...xn)

j: Gizli Katman (j1…jk)

Giriş-Gizli katman arası ağırlıklar(wi,j) Wi1,j1

Wi2,j1



Win, jm

Wj,bias

k: Çıkış Katmanı (y1…yr)

Gizli Katman-Çıkış katman arası ağırlıklar(wj,k) Wj1,k1

Wj2,k2



Wjn,kt

Wk,bias

Bir Harmoni

Şekil 5: Çok katmalı yapay sinir ağı yapısı ve YSA harmoni arama algoritma ile öğretilmesi modeli. YSA ağırlık değerleri bir harmoniyi oluşturur.   Çalışmada çıkış olarak göz açık/kapalı durumu sınıflandırılacağından çıkış katmanı tek düğümden oluşmaktadır. Burada YSA HA ile öğretilmiştir. Buna göre, ağın W ağırlık değerlerinin HA ile optimize edilmesi gerekmektedir. Bunun için Şekil 5’de görüldüğü gibi ağdaki tüm ağırlık değerlerini kapsayacak şekilde bir harmoni oluşturmalıyız. Böylece farklı ağırlık değerleri ile harmoni hafızası oluşturulur. Daha sonra HA öğrenme algoritması işletilerek, çıkış hata değerimin minimize edecek ağın ağırlık değerleri bulunur. Ağın çıkış hata oranını kabul edilebilir bir değere veya algoritmayı belirli kez çalıştırarak işlem gerçekleştirilir. HA hafızasındaki her bir harmoni çözüm kümesinin bir elemanıdır. Şekil-6’ da sistemin blok yapısı görülmektedir. Buna göre 14 özniteliği olan 16980 göz açık/kapalı verisi sınıflandırmak için aşağıdaki gibi iki farklı yöntem kullanılmıştır:  Geri yayılımlı YSA ile öğretilmiş YSA,  HA algoritması ile öğretilmiş ileri beslemeli YSA (HA-YSA)

 

   

0 YSA ÇIKIŞ

GİRİŞ

Veri Öznitelikleri

AF3 F7 F3 FC5 T7 P7 O1 O2 P8 T8 FC6 F4 F8 AF4

HA-YSA

1  

Şekil 6: Çok katmalı ileri beslemeli YSA’nın geri yayılım algoritması ve HA algoritması ile eğitilmesi modeli.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Sistemde kullanılan verilerin özellikleri:  14 farklı öznitelik. Her bir nitelik reel sayı veya tamsayı ile ifade edilmiştir.  Toplam veri 14980 adet;  Göz Kapalı(1): 6723  Göz Açık(0) : 8257  Bozuk veri : Yok  Verilerden elde edilecek sınıflandırma göz açık veya göz kapalı Giriş veri seti olarak Şekil 1‘deki cihaz ile beynin Şekil 2’de görüldüğü gibi belirli bölgelerinden elde edilen veriler yapay sinir ağının giriş veri seti özelliklerini oluşturur. Bu özellikler Tablo 2’de verilmiştir. Burada 1-14 arası özellikler giriş verisi, 15. özellik ise giriş verilerine göre beklenen çıkış değeridir. Bu özelliklere sahip 14980 veriden rastgele seçilmiş %60 ‘i eğitim için, %20’si geçerlilik için ve %20’si ise test için kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada bu veriler ileri beslemeli geri yayılımlı adaptiv öğrenmeli bir YSA ağına verilerek Tablo 3 elde edilmiştir. Burada, YSA parametreleri sabit tutularak farklı ağ yapıları için işlemler tekrarlanmış ve en düşük hata değeri olan 0,03096 değerini 14-30-1 ağ yapısı vermiştir. Tablo 4‘de aynı ağ yapısı HA ile öğretildiğinde 14-25-1 ağ yapısında en düşük hata oranı 0,02951. Görüldüğü gibi ileri beslemeli YSA HM ile öğretildiğinde daha iyi performans göstermiştir. Ağ yapısında ve parametrelerde hiçbir değişiklik yapmadan sistem tekrar çalıştırmada buna yakın ancak farklı sonuçlar elde edilebilir. Bunun nedeni ağın başlangıç ağırlık değerlerinin rastgele seçilmesinden kaynaklanmaktadır. Tablo 2: Yapay sinir ağı giriş-çıkış veri seti özellikleri. 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Çıkış Verisi Göz durumu {0,1} 15

AF3

F7

F3

FC5

T7

P7

O1

O2

P8

T8

FC6

F4

F8

AF4

0: Açık, 1: Kapalı

Giriş verisi

Tablo 3:Geri beslemeli öğrenme algoritması ile eğitilmiş YSA ile göz açık/kapalı durumunun EEG dataların sınıflandırma sonuçları. Ağ Tipi Feedforward Back Propagation

Öğrenme fonksiyonu TRAINLM

Transfer Fonksiyonu TANSIG

Öğrenme Oranı 0.2

Momentum 0.2

YSA ağ yapısı 14-10-1 14-15-1 14-18-1 14-25-1 14-30-1 14-40-1

Regresyon

MSE

0.870 0,886 0,920 0,939 0,9415 0,9392

0.06942 0,06146 0,06141 0,04412 0,03096 0,04572

Tablo 4: HA öğrenmeli YSA ile göz açık/kapalı durumu EEG verilerinin sınıflandırma sonuçları. Harmoni hafıza büyüklüğü (HMS) 100 alınarak işlemler yapılmıştır. HMCR oranı

PAR oranı

0.8

0.8

Bant genişliği (BW) 0.2

YSA ağ yapısı 14-10-1 14-15-1 14-18-1 14-25-1 14-30-1 14-40-1

Regresyon 0.876 0.895 0.910 0.964 0.943 0.917

MSE 0.08307 0,06556 0,04294 0,02951 0,03634 0,04392

SONUÇ VE ÖNERİLER Bu çalışmada, Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset cihazı ile 117 saniye süresince gözün kapalı veya açık olma durumlarının beyinde oluşturduğu aktivitelerin ölçümünden elde dilmiş, 14 öznitelikten oluşan, 14980 veri ileri beslemeli geri yayılımlı YSA ve HM öğrenmeli YSA ile ayrı ayrı sınıflandırma işlemleri yapılmıştır.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Çalışmada gözün durumu ile ilgili beyin sinyallerinin sınıflandırılması işleminde; ileri beslemeli geri yayılımlı YSA ile 0.03096 hata oranı ile le sınıflandırma yapılmıştır. İleri beslemeli HA ile öğretilmiş YSA ile yapılan sınıflandırmada ise 0,02951 hata oranı ile gözün açık veya kapalı olduğunun sınıflandırılması işlemi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu değerler, Rösler ve Suendermann’ın (2013) Weka paket programı ile yaptığı en iyi sınıflandırma performans değeri olan 3,2% değerinden daha iyi bir değerdir. Aynı verileri Wang ve arkadaşlarının (2014) zaman-serileri sınıflandırma yöntemi 29,5046% oranı ile sınıflandırmışlardır. Bu çalışmalar geliştirilerek, gözün kapalı veya açık olmasının beyin aktivitelerinden elde edilen bilgiler, akıllı cep telefonu gibi cihazlara aktarılarak, şoförlerin seyahat esnasında uyumaları durumunda otomatik olarak uyarılarak kazalar engellenebilir. KAYNAKLAR Alatas, B.(2010), Chaotic harmony search algorithms, Applied Mathematics and Computation 2010 | 216 | 9 | 2687-2699. Chadwick, N. A., McMeekin David.A., TanTele(2011). Classifying eye and head movement artifacts in EEG signals, Digital Ecosystems and Technologies Conference (DEST), 2011 Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on, May 31 2011. Chow, C. K. and Tong Lee(2002), Construction of Multi-layer Feedforward Binary Neural Network by a Genetic Algorithm, Neural Networks, 2002. IJCNN '02. Proceedings of the 2002 International Joint Conference on (Volume:3 ) Date of Conference: 2002,Page(s): 2562 - 2567. June 3 2011, Page(s): 285 – 291, 2011. CORDIS(2015), http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/93837_en.html, (28/08/2015) Emotiv (2014), http://www.emotiv.com, (29/09/2014) Geem, Z., J.-H. Kim, G.V. Loganathan(2001), A new heuristic optimization algorithm: harmony search, Simulation 76 (2) (2001) 60–68. Harikumar, R, T. Vijayakumar(2013), A Comparison of Elman and Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Networks in Optimization of Fuzzy outputs for Epilepsy Risk Levels Classification from EEG Signals, International Journal of Soft Computing Engineering (IJSCE), Volume:2, Issue: 6, ISSN:2231-2307, 2013. Navrátil, M., Petr Dostálek, Vojtěch Křesálek(2010),Classification of Audio Sources Using Neural Network Applicable in Security or Military Industry, 44th Annual 2010 IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST 2010) San Jose, California, USA 5 – 8 October 2010, IEEE Catalog Number: ISBN: CFP10ICR-PRT 978-1-4244-7403-5, Page:369-374. Nielsen, L.(1993), A Neural Network Model for Prediction of Sound Quality, The Acoustics Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, ISSN 0105-3027, Report No. 53, Page:12, 1993. Omran, M.G.H., and M. Mahdavi(2008), Global-best harmony search. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 2008. 198(2): p. 643-656. Ramírez, J., Mario I. Chacon-Murguia and Jose F. Chacon-Hinojos (2012), Artificial Neural Image Processing Applications: A Survey, This work was supported by Fondo Mixto de Fomento a la Investigación Científica y Tecnológica CONACYT- Gobierno del Estado de Chihuahua, under Grant CHIH-2009-C02-125358. Advance online publication: 27 February 2012. Rumelhart, D. E., G. E. Hinton and R. J. Williams (1986), Learning internal representations by error propagation, Parallel Distributed Processing, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1986, pp. 318-362. Orozco, M., A. Taboada-Crispí, A. D. Toro-Almenares(2006), Training of Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks by Using Cellular Genetic Algorithms, Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis and Applications Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 4225, 2006, pp 389-398. Razavi, S. V., Jumaat M. Z. and Ahmed H. EI-Shafie(2011), Using feed-forward back propagation (FFBP) neural networks for compressive strength prediction of lightweight concrete made with different percentage of scoria instead of sand”, International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 6(6), pp. 1325-1331, 18 March, 2011. Ross , T. J.(2010), Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Application, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2010. Roesler, O., Baden-Wuerttemberg (2014), Cooperative State University (DHBW), Stuttgart, Germany, http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/EEG+Eye+State, (29/09/2014). Rösler, O., and D. Suendermann(2013), First step towards eye state prediction using EEG, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Informatics for Health and Life Sciences (AIHLS '13), Istanbul, Turkey, 2013. Shi, Z., and Lifeng He(2010), Application of Neural Networks in Medical Image Processing, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Networking and Network Security (ISNNS ’10) , Jinggangshan, P. R. China, 2-4, April. 2010, pp. 023-026, 2010.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Sulaiman, I., S., Titik Khawa, Abdul Rahman and Ismail Musirin (2012), A Genetic Algorithm-Based Hybrid Multi-Layer Feedforward Neural Network for Predicting Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Output, 2012 IACSIT Hong Kong Conferences IPCSIT vol. 25 (2012) © (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore. UCI (2015), http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/EEG+Eye+State, (16/08/2015) Uncini, A.(2003), Audio signal processing byneural networks, Neurocomputing 55 (2003) 593 – 625. Wang, T., Sheng-Uei Guan, Ka Lok Man, T. O. Ting(2014), EEG Eye State Identification Using Incremental Attribute Learning with Time-Series Classification, Mathematical Problems in Engineering Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 365101, 9 pages, 2014. Wang, W., Jennifer L. Collinger, Alan D. Degenhart, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, Andrew B. Schwartz, Daniel W. Moran, Douglas J. Weber, Brian Wodlinger, Ramana K. Vinjamuri, Robin C. Ashmore, John W. Kelly, Michael L. Boninger (2013). An Electrocorticographic Brain Interface in an Individual with Tetraplegia. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (2): e55344 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055344. Weka (2015), http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/, (20/08/2015). Wodlinger, B., J E Downey, E C Tyler-Kabara, A B Schwartz, M L Boninger, J L Collinger(2015). Tendimensional anthropomorphic arm control in a human brain−machine interface: difficulties, solutions, and limitations. Journal of Neural Engineering, 2015; 12 (1): 016011 DOI: 10.1088/1741-2560/12/1/016011. Zhang, B., Heinz Müuhlenbein(1993), Evolving Optimal Neural Networks Using Genetic Algorithms with Occam’s Razor, Complex Systems, 7(3):199-220,1993.

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CLASSIFYING HAND SIGNS USING IMAGE PROCESSING 1

Ozan AKI, 2Aydın GÜLLÜ 1 Trakya University Turkey [email protected] 2 Trakya University Turkey [email protected]

Abstract: In this study, we aimed to classifying basic hand signs with image processing techniques. Hand images were obtained from a camera and each signs were classified manually for creating learning samples. Gabor wavelets were used to extract features of each hand sign image. Meaningful features were selected for teaching machine learning algorithms while weak features were rejected. Some wellknown machine learning algorithm results were compared and best one were selected for real time testing.

INTRODUCTION Hand movements and hand signs has become a novel way to interact smart devices. Many time these methods are just funny and alternative ways to use devices such computers, smartphones, smart TV sets and game consoles. But on the other hand, these alternative interact methods may aid patients, disabled people, machine operators. Patients may call nurse by simply a hand gesture. Disabled people may call elevator by a hand movement. Machine operators may work safely by checking if hands are in safe. In this study, we aim to classifying some specific hand shapes by using image processing and machine learning techniques. Hand shape images obtained by a webcam camera. Each shape of hand images were extracted from live video stream and saved as images with different orientation and different variations. We stored each hand shape images in named subfolder. After collecting all classified images, developed application was calculate Gabor wavelet transformation for all images and built an ARFF (Attribute Related File Format) file using by Weka (Machine Learning Group at the University of Waikato) machine learning application. ARFF file format was used for selecting meaningful features and evaluating machine learning algorithms. Finally, most successful machine learning algorithm was selected by comparing each other. MATERIAL AND METHODS Image Database In this study, only five group of specific hand shape images were used. For simplicity, each group of hand shape shows numbers with fingers. Hand shape images were obtained from solid black background platform using Microsoft LifeCam camera. Sample images were grabbed from camera every 10 frame interval with different angle and variations. Thus total 1569 images collected. Each group has 300 images approximately.

Figure 9: Hand shape groups that indicate numbers Each group of hand shape images will used for machine learning afterwards. Thus hereafter each group will be called as class. Each classes of hand shape images were saved in sub-folders that named as class name. Thus, hand shape images database were created. Feature Extraction Image processing consists of several stages. Preparing images for processing is the first stage. In this stage, Gaussian filter has been applied to images for reducing noises. Then these images has been converted to grayscale that contains only illumination information instead colors (Bradski & Kaehler, 2008).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Thus, image database has been prepared for feature extraction processes. Gabor filters, in other words Gabor wavelet transforms can extract time and frequency information from multidimensional signals like images. Also multi-resolution analysis can be done with adjustable kernel sizes. Gabor filters are mostly using in image processing applications such as facial expression classification, face recognition, texture classification (Chao, 2011; Ilonen, Kämäräinen, & Kälviäinen, 2005). A two dimensional Gabor wavelet defined as in Equation 1 and Equation 2.

Where

,

,



,



defines center frequency and





,





(2)





(3)

the spread of the Gaussian window (Derpanis, 2007).

Figure 10: Eight angles and five scale Gabor kernel images In this study, Gabor wavelet transforms were used for extract features of images for learning and classification. Five different scale for eight different angle (0°, 22,5°, 45°, 67,5°, 90°, 112,5°, 135°, 157,5°) Gabor kernels has been calculated for each images. Gabor kernels were shown in Figure 2. Convolving each kernel with image results real, imaginary, amplitude and phase components. Thus 160 feature per image has been calculated.

Figure 11: Input image convolving with Gabor kernel Gabor wavelet transforms are calculating by convolving whole image with Gabor kernel and resulting an image. Figure 11 shows a result of convolving input image with a specific Gabor kernel. Each kernel transforms calculates separately for an image. Developed application scans all sub directories and calculates all 160 feature for each image automatically. At the same time, this application builds an ARFF file that each calculated image features has been a data line. ARFF files are using by Weka application for machine learning processes (M. Hall et al., 2009). Figure 12 shows developed application's screen capture while working. This application detects number of core of CPU (Central Processing Unit) and processes same number of images concurrently.

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Figure 12: Developed application for automated feature extraction Machine Learning Machine learning is simply described as turning data into information (Bradski & Kaehler, 2008). For doing this, machine learning looks for patterns within data by training and afterwards we can ask questions about new upcoming data never seen before (Witten & Frank, 2005). Classifiers are machine learning algorithms. These algorithms are using for classifying unknown data based on trained data before. Evaluation of classifiers results some metrics. Most of these metrics calculates from confusion matrix. Confusion matrix shows number of correctly and incorrectly classified data for each classes. In confusion matrix, number of correctly classified positive data are called as TP (True Positive) and number of incorrectly classified positive data are called as FP (False Positive). Similarly, number of correctly classified negative data are called as TN (True Negative) and number of incorrectly classified negative data are called as FN (False Negative). Hereby, accuracy is calculated as in Equation 3. (4) Accuracy shows percentage of correctly classified instances both positive and negative (Kılıçaslan, Güner, & Yıldırım, 2009). Precision is calculating as in Equation 4.

(5)

Precision rate shows errors which are caused by classifying negative instances as being positive (Kılıçaslan et al., 2009). Recall is calculating as in Equation 5. (6) Recall rate shows errors which are caused by classifying positive instances as being negative (Kılıçaslan et al., 2009). f-measure is calculating as in Equation 6.





(7)

The f-measure combines precision and recall by calculating their harmonic mean (Kılıçaslan et al., 2009). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) area is a calculated area under curve that plot recall versus FPR (False Positive Rate). FPR is calculating as in Equation 7.

(8)

Gabor wavelet transformation results used for evaluation some well-known classifiers. Weka (version 3.6.11) application were used for evaluation of machine learning algorithms. Weka is an application that have collection 128 Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC)  www.iste‐c.net 

 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks (M. Hall et al., 2009). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Gabor wavelet transforms or Gabor filters are useful for extract image features. In this study, all possible Gabor kernels were used for experimental purposes. Extraction all possible features from all images needs much processor power and takes much longer time. Using all possible features will not be practical for real time classifying. For efficient calculation and saving time, less-meaningful features can be ignored. Therefore, there are two different experiments in this study. In the experiment 1, all the features that total of 160 were calculated for each image in the image database. In the experiment 2, only selected features that total of 34 were calculated for reduce computing time. Features were selected by using CFS (Correlation-based Feature Selection) attribute evaluator and best first search algorithm with default parameters in Weka application (M. A. Hall, 1999). Results of experiment 1 and experiment 2 and difference between experiments were shown in Table 3. All classifiers were used with default parameters as defined in Weka application. Cross-validation fold was used as 10. Only high rated classifiers were accepted for comparing. Table 3: Evaluation of classifiers Classifier Naïve Bayes

IBk J48 Decision Tree RBF Network

Bagging Random Forest

Experiment 1 2 ∆ 1 2 ∆ 1 2 ∆ 1 2 ∆ 1 2 ∆ 1 2 ∆

Accuracy (%) 81.47 88.09 +6.62  99.49 99.30 -0.19  96.56 95.92 -0.64  93.82 95.92 +2.10  97.77 96.88 -0.89  98.98 98.85 -0.13 

Precision 0.820 0.885 +0.065 0.995 0.993 -0.002 0.966 0.959 -0.007 0.939 0.959 +0.02 0.978 0.969 -0.009 0.990 0.989 -0.001

Recall 0.815 0.881 +0.066 0.995 0.993 -0.002 0.966 0.959 -0.007 0.938 0.959 +0.021 0.978 0.969 -0.009 0.990 0.989 -0.001

f-Measure 0.814 0.880 +0.066 0.995 0.993 -0.002 0.966 0.959 -0.007 0.938 0.959 +0.021 0.978 0.969 -0.009 0.990 0.989 -0.001

Kappa

ROC Area

0.7644 0.8491 +0.0847 0.9935 0.9911 -0.0024 0.9564 0.9483 -0.0081 0.9217 0.9483 +0.0266 0.9718 0.9605 -0.0113 0.9871 0.9855 -0.0016

0.972 0.986 +0.014 0.998 0.996 -0.002 0.984 0.982 -0.002 0.987 0.993 +0.006 0.998 0.998 0.000 0.999 0.998 -0.001

By ignoring eliminated features with selection algorithm, Naïve Bayes and RBF Network classifiers’ accuracy were increased while others decreased. When inspecting the changing rates of accuracies, it is evident that the decreasing accuracies' changing rates are quite small. On the other hand, serious computation power savings (78.75%) are obtained by reducing number of features from 160 to 34. By inspecting Table 3, most accurate classifier is IBk algorithm and can be used for real time testing with only selected attributes.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   REFERENCES Bradski, G., & Kaehler, A. (2008). Learning OpenCV: Computer vision with the OpenCV library: " O'Reilly Media, Inc.". Chao, W.-l. (2011). Gabor wavelet transform and its application. R98942073. Derpanis, K. G. (2007). Gabor filters. Hall, M., Frank, E., Holmes, G., Pfahringer, B., Reutemann, P., & Witten, I. H. (2009). The WEKA data mining software: an update. ACM SIGKDD explorations newsletter, 11(1), 10-18. Hall, M. A. (1999). Correlation-based feature selection for machine learning. The University of Waikato. Ilonen, J., Kämäräinen, J.-K., & Kälviäinen, H. (2005). Efficient computation of Gabor features: Lappeenranta University of Technology. Kılıçaslan, Y., Güner, E. S., & Yıldırım, S. (2009). Learning-based pronoun resolution for Turkish with a comparative evaluation. Computer Speech & Language, 23(3), 311-331. Witten, I. H., & Frank, E. (2005). Data Mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques: Morgan Kaufmann.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF CHESTNUT WOOD BY USING FIRE RETARDANT PAINT R. Esen1, Ş. Kurt2, C. Özcan1, F.Yapıcı3 Department of Industrial Engineering, Karabuk University, TR 2 Department of Wood Works Industrial Engineering, Duzce University, TR 3 Department of Industrial Engineering, 19 Mayıs University, TR e-mail: [email protected] 1

Abstract: Wood material is among the oldest building material that people used. Although there are lots of new techniques and various building materials, it is still very important in terms of its excellent features. Besides these features, wooden material has also some disadvantages. Among these disadvantages, the important one is combustion. In this study, the effect of fire retardant paint on combustion properties of Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood species was investigated. For their aim; test samples were treated to fire retardant paint according to company’s suggestion. Combustion experiments were carried out in computer controlled wood material combustion mechanism which developed according to ASTM-E 69 standards. Mass reduction, temperature and gas analysis (CO, NO, O2) values was obtained during combustion process for each 30 seconds. Consequently, it was determined that fire retardant paints reduced significantly mass reduction values of chestnut wood. Keywords: Chestnut, Coating, Combustion, Fire retardant, Gaz analysis, Paint.

INTRODUCTION Wooden material, which has a wide-range usage area, is a natural and renewable raw material, which can address any area. It is highly resistant considering its density allowing physical, chemical and mechanical intervention in its structure. Furthermore, its properties allowing easy processing, insulation properties for noise, power and heat, color and pattern harmony, its nature allowing substrate processing, and its high quality and capable decorative properties make wooden materials an indispensable building material. Wood has many good properties from the point of view of processing, physical and mechanical properties, aesthetic, environmental and health aspects. Wood continues to play an important role as a structural material in today’s high-tech society. In many countries, wood is widely used as a building material: in some areas as the main construction and decoration material (Toket et. al, 2012). As lumber and in reconstituted products, wood is commonly used for house siding, trim, decks, fences, and countless other exterior and interior applications (Cassens et. al, 1991). Wood material has number of advantages such as good mechanical properties, but shoes a low resistance against fire (Bednarek and Kaliszuk 2007). Borates have several great advantages as wood preservatives as well as imparting flame retardancy, providing sufficient protection against all forms of wood destroying organisms, have low mammalian toxicity and low volatility, they are moreover colorless and odorless (Hafizoglu et.al, 1994; Murphy, 1990; Yalınkılıç et. al, 1999; Drysdale, 1994; et. al, 1997). There are several reasons for this trend in Turkey. Traditionally, it is believed that wood is not a suitable material for fire safety. Materials impregnated with flame retardant-treated materials may have much better fire performance concerning these parameters than non-impregnated wood products (Kurt et. al, 2009). Yapıcı et. al (2011)studied effects of pretreatment with boric acid, borax and Tanalith-E on combustion properties of varnished Oriental beech. It was shown that the most mass reduction occurred in samples impregnated with boric acid and varnished with polyurethane varnish. Baysal et. al (2007) were studied about combustion properties of fir wood. They were reported; results indicated that the lowest temperature for flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage were obtained for specimens treated with boric acid and borax mixture (7:3; weight: weight). The lowest mass loss was found for the specimens treated with a mixture of boric acid and borax. The aim of this study, determinate of effect effects of fire retardants paint on combustion properties of Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   2. Material and Method Wood Material Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) was chosen randomly from timber suppliers of Bartın, Turkey. Blending process was made represent control simples on other groups. A special emphasis was put on the selection of the wood material. Accordingly, non-deficient, whole, knotless, normally grown (without zone line, reaction wood, decay, insect or fungal infection) wood materials were selected.Sayerlack fire-retardant system is used as a coating material. Taking into account the manufacturer's suggestions, the system was applied. Experimental Study The oversized test samples were climatized until they were stable at 20 ± 2 °C and 65 ± 3 % relative humidity in climate room. Later on they were cut with the dimensions of 9x19x1016 mm according to the and were finished with fire retardant paint 15 samples were manufactured for each test sample. Totally, 30 test samples were prepared. Execution Test The combustion test was carried out according to the but some changes were made in the stand. For this purpose, a digital balance having 0.01 g sensitiveness has been used for determination of mass reduction of materials when they are burnt. Butane gas was used to make an ignition flame. The gas flow is standard as the high of flame is 25 cm, the temperature must be 1000 oC. The distance between the bottoms of the test samples, which were hanged inside of the fire tube and the top of the gas pipe must be adjusted as 2.54 cm. During the test, mass reduction, temperature and released gas (CO, NO, O2) were determined in every 30 seconds. The test was made under a chimney where the flow of air blown was drawn with natural draft. At the beginning of combustion test flame source was used for 4 minutes then flame source was taken away and it was continued 6 minutes. Totally 10 minutes, the test was lasted. Testo 350 M and XL flue gas analyzers was used for measuring concentration of the released gasses (CO, NO, O2), and temperature variation. The probe was inserted into the first hole from the top of the fire tube.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   RESULT AND DISCUSSION The average air-dry density of Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) samples is 0,52 g/cm3 varnish layer thickness was (µm). Chestnut wood samples were applied fire retardants paint and then combustion properties were determined. As a result of combustion experiments, the average mass loss, temperature, O2, CO, NO values is shown in Table 1. Table 1. The average values of combustion test. CO Value NO Value Mass Loss Temperature O2 Value % ppm ppm Value (%) Value °C Fire Contr Fire Fire Fire Fire Measured Control Control Control Control Retd. ol Retd. Retd. Retd. Retd. of time 1* 1.22 0.96 81.3 84.8 20.43 20.22 31.6 69.1 1.1 9.6 2* 3.71 1.78 99.6 112.4 20.09 19.89 66.1 125.4 1.7 13.8 3* 8.16 3.65 122.9 129.6 19.31 19.66 105.4 159.4 2.2 17.6 4* 15.24 4.79 143.4 155.5 19.05 19.49 143.9 176.8 3.5 18.3 5* 27.42 5.63 169.6 171.1 18.57 19.38 175.8 201.2 5.7 21.6 6* 35.89 8.39 206.4 181.4 18.44 19.27 196.4 209.6 7.1 22.1 7* 41.69 13.88 231.0 186.1 18.32 19.15 228.4 216.7 7.9 22.6 8* 50.11 16.22 256.4 183.2 18.56 19.18 259.6 221.8 8.6 22.1 9 57.15 17.15 299.6 176.4 18.64 19.29 296.9 220.6 9.8 20.9 10 64.45 17.89 359.4 169.2 18.71 19.46 342.5 217.9 10.8 20.3 11 73.84 18.39 478.6 154.6 18.84 19.71 429.4 205.6 12.9 18.2 12 81.67 20.98 544.1 140.1 18.98 20.16 361.6 176.3 10.6 14.6 13 84.37 21.86 584.1 128.5 19.38 20.38 298.3 158.9 8.3 10.3 14 86.86 22.36 582.1 118.1 19.56 20.57 243.0 142.8 7.0 8.9 15 90.37 23.51 521.5 113.2 19.79 20.64 195.6 119.4 5.1 6.6 16 92.77 24.16 453.2 109.7 20.18 20.72 152.8 102.8 3.2 4.1 17 94.29 24.74 388.9 103.4 20.54 20.77 118.9 89.9 2.4 2.1 18 97.22 26.02 321.0 97.4 20.79 20.88 87.9 66.8 1.3 1.9 19 98.10 26.30 271.5 92.8 20.86 20.96 52.3 45.9 1.1 1.3 20 98.56 26.52 209.1 87.5 20.93 20.97 35.9 23.5 0.8 0.9 *Flame source combustion According to test result (Table.1), the highest mass loss value was obtained from chestnut wood control samples as 98,56 %, the lowest value mass loss value was determined to finishing process applying by fire retardant paint chestnut wooden material (26.52 %). The fire retardant paint was increased to combustion resistance. According to Table 1, the highest temperature value was observed in chestnut control sample (584.1 °C). The lowest value was found at chestnut wood applied fire retardant paint (186.1°C). This is because of fire retardant paint decreased combustion temperature. As a result of combustion test the highest reduction (19.15 %) of O2 concentration was measured in chestnut wood sample with paint. The lowest value of O2 concentration was determined to chestnut wood control samples (18.32 %). The fire retardant paint was degreased to combustion, so O2 values of chestnut wood control samples was measured as lowest. The highest value of CO concentration was observed in chestnut wood sample (429.4 ppm), the lowest value of CO concentration was determined to chestnut wood applied fire retardant paint (221.8 ppm). As a result of combustion test the highest value of NO concentration was found at chestnut wood applied fire retardant paint (22.6 ppm). The lowest value of NO concentration was obtained from chestnut wood sample (12.9 ppm).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   4. CONCLUSIONS Consequently. sample which applied fire retardant paint has 73% less combustion properties than control group samples. Fire retardant paint observed significantly delay the combustion of wood materials. After combustion of chestnut wood samples which applied fire retardant paint. temperature values decreased in chimney. The effect of fire retardant paint on CO value. until combustion would be finished. had 35% less than control group samples. Fire retardant paint significantly increased NO values. It might be suggest using fire retardant paint on furniture which could be exposed to combustion. REFERENCES ASTM-E 69 (2007) Standard Test Methods for Combustible Properties of Treated Wood by the Fire Apparatus, ASTM Standards. USA Baysal E., Altinok M., Çolak M., Ozaki K.S., Toker H. (2007). “Fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi) treated with borates and natural extractives” Bioresources Technology, 98(5), 1101-1105. Bednarek, Z., Kaliszuk W, A., (2007). Analysıs of the Fire-Protection Impregnatıon Influence On Wood Strength, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 13(2), 79-85.. Cassens. Daniel L.; Feist. William C. (1991). “Exterior Wood in the South: Selection” Appl.. and Fin. Gen. Tech. Rep., Forest Products Laboratory (Madison). Chen P.Y.S., Puttmann M.E., Williams L.H., Stoke D.D., (1997). Treatment of hardwood lumber with borate preservation, Forest Products Journal, 47(6), 63–68. Drysdale, J.A. (1994). Boron treatments for the preservation of wood. A review of efficacy data for fungi and termites. Document of IRG/WP, The International Research Group on Wood Preservation (New Zealand). Hafizoglu. H.. Yalinkilic. M.K.. Yildiz. U.C.. Baysal. E.. Peker. H..Demirci. Z.. (1994). Utilization of Turkey’s boron reserves in wood preservation industry. Project of Turkish Science and Tech. Council (TUBITAK) (Ankara). Kurt, Ş., Uysal, B. and Özcan, C, (2009). Thermal Conductivity of Oriental beech Impregnated with Fire Retardant, Journal of Coating Technology and Research. 6(4), 523-530. Murphy, R.J. (1990). Historical perspective in Europa. Margeret Hamel (Ed.), Proceedings of the Uludağ, First International Conference on Wood Protection with Diffusible Preservatives. Tennessee. Produce firm, Hemel Emprenye A.Ş. Istanbul, 2013. Toker H.. Baysal E.. Ozcifci A.. Altun S.. Esen R.. (2012). “ Combustion Properties Of Laminated Veneer Lumbers Impregnated With Some Chemicals” 12th International Combustion Symposium, (Kocaeli) Yalınkılıç M.K., Takahashi M., Imamura Y., Gezer E.D., Demirci Z., Ilhan R., (1999). Boron addition to non or low formaldehyde cross-linking reagents to enhance biological resistance and dimensional stability for wood. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff. 57(5), 351–357. Yapıcı. F.. Uysal. B.. Kurt. Ş.. Esen. R.. Özcan. C. (2011). Impacts of impregnation chemicals on finishing process and combustion properties of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) wood”. BioResources. 6(4), 3933-3943.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

COMPRESSION CHARACTERISTIC OF EXTRUDED SEMISOLID MG-7.5AL-0.3MN ALLOY   Jae-Chan Jo1, Dae-Hwan Kim2, Su-Gun Lim3 1

[email protected] 

2

[email protected] 

3

[email protected] 

Abstract:In the present study, the compression characteristic of extruded semi-solid Mg-7.5Al-0.3Mn alloy at the elevated temperature was investigated. The specimen used for compression testing having a different microstructure was obtained by cooling slope casting and mold casting, respectively. Theextrusion for two alloys was hot direct extrusion and performed at an extrusion temperature of 350oC under ram speed of 4mm/sec and extrusion ratio of 25. The compression testing was performed from R.T to 400oC using both constant strain rate (1.67x10-5 to 1.67x10-2 s-1) test to failure andthe compression heightof the experiment is 6 mm. In order to observe the fracture phenomenon after compression test, its fracture surfaces were examined with optical and scanning electron microscopy. The flow stress was decreased with a decrease of the strain rate and an increase of temperature. The strain rate sensitivity was calculated from the slope of log strain rate and log peak stress curve, was increased with increasing deformation temperature.  Keywords: Semi-solid metal, Stain rate sensitivity, Compression test, hot extrusion, Z parameter 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

COMPUTATİONAL DESİGN OPTİMİZATİON OF ROAD SPEED BUMPS  Hakan Ersoy1, Kayra Kurşun2 1 2

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract:In this work, for urban traffic control; several speed bump forms are proposed as novel designs by the usage of design optimization algorithm. A generic automobile suspension and standard speed bump relations are modeled as dynamic systems and processed in a computerized simulation. In established simulation model, the speed bump form is assumed as road input and its cross section curve is polynomial. The optimization algorithm minimizes the vehicle oscillation when the vehicle passes over the speed bump within the range of determined speed limits and elevates the vehicle oscillation to a safe but higher pre-defined value when the vehicle passes over the speed bump with much higher speeds. Optimization is carried out by entering the required parameters to design optimization toolbox and the obtained simulation and optimization values provides different speed bump forms for different speeds.   Keywords: : speed limit control, speed bump optimization, suspension modeling, design optimization 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

CREATING ONTOLOGY BASED CONCEPT MAPS WHICH CAN BE QUERIED IN COMPUTER ENVIROMENT Mehmet Milli1, Emre Ünsal2, Özlem Aktaş3 Computer Engineering Department Dokuz Eylül University Izmir Turkey [email protected], [email protected] [email protected] Abstract: Nowadays, Semantic web and ontology applications which came with it, are commonly used in social media, entertainment and shopping sites. But usage of semantic web in education field is limited. Semantic web applications are useful developing tools and E-Learning objects can be used for creation and editing. It is important that Individuals on the internet arrange educational techniques based on their interests and needs (Stutt & Motta 2004). Thus, it is envisaged that, semantic web applications will have large contribution conception when moving to individualized education in future education. The aim of this study is to create concept maps for educators, which is one of the significant learning techniques and widely applied in the teaching process, by using ontologies. In accordance to this aim, an ontology based system made with “Protégé 4.3” developing tool based on RDF(Resource Description Framework) language and can be queried in E-Learning environment by using ontology query language SPARQL (SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language). Moreover, the developed system is able to present concepts visually to educators, which could not be done by concept maps generated with classic methods and ensured to access textual information. Therefore, students are able to perform better relations between former and recently learned concepts and achieve constructive learning easier. In future studies, ontology based concept maps which is only used as learning material in education phases, are expected to be used more effectively also in planning, learning and evaluation stages. Key Words: Semantic, Ontologies, Concept Maps, Constructive Learning, SPARQL

  1-INTRODUCTION As it will be made many definitions of Education, today’s most commonly used definition is the behavior of individual, is the process of deliberately bring about the desired change in the direction of their lives through. All developed countries have education systems that hosted within their own social values to transfer their cultural heritage to the next generation. In recent years, these systems need to be constantly renewed with the rapid developments occurring in the field of science and technology. The ultimate aim of governments in education systems is to ensure the training of qualified individuals which produce knowledge, questioning, critical thinking, criticizing and judgment maker which can be used for purposes of science and technology (Gültepe, 2014, p.24).The most critical point in the system for training established teaching is how to plan and implementation of education. Academic work in the field of education is focused in direction of "the development of effective educational system" (Ergin, 1991, p.371). Coming from the past to present, there are many methods and techniques of teaching-learning strategies. Strategies, methods and variations in techniques makes learning more effective and easier. Therefore, teaching and learning strategies, significantly affects student achievement (Tekışık, 2002, p.1). In this study, the creation of computer-aided concept maps was achieved using ontologies. In the second part of this study, the development of concept maps which is an effective educational method and importance of it has been emphasized in terms of education. Ontologies are defined which determine how to read and interpret welldefined web data using machines. Similarities and superior sides of concept maps with ontologies according to each other are discussed. Also definition of SPARQL (SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) ontology query language has been discussed. In the third part of this study, with examples it has been described that of how to create an ontology using protégé editor. It has been discussed how to transfer the created ontology to web environment and how to query these concept maps which are created with support of ontology using SAPRQL. In the fourth part of the study, it mentioned results and future works planned to be done in the future. 2-MEANINGFUL LEARNING AND CONCEPT MAPS One of the widely used strategies of Teaching-learning is David Ausubel’s (1963) verbal based teaching technique. Even though there are different methods to achieve meaningful learning the concept maps are one of the most effective learning methods (Kaptan, 1998, p.95).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   At first, Tony Buzan introduced concept maps to world with publishing books about it, at the same time it has become a technique which in future many people will adopt and use (Adodo, 2013, p.163). Novak and Gowin in 1984, show that using concept maps is a creative method when clarifying student’s concepts in a particular domain and the relationship between these concepts. Justifying information requires a high level of learning. Concept maps makes learning discipline to scientists and individuals by simplifying the knowledge creation process. (Novak, 1993, p.167). Concept maps can be considered as mechanisms which define concepts to be learned by students, and the relation to be made between these concepts and appeal to the visual senses for learning effectively. At the same time, it is indicated that using concept maps is an effective learning technique and the develop students' thinking, analyzing, problem solving and their creativity abilities (Novak & Gowin & Johansen, 1983 p.625). But despite of these benefits concept maps are not used efficiently as requested. This problem has two main reasons. First one is, having difficult and costly preparation and second one is limited reusability. In the latest researches, it has been envisaged that concept maps to be created using ontologies will solve these problems. The greatest feature of ontologies which are main structure of semantic web is reusability and created easily using editors. Thus it is expected to bring new perspective to concept maps. Ontologies makes creating concept maps for teachers easier (Chu, Lee & Tsai, 2011). 2.1 Semantic Web and Ontologies Semantic web (Berners-Lee, 2001, p.34) is an internet plug-in that is mostly studied in the academic and industrial fields which goal is making language of data in the internet environment in a way that not only understandable by human languages, but also being understandable, interpretable and usable by machines, in this way machines can easily find information, which aims to share information and be able to combine them. The basic structure of the Semantic Web are ontologies. “Ontologies have key duty in technology by integrating interoperability and data, information and processes” (Grobelnik & Mladenic & Fortuna, 2009, p.59). Overall, Overall ontologies which is the most important component of semantic web based on RDF format. RDF is a data model to define data for semantic web. This model is based on objects in the web environment, the identification of resource properties and property values. RDF is made of RDF triples which are used to define and describe data. The objective of RDF triples is to store data as component forms. These triples are similar to the base sentence being used daily in dialogues, by having subject, predicate and the object. Subject shows data source, predicate shows properties of source and the relationship between subject and object. When viewed this aspect, structure of ontologies which is conceptualized representation (Gruber, 1993) is similar to structure of concept maps which is a successful method of meaningful learning (Silva & Padilha et al. 2012, p.33). Concept maps and ontologies, while defining clearly classes and concepts and relationship between them, provide describe ability of the different concepts. Concept maps created using ontologies have differences with concept maps created using classic methods, because of including ability to define properties to classes, individuals and restrictions. (Hsieh & Lee & Chu, 2013, p.561). Concept maps created using ontologies in comparison to maps created using classic methods, has to offer more open and expressive form information (Graudina, Grunspenkis & Milasevica, 2012, p.29). Also, different from classic concept maps, ontology based maps shows more meaningful specifications by only using concepts and relation between concepts (Graudina & Grundspenkis, 2008, p.173). 2.2 Jena and Sparql SPARQL is a query language used to query RDF data. SPARQL is used to make queries in different data resources. With having much similarity to SQL (Structured Query Language) language in terms of used words and structure, queries are written in triple store format. 3-METHODS AND MATERIALS Scope of the developed system is secondary school science and technology lesson. System is a web-based software, which can do semantic search and logical layoffs, because of being web-based anyone can use it independent of time and space. The base knowledge of the system in other words RDF triples is created using OWL language in Protégé 4.3 editor, developed by Stanford University. In the project, issues of primary school’s science and technology lesson’s concept’s class features, limitations, qualifications and relations between these classes are designed using protégé. In the web-based application, developed RDF triples are queried using SPARQL ontology language and desired data depend on the user presented.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   3.1 Ontology Development Process Ontology development is an essential process that should be considered. The ontology development process should be made with specific methodology.t is the process that predicts which activity will take place. In this project, due to the ease of use and general acceptance by the investigators 101 methodology (Noy, N.F., McGuiness, D.L, 2001) is used. The basic steps of the methodology are as follows. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Determining the domain and scope of the ontology Consider reusing existing ontologies Enumerating important terms in the ontology Defining the classes and the class hierarchy Defining the properties of classes—slots Defining the facts of the slots Creating instances(individuals)

3.1.1 Determining the domain and scope of the ontology In the first step of this methodology used for creating ontology, areas and scope of the application to be developed should be extensively discussed. When defining this domain, project is going to be used by whom, for what purpose and where it’s going to be used, these declarations should be made, and then domain and area should be defined. Also, what questions this ontology is going to find answer and which problems it’s going to solve should be defined in this stage. Some of the decisions, can be changed later, when developing ontology. This project aims to help teacher of the primary school 3-4-5-6-7-8 Science and Technology course, by creating concept maps using ontology, and also make student which takes the course understand the concept effectively. 3.1.2 Consider reusing existing ontologies One of the aims for this project, is to prevent time loss when making concept maps in learning processes. As we said previously, the advantages to create ontology based concept maps in comparison to classic method based ones, is reusability. Due to this fact, before starting the creation process of an ontology, examining the resources about field to be made and if there are similar resources, instead of creating exact same, to think about expanding it. Sometimes, there are some ontologies may need to be imported to our own work. According to prior research it can be seen that there is insufficient scope in concept maps made with ontologies. Moreover lack of necessary inquiries and works done has not been put into place that can be easily be reached. 3.1.3 Enumerating important terms in the ontology Concepts to be used in ontology, relation between concepts and properties of these concepts, without any distinction as lists should be documented. In this work, Ontology terms list are created using topics of Science and Technology course and terms needed when creating concept map of this subject’s. In the next stage, with using this list, classes are inserted into a hierarchical order and concept properties were defined. Defining class hierarchy and concept properties is a nested process, thus, it made simultaneously. Some of the terms in ontologies can be added or changed in the creating process. 3.1.4 Defining the classes and the class hierarchy There can be many methods used when determining class place order but the mostly used is the method Uschold and Gruninger (1996) mentioned in their work. These methods are defined as below: 3.1.4.1 Up-Down: The development process starts from the upper class and continues towards lower classes. A path is followed from the most public class to the most private class. 3.1.4.2 Down-Up: Starts the development process by identifying lower classes then by grouping upper classes are created. Follows a path from the private classes to the most public class. 3.1.4.3 Combination: Ontology of the desired subject is defined as creating first and most striking concepts and making generalizations based on state privatizations. In this study, since classes of ontology to be created are in a systematic list from upside to down, top-down method was deemed appropriate to proceed faster. If list of classes to be created is defined completely, using the general to the particular method provides convenience to the developer.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   3.1.5 Defining the properties of classes—slots Classes and hierarchical structure created, on their own do not show clearly the information to be given to desired audience. Semantic relations to specify the characteristics of properties and class definitions can be used in the ontology. There are two kinds of properties; Object properties and data properties. Object properties defines already created relationship between two classes, internal or external parts and the characteristics of the class.

Figure 1: Showing of object attributes For example in this study “isFoundInNature” property is defined. While the domain of this property is Material” class, range of this property are “Solid”, “liquid and “gas” classes. If we look to this example as type of RDF trio, we can simply understand that: Substance can be found as solid liquid and gas in nature. (Figure 1)

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   3.1.7 Defining the facts of the slots In this step, properties of attribution which defined in previous step are determined. These attribution may have value, value type, restriction and other properties.

Figure 2: Properties of Data property object In this study, properties of substance and atom classes, values these properties can get and value types are defined (Figure 2).One of the properties of “atom” class is atom number. 3.1.7 Creating instances (individuals) Last step of creating ontologies is to create individuals related to previously defined classes. The class which individual will be created should be selected, then individuals of that class will be created. There is not any limitation in individual number. Value type, values and restricts should be defined if there is any.

Figure 3: Individuals of classes and their values and restricts Individuals related to classes “Atom” and “Substance” are defined in this study (Figure 3). Data property assertions and object property assertions of compound class are defined.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   4-QUERY THE ONTOLOGY IN WEB ENVIRONMENT One of the greatest advantage of concept maps created using ontologies in comparison to concept maps created using classic methods, is that concept maps are written in a language that machines can understand, too. So the meaning of concept maps can be obtained as textual. This makes student’s better associate previously learned concepts and new concepts, and makes meaningful learning active. In order to make access of concept maps easier, they have been transferred to web environment. Users can examine concept maps of any science study subject using web environment and can make relevant queries on this subject (Figure 4) “Apache Jena Fuseki” has been used for transferring the created ontology to the web environment. Apache Jena Fuseki can give end-point (link) of loaded ontology. With help of this end-point, connection is established using language used in web environment. PHP is used for developing web environment. One of the reasons to prefer PHP is that both PHP and “Apache Jena Fuseki” can work on apache server without any problem. Also, another reason is PHP is open-source language. The interaction between PHP and “Apache Jena Fuseki” is achieved using “sparqllib.php” library of PHP. Using this library, queries in the SPARQL language are transferred to Apache Jena Fuseki Server and results are gained to store other needed data, MySQL database was preferred because of good compatibility with PHP.

Figure 4: SPARQL query page of created website 5 -CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION Since the emergence of the concept map, has been used by teachers as learning material actively. Concept maps establish meaning relationship by associating previous knowledge of students with new information. Also, it improves problem solving, analytical thinking and inferring cognitive abilities of students. However, concepts maps created using classic methods has some main problems. The first one is difficult and time-consuming process of creating concept maps using classic methods. When there is need to add new concept to map or change any concept in map, there may be need to recreate concept map. Concept maps created using classic methods have limited reusability. Also because of being created manually on paper it is difficult to store and archive. Nowadays rapid development of the computer usage in learning classical methods does not attract attention of students. So affective readiness of student decreasing. Concept maps created using computers in comparison to maps created using classic methods have advantages. Concept maps designed using computers, show concepts in a hierarchical order. In addition the name of this concepts can be changed. The meaningful relationship can be created between concepts and more comprehensive maps in comparison to classic created concept maps (Baki & Mandacı Şahin, 2004, p.91).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Moreover, in the process of creating concept maps gives the ability to save in any stage and continue later. When concept maps are used again, they can be found in computer environment easily and changed with respect to daily conditions in the manner of required technology. Also, improves update process and reusability functions. Ontologies which are main structure of semantic web that came with Web 3.0 has similarities in structure with concept maps used as learning material. Concept maps created using ontology can be queried using SPARQL. This way get students attention to described of concept map on the desired subject. In this concept, ontology based concept maps are made with subject of science and technology courses in primary school curriculum, and queried in internet environment. In next studies, ontology based concept maps can be used in most subject and courses of primary school and provide meaningful learning. In addition to use ontology based concept maps as a teaching method, it can be used in the planning training and education, evaluation stages and correcting students previously learned wrong concepts.

Figure 5: A concept map created using protégé ontology editor

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   6-REFERENCES Adodo, S. O. (2013). “Effect of mind-mapping as a self-regulated learning strategy on students’ achievement in basic science and technology,” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 163–172. Ausubel, D. P. (1963). The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. New York: Grune and Stratton. Baki, A. & Mandacı Şahin, S. (2004). Bilgisayar destekli kavram haritası yöntemiyle öğretmen adaylarının matematiksel öğrenmelerinin değerlendirilmesi. TheTurkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET), 3(2). 91-104. Berners-Lee,T. & Hendler,J. & Lassila,O., (2001). “The Semantic Web”, Scientific American, vol.284, no:5, 3443 Chu, K. K., Lee, C. I., & Tsai, R. S., (2011). Ontology technology to assist learners’ navigation in the concept map learning system. Expert Systems with Applications, 38, 11293–11299. Ergin,A.(1991). Eğitim Teknolojisi Tarihçesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim BilimleriFakültesi Dergisi , 24(2), 371-385. Graudina, V. & Grundspenkis, J. (2008). Concept Map generation from OWL ontologies. The 3rd International Conference on Concept Mapping, September, 22-25, 2008, Tallinn, Estoniaand Helsinki, Finland, 173-180. Graudina, V. & Grunspenkis, J. & Milasevica, S. (2012). Ontology merging in the context of concept maps. Scientific Journal of RTU, Vol. 13, 2012, pp. 29-36. Grobelnik, M. & Mladenic, D. & Fortuna, B. (2009) Semantic technology for capturing communication inside an organisation. IEEE internet computing, 13:4, 59-66 Gruber, T. (1993). “Toward principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing”, Technical Report KSL93-04, Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford University. Gültepe Y. & Memiş E.K. (2014). Kavram Haritalarının Ontoloji Tabanlı Oluşturulması: Kuvvet Konusu Uygulama Örneği. Journal of Instructional Technologies & Teacher Education Vol. 3, No.1,24-33. Hsieh, Y.C., Lee, C.I. & Chu, K.K., (2013). Effect of an ontology-based reasoning learning approach on cognitive load and learning achievement of secondary school students. Pakistan Journal of Statistics, 29(5), 561-572. Kaptan, F. (1998). Fen Öğretiminde Kavram Haritası Yönteminin Kullanılması. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 14, 95-99. Novak, J. D. (1993). Human constructivism: A unification of psychological and epistemological phenomena in meaning making. International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology, 6, 167-193. Novak, J. D. & Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press. Novak, J. D. & Gowin, D. B. & Johansen, G.T. (1983). The use of concept mapping and knowledge vee mapping with junior high school science students. Science Education, 67 (5) 625-645. Noy, N.F. & McGuiness, D.L., (2001). Ontology Development 101: A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology, Stanford Knowledge Systems Laboratory Technical Report KSL-01-05 and Stanford Medical Informatics Technical Report SMI-2001-0880. Silva, A. A. & Padilha, N. & Siqueira, S. & Baião & Kate Revoredo (2012). Using concept maps and ontology alignment for learning assessment. IEEE Technology and Engineering Education, Vol. 7, No. 3. 33-40. Stutt, A. and Motta, E. (2004) Semantic Learning Webs, Journal of Interactive Media in Education - Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web, 10. Tekışık, H.H. (2002). Öğrenme-Öğretme Stratejileri. Çağdaş Eğitim Dergisi, 289, 1-8. Uschold, M. and Gruninger, M. (1996). Ontologies: Principles, Methods and Applications. Knowledge Engineering Review 11. Apache Jena official web site retrieved -01.08.2015- http://jena.apache.org/ Protégé official web site retrieved -15.06.2015- http://protege.stanford.edu/ World Wide Web Consortium official web site retrieved -10.06.2015- http://www.w3.org/RDF/ MySQL official web site retrieved -23.06.2015- http://www.mysql.com/ Hypertext Preprocessor official web site retrieved http://www.php.net/ Library of SPARQL download links – 05.08.2015- http://graphite.ecs.soton.ac.uk/sparqllib/

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ÇAĞDAŞ ARAP ŞİİRİNDE SOSYALİST GERÇEKÇİLİK Salih TUR Eastern Languages and Literatures Department, Harran University, Şanlıurfa/Turkey [email protected] Özet:Rusya’da Bolşevik devriminin gerçekleşmesinin (1917) ardından, yeni insanın, yeni toplumun ve Sovyet kültürünün oluşmasını amaçlayan sosyalist gerçekçilik veya sosyalist realizm, sanatta yansıtma ilkesiyle hareket ederek realizm akımının yirminci yüzyılda ulaştığı farklı yaklaşım biçimidir. Realizmin ilkelerinden yararlanarak kendine özgü ilkeler geliştiren sosyalist gerçekçilik, estetik ve sanatsal bir akım olmakla birlikte Marksist görüşüyle şekillenerek aynı zamanda ideolojik bir misyonun da temsilcisi olmuştur. 1934 Yılında gerçekleşen Birinci Sovyet Yazarları Birliği Kongresi’nde temel ilkeleri şekillenen sosyalizm doktrini, maddeci bir anlayışla toplumu ekonomik ilişkiler ekseninde değerlendirmiş, işçi ve köylü sınıfının çektiği sıkıntılarını ele almış ve sosyalist bir bakış açısıyla hedefe ulaşabilmek için çeşitli çözümler aramış olan bir ideolojik sanat anlayışıdır. Arap Dünyasında ise sosyalist doktrin Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın ardından görülmeye başlamış, ancak dinî ve millî hassasiyetlerin toplumda daha baskın olması sebebiyle Arap düşüncesi üzerinde pek bir varlık gösterememiştir. İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra ve özellikle Cemal Abdünnâsır’ın Mısır’da iktidarı ele geçirmesiyle beraber sosyalizm düşüncesi gerek siyaset gerekse edebiyat dünyasında etkili bir şekilde geniş bir taban buldu. Birçok Arap ülkesinde sosyalizm, devletin resmi ideolojisi haline geldi. Arap dünyasında yaşanan siyasal istikrarsızlık ve sosyal sorunlar nedeniyle dönemin genç şairleri, Arap dünyasının kurtuluşunun sosyalizmden geçtiğine inanmışlardır. Bu felsefeyi içtenlikle savunmaya başlamışlar ve bu doğrultuda eser vermeye başlamışlardır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyalist Gerçekçilik, Toplumcu Gerçekçilik, Sosyalizm, Çağdaş Arap Şiiri, Cemal Abdünnâsır.

SOCIALIST REALISM IN MODERN ARABIC POEM Abstract:Socialist realism aiming to create new human, society and Soviet culture after Bolshevik Revolution (1917) in Russia is a different approach that the realism movement reached by the reflection principle in art in the twenty first century. Developing specific principles for itself by utilizing the principles of realism, socialist realism is an aesthetic and artistic movement and representative of an ideological mission shaped by Marxist thought. Social doctrine, whose basic principles were shaped in the First Soviet Authors Association Congress in 1934, is an ideological artistic understanding which assessed society in the axis of economic relations by materialist perspective and addressed the working and peasant class’ problems and sought various solutions in order to achieve the goal by a socialist attitude. Socialist doctrine came into sight after the First World War in Arabic World. However, since the religious and national sensitivity was more dominant in the society, that doctrine couldn’t be influential much on the Arabic thought. After the Second World War and especially Gamal Abdel Nasser’s power grab in Egypt, the socialist thought gained a great place in both political and literature world. In many Arabic countries, socialism became the official ideology of the state. Due to political instability and social problems in the Arabic world, the young poets of the period believed that the survival of the Arabic world depended on socialism. They started defending this philosophy and creating works of art accordingly. Key word: Socialist Realism, Socialist, Contemporary Arab Poetry, Gamal Abdel Nasser

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Giriş Sosyalist gerçekçilik, 20. yüzyılda ortaya çıkmış, bireyi toplumsal ilişkiler içerisinde değerlendiren, sosyal hayattaki hadiseleri tüm çıplaklığıyla ortaya çıkarıp yansıtan ve bunları sosyalist dünya felsefesi doğrultusunda çözüm yollarını arayan, ideolojik olarak da Marksist anlayışı benimsemiş olan siyasi, felsefi, estetik ve edebî bir akımdır. Bu akım sistematik ve bir kuram haline gelene kadar üç önemli evreden geçmiştir. Bunların birincisi; 1848-1905 yılları arasındaki Komünü edebiyatı ile Alman devrimci edebiyatının ortaya çıktığı ve bilimsel maddeciliğin kurucularının kendi estetik kuramlarını oluşturmaya başladıkları, maddeci edebiyat kuramının temelini attıkları evredir. İkincisi; 1905-1917 yılları arasını kapsayan, devrim ile sanat arasındaki ilişkilerin tutarlı bir şekilde ele alındığı ve bu temel üzerinde ilk önemli toplumcu gerçekçi yapıtların ortaya çıktığı evredir. Üçüncüsü; 1917-1930 yılları arasını kapsayan prolet-kült hareketi ile Alexander Bogdanov(1873-1928)’un bu doğrultudaki görüşlerine karşı çatışmayı içerdiği ve tüm burjuva sanatını ve geleneklerini koşulsuz ve olumsuz kılmaya kalkışan fütüristler ile prolet-kültçülere karşı toplumcu edebiyatının geçmişin en ileri ve değerli geleneklerini kendinde toplaması ve özümsemesi gerektiğine ilişkin anlayışın hâkim olduğu evreyi kapsamaktadır (Akpınar, 2014:13). Toplumcu gerçekçilik Rusya’da sosyalist düzene geçilmesinin ardından gündeme gelmiştir. 1917 yılında Rusya’da Bolşevik devriminden sonra ihtilalı destekleyen bir grup Rus Proleter yazar, Sovyet edebiyatçısının tarafsız olmayacağını, yeni insan, yeni toplum ve yeni bir kültürün inşası için yapılanmaya katkıda bulunması için edebiyatçılara ideolojik yükümlüler taşıması gerektiği görüşünü benimser. Bu görüş doğrultusunda yeni bir insan ve yeni bir yaşam biçimi oluşturmak için Rus edebiyatında bir canlılık ve bir hareketlilik yaşanır. Bu hareketliliğin çıkış noktası da sosyalist realizm olur. Devrimin gerçekleştiği toplumlarda gerek sosyalizmin yerleşmesinde gerekse sosyalist bir toplumun kurulmasında yazar, sanatçı ve edebiyatçıya büyük görev ve sorumluluk düşmüş olur. Görev sorumluluk alan bir edebiyatçı edebiyatında gerçeği yansıtmalıdır. Bir başka ifadeyle edebiyatçı gerçeğin kendisi olmalıdır. Kısacası sosyalist bir toplumun kurulması için sanat ve edebiyatın şu hedef ve görevleri üstlenmesi gerekir; gerçeğe dayalı toplumsal gelişme hedefleri belirlenmelidir. Çalışanların sosyalizme uygun eğitilmesi, kahramanları yüceltilmesi, geleceğe dair mücadeleler tasarlanmalıdır. Gerçeğin ortaya konmasında ve bireylerin ideolojik dönüşümlerinde birliği ve uyumu sağlamalıdır. Yeni bir Rönesans için insanlar mücadeleye davet edilmelidir. Bütün bunlar gerek edebiyat çalışmalarında gerekse kültürel etkinliklerde sosyalist realizmin önemli ilkeleri haline gelmiştir (Uygur, 2005:34).

Arap Şiirinde Sosyalizm Sosyalizm doktrini Arap dünyasında Birinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra edebî çevrelerde görülmeye başlanmıştır. Ancak dinî hassasiyetler ve milliyetçilik düşünceleri toplumda daha etkili olduğundan dolayı bu dönemde Arap düşüncesi üzerinde pek etkili olamamıştır. Arap dünyasında sosyalist düşünce, İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra gerek siyaset gerekse edebiyat dünyası üzerinde varlığını açık bir şekilde göstermeye başlamış (Hâkka,1979:170) ve özellikle Cemâl Abdunnâsır(19181970)’ın önderliğinde genç subayların monarşi rejimine karşı 1952 yılında gerçekleştirdiği darbenin ardından sosyalizm felsefesi, başta Mısır olmak üzere Irak, Suriye Libya, Yemen gibi diğer Arap ülkelerinde etkili olmaya başlamıştır. Mısır’da iktidarı ele geçiren Cemâl, Abdunnâsır sosyal adaleti sağlamak, işsizlik ve fakirliğin önüne geçmek için önemli bir adım atarak ülkesinde toprak reformunu gerçekleştirdi. Bu uygulamayla Cemâl Abdunnâsır, Mısır’ın yoksul geniş halk kitlelerinin umudu haline gelir. İktidara gelen Cemâl Abdunnâsır, Filistin, Irak, Yemen gibi işgal altındaki Arap ülkelerinin bağımsızlık için mücadele veren devrimci halk hareketlerini destekler. Abdunnâsır, 1958’de Mısır ile Suriye arasında bir anlaşma gerçekleştirerek Birleşik Arap Cumhuriyeti kurma girişiminde bulunur. Batılı devletlerin kontrolünde bulunan Süveyş kanalını millileştirir. Böylece Abdunnâsır, sadece Mısırlıların değil, tüm Arap dünyasının ezilmiş insanlarının umudu ve kurtarıcı kahramanı haline gelir. Cemâl Abdunnâsır, eğitim, yoksulluk, özgürlük, eşitlik gibi kavramları köylü ve işçi sınıfının sorunlarını ön plâna çıkarır. Sosyal devlet anlayışı doğrultusunda siyasî vaatlerde bulunur. 1962’de Arap Sosyalist Birliği’ni kurur. Mısır’ın, Bulgaristan, Romanya, Polonya gibi sosyalist ülkelerle yakın işbirliği içerisine girmesini sağlar. Özellikle askerî, teknik ve malî alanda Sovyetler Birliği ile yakın ilişkiler kurar. Abdunnâsır, Mısır sanayisinin gelişmesine ve köylülerin topraklandırılması noktasında başarısının yanı sıra kadınların hak ve özgürlüklerini genişletmiş ve halkın orta sınıfı arasında eğitimin yaygınlaştırmasında önemli politikalar gütmüştür. Bu arada Mısır’da 1952 askerî darbe gerçekleşmeden önce “el-Edîb el-Mısrî”(1951),“el-Kadıyya”(1951),“elVatanu’l-Cedîd”(1951),“Sabahu’l-Hayr” (1951) gibi darbeye zemin hazırlayan ve Marksist- sosyalist misyon doğrultusunda gazete ve dergiler yayın hayatındaydı. Bu gazete ve dergilerin gayesi de halk arasında ilericilik görüşlerini yaymak, millî düşünce şuurunu oluşturmak, orta sınıf insanını bilinçlendirmek ve Mısır’da yeni bir kültür oluşturmaktır.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Cemal Abdunnâsır’ın iktidara gelmesiyle beraber sosyalizm, bir nevi devletin resmî ideolojisi haline geldi. Bu dönemde “el-Kâtib”, “et-Tali‘a” “el-Ahrâm” gibi yarı resmi olan gazete ve dergiler de bu düşünce doğrultusunda yayın hayatına başlamıştı. Bu gazete ve dergilerin başında Lutfi el-Hulî (1928-1999), Luis ‘İvaz (1915-1990), Muhammed Mendür (1907-1965), Yusuf Hilmî, Muhammed Huseyin Yeykel (1888-1956), Fethi Gânim (19241999), Halid Muhyeddîn (1922 d.), Mahmud Emîn el-‘Âlim (1922-2009), Ahmed Hamrûş gibi dönemin önde gelen edebiyatçı ve yazarlar yer almaktaydı. Bu yazarların bir kısmı Marksist bir kısmı da sosyalist düşünceye mensup insanlardı. Bütün bu gelişmeler sosyalizmin Mısır’ın fikir ve düşünce dünyasında derin etkiler bırakmasına vesile olmuştur. Ülkesinde köklü değişim ve dönüşümlere damgasını vurmuş olan Cemâl Abdunnâsır aynı zamanda Arap dünyasında da etkin bir lider olmuştur. Arap ulusu arasında âdeta kurtarıcı ve ulusal bir kahraman olmuştur. Abdunnâsır, tüm Arap dünyasını Arap milliyetçiliğiyle karışık, sosyalist bir sistemle yönetilen “Sosyalist Büyük Arap Cumhuriyeti” hayalini taşıyordu. Nitekim 1958 yılında Mısır ile Suriye arasında varılan birleşme anlaşması bunun en güzel örneğidir. Bu anlaşma Arap dünyasında pek çok genç edebiyatçı ve entelektüelini heyecanlandırmış ve umutlandırmıştır. Birinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Arap dünyasında bağımsızlık rüzgârları sert bir şekilde esmeye başladı. Bu dönemde Arap milliyetçiliği için yeni bir dönemin başlangıcı olmuştur. Milliyetçi gruplar, iki cihan harbi arasında kendilerine verilen şartlı bağımsızlıkları yeterli görmedi. Sömürgeci güçlere ve onların yönetime getirdikleri işbirlikçi rejimlere karşı mücadeleye başladılar. Bu mücadele sonucu kendilerini ilerici olarak ifade ettikleri milliyetçi kesimler tarafından devrildi. Irak, Suriye, Yemen, Libya gibi ülkelerde iktidara gelen bu milliyetçi rejimler, Küba, Şiili, Vietnam gibi üçüncü dünya ülkelerinde meydana gelen sosyalist devrim hareketlerini örnek aldılar. Aynı şekilde İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Arap dünyası, emperyalist güçlere karşı bağımsızlık mücadelesi yürütmekteydi. Örneğin 1948’de Arap-İsrail savaşı yaşandı. 1957’de sömürgeci güçlere karşı Irak devrimi gerçekleşti. 1956’da Tunus, 1962’de Cezayir, Fransızlara karşı özgürlük mücadelesi veriyordu. Bu dönemde Arap dünyası sömürgeci emperyalist güçler tarafından işgal altında ezilip sömürülürken pek çok Arap edebiyatçı ve yazar tarafından; “insanların kendi özgürlüklerini elde etme ve kaderini tayin etme hakkı olduğu” ilkesini savunan Marksizm’e büyük bir sempati ve ilgi duyuldu. Arap dünyasında sosyalizme ilgi duyulmasının bir başka sebebi de Filistin-İsrail anlaşmazlığında Amerika Birleşik Devletleri ve Batlı güçlerin İsrail’in yanında her zaman yer alması ve onu her alanda destekleyip kollaması nedeniyle emperyalist sisteme karşı büyüyen tepkinin bir sonucudur. Bu dönemlerde Arap dünyasında gerek siyasî gerek medya çevreleri tarafından oluşturulan algı operasyonu sayesinde Arap halkı, yoksulluğu, cahilliği ve hastalığı yenebilmek, gelişmiş diğer uluslarla eşit düzeyde ilişki kurabilmek, ileri bir endüstriyel toplum haline gelebilmek için bunun sosyalizmden geçtiğine inanmış ve buna inandırılmıştır. Arap dünyasında dikkat çeken bir başka husus, Arap siyasî tarihinde sosyalizmin, milliyetçilik kavramıyla beraber kullanılmasıdır. 1950’li yıllarda Irak, Suriye, Libya, Mısır gibi birçok Arap dünyasında ortaya çıkan ve “yeniden diriliş” anlamına gelen Baas sözcüğü, Arapların siyasî hayatında sosyalist doktrinle iç içe kullanılmıştır. Değişik Arap ülkelerinde “Arap Sosyalist Diriliş Partisi” adı altında birçok parti kurulur. Kurulan bu partilerin başına geçen Baasçı siyasiler, bir yandan Cemâl Abdunnâsır’ın Arap milliyetçilik fikirleriyle aynı doğrultuda hareket ederken diğer taraftan da Arap dünyasında geri kalmışlığı gidermek, sosyal farklılıkları azaltmak, reform yaparak toprak mülkiyetini sınırlandırmak, büyük üretim tesislerini millileştirmek, sanayî ve askerî alanda büyük kalkınmalar yapmak, halka ekonomik alanda fırsat eşitliğini sağlamak amacıyla sosyalizmi kendi düşünceleri için en uygun zemin olarak bulmuşlardır. Cemâl Abdunnâsır’dan sonra Arap dünyasında etkili bir başka isim ise Arap Diriliş’in (el-Baasu’l-‘Arabi) kurucularından olan Ahmed Mişel Eflak(1910-1989)’tır. Eflak, Arap ulusunu bir tek çatı altında toplayıp emperyalizm boyunduruğundan tamamen kurtulmuş ve sosyalizm düşüncesi üzerine tesis edilmiş bir Arap devleti kurmayı hedefliyordu. Ona göre Arap ulusu arasında kurulacak tek bir Arap devleti, sosyal, ekonomik ve kültürel açıdan geri kalmışlığın önüne geçerek Arap ulusuna yeni bir hüviyet kazandıracak, ahlaki bakımdan ideal olan sosyalist bir toplumun inşasına katkı sağlayacaktır. Başlangıçta milliyetçi mücadelenin sadece emperyalist güçlere karşı savaş açma görüşünü dile getiriyordu. Ancak daha sonra yerli aristokrasiyle de aynı şekilde mücadele edilmesi gerektiği inancını taşımaya başladı. Mişel Eflak’ın milliyetçilik temeli üzerine kurulu sosyalizm düşüncesini referans alan siyasiler, “Hizbu’l-Baas el‘Arabî el-İştiraki” (Arap Sosyalist Diriliş Partisi) adında siyasi parti kurarlar. Bu partiler, Irak, Suriye, yemen, Libya gibi ülkelerde iktidarı yıllarca elinde bulundururlar. Arap dünyasında bu doktrinin son temsilcileri de Irak’ta Saddam Hüseyin(1937-2006), Suriye’de Hafız Esed (1930-2000) ve Libya’da Muammer Kaddafi (1942-2011) olmuştur.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Arap edebiyatında ve özellikle Arap şairleri arasında revaçta olan ve Batı edebiyatında önemini çoktan yitirmiş olan romantizm yerini sosyal gerçekçiliğe bırakınca sosyalizm düşüncesi, Arap dünyasında hızlı ve etkili bir şekilde yayılmaya başladı. Arap edebiyatçıları arasında büyük bir ilgi ve kabul gördü. Gerek şiir gerekse roman alanında genç edebiyatçılar eserlerinde gerçekçilik ilkesi üzerinde durmaları konusunda çağrıda bulunarak bu konuda yazar ve şairleri ulusun siyasî ve sosyal sorunlarını dile getirmeleri hususunda birbirlerini teşvik ederler. Yine çağdaş Arap edebiyatının önde gelen eleştirmenler, Rus eleştirmenleri yakından takip ederek sosyalist gerçekçilik akımının tüm yönlerini inceleyerek Arap edebiyatına aktarmaya çalışırlar. Çağdaş Arap edebiyatının önde gelen isimlerinden Lübnanlı yazar Ömer Fahûrî, 1920’li yıllarında şiirle ilgili yazdığı makalelerinde şair ve yazarların eserlerinde sosyalist gerçekçilik düşüncesini yansıtmaları hususunda açık bir şekilde çağrıda bulunur. Özellikle 1944 yılında yazdığı “Edîb fi’s-Sûk” (Edebiyatçı Çarşıda) adlı eserinde bu bakış açısını ön plâna çıkarak Arap dünyasında dikkatleri kendine çekmeyi başarır. Fahûrî, 1942’de yazdığı ve yayımladığı makalelerinde “sanat sanat için” ilkesine şiddetle karşı çıkmış, gerek edebiyatçılar gerekse sanatçılar fildişi kulelerinde oturarak bir sanat icra edecekleri yerine halk meydanlara inmesini, ezilen ve sömürülenlerin acılarını, sevinç ve üzüntülerinin paylaşmasını istemiştir (Hâkka,1979:618). Aynı şekilde 1950’de Şam’da Şahâde el-Hurî (1924 d.), “el-Edeb fi’l-Meydân” (Edebiyat Meydanda) adlı eserinde Marksizm düşüncesi üzerine kurulu sosyalist realizm düşüncesini içtenlikle savunur. Ona göre edebiyatın toplumsal mücadele alanında yer alması, işçi, çiftçi ve ezilenlerin haklarını savunması ve insanca yaşamak için onu bir silah olarak kullanılması gerekir (Hâkka,1979:620). Aynı şekilde Arap dünyasında sosyalizm düşüncesini ilk benimseyen ve bu konuda önemli çalışmaları olan bir başka isim de Mısırlı edebiyatçı ve yazar Selâme Musa (1887-1958)’dır. Edebiyat alanında birçok eser veren Selâme Musa, sosyalist görüşleriyle birçok edebiyatçıyı etkilemiştir. Örneğin Necib Mahfuz (1911-2006), “bilimsel ve sosyal düşünceyi Selâme Musa’dan aldım” diyerek sosyalist düşüncesinin şekillenmesinde Selâme Musa’ın etkisini açık bir şekilde itiraf eder (Bkz.Ürün,1997:60-61). Selâme Musa, “halk için edebiyat, edebiyatta halk için vardır” ilkesini savunarak, edebiyatta halkın anlayacağı ve günlük konuşmalarda kullanılan dile yakın bir dilin kullanılmasını savunur. (Bu konuda bkz. Aytaç, 2001:120128) Saray edebiyatına da karşı çıkar. Döneminde yaygın olan geleneksel edebiyat türlerini eleştirir. Çağın sorunlarını ele alan konular üzerine eğilmesini ister. Edebiyatçıların da halkın sorunlarını sosyalist realizm bakış açısıyla yapıtlarına yansıtması gerektiği düşüncesini dile getirir (el-Ceyyusî,2007:617). Arap dünyasının sosyalist edebiyat eleştirmenleri, bir edebiyatçı bir eser yazarken mutlaka sosyalist ilkeleri gözetmesi gerektiği görüşünü dile getirirler. Onlara göre edebiyatçılar, ürünlerde halk tabakaları arasındaki mücadeleyi konu etmelidir. Bu mücadelede yer alan devrimci kahramanlar, halka örnek olacak kişiler olarak seçmelidir. Bunları da her zaman toplumun burjuvazi sınıfı tarafından ezilip dışlanmış bir şekilde tasvir etmelidir. Gerçek hayatı olduğu gibi yansıtmalıdır. Yazarın eserde yansıtacağı düşünceler romantik veya metafiziksel düşünceler olmamalıdır. Bu düşünceler daha çok gerçeğe yakın, bilimsel ve mantıksal kural ve zemin üzerine kurulu açık görüş ve düşünceler olmalıdır. Eser biçim ve içerik bakımından bir bütün ve bunların her biri de bir diğerinin tamamlayıcısı olmalıdır. Edebiyatta sınıflar arasındaki mücadele ve direniş azmini yüksek tutmak için her zaman zafer ve iyimserlik ruhu aşılanmalıdır. 1950’li yıllarından sonra sosyalist şiir veya toplumcu gerçekçi şiir, siyasî, sosyal ve düşünce alanında dünyada yaşanan hızlı gelişmelere paralel olarak Arap dünyasında kültür, sanat ve edebiyat alanında yoğun bir şekilde işlenmeye başlandı. Şairler, Arap dünyasında değişen bu hızlı sosyo-ekonomik, siyasî şartlar ve bunların Arap toplumuna olan doğrudan veya dolaylı yoldan etkileri ve yansımaları şiirlerinde yansıtmaya çalışmışlardır. Sosyalist düşüncenin Arap dünyasında kökleşip olgunlaşmasının ardından şairler kaleme aldıkları eserlerde Arap ulusunun olumlu ve olumsuz yönlerini tüm çıplaklığıyla çarpıcı bir şekilde aktarmaya çalışmışlardır. Şairler eserlerini; Stendhal, Kırmızı ve Kara adlı romanında “yol boyunca gezdirilen ayna” (bkz. Stendhal, 2000: 94) olarak ifade ettiği gibi Arap toplumunu gerçeğini yansıtan bir ayna alarak kullanmışlardır. Sosyalist dünya görüşü ekseninde şiirler yazmaya başlayan Çağdaş Arap şairleri, Marksist ideolojiye bağlı kalarak baskıdan uzak, eşit, özgür, müreffeh, paylaşımcı sosyalist bir cumhuriyetin ve ideal toplumun ütopyasını şiirlerinde tasvir etmeye başlarlar. Örneğin Iraklı şair Cemîl Sıdkî ez-Zehhâvî (1863–1936) hayalini kurduğu sosyalist cumhuriyetin ütopyasını bir şiirinde şöyle tasvir eder: Her şeye eşitçe sahip oldular, sadece akılda birbirlerinden üstünler. Rızıkları aralarında adaletçe paylaştılar, aynı zamanda işlerin tümünü de eşitçe dağıttılar Oldukça hassas ve bir nizam içinde herşeyi paylaştırdılar Azığı önemsemezler, çünkü bunda herkesin hakkı var, hücrelerin kandaki hakkı gibi Burada hiç kimse bir servet edinmez ve hiç kimse fakirlikten şikâyet etmez.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Hükümetleri sosyalizme benzer, kimi fertler mutlu kimileri mutsuz olmaz Özgürce yaşarlar, ilimle donatılmış aklın dışında kimsenin sahibi olmazlar.(ez-Zahhâvî,1955: 307) Şair ez-Zehhâvî, adalet ve eşitliği ebedî mutluluğun temeli olarak görür. Şair, “Rızıkları aralarında adaletçe paylaşırlar, aynı zamanda işlerin tümünü de eşitçe dağıtırlar” şeklinde yukarıdaki mısrasında ifade ederken aslında Karl Marx’ın 1875 tarihli Gotha Programı’nın Eleştirisi çalışmasında yer alan komünizmin önemli ilkelerinden biri olan “Herkesten yeteneğine göre, herkese ihtiyacına göre” düşüncesini dolaylı bir şekilde ifade eder. Bu düşünceye göre her bireyin yeteneğine göre üreteceğini ve her bireyin yeteneğine bakılmaksızın bu üretimden faydalanacaktır. Marx da bunun “ancak ve ancak” komünist toplumun ileri bir aşamasında gerçekleşeceğini ifade eder. Ona göre bireylerin iş bölümüne ve kafa emeğiyle kol emeği arasındaki çelişkiye kölece boyun eğişleri sona ermelidir. Emek yalnızca bir geçim aracı olmaktan çıkmalı ve kendisi birincil yaşamsal gereksinim olduğu için bireyler çok yönlü gelişim sağlamalıdır. Üretici güçler ne zaman artıp ve bütün kolektif zenginlik kaynakları gürül gürül fışkırdığında o zaman ancak bu gerçekleşebilir (Bkz. Marx, 1999: 12 v.d). Sosyalist gerçekçilik akımın etkisiyle çağdaş Arap şiir düşüncesinde köklü bir değişim meydana gelir. Artık saraydaki yöneticileri öven, onlardan ulufe alan, evcil ve uysal olan değil, halkın sorunlarına eğilen, sıkıntılarını paylaşan ve onlar için mücadele eden yeni bir şiir anlayışının ortaya çıktığı görülür. Abdulvahhâb el-Beyâtî (19261999), Bedir Şakîr es-Seyyâb, Bulend Haydarî (1926-1963), Salâh ‘Abdussabûr (1931-1981), Nizâr Kabbânî (1923-1998) gibi pek çok şair bu düşünce bağlamında şiir yazmış, kitleleri aydınlatmak, gerçekleri gün ışığına çıkarmak, özgürlüklerin önünü açmak amacıyla da şiiri bir araç olarak kullanmışlardır. Örneğin bu bağlamda Nizâr Kabbânî bir şiirinde şöyle der: Hiçbir zaman ikiyüzlülüğü kendime sanat edinmedim, şiirimi de ne krallar ne de emirler satın aldı. Yazdığım her harf, ışık saçan bir Arap kılıcıyd (Kabbânî, 1983,III:408). Aynı şekilde Bedir Şakîr es-Seyyâb, bir mısrasında bu hususta şöyle eder: Şiirim süslü kadınların nefesleri değil ezilmişlerin soluklarıdır. (es-Seyyâb,2000,II:474:) İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Arap dünyasında sosyalist gerçekçiliğin hızlı bir şekilde halk arasında geniş taban bulması ve edebiyatçılar tarafından büyük kabul görmesinin başlıca nedenlerinden biri de fakirliktir. Emperyalist güçler tarafında işgal edilmiş olan Arap dünyasının halkları bir taraftan özgürlük mücadelesi için savaş verirken diğer taraftan ekonomik sıkıntılarla boğuşuyordu. Kendilerini bu çıkmazdan çıkaracak veya onlara umut vaat edecek her türlü ideolojik fikirlerin kabulüne zihinsel olarak hazırdı. Nitekim pek çok edebiyatçının hayat hikâyesi incelendiğinde bu gerçeği görmek mümkündür. Örneğin Bedir Şakîr es-Seyyâb komünizm düşüncesinin benimsemesinin nedenini bir söyleyişinde şu ifadeleriyle açıklar: “Komünizm düşüncesini benimsememle işte bugün ben geçmişteki arzumu gerçekleştirmiş oluyorum. Çocukluğumda hümanist duygularım kabarıktı. İnsanları severdim. Hak, adalet ve hayır işlerin peşinde koşardım. Çocukluğumda köyde bir köpeğimiz vardı. Köpek yanından geçenlere havlayarak saldırırdı, bunun üzerine bir adam silahını çıkarıp köpeği vurdu. Köpek öldü ve yavruları yetim kaldı. Bu olay beni çok derinden etkileyerek günlerce çaresiz kalan köpek yavrularının durumuna çok ağladım. Yine benim ailem hurma bahçeleri olan varlıklı bir aileydi. Bahçemizde işçi çalışırdı. İşçiler, bahçenin mahsulü toplandıktan sonra paralarını alırlardı. Ailem iyi kalpli, demokrat ve orta halli bir aileydi. Ancak bizde çalışan işçilere çok zulüm yaptığını gördüm. Örneğin Zennube adında bir işçi eşi evimizde hizmetçilik yapıyordu. Bu bayan, yorucu bir günün ardından hizmeti karşılığında bir tabak pirinç veya sulu bir yemek çocuklarına götürüyordu. Bayramlarda evde kullanılmayan eski elbiseler ona verilirdi. Evimizin odalarının birisinde çay, şeker, pirinç, un gibi erzak vardı. Kadın çocuklarının aç olduğunu görünce bir gün cesaretini toplayıp pirinç çuvalını açıp bir miktar pirinci elbiselerinde gizleyerek evine götürür. Daha sonra ailem bunun farkına varır. Annem bir avuç pirinç alıp evimizin bir odasına serper ve Zennube’den odayı süpürmesini ister. Kadın odadaki pirinci görünce olayın farkına varıldığını anlar. Korku ve mahcubiyet duygusuyla gözyaşı dökmeye başlar. Şu an dahi o kadının odayı nasıl süpürüp ağladığını hatırlıyorum. Bu ve buna benzer olaylar çocukluk yıllarımdaki ruh dünyam üzerinde derin bir etki bıraktı. Bu nedenle karşıdakileri sevmeye ve zulme karşı nefret etmeye başladım. Komünizm, insanlar arasında adalet, eşitlik ve herkes için yiyecek ilkesiyle geldi bize (Abbâs, 1992:71). Bedir Şakîr es-Seyyâb,1950’li yıllarında yazdığı şiirlerinde sosyalist gerçekçiliği düşünce bağlamında yazmıştır. Şiirlerinde sosyalizmin ilkelerini içtenlikle savunmuş, sosyal adaletin sağlanması, ülkenin kaynaklarının sadece elit yöneticilere değil, halka eşit bir şekilde paylaşılmasını, zenginin fakiri sömürmesini engelleyecek, güçlünün güçsüzü ezmemesi için kanunî ve hukuki düzenlemelerin yapılmasını ister. Toplumun aksayan yönlerinin düzeltilmesi gerektiğini düşünür.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Ona göre sevinç, huzur ve bolluk sadece savurgan kapitalist insanların değil, açlık çeken, ilaç bulamayan, sürgün bir hayat yaşayan hüzünlü ve basit insanların da kaderi olması gerekir. Toplumda bunun mücadelesini vermesi gereken kişiler de şair ve yazarlar olmalıdır. Çünkü toplumun aydınları olarak kabul edilen şair ve yazarlar, aç ve sefil olan toplumlarına karşı sorumluluk ve yükümlülükleri vardır. Şair ve yazarlar, eserlerinde hayatın tüm yönlerini detaylarıyla ele alarak doğruyu söylemek ve aktarmakla yükümlüdür. Hiçbir zaman egemen gücün veya otoritenin baskısı altında kalmadan toplumun istek ve arzularını, sevinç ve hüzünlerini dile getirmelidir. es-Seyyâb’ın şiirlerindeki sosyalist gerçekçilik düşüncesi bağlamında el-Mumisu’l-‘Amyâ (Kör Fahişe) adlı şiirini burada örnek verebiliriz. Şairin bu kasidesi 1945 yılında yazılmıştır ve oldukça uzun bir şiirdir. Şair burada kör bir fahişe kadının yoksulluktan dolayı içine düştüğü acı ve bir o kadar trajik durumu konu eder. Suleyma adında olan bu bayan, köylerde yevmiye ile buğday hasadında çalışan yoksul bir ailenin kızıydı. Bir gün ailesiyle beraber tarlada çalışırken yakın bir mesafeden gelen bir silah sesi duyar. Silah sesinin geldiği yere merak edip koşar. Ancak olay yerine geldiğinde bir de ne görsün! Tarlasından buğday çaldığı iddiasıyla bir toprak ağası tarafından babasının vurulduğunu ve kanlar içinde olduğunu görür. Yetim kalan Suleyma, hayatta kalma mücadelesi vermeye başlar. Çaresizlikten dolayı kötü yola düşer. Genç ve güzel olan Suleyma’nın erkek müşterisi günden güne çoğalır. Ancak yıllar geçer ve Suleyma yaşlanır. Müşterisi azalır ve iki gözünü kaybeder. Gözlerini kaybettikten sonra adı da değişir. “Sabah” olur. Sabah’ın kör ve yaşlı olması nedeniyle şehvet köleleri onu arayıp sormaz. Aç ve sefil bir şekilde Sabah, bir lokma ekmeğe muhtaç kalır. Şair bu kasidesine bir kentin üzerine çöken bir karanlığın tasviriyle başlar: Karanlık şehrin üzerine ikinci defa çöküyor, şehir de onu yutuyor Derinliklere doğru yol alanlar ….Hüzünlü bir şarkı gibi Sokak lambaları bir zakkum çiçeği gibi açtı Medusa gözleri gibi her yürek kinle taşlaştı Sanki Babil halkını yangınla müjdeleyen bir adaktır bu (es-Seyyâb, 2000,I:269). Şair “karanlık şehrin üzerine ikinci defa çöküyor” ifadeleriyle “karanlığa” farklı ve değişik anlamlar yükler. Karanlık burada fakirliği, cehaleti, körlüğü, zulmü, baskıyı, adaletsizliği, geri kalmışlığı, mutsuzluğu, umutsuzluğu sembolize eder. Çöken karanlık sadece şairin memleketi olan Irak’a değil tüm Arap dünyasının üzerine çöker. Bu zifiri karanlık içinde yürüyen insanlar hayattayken sanki mezardaymış gibidirler. Zira yaşadıkları şehir veya memleket onlar için büyük bir mezardan farklı değildir. İnsanlar mezarlarından uyanıp ışığı görüp ona doğru yürümeye başladıklarında arzu ve şehvetlerinin esiri olarak bir başka mezara düşmüş olurlar. Şair, cahil ve gafil olan halkı âdeta önünü görmeyen körlerden ibaret olarak tasvir eder. Çünkü fakirlik ve sefalet içinde boğuşan halk, ülkesinin zengin kaynaklarını adilce paylaşmayan ve ülkenin servetini çarçur edip göz göre göre hırsızlık yapan yöneticilerini görmezlikten geliyor: Şehir, yarasa gibi gün ortasında kördür Karanlık da körlüğünü artırdı onun. ………….. Yazık değil mi Irak’a! Adalet miydi bu kör gözlerinin uykusuzluğuyla bedel ödüyorsun Elinle, bol kaynaklarından yağ doldurup Görmediğin lambanın nurunu aydınlatmak için. ……….. Bahar geldi ne çiçekler açtı Ne de sümbüller nefes alabildi Kayalar, kumlar ve çölden başka bir şey yok Irak’ta (es-Seyyâb, 2000,I:284). Şair, diktatör ve baskıcı yöneticilerin halkın cehalet ve gaflet içinde kalmaları için her türlü baskı ve sindirme politikasını güttüklerini ifade eder. Bunu da sembolik bir anlatımla şöyle dile getirir: Bu karanlık hangi ormandan, Hangi mağaradan, Hangi kurdun ininden geldi? (es-Seyyâb, 2000,I:269). İnsanlar, fakirlik, açlık ve sefalet içinde yaşamaları bir kader meselesi olduğu inancındalar. Oysa şaire göre bunun asıl sorumlusu hükümettir. Çünkü hükümet, ülkenin kaynaklarını adil ve eşit bir şekilde halka dağıtmamıştır. Halkın eğitim ve öğretimine, ekonomik kalkınmasına, iş olanaklarının yaratılmasına yönelik herhangi bir çalışma da bulunmamıştır. Dolayısıyla bütün bunların müsebbibi ülkeyi kötü bir şekilde yöneten beceriksiz idarecilerdir. Ne zaman işçi sınıfı sesini yükseltmeye çalıştığında, diktatörlük zulmü altında sesi kısılmıştır. Toplum adalet duygusundan yoksun bırakılmıştır. Zengin her zaman fakiri ezip sömürmeye çalıştığı bir düzen kurulmuştur.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Şair ülkenin kanun koyucu ve uygulayıcıları bizzat kendileri dürüst insanlar olmadıklarını ifade ederek bunu şiirinde şu şekilde dile getirdiği görülür: Suleyma, genelevin bekçiliğini yapan adamın karısını kıskanır. Kendisinin de onun gibi bir aile hayatı olmasını arzu eder. Ancak ailesini geçindirmek için genelevde bekçilik yapan adamın karısı da kocasına ihanet eder. Akşamları bir başka erkekle yatıp kalkar. Böylece şair, kanun ve kuralları uygulamaya çalışan bekçinin ekonomik sıkıntılarının bir kurbanı olarak evinde ahlaksızlığın diz boyu olduğunu ifade etmeye çalışır. Bedenini satarak hayatta kalmaya ve yaşamını sürdürmeye çalışan fahişe kadın, aslında halkı sembolize eden bir karakter olarak kullanır şair. Nitekim şiirde fahişenin diliyle yönetimin kurbanı olan halkın adıyla şöyle seslenir: Adımlarıyla ağır ağır yere basma, zira genelevin yeri Alai’dir (Şair Ebu’l-‘Alâ el-Marrî’ye nisbeten) Alt edilmiş çocuklar, senim terliklerinin altında topraktır Gülüp oynuyorlar Veya sabahın suçsuz gördüğü bir babanın işlediği cinayeti fısıldıyorlar Sükûnete doğru gitmek için senin adımlarının sesini takip ediyorlar (es-Seyyâb, 2000,I:270). es-Seyyâb, yukarıdaki mısraında “genelevin yeri Alai’dir” ifade ederken filozof ve şair Ebu’l-‘Alâ el-Marrî’nin şu mısralarından alıntı yapar: Ağır bir şekilde yere basma, sanırım yeryüzünün toprağı bu cesetlerden meydana gelmiştir (et-Tuvecrî,1990:342). Aynı şekilde “sabahın suçsuz gördüğü bir babanın işlediği cinayeti fısıldıyorlar” ifadeleriyle es-Seyyâb, şair elMarrî’nin şu mısraından iktibas eder: Bu babamın bana yaptığı bir cinayet, oysa ben kimseye canilik etmedim (et-Tuvecrî,1990:184). Şair el-Marrî kör olarak dünyaya gelmesi ve yaşamı boyunca sıkıntı yaşamasının nedenini dünyaya gelmesine vesile olan babasına bağlar. Kendisi de yaşamı boyunca evlenmemiştir. Dünya da sıkıntı çekecek bir çocuk yapmaması nedeniyle şair,” kimseye canilik” yapmadığını ifade eder yukarıdaki mısrasında. Aynı şekilde toplumun kurbanı olan fahişe kadın da bedeninin üzerinde insanların ayak izlerinin ağırlığını hisseder. O da şair el-Marrî gibi babasının veya otoritenin bir kurbanı olarak kendini görür. Aslında es-Seyyâb, yukarıdaki mısralarında gerek Irak halkı gerekse diğer Arap halkı, kötü yönetimlerinin bir kurbanı olduğunu, devleti kötü yönetmeleri sebebiyle halka bir nevi canilik yaptıkları mesajını vermeye çalışır. Şiirin son bölümünde ise şair, fakirin de varlıklı insanlar gibi onurlu ve insanca yaşamasının en doğal hakkı olduğunu vurgulamaya çalışır: Nur, çocuklar, gülücükler zenginlerin nasibi Açlık, hastalık ve sürgün ise yoksulların nasibi Sen de yoksulların kızısın! (es-Seyyâb, 2000,I:270). Böylece es-Seyyâb, bu şiirinde fahişe kadın toplumun kurbanı iken Arap halkı da kötü yöneticilerin bir kurbanı olduğu mesajını vermeye çalışır. Sosyalist gerçekçilik bağlamında şiirleriyle öne çıkan bir başka Iraklı şair Abdulvahhâb el-Beyyâtî (19261999)’dir. El-Beyyâtînin edebî hayatının ikinci merhalesinde yani 1950-1970 yılları arasında yazdığı şiirlerinde toplumsal sorunlara eğildiği ve bunları da sosyalist bir anlayışla ele aldığı görülür. Yaşamı boyunca sürgün bir hayat yaşayan el-Beyyâtî, şiirlerinde sömürücü emperyalist güçlere ve onların işbirlikçi Arap yöneticilerine karşı başkaldırmış bir şairdir. Şiirlerinde verdiği en büyük mücadele ve kavga, Arap dünyasında sosyalist devrimin gerçekleştirilmesidir. Bu devrim sayesinde sınıfların ve sömürünün kalktığı, sosyal adaletin ve özgürlüklerin sağlandığı, Mezopotamya’nın mümbit topraklarının gelirlerinin eşitçe paylaşıldığı bir düzene kavuşulacaktır. Bu arada Batılı emperyalist güçlerinin elleriyle Arap dünyasında inşa edilen yapay sınırlar da ortadan kalkacaktır. Özgür ve adil bir Arap dünyasının bir gün gerçekleşeceği hayaliyle hep yaşayan şair, yaşamı boyunca da Marksist çizgisini hiç değiştirmemiştir. 1950’li yıllarında yazdığı bir şiirinde el-Beyyâtî, meslektaşlarına seslenerek zülüm altında ezilen insanlar için mücadele vermeleri çağrısında bulunur: Ey kardeşler!: Hayat Güzel bir şarkıdır ve eşyaların en güzeli de Gelecek olan, karanlığın arkasındaki ışık Mutluluk ve sevinçtir. En güzel şarkılar: Sizin dillerinizdeki haykırış, Halkımızın derin yüreklerinin, Güzel ve yeşil olan vatanımızın sesidir. Karanlığa lanet okumalısınız. Ve bir de acı ve elemi oluşturanlara Gözyaşları silmelisiniz Kandilleri yakmalısınız İnsanlar için karanlık yolda. ……… 151 Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC)  www.iste‐c.net 

 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Ben burada uykuyu kovalıyorum Senin yorgun gözlerinden Ey alevleri tutuşturanlar Ey sevgili halkım! (el-Beyyâtî,1990, I:218). el-Beyyâtî’nin birçok şiirini incelediğimizde şiirlerinin pek çoğu toplumcu-gerçekçi bir anlayışla yazılmıştır. Gerek ülkesinin gerekse diğer Arap ülkelerinin insanının hüzünlerini, acılarını, sevinç ve mutluluk özlemlerini dile getirmiştir. Şiirlerinde hürriyetsizlik, faşizm, emperyalizm, kapitalist sömürü, sosyal adaletsizlik, mutlu azınlık, yoksulluk, devrim gibi temaları ön plâna çıkarır. Örneğin bir şiirinde halkın çektiği fakirliği konu ederek bu bağlamda şöyle der: Fakirlik çığlıkları Ülkemin fakirleri Kayser (Sezer)’in kapısında Kızıl şafakta Bir kaya gibi, bir damla gibi Devrimin denizinde Tarihi kuşatıyor Ey ilk aşkım Utanma! Sürgün yılları Öğretti kuşa Ölürken Nasıl özgür kaldığı Ve şafağı beklediği (el-Beyyâtî,1990,I:290). Aynı şekilde el-Beyyâti, 925-1933 yılları arasında Almanya komünist partisinin liderliğini yapan Ernst Thalmann (1886-1944)’a hitaben ve 1959 yılında yazdığı şiiri sosyalist anlayış bağlamında örnek vermek mümkündür: Şeref ve haysiyet insanındır Kızıl bayrağın altında doğan dünyanındır İşçi bayrağının altında doğanındır Ey yoldaşımız Thalmann! Şeref, senin mezarına doğru bakan gözlere ve buğday tanesine Çocuğa Ezilene Sanatçıya Şeref, denizin ve iki tanrının. Ayağa kalk! Sevgi, şarkı ve ekmek herkesin Senin yeşil ülkende (el-Beyyâtî,1990,I:133). Çağdaş Arap şairleri arasında sosyalist gerçekçilik anlayışından hareketle öne çıkan bir başka ünlü şair Suriyeli Nizâr Kabbânî’dir. Kabbânî, sanat hayatının ilk dönemlerinden itibaren sosyal sorumluluk duygusuyla hareket etmiş ve şiirlerinde sosyal muhteva önemli bir yer işgal etmiştir. Şiirlerinin büyük bir bölümünde dikkatini ve sanatkâr duyarlılığını, bireysellikten çok, içinde yaşadığı topluma yöneltmiştir. Toplumun sorunlarını, sıkıntılarını realist bir gözlemle sunmaya çalışmıştır. Birey eksenli şiirlerinde dahi toplum genelindeki sorunlara dikkat çekmek istemiştir. Sanat anlayışı ve tutumu bakımından “toplumcu realist” bir şair olarak görülmesi de bu yüzdendir. Bireyin yaşamında şiirin önemli bir rol oynayacağını düşünen Nizâr Kabbânî, sosyal eleştirideki bakış açısını daha çok sosyo-politik düzlemde belirlemiştir. Onun sosyo-politik eleştirilerinde görüş alanının ve bakış açısının önemli ölçüde geniş olduğu dikkat çeker. Yoksulluk, geri kalmışlık, özgürlük, eşitsizlik, tembellik, gelenek ve görenek, batıl inanç fenomeni üzerine kurulu anlayışlar gibi Arap ulusunun çeşitli meseleleri üzerinde durmuş ve Arap dünyasında yaşanan aksaklık ve eksiklikleri saptamaya çalışmıştır. Siyasî bağlamda “muhalif” bir anlayışa dayanan eleştirel bir tavır sergilemiştir. Ulusunun çeşitli meselelerini cesaretle gündeme getirmeyi ve bu meselelere çözüm yolları aramak için yönetici ve siyasileri uyarmayı kendine misyon edinmiştir. Nizâr Kabbanî, bir şair olarak toplumdaki sorumluluk bilinciyle edebî yaşamı boyunca ezilen, baskıya maruz kalan, sindirilmeye çalışılan halkın sesi haline gelir ve onların adına da Arap otoritelerine karşı tepkisini ortaya koyar. Bu bağlamda bir şiirinde şöyle der:

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Sürüler gibi kesime götürülen milyonlarca kişinin adıyla, Gözleri çıkartılan ve dişleri sökülen kişilerin adıyla, Sülfürik asit içinde bir solucan gibi eritilen, Sesi, görüş ve dili olmayan binlerce kişinin adıyla İsyan ilân ediyorum … (Kabbânî,1993,VI:39). Nizâr Kabbânî, şiirlerinde toplumun tüm mesellerine büyük bir cesaretle parmak basmış bir şairdir. Özellikle kadın sorunlarını daha geniş bir şekilde işlemiş ve tolumun dikkatini bu olguya çekmiştir. Buna da Hublâ (Hamile) adlı şiirini örnek verebiliriz. Bu şiirinde şair, gayri meşru ilişki sonucunda hamile kalan bir kadının yaşadığı fiziksel acıların yanı sıra toplum tarafından dışlanması ve hor görülmesi gibi karşı karşıya kalacağı sorunlar ve bu sorunlardan kaynaklanan psikolojik bunalımını tüm boyutlarıyla ortaya koyar: Rengin kaçmasın Hemen söylemem gereken bir sözüm var Sanıyorum, hamileyim Yılan sokmuş gibi bağırdın “Olamaz!” Hemen parçalayalım çocuğu Beni kovmak istedin Küfretmeye başladın Hiçbir şey şaşırtmıyor beni Çünkü sen hep adi bir adamdın Sonra uşağını gönderdin Atsın diye beni ıssız sokağa Seni ey içime utancı eken Kalbimi paramparça eden Diyor ki bana uşağın “Efendim burada değil” Tersine efendisi bal gibi orada Ama korktu Öğrendiğinde hamile olduğumu O da ne? Boğazımda kusmuk beni mahvederken Gaseyan parmakları beni boğarken O uğursuz vârisin karnımdayken ve Utanç duygusu beni kahrediyorken, Hamile olduğum gerçeği Bu kara gerçek bütün benliğimi sarmışken Bir de sen yüzüme mi tükürüyorsun? Verdiğin elli lira …güldürüyor beni Kimin için bu para, kime? Kürtaj olmam için mi? Kefenimi diktirmek için mi? Demek ki bu benim bedelim (Kabbânî,1993,I:341-342). Yukarıdaki mısralardan anlaşılacağı gibi kadını aldatan ve onu hamile bırakan erkek, varlıklı biridir. Bir başka ifadeyle burjuva sınıfındandır. Gerçekle yüz yüze gelince o, kadının yaşamı boyunca maddî ve manevî açıdan çekeceği işkenceyi düşünmeden onu başından defetmek istemiştir. Ancak bunda başarılı olamayınca bu defa sahip olduğu maddî güçle kendisini kurtarmaya çalışmıştır. Şairin burada dikkat çekmek istediği husus, kadının sadece erkeğinin ya da Doğu’nun örf ve adetlerinin kurbanı değil, aynı zamanda kapitalist toplumların da kurbanı olduğudur. Nizâr Kabbânî, şiirlerinde eleştiri oklarını, sadece halka zülüm eden ve özgürlüklerini kısıtlayan ve kaynaklarını sömüren yöneticilere yönlendirmez. Aynı zamanda uyuşuk, tembel ve boş inaklara gömülmüş halka da yönlendirir:

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Milyonlar, yalınayak koşan, Ve dört karıya inanan Ve Kıyamet Gününe … Ekmeği ancak düşünde gören milyonlar, Geceleri öksürükten yapılmış evlerde oturan İlâcın nasıl bir şey olduğunu hiç bilmeyen milyonlar, Işığın altında dönüşüverirler ölüye (Kabbânî,1993,I:365). İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra birçok genç Arap şairi, Arap dünyası üzerinde çöken cehalet, açlık ve zülüm karanlığından bir güneşin doğacağına inanmışlardır. Her tarafı aydınlatacak bu güneşin adı da sosyalist devrimdir. Genç şairler bekledikleri bu devrimin kısa sürede gerçekleşeceği umudu ve beklentisiyle hamasi duygularını yansıtan pek çok şiir yazmışlardır. Örneğin Suriyeli şair Sâbır Felhut bu bağlamda şöyle der: Sosyalistim ben, bir yamaçta kül kalıntıları üzerindeki kulübede yaşıyorum Gece uzun sürmeyecek, halkın yaralarından binlerce şafağın doğacağını görüyorum Yaşasın fakirlik! Onun ayaklanmasından diriliş doğacak cihat yolunda (ed-Desûkî, tsz:390). Aynı şekilde şair Muhammed el-Mâğut (1934-2006) sosyalist devrimi büyük bir sabırsızlıkla beklediğini ifade ederek “Kulu’l-‘Uyûn Nahve el-Ufuk” (Tüm Gözler Ufka Doğru) adlı şiirinde bu bağlamda şöyle der: Ekmeğin kokusu İştah açıyor gül gibi .. Bir yolcunun elbisesi üzerindeki vatan kokusu gibi Her sabah saçımı tarıyorum İlk randevusuna koşan bir aşık gibi Onu beklemek için, devrimi beklemek için Elimi ağzımın etrafına koyacağım Mahir kadınlar gibi zılgıt çalacağım Onun göğüslerinin üzerine atlayacağım korkmuş bir çocuk gibi. (ed-Desûkî, tsz:391-392).

SONUÇ Çağdaş Arap Edebiyatında toplumcu gerçekçilik anlayışı, 20. yüzyılda Marksist ideolojinin sanatçıya ve doğal olarak da eserlerine yansımasının bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Marksizm’le olan bu direkt ilişkiden dolayı toplumcu gerçekçilik, politik ve ideolojik yönü ağır basan bir sanat kuramı olmuştur. 1930’lu yıllardan itibaren Rusya’da etkin olan bu sanat kuramı, aynı yıllarda Arap dünyasında görülmeye başlamış, ancak dinî hassasiyetler ve milliyetçi düşüncelerin toplumda daha egemen ve baskın oluşu nedeniyle İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Arap düşüncesi üzerinde gerek siyaset gerek edebiyat alanında etkili olabilmiştir. Özellikle Filistin topraklarının yitirilmesi, askeri müdahaleler neticesi Arap dünyasında geleneksel rejimlerin ortadan kaldırılması, halkın sosyal ve ekonomik sıkıntılarla boğuşması ve en önemlisi Arap dünyasını işgal eden ve İsrail devletinin kurulmasına katkı sağlayan Batı emperyalizmine karşı bir tepkinin yansıması olarak o dönemlerde tüm dünya edebiyatını etkileyen ve edebiyat alanında kendi ideolojisine en uygun olan toplumsal gerçekçiliği benimseyen Marksist doktrin Arap dünyasında hem siyasi hem de edebî çevrelerde kendine çok iyi ve sağlam bir zemin buldu. Nitekim Irak, Suriye Lübnan, Mısır gibi ülkelerde komünist, sosyalist milliyetçi partiler kuruldu ve büyük halk kitlelerinin desteğini arkasında aldı. Bu dönemde pek çok genç Arap şairi de bu felsefenin etkisinde kalmış oldu. Şairler ideolojilerine en uygun olarak toplumsal gerçekçiliği buldular. Artık romantiklerde olduğu gibi ben merkezli veya bireysel bir sanat icra etmek yerine büyük halk kitlelerine seslenmeye, onları yönlendirmeye, onların sorunlarını dile getirmeye ve sıkıntılarını paylaşmaya başladılar. Ezilen, sömürülen işçilerin ve köylülerin yaşamını toplumculuk ruhu içinde dikkatlere sundular. Şiirlerinde hürriyet, eşitlik, kalkınma gibi kavramlar üzerinde durdular. Toplumun aksayan yönlerine dikkat çekerek toplumsal eleştiride bulundular. Milli sorunları şiirlerinde dile getirdiler. Arap dünyasında sosyalizm doktrini gerek siyasiler gerekse edebiyatçılar tarafından milliyetçilik söylemleriyle beraber kullanıldı. 1950’li yıllarda Irak, Suriye, Libya, Mısır gibi birçok Arap dünyasında ortaya çıkan ve “yeniden diriliş” anlamına gelen Baas sözcüğü sosyalist doktrinle iç içe girerek Arap siyasal hayatında önemli bir kavram olarak yer edindi.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Arap dünyasında sosyalist düşünce üzerine kurulan ve iktidarı yıllarca ellerinde bulunduran siyasî partiler, Arap halkına sosyal adaletin, refahın fırsat eşitliğinin, sağlanması, sağlık ve eğitimin yaygınlaştırılması, iş olanaklarının yaratılması gibi pek çok alanda umutlar vaat etmişlerdir. Ancak yıllar geçmesine rağmen bunlar gerçekleştirilmemiştir. Arap ulusu, kendilerine yıllarca çeşitli ütopyalar çizen siyasilerin söylemleriyle eylemleri arasında çelişkileri görmüş ve büyük bir hayal kırıklığına uğramıştır. Nitekim sosyalizme umut bağlamış olan pek çok şair de hayal kırıklığına uğrayanlar arasındadır. Buna da Nizâr Kabbânî’nin şu mısrasını burada örnek verebiliriz: Marksistler!! Halk sıkıntı çekiyor, peki neden fakirlerin karnı doyurulmuyor (Kabbânî,1993,III:404). Aynı şekilde eserlerinde sosyalist görüşleriyle hep ön plâna çıkan ve sosyalizm düşüncesinin edebiyatta kökleşmesine katkıda bulunan yazar Necip Mahfuz bile sosyalizm düşüncesinin sosyal alanda uygulama hususunda hayal kırıklığına uğrayanlardandır. Ancak Necib Mahfuz sorununun sosyalist sistemin kendisinde değil, onu uygulayan siyasi yöneticilerde olduğunu “el-Kernek” adlı eserinde kahramanın diliyle açık bir şekilde ifade eder (bkz.Mahfuz,tsz:101). Toplumcu gerçekçi Arap şairleri, geniş halk kitlelerine seslenerek halk kitlelerinin rahatlıkla anlayabileceği bir edebiyat yaratma anlayışını benimsemişlerdir. Romantiklerin geliştirdikleri Arap şiirini daha da ileriye taşımışlardır. Kasidenin organik bütünlüğünü tamamen sağlayarak kaside, cüz veya bölümlerden oluşan canlı ve uyumlu bir organik bütünlük kazandırmışlardır. Gerek içerik gerekse biçim yönünden de tüm unsurlarıyla kasidenin bir uyum ve ahenk içinde olmasını sağlamışlardır. Ayrıca bu şairler, dili bir amaç olmaktan çıkarıp, mesajlarını halka ulaştırmak için bir araç haline getirmişlerdir. Bu yüzden şiirlerinde sadeleşmeye giderler ve halkın günlük yaşamında yaşamın da kullandığı ifadelere de genişçe yer vermişlerdir. Toplumcu gerçekçi şairler fakir ve güçsüz halkın adıyla otoritelere başkaldırmışlardır. Bu nedenle pek çok şair yaşamı boyunca sürgün bir hayat yaşamak zorunda kalmıştır. Şiirlerinde gurbet, kayboluş hissi, elem ve hüzün olgusunun hâkim olduğu görülür. Ancak toplumcu gerçekçi şairlerin hüznü, romantiklerin hüznünden farklı olup daha çok hayatın gerçeğinden yani mevcut koşullardan kaynaklanır. Şairler, sosyalist gerçekçilik doktrini sayesinde Arap dünyasında yaşanan siyasi ve sosyal gelişmeleri yakından takip etme olanağını yakalayarak gerçekçi bir şekilde eserlerine yansıtmışlardır. KAYNAKÇA Abbâs, İhsân, (1992), Bedir Şakir es-Seyyâb, Dirâse fi Hayetihi ve Şi’irihi, el-Muessese el-‘Arabiyye li’d-Dirâsât ve’n-Neşr. el-Beyyâtî, Abdulvahhâb (1990), Divan, Dâru’l-’Avde Beyrut. I-II. Akpınar, Soner, (2014) “Toplum-Sanat ve İdeoloji Üçgeninde Toplumcu Gerçekçiliğin Edebiyat ve Siyaset İlişkisine Yaklaşımı” Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, Cilt7, Sayı30. el-Ceyyusî, Hadrâ Selmâ (2007), el-İtticâhât ve’l-Harkât fi’ş-Ş’iri’l-‘Arabî el-Hadîs,(Çev.Abdulvâhid Lu’lu’e) Merkez Dirasât el-Vahde el-‘Arabiyye, Beyrut. Ebû Hâkka, Ahmed, (1979), el-İltizâm fi’ş-Şi’ri’l-‘Arabî, Dâru’l-‘İlmi’l-Melâyîn, Beyrut. Kabbânî, Nizâr, (1993), el-‘Amâlu’s-Siyâsiyye el-Kâmile, Menşurât Nizâr Kabbânî, Beyrut,.III-VI. Kabbânî, Nizâr, (1983), el-‘Amâlu’ş-Şi’riyye el-Kâmile, Menşurât Nizâr Kabbânî, Beyrut,I. Marx, Karl, (1999) Gotha Programının Eleştirisi, (Çev.İsmail Yarkın) İnter Yayıncılık. es-Seyyâb, Bedir Şâkir, (2000), el-‘Amalu’ş-Şi’riyye el-Kâmile, Dâru’l-Hurriyeli’t-tibâ‘a, Bağdat.I-II. Necib Mahfuz,(tsz) ,el-Kernek, Meketbetu Misr, Kahire tsz, Stendhal, (200), Kırmızı ve Siyah (Çev. Cevdet Perin) Remzi Kitapevi, İstanbul. et-Tuvecrî, ‘Abdu’l-‘Azîz ‘Abdu’l-Muhsin, (1990) Ebu’l-‘Alâ, Dacire er-Rakbu min ‘Anâ’it-Tarîk, Matâbiu’lFerazdak, Riyad. Ürün, Kazım, (1997) Çağdaş Mısır Romanında Necip Mahfuz ve Toplumcu Gerçekçi Romanları, Konya. Uygur, Erdoğan, (Nisan- Ağustos 2005)“Sosyalist Realizm Kavramının Ortaya Çıkış Süreci”, Türkiye Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, Yıl 9, Sayı 1-2. Ez-Zehhâvî, Cemîl Sıdkî, (1955), (Tah. Muhammed Yusuf Necm), Mektebetu Mısr, Kahire.

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DESIGNING A SYSTEM WHICH GENERATES ELECTRIC ENERGY FROM WIND FORCE OF CARS 1

Fatih BAŞÇİFTÇİ, 2Muhammet GÜMÜŞSOY 1 Selçuk University Faculty of Technology Turkey [email protected] 2 University of Aksaray Vocational School Of Technical Sciences Turkey [email protected]

Abstract: Although studies about solar energy are continuing for 20 years, little studies are done about transforming of wind energy into electric energy of traveling cars (Anonym, 2013, Anonym 2013-1) and almost no application is done in this area. The most important reason of this study is transforming the wind energy of a traveling car into an electric energy and to use it in case of need. The most important feature of this design is procuring energy in all conditions when the car is moving. Considering the reasons, it is obvious that this study will contribute to our country academically and also in commercially speaking. Key words: Renewable energy, wind energy, new generation fuel, wind energy on cars

INTRODUCTION Transportation means transferring an object or a person from one place to another. To get an object moving from one place to another, an absolute energy is used. Thrust power is needed to move a table across. This power can differ according to the size of the table and the friction coefficient of the ground. New sources and new fuels are searched to cover large quantity of power which is needed for transportation and reduction of costs. It is obvious that the energy of the future is in the renewable energy sources. The longest distance covered in energy source for transportation is procured energy of the sun with the help of solar panels (Akfidan T, 2010; Kaymak M E, 2009). It is possible to procure extra energy of a moving vehicle without affecting the aerodynamic features, in other words without an increase of fuel consumption due to the addition of the designment to wind inlet points. (Gümüşlüol Ü., Çetinkaya T A, ve Albayrak K., 2006; Aka H., 2003; Solmaz H, 2010). The purpose of this study; to reduce fuel consumption of cars, to power air conditioning, starter motor on cars which need high energy, without using any fuel. Only with the energy of the moving car which creates energy by taking advantage of the wind power. The area of use will differ and the study is applicable on vehicles like trains, buses, ships, cars and motorcycles. Also it can be used as renewable energy sources for electric cars in case of charging to increase the range and lower the costs of charging. One of the attention grabbing features of this designment is that, it can be used longer than solar energy, in other words, in can be used not only under the sun, this energy can be procured in all conditions and hours when the car is moving. General description about this study is stated in the introduction chapter. Materials and features of this study are approached in the material and procedure chapter. The applicability and the details of the prototype of our study is handled in the application chapter. The advantages of the designment, numeric data, and the applicability are examined in the conclusion chapter.

MATERIAL AND PROCEDURE In general, a wind turbine is made up of a tower, generator, speed converters (gear case), electric generator and a propeller. The kinetical energy of the wind is transformed into mechanical energy in the rotor. Transferring it to the generator on the body, by increasing the rotary motion of the rotor shaft. Obtained electric energy from the generator is stored with the help of batteries or transmitted directly to the recipients.(Çokünlü G , 2007). The internal structure of the wind turbine is shown in image 1.

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Image 1. Internal structure of wind turbine The leafed turbine prepared in cylindrical shape (done with stainless sheet material) can transmit the power to the used motor by help of the shaft installed in the center. The motor which will be used, is a DC motor; it is a motor type which can rotate the shaft by giving electricity and also generate electricity with the rotation of the shaft. The shaft of the motor is placed in a stiff plastic gap in the center of the turbine. The rotating turbine with the help of the wind is providing power generation by rotating the shaft of the motor.

APPLICATION Wind turbine is a system which transforms the kinetical energy of the wind into a mechanical energy and then into electric energy. To understand the working principle of the wind turbine, two important aerodynamical power have to be known well. These are, drag and lifting forces. Drag force takes place on an object in flow direction. For instance, the maximum drag force on a straight plate can occur when the air flow is upright 90° on the object; and the minimum drag force can occur when the air flow is parallel to the surface of the object. The best example for drag force is parachute. Due to this force the parachute is decelerating. Lifting force takes place upright in flow direction. It is a reason for the take offs of airplanes. In the designed system, the inlet and outlet channels of the equipment placed on the car are designed for efficient usage of the intake air and for ease and orientable exit of the air. Electric energy is generated without damaging the aerodynamics of the used car. The wind entries and exits of the designment are shown in image 2 and 3.

Image 2. Wind entry of the designment.

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Image 3. Wind exit of the designment. There are some critical and important factors in our study. The consisted wind reaches high energies on moving cars which requires a material strong enough against this energy. Instead of resisting the consisting wind energy, our study is designed to let the wind pass as easy as possible. Thus, the used thin sheet metal can’t be damaged in the face of the wind energy. Image 4 and 5 shows the system placed on the car.

Image 4. Application of the designment.

Image 5. Application of the designment – 2.

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CONCLUSION The most functional feature of this designed system is that it is applicable on all moving vehicles (car, lorry, train, motorcycle, ship, electric cars, etc.). The mounting on big vehicles is easy. The mounting can be done on vehicles with narrow mounting areas like on cars and motorcycles without damaging the aerodynamic features and with designing the grills of the air intakes. As long as the vehicle is moving; continuous energy generation is provided with the condition of depending on variables like moving speed, wind direction and speed. The measuring is performed from our prototype implemented on a car and are stated below in table 1. Table 1. Measuring results of prototype speed (km/h) 50 70 100 110

measured value (v) 3,5 - 4 5,5 - 6 9,5 - 10,5 11 - 12,5

The motor we used is a DC motor with 12V and 0.5A. The results are according to this motor. With the help of a second motor on the other side of the propeller, the gain can be doubled and with enlarging the other equipments and two 12V, 5A motors the gain can be quadrupled on the same car. As a result; although studies about solar energy are continuing for 20 years, it is done little studies about transforming of wind energy into electric energy of traveling cars and almost no application is done in this area. In consideration of the data, it is proven that our system provides fuel economy and extra power gain and will contribute to our country academically and also in commercially speaking.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT This paper is presented form the master's thesis of Muhammet GÜMÜŞSOY.

SOURCES Akfidan T, (2010), modelling, simulating and prototype applicating a car with hybrid energy, master’s thesis, Yıldız Teknik University Institute of Science and Technology, İstanbul Kaymak M E, (2009), Development of alternative enerji sources and concordantly automobile design factors in the 20th century, master’s thesis, Anadolu University Institute of Science and Technology, Eskişehir Gümüşlüol Ü., Çetinkaya T A, Ve Albayrak K., (2006), Experimantal examination of aerodynamic interaction passing vehicles, Engineer and Machine, 47(561): 28-35 Aka H., (2003), Examination of automobile aerodynamic characteristic features in wind tunnels, Master’s thesis, Gazi University Institute of Science and Technology, Ankara, 67-69 Solmaz H, (2010), Specifying wind resistance factors of different car types in wind tunnels, Master’s thesis, Gazi University Institute of Science and Technology, Anraka Çokünlü G , (2007) ,Modelling wind turbine and controller design, Master’s thesis, Institute of Science and Technology, İstanbul Teknik University, İSTANBUL Fraas, L., Partain, L., (2010), Introduction to solar cells, Solar Cells And Their Applications Second Edition, Kai Chang, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Canada, 3-16 Anonim (2013) ,Internet : http://www.dunyabulteni.net/bilim-teknoloji/241767/ruzgar-enerjisiyle-calisan-arabaicat-etti, “ Invented a car working with wind power Anonim (2013-1),Internet: A project of a car working with wind by Yıldız Teknik http://www.yildiz.edu.tr/duyurular/R%C3%BCzgar-Enerjisi-Kul%C3%BCb%C3%BC'ndenT%C3%BCrkiye'nin-R%C3%BCzgar-Enerjisiyle-%C3%87al%C4%B1%C5%9Fan-%C4%B0lkProfesyonel-Araba-Projesi-Raporu/2116

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DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM TO BE USED TO DETERMINE THE BODY SIZE 1 Hakan YÜKSEL, 2Mehmet DAYIK, 3Oğuz ÇOLAK Technical Science Vocational School, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Technology Süleyman Demirel University Turkey 1 [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: In globalizing world, for available sectors finding themselves a place is getting harder economically and commercially. This situation leads them to follow the latest technology to go ahead in common market. One of the latest technologies in textile field is trying on clothes for people in virtual environment. Here the biggest problem is to measuring and determining the size of the body. The aim of this study is to develop decision support system software to determine the most suitable body size. With this study, it is enabled to give easier and quicker result for the expert system. Key words: Measuring of the body, determining the body size, Expert system.

INTRODUCTION The rapid development in technology in globalizing world leads a competition environment among to available sectors. In order to be more successful in the commercial environment, they need to search new methods and apply them in their real environment. When the market conditions changing so rapidly are taken into the consideration, in order to survive for the current sectors, it is necessary for them to offer their products or service to their customers more rapidly and desiring way. Within this period, the modern day business managers follow the strategy of taking the advantage of technology, special the information technology as a reaction to new development in competition, market, internal and exogenous environmental factors (Yıldız, 2005). For the garment industry, which is an important sector in international economy,using the information technology methods gains favor for the sektor by making differences among their opponent and provide benefit. With the help of the development of information technology in garment industry, many applications are begun to made in otomatic systems. One of successful application in garment industry is to make the virtual fitting room for a person to try on the clothes he/she wants in the virtual environment. In virtual fitting rooms, people can try on the textile product they want by the simulation software in the virtual environment. The most important background of the virtual wearing system is the developing measuring and determining of the body size. It is needed to determine the body size and to use the right body size for people to try on the appropriate clothes .By the help of the body measuring system it is provided to determine the people's body size. Body measuring process is one of the most important process of determing and producing of the clothes. The determining of the body size is made generally by hand. This has many disadvantages. These disadvantages are : 

Taking too much time,



Being too tiring,



The correctness of the process,



The anti-hygienic of the measurement.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Today, body measuring and determining systems decrease or prevent most of these disadvantages. With the low budget, enabling personality trait on many clothes emphasizes the necessity of the rapid and automatic measuring system (Guerlain, 2006). With this developing sytems, the high resolutation body images gotten at the end of the body scanning are analyzing correctly and completely and presenting the body sizes in standart data (Öndoğan, 2005). So more precise measurements are taken and for the target group it is provided mmeasurement standart. In today's world, the information technology is used everywhere, it is needed to use this technology also to solve the problems in textile industry. So for the study of the determing the body size, it is used expert system which is one the techniques of artificial intelligence. In this study, it is provided designing and developing of an expert system determining the body using the body size. This study is prepared in four parts. In the first part, there is an general introduction abaout the topic and in the secon part there is definitions about the expert system. In the third part, there is an application done in this study (the structure and proceeding) and in the forth part there are results of the study. EXPERT SYSTEM Expert system is a kind of computer programme which was developed by experts of artificial intelligence in 1970s and was started to practice commercially in 1980s.There has been many definitions for the expert system in literature. 

ES is a kind of software system which is modeling the reasoning and determining processes can be done by a person or many people expert in a field (Nabiyev, 2005).



ES reaches a conclusion by making inference from the knowledge it has (Önder, 2003).



ES is a consultant computer programme aiming to imitating the knowledge of the experts and ratiocination process in solving a special team problem (Turban, 1990).



An ES program works as a system which is not standing for an algorithm, in its own knowledge base, making a search for the data know before and enabling the activation of the appropriate knowledge according to these data and going on searching by getting new data as a result of this activation (Allahverdi, 2002).

Expert Systems enable the defination of the real world problem not using the analtycal methods by intuitional methods and solving them. In figure 1. An expert system structure is shown (Llata vd., 2001).

User Interface

Inputs

Interfac e E i

Knowledge Base

Figure 1. Expert System Shema

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Expert systems help the experts in these points (Uysal, 2003); 

Understanding of the problem,



Solving of the problem,



Explaination of the solution,



Evaluating the solution,



Expanding the knowledge,



Evaluating the abilities,



Construction of the knowledge.

EXPERT SYSTEM APPLICATION: ITS STRUCTURE AND WORKING The developed expert system makes body sizing according to the measures defined by the Europan Standarts (CEN; 2015). The textile products are sperated as upper and down parts. In this study, the body sizing of the upper clothes like t-shirt, sweater, shirt, jacket, dress, coat for men and women. It is avaible the measures of the upper parts (height, bust, waist, hip) of men and women.Apart from these measures, It is also important to involve the measures of sizes of shoulder,arm, neck, wrist and etc which are konown as side measures in the programme and evaluate them with those measures. Because a structure with an expert system gives the right answer to the needs, it is the base of this project.In this study, according to avaible rule base, the body size of a person is defined and which size or sizes will be appropiate is evaluated. The general structure of the developed expert system is shown in figure 2. User

User Interface Knowledge Base Inference Engine

Explanation System

 

Rule Base Database

Output Figure 2. The general structure of the developed expert system   The user; In the use part of the expert system, there are the system manager and users.  User Interface; it enables the communication between the user and the programme. With the help of the user interface, the controlling of the data base of the system, adding or taking out the rules can be done. In this developed system, while system manager can reach the parts "The New Kind Definition" and "Rule Base" in its own authority, the user can pass the field where the evaluation is done after the definition of the body size measuring. Before the part of the body size measuring, it must be selected to the users’ woman or man. For men, it is enough to wear just height and waist sizes, for women, it is necessary to use the sizes of bust waist and hip (Figure 3). The men and women’s sizes are evaluated in different rule bases. After all the fields are filled, in the background the body size of the person is measured. The developed expert system can make evaluation about the body size of a person using the data entered in the background.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   In the developed software, also it can be added the kind of the measure in the expert system with the help of the user interface and by using this measure kind, a measure kind group can be composed. This measure kind group enables the rebuilt of the rule base. It can be added choices for making those measure kinds.

Figure 3. The form of the Application (Body Measurement) Data Base; it composes the base data, rules and intuitive knowledge. The base of the expert system is related to the keeping the knowledge right and processing it. If the resolution of the data in the data base is strong, the developing system will be also that much strong.   Database composes of the reals presenting the problem situation and values. In this study, SQL Server database programme is used in order to keep the data safe and process them quickly. The rule base: the expert system must have the structure of a defined size or control mechanism and work in certain situations. The sizes are structure in which the solution of available problem can be expressed properly. In this study, it is benefited from the "European Size Measures" and there are four rule bases. The first and second rule base (The rule base-1 / the rule base-2) are composed for defining of the woman and man body size and the rule base 1 has 10 and the rule base-2 has 8 rules. Rule No: 1

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Table 1. Size defining rules for woman (Rule Base-1) Rule Inference If; Bust74-77, Waist 60-62, Hip: 84-87 Size: 32

2

If; Bust:78-81, Waist:63-65, Hip:88-91

Size: 34 

3

If; Bust:82-85, Waist:66-69, Hip:92-95

Size: 36 

4

If; Bust:86-89, Waist:70-73, Hip:96-98

Size: 38 

5

If; Bust:90-93, Waist:74-77, Hip:99-102

Size: 40 

6

If; Bust:94-97, Waist:78-81, Hip:103-106

Size: 42 

7

If; Bust:98-102, Waist:82-86, Hip:107-110

Size: 44 

8

If; Bust:103-107, Waist:87-91, Hip:111-115

Size: 46 

9

If; Bust:108-113, Waist:92-96, Hip:116-120

Size: 48 

10

If; Bust:114-119, Waist:97-102, Hip:121-125

Size: 50 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 2. Size defining rules for man (Rule Base-2) Rule

Inference

1

If; Height:166-170, Bust: 86-89

Size: 44

2

If; Height:168-173, Bust:90-93

Size: 46 

3

If; Height:171-176, Bust:94-97

Size: 48 

4

If; Height:174-179, Bust:98-101

Size: 50 

5

If; Height:177-182, Bust:102-105

Size: 52 

6

If; Height:180-184, Bust:106-109

Size: 54 

7

If; Height:182-186, Bust:110-113

Size: 56 

8

If; Height:184-188, Bust:114-117

Size: 58 

Rule no

The third and fourth rule base (The rule Base 3 / The Rule Base-4) is composed for making comment about the size of woman and man according to the body measuring in the first and second rule base. The rule base 3 has 5 and the rule base 4 has 4 rules. (Table 4) Table 3. The rules of defining body size of woman (Rule Base 3) Rule No Rule Inference 1 If; Size: 32 - 34 XS 2 If; Size: 36 - 38 S 3

If; Size: 40 - 42

M

4

If; Size: 44 - 46

L

5

If; Size: 48 - 50

XL

Table 4. The rules of defining body size of man (Rule Base 4) Rule No Rule Inference 1 If; Size: 44 - 46 S  2 If; Size: 48 - 50 M  3

If; Size: 52 - 54

4

If; Size: 56 - 58

L  XL 

In the developed expert system, there are 27 rules totally and all the rules are kept safe in the database. Inference Mechanism; it is the inference of the data in the database and controlling of them. It is place of making inference with the expression of sizes in the rule base. It transmits the inferences obtained using the data and rules in the data base. Two different searching methods are used while interpreting the rules: Forward Chaining Method and Backward Chaining Method (Üstkan, 2007). In this study, “Forward Chaining Method” which is based on estimating and defining the available conditions of the rule by starting with the known data is used. In table 1, 2, 3 and 4 the inferences obtained by the rules of the application using the inference mechanism. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMODATIONS In order to provide the success and continuity, the avible sectors must decrease the accession duration of the products and increase the quality . One of the most important steps of increasing the quality is following the current development in the technology. With these developments in the garment industry, virtual dressing rooms and the application of body scanning and sizing which is also background for virtual dressing room becomes really important. So, in this study, an appropriate sofware was developed by taking into consederation of the Europan Size Stanstards and using expert systems.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   The main target of this software is to define the size of a person by using the body size of him/her and choosing the most appropriate and efficient way. It is seen that, in the example applications the needed results could be taken as a successful and desired way. But if the kind of the body sizing methods are increased, the more appropriate results can be taken. RESOURCES Allahverdi, N. (2002). Uzman Sistemler: Bir Yapay Zeka Uygulaması, Atlas Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 16-20. CEN, (2015). http://www.cen.eu, (European Committee for Standardization- EN 13402). Guerlain, P., Durand B., (2006). Digitizing and Measuring of the Human Body for the Clothing Industry, International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, pp. 151–165, England. Llata, J.R., Sarabia, E.G. ve Oria, J.P. (2001). Fuzzy Expert System with Double Knowledge Base for Ultrasonic Classification, Expert Systems with Applications, 20, ss. 347 355. Nabiyev, V.V. (2005). Yapay Zeka, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara, 445. Önder, H.H. (2003). Uzaktan Eğitimde Bilgisayar Kullanımı ve Uzman Sistemler, The Turkish Online Journal of Education Technology – TOJET, July, Volume 2, Issue3, Article 17, s2. Öndoğan, Z., Pamuk, O., (2005). 3 Boyutlu Vücut Tarayıcı Sistemler, Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon, Year:15, Vol:2, pp.114–116, Izmir. Öndoğan, Z., Pamuk, O., Topal, E., (2007). Giysi tasarımı, vücut ölçülendirme ve giysi pazarlaması konularında simülasyon Sistemlerinin incelenmesi, Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon 4/2007, p. 265-272. Turban, E. (1990), Decision Support and Expert Systems, Mac Millian Publishing Company, U.S.A. Uysal, Ö. and Kurban, M. (2003). Elektrik enerji sistemlerinin uzman sistemler kullanılarak işletilmesi, I. Ege Enerji Sempozyumu ve Sergisi, Pamukkale University, Enginering Faculty, Denizli, Mayıs. Üstkan, S. (2007). Uzman Sitemler Genel, Yönlendirilmiş Çalışma, Sakarya Üniversitesi Adapazarı Meslek Yüksekokulu, Mart. Yıldız, M. (2005). Bilişim Teknolojilerinin Uzman Sistem Boyutu İle Analizi, Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler MYO Dergisi, Cilt 8, Sayı 1-2.

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DETERMINATION OF COMPLEX VERTEBRAL MALFORMATION (CVM) GENETIC DISORDER IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE REARED IN ANTALYA REGION OF TURKEY  Murat Gökçe Eren1, Murat Soner Balcioglu2, Taki Karslı3, Emine Şahin4 1 2 3

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

[email protected]  4

[email protected] 

Abstract:Complex vertebral malformation is an autosomal recessive genetic disease in Holstein cattle breed. CVM is caused by a point mutation (G→T) at nucleotide position 559 of the solute carrier family 35 member 3 (SLC35A3) gene on chromosome 3. The mutation in homozygous recessive is lethal and lead to the abortion of most of the affected calves before gestation day 260. In this study, was investigated the presence of CVM disease in Holstein cows reared in the Antalya region of Turkey by using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) method. Blood samples were obtained from a total of 314 Holstein cows randomly selected from farms in different parts of Antalya for this study. In examined 314 samples, homozygous recessive CVM carrier was not detected but eight samples were found to be heterozygous CVM carriers. As a result, prevalence of CVM genetic disorder was calculated as approximately 2.5% in Antalya region of Turkey. Keywords: CVM, AS-PCR, Holstein cattle

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DEVELOPING A CLOUD-BASED SUPPLY CHAIN EVENT MANAGEMENT TOOL THROUGH INTEGRATED LOGISTICS PLANNING AND CONTROLLING TO MANAGE CYBER PHYSICAL LOGISTICS NETWORKS  Daniel Thomas Roy1, Jan Reipert2 1 2

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract:The static character of logistic networks gives market players a greater timeframe for decisions in order to react suitable to changes. The dynamics of these changes, commonly caused by fluctuations in demand and orders, increase the complexity of the decision making process in logistic networks. These lead to an ongoing shift towards more dynamic networks. While those networks demand reactions in real-time, the inherent complexity makes quick responses difficult [1]. In this case, intelligent technologies open up a large room for improvement. This is accomplished by a digital interconnection of value adding partners through cyber-physical systems. Those systems connect virtual and physical worlds in order to support both internal processes and smart controlling of global logistic networks [2]. Within the research project “Smart Logistic Grids” the overall objectives of the project include increasing the efficiency of the system, improving the networks adaptability capabilities, minimizing the impact of disruptions and increasing the resource efficiency. The project is built on two core concepts: “Supply-Chain-Risk-Management“ (SCRM) and “SupplyChain-Event-Management“ (SCEM). Within this project, SCEM is classified as controlling tool inside the SCEM. The aim is to react to so-called events adequately in the quickest manner possible. Contrary to traditional risk management, the project is focusing on operative and tactical risks. Comparing planned and actual network-related figures, SCEM allows translating errors into alerts proactively. Additionally it generates proposals for action based on predefined rules [3]. Concerning the logic of information technology and using key performance indicators of supply chain controlling, an integrated evaluation approach for intelligent logistics networks for the integration of SCRM and SCEM has been developed. On one hand this serves the constant supervision of key figures for variance analyses. On the other hand it calculates and suggests alternatives in cases of disruptions. Whether figures are suitable for assessing certain events is determined by the aggregation level of those figures. To guarantee the practical benefit, the integrated evaluation approach has been developed with regard to the strategic assessment of the industry partner’s networks, especially considering the overall project goals agility, logistics performance and efficiency, and sustainability. From the scientific perspective a completely new approach has been developed integrating SCRM and SCEM, and evaluating agility and logistics efficiency with respect to new information technology concepts like cyber physical systems.  [1] Preiss, K. (2005): Agility – some thoughts on where we go next and smart business networks. Bethlehem 2005. [2] Straube, F.; Roy, D.; Reipert, J. (2014).: Cyber-Physische Systeme zur smarten Steuerung von Logistiknetzwerken. In: Gronau, N.; Scholz-Reiter, B. (Hrsg.): Industrie Management, Nr.06/2014, S. 39–42. [3] Bretzke, W.-R. (2002): Supply Chain Event Management: Mehr als nur ein neues Schlagwort in der Logistik.  Keywords: Cloud Computing, Cyber Physical Systems, Industrie 4.0, Logistics Planning, Logistics Controlling 

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DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ELUENT WATER SAVING IN TEXTILE  Adem Çinarli1, Demet Gürbüz2, Reşat Uca3 1 2

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

3

[email protected] 

Abstract:After dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes, salt, alkaline compounds and hydrolized dyes remain on cotton. These residuals are removed by washing with water and special washers. The content and activity of chemicals remaining on cotton after dyeing affect environment directly or indirectly. According to activity of washer, the number of washes, washing time and washing quality are varying. The amount of water used to washing the textile materials is changing between 10% and 30% with different washers. In a factory that 10.000 kg of cotton dyed approximately 400.000 kg of water are used for dyeing. By using alternative chemicals instead of the classical chemicals in dyeing, it is possible to save 40.000 – 120.000 kg of water in one day. In this study, a new washer (DecoClean®) was developed and its washing properties were investigated. Its chemical compositions were investigated and its activity was evaluated.   Keywords: Cotton dyeing, Eluent, Textile, Water saving. 

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DIAGNOSIS BREAST CANCER IN MAMMOGRAPHY IMAGES   Sevcan Aytac Korkmaz1, Mehmet Fatih Korkmaz2 1 2

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract: In this study the aim is to determine cancerous lesions in mammography images. Here, 3x50 mammography images set are taken from Fırat University Medicine Faculty Radyology Unit. These mammographic images are used for 90 training and 60 testing. So, 30 normal, 30 benign and 30 malign are used for training. 20 normal, 20 benign and 20 malign are used for testing. and severity of disease is probabilistically estimated. We have found optimal feature subset using minimum redundancy and maximum relevance via mutual information. Then, probabilistic values of suspicious lesions in the image for selected features are found via exponential curve fitting. And then we get a measure to determine cancerous lesions using Jensen Shannon. Afterwards, mammography images are classified as normal, malign, and benign by utilizing object function.   Keywords: Keywords— Breast Mammography images; Jensen Shannon Divergence; feature selection; mutual information 

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EGZERSİZ BİSİKLETİNDEN ELEKTRİK ÜRETİMİ Ahmet ÇAĞLAR, Erdoğan ÖZEN Makine Mühendisliği Akdeniz Üniversitesi Türkiye [email protected] Özet: Çalışmanın temel amacı günlük yaşamda (spor salonları, fitness merkezleri vb.) boşa giden hareket enerjisini alternatör ve invertör yardımıyla bir bataryaya depolayıp bunu günlük yaşamda mobil cihazlarda tekrar kullanmak suretiyle elektrik enerjisi dönüşümü sağlamaktır. Çalışma için SolidWorks, Inventor, AutoCAD ve benzeri 3D tasarım programları (CAD) bütünleşik olarak kullanılarak bir bisiklet tasarlanmıştır. Dairesel hareket meydana getiren bisiklet, elektrik enerjisi üretmeye en uygun spor aletidir. İlk olarak 26-jant olarak tabir edilen bisiklet yapılan modifikasyonlar sonucu geliştirilerek elektrik üretimine uygun hale getirilmiştir. Daha sonra bisiklete alternatör monte edilmiş ve direksiyon sisteminin önüne bir şarj istasyonu yerleştirilmiştir. Alternatör kısmında yaklaşık 35 adet neodyum mıknatıs kullanılmıştır. Anahtar kelimeler: Elektrik üretimi; Yenilenebilir enerji; Alternatör montajı; Egzersiz bisikletinden enerji üretimi Abstract: The main objective of this study is to generate electricity at a clean form via an exercise bike used for either supports purpose or weight losing purpose to meet the rapidly rising need for electricity energy and contribute to the national economy. The feasibility of this system at many mobile areas make a significant impact on daily life. In the study, the bicycle has been designed using SolidWorks, Inventor, AutoCAD and similar 3D design softwares as integrated with each other. Bicycle is the most appropriate sports equipment to produce electricity thanks to the circular motion created when it is cycled. The bicycle with 26-inch wheels is made suitable for the electricity production after necessary modifications. The alternator is mounted on a bicycle and the charging station is located in front of the steering system. About 35 neodymium magnets are used in the alternator. Keywords: Electricity production; Renewable energy; Alternator; Energy production by exercise bike

GİRİŞ Günümüz rekabetçi piyasa koşulları ve refah seviyesinin artması ile birlikte enerji üretimi ve tasarrufu önem kazanmıştır. Ülke kaynaklarının değerlendirilmesi ve en verimli şekilde kullanılması da yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarına yönelimi artırmıştır. Her geçen gün hızla artan dünya nüfusu güncel BM verilerine göre 7 milyarın üzerine çıkmıştır. Nüfus artışı beraberinde hızla yapılaşma ve tüketim getirmektedir. Bu da sanayi ve teknolojide bir ivmelenmeye neden olmuş, sanayi odaklı ekonomilerin gelişmesini sağlamıştır. Teknolojik gelişmeler hem fayda hem de bir takım problemler doğurmuştur. Bunlardan en büyük iki problem hammadde ve enerji ihtiyacı olmuştur. Enerji kaynakları hızla tükenmekle birlikte, dünya enerji ihtiyacını %80 oranda petrolden karşılamaktadır. Yenilenebilir kaynakların kullanım oranı %8 gibi çok düşük bir seviyededir (Ceylan, 2012). Bu oranlardan görüldüğü üzere petrol ana enerji kaynağıdır. Petrol ve türevi fosil yakıtlar kullanımın yoğun olmasından dolayı hem hızla tükenmekte hem de çevre kirliliği açısından problem teşkil etmektedir. Çünkü bu yakıtlar yakıldığında çevreye çok fazla karbon salınımı yapmaktadır. Bu yaşanabilir bir dünya açısından istenilen bir durum değildir. Karbon salınımın yanında yakılan yakıtın yaydığı ısı aynı zamanda küresel ısınmaya neden olmakta ve ozon tabakasına zarar vermektedir. Bu çalışmada en önemli unsur sistemin geliştirilebilir olmasıdır. Bu geliştirmeler hareketli elemanların (rulman, dişli gibi) malzeme ve tasarımını değiştirilerek (seramik bazlı zirkonyum rulman, neodyum mıknatıs) yapılabilir. İkinci unsur ise sistemin alternatör kısmındaki sürtünme ve transmisyon kayıplarının minimum düzeyde olmasıdır. Bu, sistem verimini maksimize edecek en güçlü öğedir (Şen, 2012). MATERYAL VE YÖNTEM Egzersiz Bisikletleri Egzersiz bisikletleri kardiyo denilen spor antrenmanlarında kullanılan yüksek miktarda kalori harcamaya yaran ve ilk ısınmayı sağlayan spor aletidir. Fonksiyonlarına göre yatay ve dikey tipleri olup, dairesel bir hareket sağlarlar. İlkokul çağındaki çocukların bile kullanabileceği basit bir sistemi vardır. Hacimsel olarak çok az yer kaplar. Sonuç olarak en çok kullanılan egzersiz aleti grubundandır.

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Şekil 1. Klasik tip egzersiz bisikleti. Bisiklet Tasarımı Çalışma öncelikle ana şase ile başlamıştır. Tasarımda piyasada yaygın olarak kullanılan SolidWorks adlı 3D tasarım programı (CAD) kullanılmıştır. Malzeme seçimi tasarım ilkeleri göz önünde bulundurularak yapılmıştır. Bazı kritik parçaların (mıknatıs ve bobin sargı teli gibi) piyasa şartlarında en verimli ve en ekonomik olanlar belli olduğu için alternatifleri fazla olmamaktadır. Tasarım ana parametreleri (güç, devir sayısı ve özgül devir sayısı) belirlenen alternatör çevrimi, dişli sayısı, mıknatıs kullanımı gibi tasarım boyutları, literatürde yer alan hesap yöntemlerine göre hesaplanmıştır. Teker ve buna bağlı olarak alternatör tasarım analizi ise SolidWorks Simülasyon programda mekanik modülde frekans-titreşim (Frequency) kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Bu analizin yapılma amacı sistemi kararsızlaştıran titreşim unsurunu minimize etmeye yönelik araştırma yapılmak istenmesidir. Sistem Tanıtımı Sistem ana yapı olarak 3 kısımdan oluşmaktadır. Bunlar şarj istasyonu, alternatör-regülatör kısmı ve bisiklettir. Bisiklet gündelik yaşamda kullanılan spor bisikleti seçilmiştir. Sistem elemanları aşağıda detaylı olarak ele alınmıştır. Alternatör, Regülatör ve Şarj İstasyonu Alternatörler hareket enerjisini bobin ve mıknatıslar yardımıyla elektriğe dönüştüren asli unsurdur. Mıknatısların oluşturduğu manyetik alan içerisinden bobinin indüklenmesi mantığına dayalı bir sitemdir. Tasarlanan sistemde neodyum Ø25x12 mm 35 adet mıknatıs kullanılmıştır. Bobinler özel bir yöntemle sarılmakta olup 3 faz şeklindedir ve bakır kablo kullanılmaktadır. Regülatörler, akımı istenilen voltaj düzeyine çeken elektrik elemanıdır. Sistemde 3V-20V arasında gerilim düzenleyebilen bir eleman kullanılmaktadır. Şarj istasyonu, tablet veya cep telefonu gibi şarj edilebilir cihazların uygun akım ve voltajda doldurulduğu kısımdır. Tasarlanan sisteme ait şekiller Şekil 2'de verilmektedir.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Şekil 2. (a) Genel Tasarım, (b) Alternatör ve Regülatör, (c) Şarj istasyonu.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Bu kısımda USB soketi, piller, cep telefonu ve tabletlere uygun akım ve voltaj dönüştürücüsü ve mobil cihaz standı bulunmaktadır. İstenilen akım ve voltaj değeri genelde mobil cihazlar için 5V-1A düzeyindedir. Bu güç çıkışı tasarlanan sistemden rahatlıkla sağlanabilmektedir. Piller, süper pil diye de anılan 3000 mAh ile 8000 mAh arasında değişen kapasitelerde olan şarj edilebilir lityum iyon pillerden seçilmiştir. Batarya doluluk oranını gösteren led bir gösterge ekranı da istasyonda mevcuttur. Ayrıca istasyona 1 adet fan konulmuştur. Bu çok sıcak günlerde sistemin soğutulmasını sağlamaktadır. Fan termik yardımı ile çalışarak belirlenen sıcaklığın altına inildiğinde kendini otomatik olarak kapatabilmektedir. SONUÇ VE YORUMLAR Ülkemiz enerji kaynakları açısından verimli bir üçgende yer alsa da maalesef bu kaynakları kendi bünyesinde barındırmamaktadır. Satın alınan her 1 Watt'lık enerji ülke ekonomisine cari açık olarak dönmektedir. Özellikle mühendislik bölümleri bu alan açısından önem arz etmekte olup yeni buluş ve icatlarla ülkemize katkı sunacak çalışmalara imza atılması gerekmektedir. İnsanlar bir yandan tüketme bir yandan da bu tüketimden doğan kaslardaki ATP’yi (Adenozin Trifosfat) spor yoluyla atmaya ve fazla yağları yakmaya çalışmaktadır. Bir insan vücudunda oturarak iş yaptığında bile kas kütlesinden yayılan ısı 105 watt civarında olması bunun ispatı niteliğindedir. Bu çalışmalar spor salonlarına kaydırıldığında her bir kişi başına asgari 100 watt güç alınabileceği aşikârdır. Sistemin diğer hareket enerjisini dairesel harekete dönüştüren sistemlerde de uygulanabileceği görülmektedir. Bu da geniş kullanıcı kitlelerine hitap eden sistemin uygulanabilirliğini artırmakta ve daha fazla enerji kazanımı sağlamaktadır. İlk etapta sistem “tablet ve cep telefonu” gibi düşük enerji kapasiteli cihazlara yönelik tasarlanmıştır. İmkânlar geliştikçe ve sistem üzerindeki iyileştirmeler yapıldıkça daha verimli hale gelip birçok mutfak araç ve gerecini, bazı ev aletlerini çalıştırabilecek düzeye gelecektir. KAYNAKLAR Ceylan, M. (2012). Elektrik Enerji Santralleri ve Elektrik Enerjisi İletimi ve Dağıtımı, Seçkin Yayınları. http://www.livestrong.com/article/18303-calculate-calories-burned (20.04.2015) http://www.emo.org.tr/genel/sss.php?grubu=ENERJ%DD%20VER%DDML%DDL%DD%D0%DD, (20.04.2015) http://www.enerjihanim.com/tr/icerik/enerji-verimliligi-enerji-tasarrufu/2, (20.04.2015) http://www.elektrikrehberiniz.com/elektrik/elektrik-enerjisi-nedir-5035/ Şen, P. (2002). Temiz Enerji ve Kaynakları, Su Vakfı Yayınları.

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ELASTIC FOUNDATION EFFECTS ON THREE DIMENSIONAL ARCH DAMS Muhammet KARABULUT1, Murat Emre KARTAL2, Murat CAVUSLI3 Derya TANRIVERMIS4, Bayram KAYALAR5 1

Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey [email protected] 2 Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey [email protected] 3 Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey [email protected] 4 Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey [email protected] 5 Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey [email protected]

Abstract: Dynamic effects on an arch dam should be taken into account together with gravity and hydrostatic pressure for the most critical conditions.  This study presents three-dimensional linear earthquake response of an arch dam. Different soil parameters and ground motion accelerograms are used in the finite element analyses. The Type 3 double curvature of an arch dam which is one of the five type models suggested in Arch Dams Symposium organized in England in 1968 is considered in this paper. All numerical analyses are carried out by SAP2000 program for empty reservoir case. In the scope of this study, modal analyses and modal time-history analyses are performed using three dimensional finite element model of the arch dam and arch dam-foundation interaction systems. According to numerical analyses, maximum horizontal displacements and principle stresses are shown by height and also evaluated earthquake for various soil conditions and earthquakes. Besides this study clearly appears that the soil conditions are very effective on the dynamic response of an arch dam. Keywords: Type 3 Arch dam, Finite element method, Modal time-history analyses, Static and dynamic analysis.

INTRODUCTION It is not possible that continuing life without water. Therefore, humanity have efforted to situate around water resourses from past to now. On the other hand, settlements away from water supplies were not available every time and every place to water. Because the settlers needed to water storing and dams for drinking, using and irrigation in proceeded eras. Thanks to dams, producing hydro-electric power is a significant place at the world today also. On the other side, enabling flood control supplies safety areas of settlement to downstream, agriculture and industry. Also, dams regulates regime of flow and average of downstream flow even dry seasons. In our country dams which have been builted up until now, consist of %75 earthfill dams, %17 rockfill dams and only %2 arch dams . Arch dams transfer pressure of water to slopes via arch. Arch dams have thinner sections than compare with concrete gravity dams and it causes saving concrete. Generally, arch thickness has to be smaller than %60 height of arch. When the thickness of arch section rises, arch gravity and concrete gravity dam must be considered (Ozsoy, 2007). Constructing of arch dam is more beneficial to produce water energy if only suitable valley status and foundation ground conditions are available. However, disadvantage of arch dam is that analyses and design process are more complex than other alternative dam types. Besides, qualification of the slopes must carry the effect is obligatory. To construct an arch dam, valley must have high potantial bearing capacity of foundation and slopes. At first these dam types were built with stone wall or cut stone after producing concrete, they are planned as a concrete. Collapse ratio of arch dams is less than all other dam types (Ağıralioğlu, 2005).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   EFFECT FORCES ON ARCH DAMS The most important factor of arch dams projects is that calculation of effect forces on dams is determined truly. Effected forces on arch dams; 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Self weight of arch dam hydrostatic water pressure hydrodynamic water pressure change of temperature equivalent seismic load silt pressure ice pressure wind pressure wave pressure

MODEL AND ANALYSIS STAGES Three dimensional finite element model of arch dam was planned by SAP 2000. Following stages were monitored while creating model by SAP 2000. 1) Three dimensional solid geometrical model was created by SAP 2000. 2) Material properties of the model was assigned (concrete, weight per unit of volume, poission’s ratio, compressive strength, tensile strength, elasticity modulus) 3) Dam body and foundation properties were defined. 4) Foundation and slopes were performed as fixed support or pin support according to firm soil or weak soil 5) Combinations of load and loads used for analyses were defined. 6) Records of acceleration components used for time history analysis were done. 7) Analysis were solved under records of strong motion and self weight dam. 8) Maximum and minimum principal stresses and displacements occured on dam body were determined. 9) Dimensioning were evaluated according to analysis results. METHOD In this study, finite element method was used for modelling and analysis. Dam body was divided 204 finite elements. Size of finite element mesh was selected as small as possible in order to get realistic results. Analysis type is linear, loading type is time history, the time history type is modal. Time history analysis method can be used in order to calculate more correct values of displacements, stresses and shear forces. Time history earthquake analysis is used to avoid from many limitations response spectral and investigate buildings under ground motion effects. When finite element mesh of dam foundation were created, soil-structure interaction and shape of slopes were taken into account. Soil depth from dam base is 120 m. Three dimensional finite element model of 3. type dam comprises of eight nodal elements. Three degree of freedom was defined every nodal point as displacements of directions x, y and z. Three dimensional finite element model has 263 nodal points and 204 number of solids. Linear analysis performed on time history, archs component of dam is assumed monolitic, homogen and isotropic under ground motion. Nodal points where join points of concrete blocks were ignored. Acception of rigid foundation makes solution of dam-foundation interaction problems easy. In the case of dam settlement upon a rock area or extra hard soils, assuming foundation as a rigid may provide more sufficient results. However, if strength of foundation ground is low, assuming foundation as a rigid contrary solutions occured. Based on finite element method of arch dam analysis programs takes into account massless foundation condition (Tan, 1995). Dam foundation size must be one or two times of dam height provides sufficient approach on downstream and upstream parts of dam. The farest boundary nodal points of foundation rock, which were used finite element method, are assumed to be fixed. The main idea of massless foundation assumption is preventing resonance at the low frequencies obtained from dam-foundation system (Dowling, 1987). Disadvantage of this approach is that damping of material and propagation are not considered. A dynamic analysis must include these dampings because of the load effection on dam. Five different soil parameters were determined to sand stone using required resources. Soil models were categorized. Young's modulus, poission ratio and weight densities were determined. According to real acceleration datas tensile behaviour and displacements of soil were investigated.

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Figure1. In the event embedded foundation that finite element mesh of three dimensional arch dam

Figure 2. Finite element model of three dimensional type 3 arch dam

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Figure 3. Model 1 three dimensional finite element model of arch dam-foundation

Figure 4. Model 2 three dimensional finite element model of arch dam-foundation

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Figure 5. Model 3 three dimensional finite element model of arch dam-foundation

Figure 6. Model 4 three dimensional finite element model of arch dam-foundation

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   STATIC ANALYSIS Static analysis was done for empty reservoir, as a three dimensional rigid and elastic foundation conditions were taken into account. Displacements and principal stresses obtained from downstream and upstream faces were investigated throughout dam height. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Acceleration-time spectrum obtained by Housner was used to investigate behaviour of an arch dam to earthquake. Earthquake force were actted on dam west-east, north-south and up directions. % 5 damping ratio was used in calculations. First thirty seconds of earthquake takes into account since the time of solution analysis too much time. Linear analysis was conducted by Newmark method and step by step integration technique. 0.1 second was selected time step for integration. The analysis was done for empty reservoir situation. First six mods were taken into account natural frequency and mods of dam under hydrodynamic influence. LINEAR ANALYSIS OF ARCH DAMS IN TIME-HISTORY 3. type of double curved arch dam was analyzed under several loadings. Three dimensional linear dynamic analysis was executed by taking into account different ground motions and self weight. After arch dam model was composed, identification loads, material properties of soil and dam concrete were defined. Analysis was conducted for different soil types, ground motion and empty reservoir condition. Modeling of foundation was created as sound or rigid rock and poor bearing soil. Empty reservoir condition was investigated to take into account self weight, different ground motion and soil types

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Figure7. Evaluated analysis results of nodal points on dam body shape

Loading Condition

Group Name

Dynamic Loading Groups

1

Near Fault

Diffirent Ground Motion

2

Far Field Fault 1

Diffirent Ground Motion

3

Far Field Fault 2

Diffirent Ground Motion

Table 1. Determined loading conditions according to different ground motion which used in dynamic analysis

Faults

Components

Moment Magnitude

North-South Near Fault

Far Field Fault 1

Far Field Fault 2

Ground Velocity (cm/s)

Ground Acceleration (g)

17.7

0.455

55.2

0.644

Up

45.2

0.479

North-South

5.6

0.115

16.4

0.226

Up

16.6

0.323

North-South

4.4

0.032

17.3

0.124

14.2

0.106

East-West

East-West

East-West Up

6.9

6.9

6.9

Focal Distance (km)

5.1

24.2

93.1

Table 2. Different ground motions and properties used in the linear analysis on time history

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Acceleration (m/sn2) 

 

Time (sec) 

Acceleration (m/sn2)

Graphic 1. Acceleration-Time graphic of west-east components of Loma Prieta Earthquake for near fault

Time (sec) Graphic 2. Acceleration-Time graphic of north-south components of Loma Prieta Earthquake for near fault

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Acceleration (m/sn2)

 

Time (sec) G

Acceleration (m/sn2)

Graphic 3. Acceleration-Time graphic of up components of Loma Prieta Earthquake for near fault

Time (sec)

Graphic 4.Acceleration graphic of west-east component of Loma Prieta Earthquake for far field fault 1

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Acceleration (m/sn2)

 

Time (sec)

Acceleration (m/sn2)

Graphic 5.Acceleration graphic of north-south component of Loma Prieta Earthquake for far field fault 1

Time (sec) Graphic 6.Acceleration graphic of up component of Loma Prieta Earthquake for far field fault 1

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Dam Height (m)

 

Stresses (kN/m2)

Dam Height (m)

Graphic 7. Stresses changing throughout dam height on upstream face for empty reservoir condition

Stresses (kN/m2)

Graphic 8. Stresses changing throughout dam height on downstream face for empty reservoir condition

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Dam Height (m)

 

Displacement (mm)

Dam Height (m)

Graphic 9. Displacement changing throughout dam height on upstream face for empty reservoir condition

Displacement (mm)

Graphic 10. Displacement changing throughout dam height on downstream face for empty reservoir condition

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   RESULTS Results of static analysis show that maximum displacements occured up direction. Maksimum displacement obtained from model 4. The worst unfavorable foundation and slopes conditions were designed at Model 4. The maximum tensile stress was occured at downstream side of Model 4’s crest. Maksimum compression stress was occured approximately equal for all models. Maximum compression and tensile stress obtained from dynamic analsis is shown Model 3 which both slopes having different material properties. Tensile stress developed at downstream face of dam crest, compressive stress occured at upstream face of dam foundation. The biggest displacements took place at crest point in all static and dynamic analysis. According to analysis, existence of soil affects dam behavior significantly. Therefore, dam-soil interaction must consider in static and dynamic analysis. Arch dam, which was projected according to linear analysis, must investageted to nonlinear analysis. REFERENCES Ahmadi, M. T. and Razavi, S., A., (1992). Three-Dimensional Joint Opening Analysis of An Arch Dam, Computers and Structures. 44, (1/2), 187-192. Akköse, M., , (1997). Kemer Barajların Lineer Ve Lineer Olmayan İki Ve Üç Boyutlu Statik Ve Dinamik Analizi. Bathe, K.J., Wilson, E.L., Iding, R., (1974). NONSAP: A Structural Analysis Program for Static and Dynamic Response of Nonlinear Systems, Structural Engineering and Structural Mechanics, Department of Civil Engineering, Report No. UC SESM 74 (3), University of Colifomia, Berkeley, Califomia, Bayraktar. A., (1995). Asinkronize Yer Hareketi Etkisindeki Baraj-Rezervuar-Temel Sistemlerinin Dinamik Davranışı, Doktora Tezi, KTÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Trabzon, Bayraktar, A. and Dumanoğlu, A.A., (1995). The Effect of the Asynchronous Ground Motion on Hydrodynamic Pressures, The Sixth International Conference on Civil and Structural Engineering Computing. 28th-30th August, Cambridge, England. Bulson, P.S., Caldwell, J.B. and Sevem, R.T., (1983). Engineering Structures Development in the Twentieth Centurv. University of Bristol Press, Bristol. Calayır, Y., (1994). Beton Ağırlık Barajların Euler ve Lagrange Yaklaşımları Kullanılarak Dinamik Analizi, Doktora Tezi, KTÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Trabzon. Chen, H. and Hou, S., (1987). Effect of Seismic Travelling Wave on the Response of Arch Dams, Proceedings of China-U.S. Workshop on Earthguake Behaviour of Arch Dams., Beijing, China, 73-91. Chopra, A.K., (1968). Earthquake Behavior of Reservoir-Dam Systems, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division. ASCE, 94, (EM6), 1475-1500. Chopra, A.K., (1970). Earthquake Response of Concrete Gravity Dams, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, 96, (EM4), 443-454. Dowling, M.J., (1988). Nonlinear Seismic Response of Arch Dams, Ph. D. Thesis, Colifomia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Califomia, Dowling, J. M., (1987). “Nonlinear Analysis of Arch Dams, Earthquake Eng. Research Laboratory”, Report No: EERL 87-03, University of California, Berkeley. Dowling, M.J. and Hail, J.F., (1989). Nonlinear Seismic Response of Arch Dams, Journal of Engineering Mechanics. 115, (4), 768-789.

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ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF CHAIRLIKE -GEC SHEETS: A FIRST PRINCIPLE STUDY  Turgut Fatih Kasalak1, Arif Babanlı2 1 2

[email protected] 

arifbab[email protected] 

  Abstract:In this study, the germanium sheet, which have electronic structure with zero band gap at K point as that of grapheme, is buckled by 0.78 Å. Further we investigated GeC chairlike buckled structure for electronic properties. Unlike the semimetallic germanene, GeC chairlike buckled structure are transformed to metal.  Keywords: 2D honeycomb structure, Germanene 

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ELEKTRONİK TALEP YÖNETİM SİSTEMİ (ELECTRONIC REQUEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM)  Musa Çibuk1, Zafer Cömert2 1

[email protected] 

2

[email protected] 

Özet: En genel ifade ile kalite yönetimi; bir kuruluşta gerçekleşen iş akış süreçlerinin, hizmet anlayışı ve standartlarının sürekli bir döngü içerisinde iyileştirilmesi ve hizmet verilen kitlede memnuniyet oluşturulması amacıyla yürütülen sistematik çalışmaların bütünüdür. Bu çalışmada, Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi’nde ISO 9001 kalite çalışmaları kapsamında üretilen talep formlarının çevrimiçi olarak alınması, işlenmesi ve yönetilmesini sağlamak üzere geliştirilen web tabanlı bir sistem olan Elektronik Talep Yönetim Sistemi yapısı ve işleyişi sunulmuştur. Elektronik Talep Yönetim Sistemi, birimlerden hizmet almak üzere talep oluşturma, talebin izlenmesi, personellere dağıtımı, sonlandırılması ve arşivlenmesi gibi işlemlerin çevrimiçi olarak gerçekleştirilmesini sağlamaktadır. Ayrıca her bir talep için sürecin analiz edilebilmesi, talebin olumlu ya da olumsuz olarak sonlandırılması, taleplerin kategorize edilmesi ve personellerle ilişkilendirilmesi gibi nitelikleriyle Elektronik Talep Yönetim Sistemi çok çeşitli raporlar üretmek suretiyle ölçeklenebilir, izlenebilir ve şeffaf bir yönetim anlayışına katkı sunmaktadır.  Keywords: ETYS, ISO 9001, Html5, Css3, ASP.Net, SOAP, AD-LDAP

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ERZİNCAN ÜNİVERSİTESİNDE DEMODEX FOLLICULORUM (ACARI, DEMODICIDAE) TARAMASI  Erhan Zeytun1, Salih Doğan2, Engin Tilki3, Sibel Ddilkaraoğlu4, Adalet Özçiçek5, Fatih Özçiçek6 1

2

[email protected]  [email protected]  3 [email protected]  4 [email protected]  5 [email protected]  6 [email protected] 

Giriş: Demodex akarlar Arachnida sınıfının Demodicidae familyasına mensup olan eklembacaklı organizmalardır. Günümüzde memelilerde yaşayan 108 tür ile temsil edilmekte ve bunlardan 2 tanesi (Demodex folliculorum ve D. brevis) sadece insanlarda zorunlu parazit olarak yaşamaktadır. Bu 2 türden biri olan D. folliculorum özelikle yüzün yanak, burun, alın, çene ve nazolabial bölgelerindeki kıl foliküllerinde tekli veya gruplar halinde yaşamakta ve folikül hücreleri ile beslenmektedir. Yaklaşık 200-400 µm vücut büyüklüğüne sahip olup, ortalama yaşam süresi 15 gün kadardır. Bu çalışma Erzincan Üniversitesinde öğrenim gören öğrencilerde D. folliculorum varlığını araştırmak amacıyla yapılmıştır.  Yöntem: Çalışma, Erzincan Üniversitesinde öğrenim gören rastgele seçilmiş 37'si bayan, 51'i erkek olmak üzere 88 öğrenci üzerinde yürütülmüştür. Erzincan Üniversitesi Etik Kurul Başkanlığından çalışmayla ilgili onay alındıktan sonra (Karar no: 2015-01/6), tüm katılımcılara bilgilendirilmiş onam formu okunarak imzalatılmıştır. Örnekler katılımcıların yanak bölgesinden Standart Yüzeyel Deri Biyopsisi (SYDB) yöntemiyle alınmıştır. Örnekleme yapılmadan önce yanak bölgesi alkol ile temizlenerek kurulanmıştır. Daha sonra temiz bir lamın üzerine bir damla ciyanoacrilat damlatılarak yanak bölgesine bastırılmış ve yaklaşık 1 dakika sonra yavaşça kaldırılmıştır. Örnek materyali Hoyer eriyiği ile preparat haline getirilerek ışık mikroskobunda x4, x10 ve x40 büyütmelerle incelenmiştir. Mikroskobik incelemede D. folliculorum tespit edilen örnekler pozitif olarak kabul edilmiştir. Ortalama D. folliculorum sayısı ise; pozitif bireylerde tespit edilen toplam D. folliculorum sayısının, pozitif birey sayısına bölünmesi ile hesaplanmıştır.  Bulgular: Çalışmada 37 bayan katılımcının yaş ortalaması 24.02; 51 erkek katılımcının yaş ortalaması ise 23.84 olarak belirlenmiştir. Çalışmada bayan katılımcılardan 25'i (%67.5), erkek katılımcılardan 34'ü (%66.6) D. folliculorum bakımından pozitif bulunmuştur. Pozitif olgulardan bayanlarda en az 1 en çok 13 olmak üzere ortalama 10.64, toplam 266; erkeklerde ise en az 1 en çok 40 olmak üzere ortalama 2.58, toplam 88 tane D. folliculorum tespit edilmiştir.  Sonuç: Çalışmada yaş ortalaması 23.92 olan 88 katılımcıdan 59'unda (%67) D. folliculorum pozitifliği saptanmıştır. Pozitif olgularda en az 1 en çok 40 olmak üzere ortalama 6, toplamda ise 354 tane D. folliculorum tespit edilmiştir. D. folliculorum pozitifliği bayan ve erkeklerde hemen hemen aynı seviyede bulunsa da, bayanların erkeklere oranla yaklaşık 4 kat daha fazla parazit taşıdığı görülmüştür. Sonuç olarak konunun, daha fazla sayıda katılımcı ile cilt nemi, pH'sı ve sebum miktarı ölçülerek, farklı yaş gruplarında da araştırılması gerektiği düşünülmüştür.  Teşekkür: Bu çalışmayı FEN-A 4585 başvuru numaralı projeyle destekleyen Erzincan Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinatörlüğüne, Erzincan Üniversitesi Etik Kurul Başkanlığına ve tüm katılımcılara teşekkür ederiz.  Keywords: Acari, Demodex folliculorum, Erzincan Üniversitesi, SYDB 

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ESKİ ANADOLU VE MEZOPOTAMYA TÜRKLERİNDE İLK YAZILI KANUNLAR- FERMAN VE YASAKLAR  Remziye Okkar [email protected]  Özet: HUKUK, toplum düzenini sağlamak için çıkarılmış ve devlet gücü ile güçlendirilmiş kurallar bölümüdür. İnsanların birlikte yaşamaya başladıkları en eski devirlerden itibaren fikir ayrılıkları ve anlaşmazlıklar da başlamış, bu da “kim haklı, kim haksız” sorusunu gündeme getirmiştir. Yazının keşfinden önce insanların hukuk problemlerini nasıl çözdüklerini bilmiyoruz. Fakat öyle sanıyoruz ki, tarih öncesi devirlerde yaşamış olan toplumlar, hukuki işlerini yazılı olmayan ya da henüz yazıya geçirilmeyen “gelenek hukuku” na göre yürütmüş olmalıdırlar.  M.Ö.3500‘lerde Güney Mezopotamya’ya gelen ve bu topluluklar üzerinde birtakım şehir devletleri kuran Sümerler de başlangıçta vatandaşlar arasında zuhur eden antlaşmazlıkları gelenek hukukuna göre çözmüş olsalar gerektir. Lagaş ve Nippur’da çıkan yazıtların büyük çoğunluğu yönetimle, ekonomiyle ve hukukla ilgili olup her türde ve boyutta envanterler ve senetler ve makbuzlar, satış belgeleri, evlilik akitleri, vasiyetnameler ve mahkeme hükümlerinden oluşuyordu.  MÖ.3200’lerde Sümerler, çivi yazısını keşfettikten sonra, bu yazıyı ticari ilişkiler başta olmak üzere, her türlü işlerinde kullanmışlardır. Sümerlerin yazılı olmayan gelenek hukukunu da zaman içerisinde yazılı hale getirdikleridir. Bununla beraber, gelenek hukukundan yazılı hukuka ilk defa ne zaman ve hangi sitede geçildiğini bilmiyoruz. Fakat en eski Sümer Kanunlarının MÖ.24. yüzyılda yaşadığı sanılan Lagaşlı URUKAGİNA tarafından meydana getirilmiş olduğu gerçeği göz önünde bulundurulacak olursa, yazının keşfinden yaklaşık 8 asır geçtikten sonra yasaların yazılı hale getirildiği sonucu ortaya çıkar.  Anahtar Kelimeler: Hukuk, Urukagina Kanunları, Hammurabi, Anadolu ve Hititler. 

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EVALUATION OF EARTHQUAKE BEHAVIOR OF ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE DAM ON DIFFERENT WATER LEVELS 1

Murat CAVUSLI, 2Ismail Hakki OZOLCER, 3Murat Emre KARTAL, 4 Muhammet KARABULUT, 5Emrah DAGLI 1

Bulent Ecevit University,Zonguldak,Turkey [email protected] 2 Bulent Ecevit University,Zonguldak,Turkey [email protected] 3 Bulent Ecevit University,Zonguldak,Turkey [email protected] 4 Bulent Ecevit University,Zonguldak,Turkey [email protected] 5 Bulent Ecevit University,Zonguldak,Turkey [email protected] Abstract Ground motion effect on a roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dams in the earthquake zone should be taken into account for the most critical conditions. This study presents two-dimensional earthquake response of Cine RCC dam considering geometrical non-linearity. Besides, material non-linearity are also taken into consideration in time-history analyses. Bilinear kinematic hardening and multi linearhardening model are used in the materially non-linear analyses for concrete and foundation rock. The dam–foundation–reservoir interaction is modeled by the contact elements. Empty and full reservoir conditions are considered numerical analyses. The hydrodynamic pressures of the reservoir water are modeled with the fluid finite elements based on the Lagrangian approach. In the earthquake analyses, viscous dampers are defined in the finite element model to represent infinite boundary conditions. Comparing of principle stresses with respect to different fill rates occurred by reservoir water level on dam body are executed. Numerical solutions indicate that the horizontal displacements increase by hydrodynamic pressure of varied height of water level. In addition to this, those also increase by the effect of the materially non-linear response of the dam. However, while the principle stress components increase by the hydrodynamic pressure affect the reservoir water, those decrease in the materially nonlinear time-history analyses. Keywords: Hydrodynamic pressure, Lagrangian approach, Non-linear analysis, Roller-compacted concrete dam, Viscous dampers.

INTRODUCTION Roller compacted concrete (RCC) dams are designed as conventional concrete structures. But the construction methods, concrete mix design, and details of the appurtenant structures are different in these structures. The construction techniques utilized in RCC dams are analogous to those used for embankment dams. These techniques provide rapid placement and economically advantages for construction. RCC dams are relatively dry, lean, zero slump concrete material containing coarse and fine aggregate that is consolidated by external vibration using vibratory rollers, dozer, and other heavy equipment. Construction procedures associated with RCC require particular attention to be given in the layout and design to watertightness and seepage control, horizontal and transverse joints, facing elements, and appurtenant structures. In the hardened condition, mechanical properties of RCC dams take after those of conventional concrete dams (USACE, 1995). The investigators usually focused on the thermal analysis of RCC dams because thermal cracking may create a leakage path to the downstream face that is aesthetically undesirable. Noorzaei et al. (2006) performed thermal and structural analysis of Kinta RCC gravity dam, which is the first RCC dam in Malaysia, using the developed two-dimensional finite element code. Then the authors compared predicted temperatures obtained from the finite element code with actual temperatures measured in the field using thermocouples installed within the dam body and they found them to be in good agreement. Jaafar et al. (2007) developed a finite element based computer code to determine the temperatures within the dam body. According to performed thermal analysis of a RCC dam changing the placing schedule can optimize the locations of maximum temperature zones. Abdulrazeg et al. (2010)

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   performed three dimensional coupled thermal and structural analysis of roller compacted concrete dams. They assessed crack development within the dam body using the proposed crack index. This method remarkably reduces the total number of elements and nodes when the dam height was increased. Zhang et al. (2011) simulate and analyze the temperature field and thermal stress of certain RCC gravity dams in cold regions using the material properties of roller-compacted concrete by three-dimensional finite element relocating mesh method. As a result, the authors indicated that superficial insulation prevented surface cracks from forming. THE STUDY This study aims to fill the lack of the studies related to the seismic response of RCC dams. Therefore 2D earthquake response is investigated using the finite element method. Çine RCC dam is considered in the numerical analyses. In this study, geometrically and materially nonlinear analyses are also performed together with linear analyses. Bilinear kinematic hardening material model is considered for dam concrete and multi linear kinematic hardening material model is considered for dam foundation in the materially nonlinear analyses. Different water level of reservoir water are considered. Dam-foundation-reservoir interaction is considered in the finite element model. In addition to this, the transverse contraction joints are also considered in this model. This is realized by contact elements. Viscous dampers are defined in the finite element model boundaries to represent infinite boundary condition. In the earthquake analyses, north-south and vertical components of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake record are utilized. Thus, earthquake loading is applied on the settled situation of the RCC dam. According to linear and non-linear seismic analyses, hydrodynamic pressure increases the horizontal displacements and principle stress components. Besides, while the horizontal displacements increase with materially non-linear analyses, principle stress components decrease as compared to linear analysis. FORMULATION OF DAM-FOUNDATION-RESERVOIR INTERACTION BY THE LAGRANGIAN APPROACH The formulation of the fluid system based on the Lagrangian approach is presented as following (Wilson and Khalvati, 1983; Calayır 1994). In this approach, fluid is assumed to be linearly compressible, inviscid and irrotational. For a general two-dimensional fluid, pressure-volumetric strain relationships can be written in matrix form as follows,

 P  C11 0   ε v   P    0 C  w   z   22    z 

(1)

where P, C11, and v are the pressures which are equal to mean stresses, the bulk modulus and the volumetric strains of the fluid, respectively. Since irrotationality of the fluid is considered like penalty methods (Zienkiewicz and Taylor, 1989; Bathe, 1996), rotations and constraint parameters are included in the pressure-volumetric strain equation (Eq. (1)) of the fluid. In this equation Pz, is the rotational stress; C22 is the constraint parameter and wz is the rotation about the cartesian axis y and z. In this study, the equations of motion of the fluid system are obtained using energy principles. Using the finite element approximation, the total strain energy of the fluid system may be written as,

1 π  U TK U f f e 2 f

(2)

where Uf and Kf are the nodal displacement vector and the stiffness matrix of the fluid system, respectively. Kf is obtained by the sum of the stiffness matrices of the fluid elements as follows,

K   Ke f f T K e   B e C B e dV e f f f f V where Cf is the elasticity matrix consisting of diagonal terms in Eq. (1). the fluid element.

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(3)

Bef

is the strain-displacement matrix of

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   An important behavior of fluid systems is the ability to displace without a change in volume. For reservoir and storage tanks, this movement is known as sloshing waves in which the displacement is in the vertical direction. The increase in the potential energy of the system because of the free surface motion can be written as,

πs 

1 T U S U 2 sf f sf

(4)

where Usf and Sf are the vertical nodal displacement vector and the stiffness matrix of the free surface of the fluid system, respectively. Sf is obtained by the sum of the stiffness matrices of the free surface fluid elements as follows,

 S   Se f f   e T e S  ρ g  hs hs dA  f f A 

(5)

where hs is the vector consisting of interpolation functions of the free surface fluid element. f and g are the mass density of the fluid and the acceleration due to gravity, respectively. Besides, kinetic energy of the system can be written as,

1 T  T U M U 2 f f f

(6)

 and Mf are the nodal velocity vector and the mass matrix of the fluid system, respectively. Mf is also where U f obtained by the sum of the mass matrices of the fluid elements as follows,

 M   Me f f   e T e M  ρ  H HdV  f fV 

(7)

where H is the matrix consisting of interpolation functions of the fluid element. If (Eq. (2), (4) and (6)) are combined using the Lagrange’s equation (Clough and Penzien, 1993); the following set of equations is obtained,

  K * U  R M U f f f f f

(8)

where K *f , Üf, Uf and Rf are the system stiffness matrix including the free surface stiffness, the nodal acceleration and displacement vectors and time-varying nodal force vector for the fluid system, respectively. In the formation of the fluid element matrices, reduced integration orders are used (Wilson and Khalvati, 1983).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   The equations of motion of the fluid system, (Eq. (8)), have a similar form with those of the structure system. To obtain the coupled equations of the fluid-structure system, the determination of the interface condition is required. Since the fluid is assumed to be inviscid, only the displacement in the normal direction to the interface is continuous at the interface of the system. Assuming that the structure has the positive face and the fluid has the negative face, the boundary condition at the fluid-structure interface is,

 U n  Un

(9)

where Un is the normal component of the interface displacement (Akkas et al., 1979). Using the interface condition, the equation of motion of the coupled system to ground motion including damping effects are given by,

  C U  M cU c c c  K cUc  R c

(10)

in which Mc, Cc, and Kc are the mass, damping and stiffness matrices for the coupled system, respectively. Uc,

 , Üc and Rc are the vectors of the displacements, velocities, accelerations and external loads of the coupled U c

system, respectively. NONLINEAR MATERIAL MODELS There are two basic hardening rules which are isotropic and kinematic rules (Fig. 1). These rules require uniaxial stress-strain relationships that are easier for practical applications. The uniaxial stress-strain relationship includes three regions such that (i) stress-strain relationship prior to yield, (ii) yield criteria and (iii) stress-strain relationships for the post-yield range. The yield surfaces in two and three dimensional cases are shown in (Fig. 2. ) for kinematic hardening model. The isotropic hardening model deals satisfactory with respect to monotonic loadings, stress level confined to a limited sub-domain of the loading surface and material with negligible hardening. However, these assumptions do not apply strictly to many real situations, especially the last one. The kinematic hardening is often and more successfully employed, thanks to its capability of representing cyclic loads with acceptable approximation. Even though it can accommodate to some extent the Bauschinger effect, still it underestimate the real cyclic response, as opposed to the isotropic case. Initial yield surface

Initial yield surface

Subsequent yield surface

Subsequent yield surface

2

1

a) Isotropic Hardening

2

1

b) Kinematic Hardening

Fig. 1. Isotropic and kinematic hardening rules.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   3

2 1=2=3 1

2

1 b) Two Dimensional Case

a) Three Dimensional Case

Fig. 2. Yield surfaces for kinematic hardening model BILINEAR KINEMATIC HARDENING MODEL The bilinear kinematic model is the simplest and widely used mode as shown in Fig. 3. This model uses von Mises yield criterion with the associated flow rule. The elastic range remains constant throughout the various loading stages, while the kinematic hardening rule for the yield surface is assumed to be a linear function of the increment of plastic strain. The tangent modulus, required for updating the element stiffness matrix is the Young’s modulus E for stresses lower than the yield stress fy and E for stresses of value higher than.

   y 

E E

2y 

 

Fig. 3. Stress-Strain behavior of bilinear kinematic hardening model for Bauschinger effect. MULTILINEAR KINEMATIC HARDENING MODEL The multilinear kinematic hardening model can be used to model plasticity behavior under cycling loading. This model uses the Besseling model to characterize the perfectly plastic material behavior. The material behavior is assumed to be composed of various sections, all subjected to the same total strain, but each subsection having a different yield strength. Each subvolume has a simple stress-strain response but when combined the model can represent complex behavior. This allows a multilinear stress-strain curve that exhibits the Bauschinger (kinematic hardening) effect (Fig. 4).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015     max 2 1  21 22

 

Fig. 4. Stress-Strain behavior of multilinear kinematic hardening model for Bauschinger effect. NUMERICAL MODEL OF ÇINE RCC DAM Çine dam, located approximately 16km southeast of Çine, Aydın, was constructed in 2010 by General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (Fig. 5) (DSI,2015). It was established on Çine River. This dam was projected as a roller compacted concrete dam. The reservoir is used for irrigation and energy purposes. The dam crest is 372.5m in length and 9m wide. The maximum height and base width of the dam are 136.5 m and 142.5 m, respectively. The maximum height of the reservoir water is considered as 98.77 m. The annual total power generation capacity is 118 GW.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF ÇINE RCC DAM Fig. 5. Çine RCC Dam (DSI 2015) The two-dimensional finite element model of Çine dam is modeled considering two layered foundation rock. One of this begins from crest level to base of the dam body. The other begins from the base of the dam body to bottom of the foundation. The material properties of Çine roller compacted concrete dam body and foundation are given in Table 1. Table 1. The material properties of Çine RCC dam (DSI, 2015) Material Properties Modulus of Elasticity (MPa)

Poisson’s Ratio

Mass Density (kg/m³)

Concrete (Dam)

3.00E4

0.20

2530

Rock (Upper Foundation Soil)

2.80E4

0.19

2900

Rock (Lower Foundation Soil)

2.50E4

0.18

2800

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF ÇINE DAM This study considers two dimensional finite element model of Çine RCC dam (Fig. 6). In this model, if the height of the dam is indicated as ‘H’, the foundation soil is extended as ‘H’ in the transverse river direction, downstream direction and gravity direction. Besides, foundation soil and reservoir water model is extended as “3H” in the upstream direction. Fluid and solid element matrices are computed using the Gauss numerical integration technique (Wilson and Khalvati, 1983).In addition, viscous dampers are defined in the finite element model boundaries to consider infinite boundary condition. Zero length damper elements (Combin14) are used in two directions in solid boundaries and one direction in fluid boundaries. Totally 208 viscos damper elements are defined in the foundation soil boundaries in ‘X’, ‘Y’ direction.

Fig 6.Finite Element Model Of RCC Dam NUMERICAL ANALYSIS In this study, two-dimensional behavior of a RCC dam was investigated under strong ground motions for different water level of reservoir water. In the numerical solutions, firstly, the gravity effect and hydrostatic pressure were considered as initial condition due to common boundary conditions. After the static effects, viscous boundary condition is replaced. Then, linear and materially non-linear time-history analyses are carried out for each direction of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake accelerograms (PEER, 2015). Geometrically nonlinearity is considered in both materially linear and non-linear analyses. According to earthquake analysis, maximum horizontal displacements and maximum principal stress components are presented.

STRONG GROUND MOTION EFFECTS This study investigates the earthquake response of Çine RCC Dam subjected to strong ground motion.Different water level cases are taken into account in the numerical solutions. The north-south and vertical components of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake (Fig. 7) are utilized in analyses.Earthquake analyses are performed during 27.185 second.Linear and nonlinear time-history analyses were performed using Ansys (2015). In the non-linear time history analyses, the time interval is used as 0.005 in different water level case. Rayleigh damping is used in timehistory analysis. Therefore, first six vibration frequencies are considered to calculate Rayleigh damping constants using initial boundary conditions (Rayleigh and Lindsay, 1945; Chopra, 1996). Besides, Newmark algorithm was employed in numerical solutions.

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Time (sec)

Time (sec)

 

Acceleration m/sec2

Acceleration m/sec2

a) North-South component of Kocaeli Earthquake b) Vertical component of Kocaeli Earthquake Figure 7. 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake Acceleration Records

FINDINGS Maximum Principle Stresses of RCC Dam For Lineer Analyses

120

100

100

Height (m)

140

120 Height (m)

140

80 60 40

80 60 40 20

20

0

0 0

250

0

500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

The maximum principle stresses for full reservoir reservoir height

250

500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

The maximum principle stresses for 64. meter of

140 120 Height (m)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0

250

500

750

1000 1250 1500 1750 2000

Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

The maximum principle stresses for 36. meter of reservoir height

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140

140

120

120

100

100

Height (m)

Height (m)

Maximum Principle Stresses of RCC Dam For Nonlineer Analyses

80 60 40 20

80 60 40 20

0 0

250

0

500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

0

The maximum principle stresses for full reservoir reservoir height

250

500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

The maximum principle stresses for 64. meter of

140 120 Height (m)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0

250

500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

The maximum principle stresses for 36. meter of reservoir height

140

140

120

120

100

100

Height (m)

Height (m)

Minimum Principle Stresses of RCC Dam For Lineer Analyses

80 60 40

80 60 40

20

20

0 -2000 -1750 -1500 -1250 -1000 -750 -500 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

-250

The minimum principle stresses for full reservoir reservoir height

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0

0 -2000 -1750 -1500 -1250 -1000 -750 -500 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

-250

0

The minimum principle stresses for 64. meter of

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   140 120 Height (m)

100 80 60 40 20 0

‐2000 ‐1750 ‐1500 ‐1250 ‐1000 ‐750 ‐500 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

‐250

0

The minimum principle stresses for 36. meter of reservoir height

140

140

120

120

100

100

Height (m)

Height (m)

Minimum Principle Stresses of RCC Dam For Nonlineer Analyses

80 60 40

80 60 40 20

20

0

0 -2000 -1750 -1500 -1250 -1000 -750 -500 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

-250

0

-2000 -1750 -1500 -1250 -1000 -750 -500 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

The minimum principle stresses for full reservoir reservoir height

-250

0

The minimum principle stresses for 64. meter of

140 120 Height (m)

100 80 60 40 20 0

-2000 -1750 -1500 -1250 -1000 -750 -500 Principal Stresses (kN/m²)

-250

0

The minimum principle stresses for 36. meter of reservoir height Horizontal Displacement

120

120

100

100

Height (m)

140

Height (m)

140

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

0

0 0

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0,005

0,01 0,015 Displacement (m)

0,02

0

0,005

0,01 0,015 Displacement (m)

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0,02

199

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   The horizontal displacement for lineer analyses The horizontal displacement for nonlinear nalyses CONCLUSIONS The linear and nonlinear analyses of RCC dam were inspected by taking into account ground motion. So, horizontal and vertical component of 1999 Kocaeli earthquake accelerations were used at dynamic analyses. At nonlinear analyses, bilinear kinematic model was used at concrete dam and multi linear kinematic model was used at rock foundation. The contact elements were used between dam-foundation and reservoir for their interactions. Viscous dampers were utilized for boundary conditions. According to this study;  At linear analyses, principal stress components and displacements increases with hydrodynamic pressure at raising water levels and when reservoir water level is diminished, principal tensile stresses and principal compression stresses are decreased.  At non-linear analyses, principal stress components are diminished a little bit and horizontal displacemets are raising a little bit,when comparing with linear analyses.  Generally, when principal tensile stresses are compared with principle compression stress, principal tensile stresses are less hazard than principal compression stresses. REFERENCES USACE, US Army Corps of Engineers. Gravity Dam Design, (1995). Engineering and design (engineer manual), EM (1110-2)-2200. Noorzaei, J., Bayagoob, K. H., Thanoon, W. A., and Jaafar, M. S. , (2006).Thermal and stress analysis of Kinta RCC dam, Eng. Struct., 28, 1795–1802 Jaafar, M. S., Bayagoob, K. H., Noorzaei, J., and Thanoon, W. A. M. , (2007). Development of finite element computer code for thermal analysis of roller compacted concrete dams, Adv. Eng. Softw., 38, 886–895. Abdulrazeg, J., Noorzaei, A. A., Bayagoob, K. H., Jaafar, M. S., and Mohammed, T. A. (2010). Three dimensional modeling of thermal and structural analysis of roller compacted concrete dam, 9th International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, 27– 30 September, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey. Zhang, X., Li, S., Li, Y., Ge, Y., and Li, H., (2011) Effect of superficial insulation on roller-compacted concrete dams in cold regions, Adv. Eng. Softw., 42, 939–943. Wilson, E. L. and Khalvati, (1983).M. Finite elements for the dynamic analysis of fluid-solid systems, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 19, 1657–1668. Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Taylor R. L. (1989). The Finite Element Method, Mc Graw-Hill,. Clough, R. W. and Penzien, J. , (1993). Dynamics of structures, 2nd Edn., McGraw-Hill, Singapore. Akkas, N., Akay, H. U., and Yılmaz, C. , (1979). Applicability of general purpose finite element programs in solidfluid interaction problems, Comput. Struct., 10, 773–783. DSI, (2015). General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, The XXI, Regional Directorate, Aydın. Ansys, (2015), Swanson Analysis Systems Inc., Houston, PA, USA, PEER, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Centre, available at: http://peer.berkeley.edu/peer ground motion database (last access: 21 March 2012), 2015.

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EVALUATION OF EXPERIENCE REGARDING THE USE OF MOBILE BANKING: AN APPLICATION ON ACADEMICS 1

Vural ÇAĞLIYAN, 2Muammer ZERENLER, 3Zeynep ERGEN IŞIKLAR, 4Mehmet ÇOBAN 1

Selcuk University Faculty Of Tourısm [email protected] 2 Selcuk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences [email protected] 3 Selcuk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences [email protected] 4 Master Student, Selcuk University [email protected] Abstract: Today, technology the gradually increasing competitive conditions trigger and play role in its development is of course intensively used in banking sector as well. By means of technology, quickly, easily, and cheaply presentation of banking services to consumer provides competitive advantages to the banks. In the recent years, growing of mobile sector and becoming widespread of smart devices have generated some innovations in banking sector, and the concept of mobile banking has emerged. As a result of the developments in mobile communication sector, consumers want that their demands and desires are immediately satisfied and, in most issues, suggest their emotions and thoughts, satisfactions and dissatisfactions quickly and effectively by means of smart phones. Hence, mobile banking is evaluated as the most effective banking application that provides competitive advantages for banks. In this study, in order to determine the experiences of academic staff of Seljuk University regarding the use of mobile phones, the data collected with the method of face to face survey were analyzed by SPSS program and the results were evaluated under 12 headings as customer satisfaction and loyalty, perceived price level, level of using technology, perceived availability, perceived easiness of use, security and privacy, perceived compliance, trust, social effect, facilitative conditions, perceived cost, and worry. KeyWords: Mobile Banking, Technology in Banking, Technological Competitiveness

1. INTRODUCTION As a result of rapid development of technology, banks wanting to keep step with competitive conditions aim to reduce costs, increase customer satisfaction, and reach the potential target customers, presenting technological services. Mobile banking and internet banking serving this aim in banking sector is an important innovation for banking sector. Of mobile technology becoming an indispensable part of the daily life, the abilities of instruments such as particularly mobile phone, and tablet computer improve every passing day and they also create gradually increasing dependency in users. Nowadays, the increase of tendencies of users to save the sensitive information and data in their smart phones and beginning to use them as if they are computers increase much more the importance of security in the smart phones and mobile applications. Banks present mobile banking applications that are compatible with operation system of phones and tablets, together with web software providing mobile internet experience, to the use of customers. The customers desiring to do their banking operations through mobile branch can sign in the user name and code of Internet Branch and in addition signing in with the information of credit card, can execute their transactions of credit card. With the special software taking place in some brands, for visually impaired users, voiced command system was formed and, thanks to this, it is provided for the users to use it without problems. Via mobile banking, investment transactions, credit card transactions, application transactions, having information about accounts, and paying transactions made through smart phones are quite useful at the point of presenting service, independent from time and space, to customer without needing his going to bank. In this context, in this study, the results of this field study carried out, in order to examine the experiences of academic staff of Seljuk University related to the use of mobile banking, will be evaluated. 2. LITERARURE SUMMARY When we regard to the history of banking, banking sector, before meeting internet, must have invested on the other areas. This sector, using both Automated Teller Machine and Phone Banking, beagn to keep

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   step with the new technologies and innovations emerging as a result of this (Luo et al., 2010:222-234 ). In 1990s, after internet revolution, technology has increasingly became a vital element in competitive environment in financial service sector. These developments in the recent times created a new understanding of service and service environment in banking sector. These developments, experienced in information sector, led mobile devices to be used in banking sector (Suoranta, 2003:11-12). The first mobile banking service, introduced by Tiwari et al. (2007), , is application called as Short Message Service banking. Banking sector is one of locomotive sectors in integrating internet and mobile technologies to their own service sectors (Laukkanen, 2005:325-338). Together with that mobile devices are begun to be used of in banking sector, mobile banking has taken its place among the best distribution channels. To generally define mobile banking, it is an application enabling us to reach the main banking services at the moment and in every place we need through the mobile device we have (Hsbc,2015 ). Banks, for benefiting from the services mobile internet presents, through smart phones, whose applications are developed, have targeted to present banking service in every time and everywhere (Chung ve Kwon, 2009:539-543). Via mobile banking, it is targeted the customer to be able to reach their bank accounts while traveling, eating, in short, whenever they desire (Lin, 2013:252-260). Mobile banking is qualified as a sub-branch of electronic banking (Suaranta, 2003:46). In a period, when mobile phone quickly spread, mobile internet network has highly developed and, in addition, together with the change of operation system and service networks of smart phones, use of mobile internet has significantly increased (Çetin,2014:8 ). Transformation of banking transactions to mobile banking will reach the much larger dimensions. This economy, we termed as internet economy, at the moment, forms 1.7% of Turkish economy. While it is foreseen Turkey economy to grow by 9-10 %, the growth rate of internet economy reached 19s %. The reason for this is that Turkey has a young and dynamic population (Kazancı, 2013:13). As a result, banking sector encourages their customers from the aspect of increasing the service quality, being rid of undue workload, lowering the costs to minimum, providing customer satisfaction and loyalty, and obtaining maximum profit 3. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY In this section of the study, in order to examine the experiences of academic staff of Seljuk University related to the use of mobile banking, the information will be given about the aim, method, sample, and findings of the study carried out. In addition, whether the results obtained in the study are statistically significant or not will be evaluated and the results will be discussed in the context of literature. 3.1 The Aim of the Study The main of this study is to determine “the attitudes of academics regarding effective in the use of mobile banking”.

the factors that are

3.2 Method of Study and Sample In the study carried out toward determining the attitudes of academics regarding the use of mobile banking, in storing data, survey method was utilized. In determining the questions in the questionnaire prepared, the relevant literature and similar studies conducted on this subject were considered. The design of survey consists of three sections. In the first section, the demographic questions toward determining the personal characteristics of survey participants were raised; in the second section, the frequency of using mobile banking transactions; and in the third section, the attitudes regarding the factors that are effective on the use of mobile banking. While attitude scales in the survey are formed, the studies utilized are presented in the following Table 1.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 1: The Resources Utilized in Forming the Scale Ganesh et al.,2000 Choi et al.,2008 Deng et al.,2010 A-Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Kimiloglu et al.,2010 Çetin, 2014 Ganesh et al.,2000 Choi et al.,2008 B-Perceived Price Level Çetin, 2014 Goldsmith and Hofacker, 1991 Lassar et al., 2005 C-Level of Using Technology / Innovativeness Aldas-Manzano et al., 2009 Erkmen, 2009 Lin 2011 D-Perceived Availability Lin 2011 E-Perceived Easiness of Use Hanafizadeh et al., 2012 Pikkarainen et al., 2004 F-Security and Privacy Hanafizadeh et al., 2012 Lin 2011 G-Perceived Compliance Hanafizadeh et al., 2012 H-Trust Al-Somali vd., 2009 I-Social Effect Gu et al.,2009 Zhou et al., 2010 J-Facilitative Conditions Hanafizadeh et al., 2012 K-Perceived Cost Chatzoglou et al.,2009 L-Worry Surveys were administrated face to face with academics. As a result of surveys administered for one weak, total 100 questionnaire were completed , but when 15 questionnaires, which are missing and/or the same answers have, and which do not use mobile banking, are excluded, 85 questionnaires were included in consideration. The answers in questionnaires were coded in accordance with statistical analyses program, called “SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences” and analyzed. 4. RESULTS OF STUDY 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of Academics In the scope of study, total 6 questions from demographic aspect were raised to the academics as the case of using mobile banking, gender, age, title, and duration of using mobile banking. The evaluations regarding the demographic structures of academics are presented as follows. Table 2: The Case of Using Mobile Banking of Academics Participating in the Study  1-Do you use mobile banking? Number Percent Yes

85

85

No

15

15

100 100 Total 85 % of academics use mobile banking. The rate of academics not using mobile banking is 15%. Table 3: Gender of Academics Participating in the Study 2-Your Gender Number Percent Male

50

58,8

Female

35

41,2

85 100 Total 56.8% of academics are males, and 41.2%, females. In general, it is seen that there is a balanced distribution according to the gender among the participants

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 4: Ages of Academics Participating in the Study 3-Your Age Number Percent 20-25

7

8,2

26-30

43

50,4

31-35

10

11,5

36-45

20

24

46 and over

5

5,9

85 100 Total 50.4 % of academics are in the range of 20-30 ages; 24%, 36-45; 11.5%, 31-35; 8.2%, 20-25; and 5.9%, 46 and over. It is generally seen that the participants consist of young academics. That the participants are young can be interpreted in the way that the level of the adaptation to technological applications, and using them will be more. Table 5:The Titles of Academics Participating in Study 5-Your Title Number Percent Research Assistant

59

69,4

Asst. Prof. Dr.

5

5,9

Assoc. Prof. Dr.

8

9,4

Prof Dr.

6

7,1

Academic Member

7

8,2

Total

85

100

69.4 % of academics are research assistant; 9.4%, associate professor; 7.0 %, academic member,; 7.1 %, professor; and 5.9%, assistant professor. That large part of academics are research assistant supports the conclusion of being young aged in Table 4. Table 6: Duration of Mobil Banking Using of Academics Participating in the Study 6-Your duration of using mobile Number Percent banking 2 2,4 1 Month 2-6 Months

4

4,7

7-12 Months

17

20

13-24 Months

17

20

24 Months and More

45

53

85 100 Total 53 % of academics have been using mobile banks for 24 months and more; 20%, for 13-24 months; 20%, for 7-12 months; 4.7%, for 2 -6 months; and 2.4%, for 1 months. That a large part of participants uses application of mobile banking will bring together with it the result that their information and experiences are good.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 7: The bank through which academics participating in the study use mobile banking Application of mobile banking of which bank do you use? Number Percent Akbank

9

11

Deniz Bank

1

1,2

Finansbank

1

1,2

Garanti Bankası

3

3,5

İş Bankası

5

5,9

Kuveyt Türk

2

2,4

Vakıfbank

53

62

Yapı Kredi Bankası

4

4,7

Ziraat Bankası

7

8,2

85 100 Total 62% of academics use mobile banking of Vakıfbank; 11%, of Akbank; 8.2%, of Ziraat Bankası; 5.9%, İş Bankası; 4.7% of Yapı Kredi Bankası; 2.4% of Kuveyt Türk; 1.2% of Deniz Bank; and 1.2 %, of Finansbank. That a large part of participants use application of Vakıfbank Mobil Banking can be attributed to that academics receive their salaries from this bank, while that the rate of using İş Bankası and Akbank mobile banking may be related to that these banks have branches in campus; that they follow a policy toward staff; and that access is easy. 4.2 Frequency of Using Mobile Banking Transactions of Academics In the scope of study, in order to determine of the frequency of using the transactions taking place in mobile banking, the frequency of using the transactions of the monetary transfers, payments, control of card or account information, investments, and application taking place in Table 8 were asked. Table 8: Frequency of Using Mobile Banking Transactions Mobile Banking Transactions Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always 4,6 12,6 14,9 31 36,8 Percent 8-Monetary Transfers 4 11 13 27 32 Number 2,3 12,6 11,5 32,2 41,4 9-Payments (Credit card, receipt, Percent credit, etc.) 2 11 10 28 36 Number 2,3 6,9 21,8 23 46 10-Control of Card or Account Percent Information (Balance, Debt, 2 6 19 20 40 Number General Information , etc.) 45 27,6 16,1 5,7 5,7 Percent 11-Investment Transactions 39 24 14 5 5 Number 58 24,1 9,2 6,9 2,3 12-Application Transactions Percent (Credit, Credit card, etc.) 50 21 8 6 2 Number 4.3 Attitudes of Academics Regarding Factors Being Effective on the Use of Mobile Banking In the scope of study, total 50 questions, in the form of 5 point Likert scale, were raised to the academics, in order to determine their attitudes regarding the factors being effective in the use of mobile banking. Scale of 50 items that is related to the factors that are effective on the use of mobile banking consists of 12 sections as customer satisfaction and loyalty, perceived price level, level of using technology, perceived availability, perceived easiness of use, security and privacy, perceived compliance, trust, social effect, facilitative conditions, perceived cost, and worry. Evaluations of academics regarding the factors that are effective on the use of mobile banking are given below.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 9: Evaluations on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty 18-. I can also recommend the application of mobile banking I currently use to the other people. 19- I also think of using the other services (transfer, EFT, application for credit card, balance questioning , etc. ) of the bank, whose mobile banking application I currently use of application,, in mobile banking. 20-. I consider to use the channels, other than mobile banking (branch, internet banking, phone banking, ATM, etc.), of the bank, whose mobile banking application I use 15-. In the future, for my banking transactions, I will mostly mobile banking.

Mean. SD 4,11

0,78

4,08

0,73

4,07

0,88

3,99

0,82

14-, I am generally pleased with using mobile banking services. 3,95 21- Because I am pleased with the other services the bank presents, I use mobile 3,93 banking service. 16-, I do not think of exchanging the bank, whose mobile banking application I use. 3,69

0,73 0,88 0,98

13- All processes of mobile banking are satisfying. 3,51 0,99 17- Even if my bank presents more appropriate offers to me for the other banking 3,47 1,07 channels, I will continue to use the channel of mobile banking Factor of Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty 3,87 0,52 Notes: (i) n=88; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=62.26: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.76. In related to customer satisfaction and loyalty in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is that they can recommend the banking application they use to the other people. Also using the other services of the bank he/she uses its application in mobile application is a subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics will also begin to use a mobile banking application they enjoy for the different transactions and that they are in tendency to enlarge the use area of bank application as content and number. The issue, to which is given importance the least is that one will continue to use the mobile application even if there are appropriate offers for the other banking channels. Table 10: Evaluations on the perceived Price Level PERCEIVED PRICE LEVEL Mean. SD 22-The fees received for mobile banking transactions are reasonable. 2,94 1,44 23- The connection fee that should be necessary to be paid for to access to the 2,80 1,28 mobile banking is reasonable. 24-. Even if the fee received for the transactions is increased, I continue to use mobile 2,05 1,07 banking. 25- Even if 10 % of transaction price is received as transaction fee, I continue to use 1,62 0,82 mobile banking. Factor of Perceived Price Level 2,35 0,84 Notes: (i) n=88; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=74.862: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.678. In related to perceived price level in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is that reasonable fees is received for mobile banking transactions. That the connection fee paid for accessing to mobile banking is reasonable is an subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics use mobile banking with the appropriate access, connection, and use fees. The issue, to which is given importance the least is that one will continue to use the mobile application even if 10 % of transaction price is received as transaction fee.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 11: Evaluations on the Level of Using Technology LEVEL OF USING TECHNOLOGY Mean SD 27- When I hear that a new technological banking service is introduced, I want to 3,26 1,00 try it. 28-. I have more information than my friends’ about technological banking service. 3,08 1,10 30- I do not hesitate trying the new technological banking services, even if nobody 3,00 1,06 from my friend circle earlier tried it 26- I have generally been the person first trying, among my friend circle, technological 2,99 1,14 banking services, recently introduced, 29-.I first hear about technological banking services among my friend circle. 2,92 0,99 31- I hear about technological banking services, recently introduced, earlier than most 2,88 1,05 people in my friend circle Factor of level of using technology 3,02 0,90 Notes: (i) n=90; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=25.131: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.921 In related to level of using technology in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is to try, when a new technology is introduced. Having more information about technological banking service is an subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics have a desire to follow and implement the innovations in banking technology. The issue, to which is given importance the least is a new service is heard earlier than most people. Table 12: Evaluations on Perceived Availability PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY Mean SD 33- Adopting mobile banking will enable me to more quickly do the transactions 3,99 0,73 realized. 32- Adopting mobile banking will enable me to more efficiently do the transactions 3,80 0,72 realized 35- Adopting mobile banking is a useful for to manage my financial state. 3,60 0,88 34- Adopting mobile banking is the most appropriate way for me to do banking 3,50 0,90 transactions. Perceived Availability Factor 3,72 0,63 Notes: (i) n=90; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=30.958: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.785 In related to perceived availability in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is to adopt mobile banking and the increase of speed in transactions. That adopting mobile banking improves efficiency in the transaction is an subordinate factor. These results require academics to adopt mobile banking for becoming more efficient, quicker, and more effective in mobile banking transactions The issue, to which is given importance the least is that adopting mobile banking is the most appropriate way for banking transactions. Tablo 13:Evakuations on Perceived Easiness of Use PERCEIVED EASINESS OF USE Mean. SD 38- It is easy for me to become qualified in the use of mobile banking.

3,77

0,84

37-Interaction with mobile banking does not require much more efforts.. 3,63 0,94 36- In order to be able to banking transactions, it is easy to adapt to mobile 3,62 0,95 banking. Perceived Easiness of Use 3,67 0,72 Notes: (i) n=91; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=5.135: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.685

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   In related to perceived easiness of use in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is that becoming a qualified user is easy. That interaction with mobile banking does not require an much more intellectual effort is an subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics do not make much more effort to be successful in mobile banking transactions. The issue, to which is given importance the least is that adopting mobile banking is that adaptation to mobile banking for banking transactions is easy. Table 14: Evaluations on Security and Privacy SECURITY AND PRIVACY Mean SD 41-.The points of security is effective on the use of mobile banking

3,91

0,88

42-. I trust that mobile banking protects my privacy

3,60

0,96

43- I trust on mobile banking like a bank branch.

3,39

1,08

40-.I worry about the reliability of mobile banking

2,87

1,11

39-. Using mobile banking is not financially secure .

2,62

0,91

Factor of Security and Privacy 3,28 0,63 Notes: (i) n=90; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=101.072: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.630 In related to security and privacy in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is that the element of security is effective. That interaction with mobile banking does not require much more intellectual effort is an subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics prioritize the elements of privacy and security. The issue, to which is given importance the least is that adopting mobile banking is that mobile banking applications are financially secure. Table 15: Evaluations on Perceived Compliance PERCEIVED COMPLIANCE Mean SD 46- I believe that my phone is complied with mobile banking technology.

4,04

0,87

44- Mobile banking is compatible with my life style. 3,88 0,95 45- Mobil banking is highly compatible with the way I want to manage my 3,84 0,79 financial state Factor of Perceived Compliance 3,92 0,65 Notes: (i) n=91; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=4.385: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.698 In related to perceived compliance in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is that mobile phones are complied with mobile banking technology. That mobile banking is compatible with the life style is an subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics prioritize the processes and techniques to be compatible with the daily life The issue, to which is given importance the least is that mobile banking applications are compatible with the style to manage the financial condition. Table 16:Evaluations on Trust TRUST Ort. S.S 48- I trust to the producer of mobile phone that it produces phones in accordance 3,86 1,01 with mobile banking. 47- I believe that my bank presents mobile banking in trustable way. 3,85 0,80 49-. I trust to my operator about it provides secure data connection to materialize 3,47 0,94 mobile banking Trust Factor 3,73 0,74 Notes: (i) n=91; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=18.393: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.736 In related to trust in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is about producing phone in complied with mobile banking technology, they trust to the producer of mobile phone. That bank presents secure mobile banking application is an subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics prioritize the element of trust in the process and techniques in the

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   mobile banking transactions. The issue, to which is given importance the least is that mobile banking applications is to trust to operator for the reliable connection in mobile banking applications. Table 17: Evaluations on Social Effect Social Effect Mean SD 50- I consider to use mobile banking, if somebody recommends it to me 52-. Many people, to whose thoughts I give importance think of that I should use and continue to use 51- While trying a new technology, I give importance my own instincts rather than others’ recommendations. 53-. Since many people use mobile banking, I also use mobile banking.

3,8

1,01

3,51

0,89

3,48

1,10

3,09

1,10

Factor of Social Effect 3,47 0,62 Notes: (i) n=90; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=29.332: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.620 In related to social effect in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is that they use mobile banking with recommendation. That the people, to whose views they give importance support the use of mobile banking is a subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics prioritize the views of people in their circles . The issue, to which is given importance the least is to use mobile banking applications since many people use them. Table 18: Evaluations on Facilitative Conditions FACILITATIVE CONDITIONS Mean SD 55- I need information for using mobile banking

2,84

1,27

56- While using mobile banking, there is a professional to help me.

2,80

1,11

54-. I need resource for using mobile banking.

2,69

1,10

Factor of Facilitative Conditions 2,78 0,89 Notes: (i) n=90; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=1.724: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.653 In related to facilitative conditions in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is that one needs information in the use of mobile banking. That there are specialists to give support in the use of mobile banking is a subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics need the support of specialist and information . The issue, to which is given importance the least is to need the resources in the use of mobile banking. Table 19: Evaluations on Perceived Costs PERCEIVED COST Mean SD 59-. There are financial barriers ( internet connection fee, specialized phone, etc. ) for 3,08 1,36 me to use mobile banking. 58-. I think that the necessary internet connection for me to use mobile banking is 2,81 1,27 very expensive. 57-I pay for too much to use mobile banking. 2,36 1,13 Perceived Cost factor 2,75 1,07 Notes: (i) n=91; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=25.144: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.803 In related to perceived cost in the use of mobile banking, the issue academics give importance the most is that there are some financial barriers in the use of mobile banking. That the necessary internet connection is expensive in mobile banking application is a subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that academics taking the cost into consideration in mobile banking application. The issue, to which is given importance the least is to pay for too much in the use of mobile banking.  

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 20: Evaluations on Worry WORRY

Mean SD

60- I have some worries about using mobile banking. 2,69 61- Since I am afraid of the mistakes I cannot correct, I am indecisive about the 2,02 use of mobile banking. 62-. Mobile banking is something that frightens me 1,93

1,04 0,91 0,90

Worry Factor 2,22 0,81 Notes: (i) n=91; (ii) In the scale, 1 means “I absolutely disagree with it” and 5, “I absolutely agree with it” (iii) According to two ways ANOVA test of Friedman (χ2=68.16: p<.001) the results are statistically significant. (iv) Cronbach Alpha value of scale is 0.813 In related to worry in the use of mobile banking, the issue the academics give importance the most is that they worry about the use of mobile banking. The fear that one makes mistakes not to be able to correct is a subordinate factor. These results can be interpreted in the way that the academics behave highly careful in the use of mobile banking. The issue, to which is given importance the least is that mobile banking is frightening 5. CONCLUSION Interned emerging as a result of rapid changes occurring in 21st century, nowadays, became an indispensable part of banking . In this direction, that banks present their products and services to their customer through internet in accordance with the law and regulations will increase the competitive power of banks. Technological services, besides ,that they are successfully applied by the banks and that they aim to easily and effectively reach their customers in lower costs ,also affect the image of banks on the customers. The banks, as a result of changes occurring in the branch networks, supported the branch networks with new several networks and, as a result of these networks, aimed to increase the profit, nd reduce the cost to minimum. In this process firstly beginning ATM and phone banking, later, the networks of internet banking and mobile banking were included in the process and, thanks to this, it is targeted to reach the different customers in different moments . In this study carried out to evaluate the experiences of the academics regarding the factors affecting the use of mobile banking, the data collected with the method of face to face survey were analyses by means of SPSS program. The results of analysis are summarized in Table 21. Table 21: Factors According to the Degree of Importance Mean SD 3,92

0,65

Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty 3,87

0,52

Trust

3,73

0,74

Perceived Availability

3,72

0,63

Perceived Easiness of Use

3,67

0,72

Social Effect

3,47

0,62

Security and Privacy

3,28

0,63

Level of Using Technology Use

3,02

0,90

Facilitative Conditions

2,78

0,89

Perceived Cost

2,75

1,07

Perceived Price Level

2,35

0,84

Perceived Compliance

2,22 0,81 Worry As seen in Table 21, when the means are calculated regarding each factor, academics, in applications of mobile banking, prioritize the most the factors of perceived compliance, customer satisfaction and loyalty, and trust. Besides this, the factors of perceived cost, perceived price level, and worry are the ones given importance the least in the use mobile banking. For the next studies, it is suggested to be examined the factors that stand out and that are effective the most in the use of mobile banking in more detail and to be developed he practical solutions, which

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   for practitioners, will make more effective , quicker, and which will increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. REFERENCES Al-Somali, S. A.,Gholami, R. &Clegg, B. (2009), An Investigation Into The Acceptance Of Online Banking In Saudi Arabia,Technovation, 29, 130-141. Chatzoglou, P. D.,Sarigiannidis, L., Vraimaki, E. &Diamantidis, A. (2009),Investigating Greek Employees’ Intention To Use Web-Based Training,Computers&Education, 53, 877-889. Choi, J.,Seol, H., Lee, S., Cho, H., Parl, Y. (2008),Customer Satisfaction Factors Of Mobile Commerce In Korea, Internet Research, 18 (3), 313 – 335. Chung, N. and Kwon, S. J. (2009),The Effects Of Customers‘ Mobile Experience And Technical Support On The Intention To Use Mobile Banking, Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 12(5), 539-543. Çetin, A.S. (2014), Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Mobile Banking in Turkey, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yüksek Lisans Tezi Deng, Z., Lu, Y., Wei, K. K., Zhang, J. (2010),Understanding Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: An Empirical Study Of Mobile Instant Messages In China, International Journal of Information Management, 30, 289–300. Erkemen, Y. (2009), Bankacılık Sektöründe Teknolojik Hizmetlerin Müşteriler Tarafından Benimsenmesinde Etkili Faktörler, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Yüksek Lisans Tezi Ganesh, J., Arnold, M. J., Reynolds, K. E. (2000),Understanding the Customer Base of Service Providers: An Examination of theDifferences Between Switchersand Stayers. Journal of Marketing, 64 (3), 65-87. Goldsmith, R.E.,and Hofacker, C.F., (1991),Measuring Consumer Innovativeness, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(3), 209-21. Gu, J.-C., Lee, S.-C. &Suh, Y.-H. (2009), Determinants Of Behavioral Intention To Mobile Banking, Expert Systems with Applications, 36, 11605-11616. Hanafizadeh, P.,Behboudi, M., Abedini Koshksaray, A. &Jalilvand Shirkhani Tabar, M. (2012), Mobilebanking Adoption By Iranian Bank Clients, Telematics and Informatics. HSBC Mobil Bankacılık Nedir? (http://www.hsbc.com.tr/tr/bireysel/sss/mobilbankacilik.asp#1, Erişim Tarihi: 28.05.2015). Kazancı, T. (2013), Mobil Bankacılıkta Güvenlik Sorunlarının Analizi, İstanbul Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Ensititüsü, İstanbul Kımıloğlu, H., Nasır, V. A. and Nasır, S. (2010), Journal of Consumer Marketing, 27 (5), 401-413. Lassar, W.M., Manolis, C., And Lassar, S.S. (2005),The Relationship Between Consumer Innovativeness, Personal Characteristics, And Online Banking Adoption, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 23(2), 176-199. Laukkanen, T. (2005),Comparing Consumer Value Creation in Internet and Mobile Banking, The International Conference on Mobile Business, IEEE. Lin, H.-F. (2011), An Empirical Investigation Of Mobile Banking Adoption: The Effect Of Innovation Attributes And Knowledge-BasedTrust. International Journal of Information Management, 31, 252-260. Luo, X.,Li, H., Zhang, J. &Shim, J. P. (2010),Examining Multi-Dimensional Trust And Multi-Faceted Risk InInitial Acceptance Of Emerging Technologies: An Empirical Study Of Mobile Banking Services, Decision Support Systems, 49, 222-234. Manzano-Aldas, J.,Lassala-Navarre, C., Ruiz-Mafe, C., andSanz-Blas, S., (2009),The Role Of Consumer Innovativeness And Perceived Risk In Online Banking Usage, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 27(1), 5375. Pikkarainen, T.,Pikkarainen, K., Karjaluoto, H. &Pahnila, S. (2004), Consumer Acceptance Of Online Banking: An Extension Of The Technology Acceptance Model, Internet Research, 14, 224 - 235. Suoranta, M. (2003), Adoption Of Mobile Banking In Finland, Jyva¨Skyla¨ Studies In Business And Economics 28, Doktora Tezi, University of Jyva¨skyla¨. Tiwari, R.,and Buse, S. (2007), A Strategic Analysis of Opportunities in the Banking Sector, Hamburg University Press, Hamburg. Zhou, T., Lu, Y. &Wang, B. (2010),Integrating TTF and UTAUT To Explain Mobile Banking User Adoption, Computers İn Human Behavior, 26, 760-767.

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EXAMINATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF POROUS NITI COATED BY USING INDUCTION WELDING METHOD ON 316L STAINLESS STEEL   İlyas Somunkiran1, Ahmet Balin2, Abdullah Melİk Özen3, Mehmet Nur Kaplan4

1 2 3 4

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract:In this study, the upper surface of bioadaptable 316L stainless steel will be coated with porous NiTi alloy by using SHS (self-propagating high temperature synthesizing) method. The effect of the cold pressing pressure on porosity and its effect on intermediate layer to occur between the porous NiTi and 316L were investigated in the porous coating. As the process, 2-3 mm thick NiTi powder mixture was cold pressed at 50, 100, 150, and 200 MPa on 316L stainless steel by using powder metallurgy method. The pressed samples were coated on 316L stainless steel alloy at 1200 0C under atmosphere protection of argon gas by using induction welding method. Porous NiTi coated samples were subjected to optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. It was observed in this study that porous NiTi coating on surface of 316L stainless steel alloy by using SHS method had the best microstructure properties under 200 MPa powder pressure and at the diffusion temperature of 1200 ºC.  Keywords: Nickel Titanium, self- propagating high temperature synthesizing (SHS), powder Metallurgy, 316L stainless steel 

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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DUCTILITY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH POLYPROPYLENE FIBERS 1

Rıfat SEZER1, Abdulhamid ARYAN2 Selcuk University, Civil Engineering Department, Konya, Turkey [email protected] 2 Civil Engineering (MsC), Kabul, Afghanistan [email protected]

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to research both the performance of the reinforced concrete beams without fiber and the performance of the reinforced concrete beams with fiber. For this purpose, the experimental load - displacement curves of beams were formed and the areas under these curves were compared. According to the results of this comparison, it is concluded that the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber are more ductile. The dimension of the used beam-samples for test in this study is 20x30 cm, their length is 200 cm and their scale is ½. The reinforced concrete referencebeams are produced as two items and the reinforced concrete beams with P-0.60 kg/m3 polypropylene fiber are produced as three items. Keywords: Polypropylene, Fiber-reinforced beams, Strengthening of the beams.

INTRODUCTION The tensile strength and ductility of concrete is low. This weakness of concrete has emerged an idea “the concretestrengthening with different fibrous materials”. For this purpose, different fibrous materials have been developed. One of these developed materials is a polypropylene fiber material. There are different studies about polypropylene fiber materials in the literature. These studies are given below in the following. Aktürk (2006) has researched the performance-characteristics of polypropylene fiber reinforced and self-compacting concretes. Altun (2006) has experimentally analyzed the effect of the steel fiber additive on the ultimate bearing capacity for the elements of reinforced concrete beams. Akkas (2010) has investigated the compressive strength-properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced concretes and half-lightweight concretes. Arazsu (2012) has researched the fresh and hardened concrete-properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced concretes. Açıkgenç (2012) has researched the strength and durability characteristics of polypropylene fiber reinforced concretes in the different mix proportion. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, the polypropylene fibers are used to increase the tensile strength and ductility of the concrete. The reinforced concrete reference beams without fiber and the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fibers P0.60 kg/m3 were experimentally compared to each other in these experimental studies. The additive amount of polypropylene fibers P-0.60 kg/m3 in this experimental study requires to be used at least 600 gr additive of polypropylene fibers for reinforced concrete beams in the size of 1m3. Therefore, total 216 gr additive of polypropylene fibers was used for three items “reinforced concrete beams” in the size of 0.36 m3. The load displacement curves of reinforced concrete beams were obtained in these tests. Properties of The Used Polypropylene Fibers In Tests Polypropylene fibers are produced in a wide variety of dimensions. Their raw material is 100 % polypropylene. The produced varieties of these polypropylene fibers in length of 6 mm, 12 mm, 19 mm and 38 mm are less filamentous. The polypropylene fibers in length of 12 mm were used in this experimental study. The used fibers for research are provided by company İzmit BEKSA. These fibers are not produced in Turkey. They are currently produced by the company Dramix in Belgium. This company is represented by company BEKSA in Turkey. Test Arrangement and Measuring Technique The used experimental arrangement in this study is a bending test instrument. The load cell in capacity of 500 kN was used for this arrangement and the displacements were measured by 15- 20 cm LVDTs. The produced reinforced concrete simple beams are supported at both ends and the weight is loaded as two items in the distance of L/3. The used LVDTs in test were placed as two items on the beam- supports and under the central part of the beam. (Fig. 1).

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Fig. 1 Test Arrangement TEST RESULTS In this experimental study, two samples for reinforced concrete reference beam and three samples for reinforced concrete with P-0.60 kg/m3 polypropylene fibers are produced. These produced beams were loaded with two items “P weight” from L/3 points and the loading has continued increasing 10 kN to the yield load from scratch. After yield load, the weight was loaded to form a deflection with the addition of 1cm. This loading is continued to collapse-load. Later the load - displacement curves were drawn with the program TDG CODA. The charts of obtained results were drawn with Excel program. Showing of Average Values of Reinforced Concrete Reference-Beams (A,B) The weight was loaded increasing 10 kg Newton from scratch to the reinforced concrete reference beams (A,B) and they began to crack on average 40.45 kN. The loading was continued and the yield load was reached at 167.10 kN. Maximum load and displacement was the value of 166.70 kN and 62.68 mm. According to the average of two concrete reference beams in this experimental study, the following chart was drawn (Fig. 2-4).

Fig. 2 The Average Load - Displacement Curve of The Reinforced Concrete Reference Beam (A,B)

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Fig. 3 The Situation of

Reinforced Concrete Reference Beam (A) before loading

Fig. 4 The Collapse Situation of Reinforced Concrete Reference Beam (A) Showing of Average Values of Reinforced Concrete Beams With Polypropylene Fiber P-0.60 kg/m3 - (A,B,C) The additive amount of polypropylene fibers P-0.60 kg/m3 in this experimental study requires to be used at least 600 gr additive of polypropylene fibers for reinforced concrete beams in the size of 1m3. Therefore, total 216 gr additive of polypropylene fibers was used for three items “reinforced concrete beams” in the size of 0.36 m3. The weight was loaded increasing 10 kg Newton from scratch to the reinforced concrete reference beams P-(A, B, C)0.60 kg/m3 and they began to crack on average 50.73 kN. The loading was continued and the yield load was reached at 154.43 kN. Maximum load and displacement was the value of 170.67 kN and 62.00 mm. According to the average of three reinforced concrete beams-P-0.60 kg/m3 in this experimental study, the following chart was drawn. (Fig. 5-7).

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Fig. 5 The Average Load-Displacement Curve of The Reinforced concrete P–0.60 kg/m3 Beam (A,B,C)

Fig. 6 The Situation of Reinforced Concrete P–0.60kg/m3 Beam (A) before loading

Fig. 7 The Collapse Situation of Reinforced Concrete P–0.60 kg/m3 Beam (A) The chart comparison of P-0.60 kg/m3 – (A,B,C) and reference (A,B) beams In this study, three items “Reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber P-0.60 kg/m3” and two items “Reinforced concrete reference-beams” are produced. According to their average, the following charts were drawn. As shown in the following chart of these two beams, the yield-strength of reinforced concrete reference-beam is higher and more ductile than the yield-strength of reinforced concrete beam P-0.60 kg/m3-(A,B,C). However, the maximum displacement values of results are close to each other (Fig. 8).

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Fig. 8 The Average Load - Displacement Curve of P-0.60 kg/m3– (A,B,C) and Reference (A,B) Beams CONCLUSION According to experimental research in this study, two items “reinforced concrete reference beams without fiber” and three items “reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber P-0.60 kg/m3” are produced. Dimensions of the produced reinforced concrete beams are 0.20x0.30 m2, their length is 2m and their scale is ½. The reinforced concrete beams were loaded with two items weight from L/3 point in the experimental researches and the displacements were measured from the middle of beam. According to these measurements, load-displacement curves of reinforced concrete beams were drawn. Then energy absorption capacity and ductility of reinforced concrete beams are learned and the results were compared to each other. According to this comparison, energy absorption capacity of reinforced concrete reference beams is higher than energy absorption capacity of reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber P-0.60 kg/m3 and ductility of reinforced concrete reference beams is lower than ductility of reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber P-0.60 kg/m3. While the energy absorption capacity and ductility coefficient of reinforced concrete reference beams are in turn 9912 kNmm and the value of 4.71, the energy absorption capacity and ductility coefficient of reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber P-0.60 kg/m3 are 10076 kNmm and the value of 5.83. The energy absorption capacity of reinforced concrete reference beams with polypropylene fiber P-0.60 kg/m3 is higher % 2 than energy absorption capacity of reinforced concrete reference beams and ductility of reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber P-0.60 kg/m3 is higher % 23 than ductility of reinforced concrete reference beams. According to these results, it is concluded that the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber P-0.60 kg/m3 are more ductile and their earthquake performance is better. REFERENCES Aktürk M. (2006). Research on the performance characteristics of polypropylene fiber reinforced and selfcompacting concretes. Selçuk University. Graduate School of Natural Sciences. Master Degree Thesis. Altun, F. (2006). The experimental analysis for the effect of steel fiber additive in elements of reinforced concrete beams on the ultimate bearing capacity. Erciyes University. Department of Civil Engineering. Kayseri. Akkas, A. (2010). The compressive strength-properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced concretes and halflightweight concretes. Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Technical Education, Department of Construction Education. Arazsu, U. (2012). Fresh and hardened concrete properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced concretes. Fırat University. Graduate School of Natural Sciences. Master Degree Thesis. Açıkgenç, M. (2012). Strength and durability characteristics of concretes with polypropylene fiber in the different mix proportion. Fırat University. Graduate School of Natural Sciences. Master Degree Thesis.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VEGETATION EFFECT ON THE FLOOD PROPAGATION DUE TO THE FAILURE OF THE DISTORTED PHYSICAL MODEL OF URKMEZ DAM  M. Şükrü Güney1, Gülpembe Neyiş2 1 2

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract: Vegetation effect on the flood propagation due to dam break is studied by means of a distorted physical model of Ürkmez Dam, built in the scope of the TÜBİTAK 110M240 project, in open area of Hydraulics Laboratory of Dokuz Eylül University. The physical model has a horizontal scale of 1/150 and a vertical scale of 1/30 and it contains the reservoir and the downstream part of the dam until the sea. The Ürkmez dam was chosen since it has reasonable dimensions and it’s located close to Ürkmez village.  The dam break was simulated by lifting the gate suddenly. The water depths were measured by using e+ WATER L (level) sensors. The velocities were determined by Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) transducers.   The propagation of the flood wave was recorded by a HD camera. In this paper, the design and construction of the distorted physical model and the measurement method are remembered. Some of experimental findings after partial formation of vegetations are presented and they are compared to those obtained without vegetation.   Supplementary experiments need to be performed to get elaborate interpretations. Subsequent studies will involve experiments with vegetations in the whole area.  Keywords: physical model, distorted model, dam break, vegetation, flood propagation  

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218

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF WINDOW AND DOOR HOLLOW EFFECT ON MASONRY BUILDING BEHAVIOR UNDER THE CYCLIC LOAD  Fatih Altun1, Oktay Musa Kayirga2  1

Department of Civil Engineering, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, TÜRKİYE  [email protected] 

2

Department of Civil Engineering, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, TÜRKİYE  [email protected] 

Abstract: Masonry building is a construction that it bears vertical and horizontal load via walls constructed with natural or artificial block and mortar. Masonry buildings, having low natural period and damping ratio, are rigid constructions. Masonry buildings are devoid of ductile behavior desired for earthquake-resistant design. As a result of earthquake effect, either severe damage occurs on these kind of building or it collapses.  The aim of study is investigation of masonry building behavior under the earthquake effect. Scale of sample is important factor for experimental investigation, and effective results depends on this scale factor. However, full-scale researches are usually difficult studies. For this reason, full-scale experimental research is limited in number. In this study, full-scale masonry building was constructed in laboratory and behavior of building was investigated under the cyclic load effect. This full-scale experimental investigation is important to detect the masonry building behavior under the influence of equivalent earthquake load.  For this purpose, 3x3x3 m sized, having one-room and one-story construction plan was designed for experimental research. The building constructed for experimental investigation was subjected cyclic load effect by the load-jack mounted on reaction wall. Window and door hollow are designed at the walls which are on the load effect direction. In order to measure the displacement, four LVDT were placed on the building through the load direction and two LVDT were placed on the transverse corners of the buildingto measure the twist displacement. In each cycle, damages occurred under the influence of cyclic loading were marked and displacements values were recorded by computer setup. The hysteresis loop was formed by load effect and displacement value.  At the end of the study, it concluded that big part of ultimate load can be borne linearly by the building constructed for experimental research, and there wasn’t any damage on the block units except a few capillary cracks in first phase. After this linear behavior phase, the influence of load increase remained limited, on the contrary increase on displacement values more than linear behavior value. In this phase, characteristic diagonal crack occurred on the wall, and the energy occurred on the building was dissipated by cracks. Hereafter, the damages occurred on the building got permanent state. In consequence of permanent damage, it is concluded that the building reached collapse mode.  Keywords: Masonry building, earthquake behavior, performance. 

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219

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

FACTORS CAUSING WOMEN STUDENTS TO DROP OUT OF ENGINEERING IN SOUTH KOREA  Jong TaeYoun1, Song Ah Choi2, Ji Eun Jung3 1 2 3

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract:In order to aware the situation and factors of women students’ dropout from engineering college, the factor analysis for women students in P university was performed. The results showed responses that social cultural effects is more significant ones than social effect alone, and the effects of negative gender cognition in industrial circle and college to the women employees and coeds are more significant than effects of regional or positional ones. Also showed responses that the physical difference from man students, the ability for handling machine and tools, her parents’ moral support, the gender cognitive engineering education and the boosting for job recruiting are more significant effects than the scholastic ability or the ageism. This may lay the foundation to make a curriculum for women included engineering education that emphasize the gender cognitive approach and the circumstances.  Keywords: Women Students, Dropouts, Engineering Education 

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220

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

FARKLI GÖZENEK YOĞUNLUĞUNA SAHİP METAL KÖPÜK BLOKLARDAN ZORLANMIŞ TAŞINIMLA ISI TRANSFERİNİN İNCELENMESİ  Ayla Doğan1, Oğuzhan Özbalci2, İbrahİm Atmaca3 1 2

[email protected] 

[email protected]  3

[email protected] 

Özet:Gelişen teknolojiyle birlikte, elektronik elemanların boyutları hızla küçülürken, karmaşık yapıları ve kapasiteleri inanılmaz oranda büyümektedir. Elektronik sistemlerin boyutlarındaki bu küçülme, birim hacimlerinde üretilen ısının belirgin olarak artmasına neden olmaktadır. Bilindiği üzere elektronik sistemlerde, devre kartları üzerinde ısınan elemanların sayısı oldukça çoktur ve ayrık formdadır. Sistemin güvenli çalışabilmesi için bu elemanların soğutulması son derece önemlidir. Bu elemanların emniyetli sıcaklık şartlarını aşmaması, soğutma sistemindeki akış şartlarına, yongaların geometrik boyutlarına, yerleşim düzenine vb. şartlara bağlıdır. Bu çalışmada, kısmi açık bir hacim içerisine, farklı gözenek yoğunluğuna sahip (10, 20 ve 40 PPI) alüminyum köpük bloklar 3x3 diziliminde yerleştirilerek zorlanmış taşınılma ısı transferi incelenmiştir. Deneyler köpük bloklu ve köpüksüz durum için yapılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlarda, köpük blok kullanılması durumunda, köpüksüz duruma göre ısı transferinde %192-262 oranında bir iyileşme olduğu tespit edilmiştir.  Keywords: Anahta Kelimeler: Elektronik soğutma, Metal köpük, Isı transferi 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

FARKLI KESİT FORMLARI İLE ÜRETİLEN SANDALYELERİN MUKAVEMETİNİN SONLU ELEMANLAR YÖNTEMİ İLE BELİRLENMESİ TO DETERMINE STRENGTH OF CHAIRS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT CROSS-SECTIONAL MORTISE AND TENON GEOMETRY WITH FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 Erkan LIKOS, 2Murat AYDIN Karabük Üniversitesi, Teknoloji Fakültesi Türkiye lik[email protected] 2 Karabük Üniversitesi, Teknoloji Fakültesi Türkiye [email protected] 1

Özet: Bu çalışmada, sandalye köşe birleştirmelerinde uygulanan farklı zıvana kesit formları ile elde edilen sonuçların sonlu elemanlar yöntemi kullanılarak yapısal analiz programıyla karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, lale ağacı-yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) ile aynı kesitli zıvanalar kullanarak 2 farklı yükleme yöntemi (ön ve yan ayaklara dikey yükleme) ve 9 tekerrür olmak üzere (3x2x9)=54 sandalye geleneksel yöntemlerle 1/1 ölçekli üretimi yapılmıştır. Sonuç olarak, sonlu elemanlar yöntemi ile elde edilen toplam moment değerleri ile sandalye performans deneylerinden elde edilen değerlerinin karşılaştırılması yapılarak % 92,3 yakınlık derecesinde tutarlı sonuçlar verdiği belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, malzemenin emniyet gerilmesi ile yapısal analiz sonuçları karşılaştırıldığında dikdörtgen kesit formu için % 90,6, daire kesit formu için %73,6 ve köşegen kesit formu için %87 yakın değerler bulunmuştur. Abstract: This study aimed to compare the results of different cross sectional mortise and tenon (rectangular, round, diagonal) furniture corner joints’ data and finite element analysis data. For this case, 3 types of cross sectional geometry in tenon joints (rectangular, round, diagonal) and 2 force loading forms (vertical loading to front legs, and vertical loading to side legs) were used to create 9 test chairs for each pairing of geometry and form, resulting in 54 chairs (made of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) each which was prepared for static testing. Results for total moment values obtained from a structural analysis program were compared with actual performance test values. The results of the structural analysis were 92.3% consistent with the results of the actual static test. The values obtained from structural analysis were found to be 90.6% consistent with the allowable stress of material in the case of rectangular mortise and tenon joints, 73.6% consistent with the allowable stress of material in the case of round mortise and tenon joints, and 87% consistent with the allowable stress of material in the case of diagonal tenon joints.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   GİRİŞ Mobilya mühendislik tasarımında yapılacak ilk iş, üretimde kullanılan malzemelerin fiziksel ve mekanik özelliklerinin belirlenmesidir. Daha sonra, mobilya sistemini oluşturan birleştirmeler ve elemanlarda, dış zorlayıcı kuvvetlerin etkisiyle oluşacak iç gerilmeler, elemanların yapılmış olduğu malzemeler için belirlenen kabul edilebilir tasarım gerilmeleri ile karşılaştırılmak suretiyle elemanların ve birleştirmelerin emniyetli olup olmadığıdır. Performans deneyleri, mobilya ürün mühendisliğinin son aşamasıdır. Bu deneylerin amacı, kullanım sırasında karşılaşılabilecek problemleri önceden belirlemek ve mobilya henüz kullanıma girmeden ve üretilmeden önce değişiklikleri ve geliştirmeleri yapmak amacıyla tasarımcıya geri besleme sağlamaktır. (Eckelman and Erdil 2001). Kullanım yükleri altında, tasarlanan mobilya sistemindeki gerilme dağılımının istenilen sınır değerleri altında kalması sağlandıktan sonra, mevcut yükleri taşıyacak optimum eleman ölçülerinin ve birleştirmelerin tasarımının sağlanması mühendislik tasarımı açısından önemlidir (Kasal, 2004). Mobilya ürün mühendisliği, geniş kapsamlı mobilya tasarım sürecinin doğal ve gerekli bir parçasıdır. (Erdil, 2002). Efe vd. (2009), Erdil vd. (2005), bir mobilyada meydana gelebilecek deformasyonların, çok istisnai diğer nedenler ve koşullar dışında, sistemin elemanlarından ziyade birleştirmelerinde meydana geleceğini ifade etmiştir. Eckelman and Erdil (2001) çeşitli tip ve ölçülerdeki ahşap okul sandalye ve sıralarının geleneksel yapı tasarım yöntemleriyle tasarım ve analizini, bu ürünlerin mukavemetlerinin özel olarak seçilmiş performans deneyi donanımı ve yöntemleriyle denemişlerdir. Ayrıca, benzer bir çalışma Erdil (2002), ve Kuşkun (2013)’te ele alınmıştır. Bilgisayar destekli tasarım (CAD) ve üretim (CAM), mobilya üretimi ve tasarımında kullanılmakta ve ürün kalitesine büyük katkılar sağlamaktadır. Ayrıca, bilgisayar destekli yapı analizlerinin mobilyaya uyarlanması ile ilgili örnekler de mevcuttur (Haviarova vd., 2001a, Haviarova vd., 2001b, Mihailecsu 2001, Efe vd., 2003, Smardzewski, 2002 Yörür, 2012). Bu bağlamda, Smardzewski ve Papuga (2004), iskelet tipi mobilyaların mukavemeti ve sertliği öncelikle kullanılan faktörlere ve malzeme teknolojisine bağlı olduğunu belirterek bunların her biri verilen mobilya parçasının dayanıklılığı ve güvenliğine etki ettiğini savunmuştur. Bu uygulamalarda amaç, mobilyanın üretimine geçmeden önce sanal ortamda yapı analizi teknikleriyle mukavemet bakımından optimum düzeye getirilmesidir. Bu çalışmada, sandalye performans deneyleri ile elde edilen verilerin sonlu elemanlar yöntemiyle elde edilen verilerle uygunluğu araştırılmıştır. BİLGİSAYAR DESTEKLİ ÜÇ BOYUTLU YAPISAL ANALİZ İLE SANDAYLERİN MODELLENMESİ Statik deneylerinin yapıldığı sandalyeler RISA 3D (Rapid Interactive Structural Analysis) yapısal mühendislik yazılımı ile modellenmiştir. Çizim alanı ve ölçeğin belirlenmesinden sonra performans deneylerinin yapıldığı sandalyenin 1/1 ölçeğinde modellenmesi yapılmıştır. Modelleme yapılırken her bir eleman bir çizgi olarak düşünülmüş çizimi yapıldıktan sonra elemanlar birbirine tutturularak (Merge) sandalye sistemi bütün haline getirilmiştir. Bu aşamada malzemenin %8 rutubetteki teknik özelliklerinin (elastikiyet modülü, eğilme direnci, kayma modülü, poisson oranı, özgül ağırlık vb.) programa girişi yapılmıştır (Şekil 1).

Şekil 1. Yapısal mühendislik yazılımında malzemelerin tanımlanması. Malzeme özelliklerinin tanımlanmasından sonra her bir elemanın kesit özellikleri performans deneylerinde kullanılan sandalye elemanlarının kesit şekline uygun olarak atanmıştır. Bu işlemden sonra yazılım otomatik olarak sistemi ayrı ayrı elemanlara bölmektedir. Elemanlara ayrıldıktan yapısal mühendislik yazılımı sonuçların hatasız değerlendirilebilmesi için her bir eleman için uç noktalarına ayrı bir kod vermektedir. Bu aşamada sistemdeki mesnet noktaları performans deneylerinde olduğu gibi arka ayakların hareket kabiliyeti her üç yöne doğru kısıtlanmıştır. Birleştirmelerin tanımlanması için sandalye yan kayıtlarının aynı ölçülerde hazırlanmış T-tipi köşe birleştirme deneylerinde elde edilen yay sabiti değeri kullanılmıştır. Yay sabiti değeri sandalye birleştirmelerinin bireysel olarak göstereceği elastikiyeti ifade etmektedir. Bu çalışmada deneyleri yapılan tüm sandalyelerin yan üst ve alt kayıt birleştirmelerini temsilen aynı ölçülerde T-tipi birleştirmeler

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   hazırlanarak eğilme deneyine tabi tutularak birleştirmenin elastikiyeti Formül 1 ile belirlenmiştir (Çağatay vd., 2012).

E

M



(kN.m/rad),

(1)

Burada; E= Birleştirmenin elastikiyeti (KN.m/rad), M = Elemanlarda oluşan moment kuvveti (N.m), Ɵ= Rotasyon (Rad) T-tipi köşe birleştirmelerinde belirlenen yay sabiti değeri sisteme ayrı ayrı girilmiştir. Dikdörtgen zıvanalı sandalyenin yan üst kayıt için yay sabiti değeri 3,27 kN.m/rad, yan alt kayıt için 1,47 kN.m/rad, daire zıvanalı sandalyenin yan üst kayıt için yay sabiti değeri 2,55 kN.m/rad, yan alt kayıt için 1,61 kN.m/rad olarak belirlenmiştir. Son olarak, köşegen zıvanalı sandalyenin yan üst kayıtı için yay sabiti değeri 2,99 kN.m/rad, yan alt kayıt için 2,09 kN.m/rad olarak kullanılmıştır. Sandalye sistemine uygulanan kuvvet seçimi ise Likos 2013 çalışması referans alınarak sandalye statik deneylerinde elde edilen maksimum kuvvet olarak sandalye ön ayaklara düşey yönde uygulanmıştır (Şekil 2).

Şekil 2. Sandalye sistemine kuvvetin uygulanışı. BULGULAR Çözümleme işleminden sonra, elemanlara etkiyen momentleri, her bir eleman boyunca oluşan gerilmeleri, eksenel kuvvetler ve moment diyagramları belirlenmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Dikdörtgen kesitli zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyeler için yapılan yapısal analizlerde, Sandalye yan kayıtlarını oluşturan elemanların uçlarında meydana gelen eğilme gerilmeleri ve moment diyagramları yine yapısal analiz programından alınmış olup Şekil 2 ve 3’te verilmiştir. Sandalye yan üst kayıtın arka ayak bağlantısında meydana gelen gerilme 27,7 N/mm2 ve ön ayak ile bağlantıdaki gerilme 24,4 N/mm2, sandalye yan alt kayıtın arka ayak bağlantısındaki elemanın ucunda meydana gelen gerilme 20,7 N/mm2 ve ön ayak ile bağlantıdaki gerilme 19,9 N/mm2 olarak bulunmuştur. Daire kesitli zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyeler için yapılan yapısal analizlerde, Daire zıvanalı sandalye yan kayıtlarını oluşturan elemanlarda meydana gelen iç gerilmeler Tablo 5.13’te verilmiştir. Sandalye yan üst kayıtın arka ayak bağlantısındaki elemanın ucunda meydana gelen gerilme 22,5 N/mm2 ve ön ayak ile bağlantıdaki gerilme -19,7 N/mm2, sandalye yan alt kayıtın arka ayak bağlantısındaki elemanın ucunda meydana gelen gerilme 16,9 N/mm2 ve ön ayak ile bağlantıdaki gerilme -16,3 N/mm2 olarak bulunmuştur. Köşegen kesitli zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyeler için yapılan yapısal analizlerde, Sandalye yan kayıtlarını oluşturan elemanların uçlarında meydana gelen iç gerilmeler Tablo 5.15’da verilmiştir. Sandalye yan üst kayıtın arka ayak bağlantısındaki elemanın ucunda meydana gelen gerilme 2,6 N/mm2 ve ön ayak ile bağlantıdaki gerilme -23,4 N/mm2, sandalye yan alt kayıtın arka ayak bağlantısındaki elemanın ucunda meydana gelen gerilme 23,55 N/mm2 ve ön ayak ile bağlantıdaki gerilme -20,1 N/mm2 olarak bulunmuştur.

Şekil 2. Dikdörtgen kesitli kayıtlarında oluşan gerilmeler.

zıvananın

yan

Şekil 3. Dikdörtgen zıvanalı sandalye elemanlarında oluşan moment diyagramları.

Eckelman (2003)’a göre eğilme emniyet gerilmesi kullanılan ağaç malzemenin emniyet gerilmesini maksimum eğilme direnci değerinin en az 1/3 ü kadar olması gerektiği bildirilmiştir. Performans testleri yapılan sandalyenin yapımında kullanılan lale ağacının (Yellow poplar) %8 rutubet miktarındaki eğilme direnci 91,7 N/mm2. Eğilme emniyet gerilmesi 30,57 N/mm2. Bu değer malzeme için kritik noktadır. Bu değere yaklaşınca eleman üzerinde kırılmalar oluşacağı beklenmektedir. Yan üst kayıt- arka ayak birleştirmeleri sandalye çerçeve sistemini oluşturan

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   en kritik noktadır. Kırılmaların bu noktalarda gerçekleşmesi beklenmektedir. Yapısal analiz sonuçları ile teorik sonuçlar Tablo 1’de verilmiştir. Tablo 1. Yapısal analiz sonuçları ile eğilme emniyet gerilmelerinin karşılaştırılması. Yapısal Analiz Sonuçları (N/mm2)

Eğilme Emniyet Gerilmesi (N/mm2)

%

Dikdörtgen

27,7

30,57

90,6

Daire

22,5

30,57

73,6

Köşegen

26,6

30,57

87,0

Tablo 5.16’ya göre, dikdörtgen zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyelerde en kritik birleştirme olan üst kayıt- arka ayak birleştirmelerinde oluşan eğilme gerilmesi 27,7 N/mm2 olarak bulunmuştur. Aynı malzemenin eğilme emniyet gerilmesi 30,57 N/mm2. Daire zıvanalı sandalyelerin aynı birleştirmesinde oluşan eğilme gerilmesi 22,5 N/mm2 ve köşegen zıvanalı sandalyelerin aynı birleştirmesinde oluşan eğilme gerilmesi ise 26,6 N/mm2 olarak belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, yapısal analiz programından alınan gerilmeler ile malzemenin teorik olarak hesaplanan eğilme emniyet gerilmesi verilerinin karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır. Yapılan bu karşılaştırmada dikdörtgen zıvanalı sandalyelerde %90,6, daire zıvanalı sandalyelerde %73,6 ve köşegen zıvanalı sandalyelerde ise %87 yakınlık bulunmuştur. SONUÇ VE ÖNERİLER Geleneksel yöntemlerle üretimi yapılan sandalyeler statik testlerine tabi tutturulmuştur. Elde edilen verilerle her bir zıvana kesit formu için sandalye statik değerinin sandalye performans testlerine oranı incelenmiştir. Sandalyelerinin kullanım şartları altında gösterecekleri mukavemet özelliklerini belirlemek için yapılan performans testlerinde dikdörtgen kesit formlu zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyelerde yükleme devri 300315’e ulaşmışken daire kesit formlu zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyelerde yükleme devri 302681’e ve köşegen kesit formlu zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyeler ise 322088’e ulaşmıştır (Likos 2013). Tamamlanmış en yüksek yük devri temel alınarak yapılan değerlendirmede, Dikdörtgen kesit formlu zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyelerin mukavemeti 1,53kN, daire kesit formlu zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyelerin mukavemeti 1,57kN ve köşegen kesit formlu zıvananın kullanıldığı sandalyelerin mukavemeti ise 1,69 kN olarak belirlenmiştir. 1,1kN mukavemeti yakalayamayan sandalyelerin ağır kullanım şartlarının bulunduğu kütüphane, lokanta vb. mekânlarda 2 yıl sonra kullanım ömrünü tamamladığı, bu gibi mekânlarda en az 2kN mukavemeti bulunan sandalyeler tercih edilmesi gerektiğini söylemiştir. Ayrıca, ev içi kullanım sandalyeleri için 0,89 kN' luk bir değerin tatmin edici olduğu, fast food restoranlardaki kullanımlar için 1 kN' luk bir değerin yeterli olduğu Eckelman ve Erdil (2001) tarafından belirtmiştir. Performans deneyleri sonuçlarına göre, mobilya iskelet sistemlerinde birleştirmeler literatür paralelinde en kritik noktalar olduğu belirlenmiştir. Buna göre, mekanik dirençleri yüksek olan köşegen kesit formu zıvana ile daha güçlü birleştirmeler ve dolayısıyla daha mukavemetli mobilya sistemleri elde etmek mümkündür. Alternatif kesit formlu zıvanaların kullanıldığı sandalyeler geleneksel olarak üretimi yapılan dikdörtgen kesit formlu zıvanalı sandalyelerin mukavemetine oranla daha başarılı bulunmuştur. Bilgisayar destekli yapısal analiz yöntemi ile yapılan analizlerde tespit edilen toplam moment değerleri ile sandalye performans deneylerinde elde edilen toplam moment değerlerinin karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır. Kıyaslama neticesinde, yapısal analiz ile elde edilen verilerin %90,6 yakınlık derecesinde doğru sonuçlar verdiği belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, performans testlerini de kapsayan ürün mühendisliği yöntemlerinin, mobilya mukavemet analizinde uygulanması ile kaliteli ve ekonomik çerçeve konstrüksiyonlu mobilyalar üretilebileceği söylenebilir. Ayrıca, SEY ile yüksek sandalye mukavemeti, düşük malzeme tüketimi ve en ideal sandalye ergonomisine ulaşmak için optimum sandalye eleman kesit ölçüleri belirlenen çalışması ile Gawronski (2005) SEY’in mobilya endüstrisi için de kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   KAYNAKLAR Çağatay, K., Efe, H., Kasal, A., ve Kuşkun, T., (2012). “T-tipi mobilya birleştirmelerinde ağaç türü ve birleştirme yönteminin moment taşıma kapasitesi ve elastikiyet üzerindeki etkileri”, Politeknik Dergisi, 15: (4), 161169. Eckelman, C. A., Erdil, Y. Z. (1999). “Joint design manual for furniture frames constructed of plywood and oriented standard board”, H.Ü. Ağaç İşleri Endüstri Mühendisliği Bölümü, I. Uluslararası Mobilya Kongresi, Bildiri Kitabı, İstanbul, 265-305. Eckelman, C. A., Erdil, Y. Z. (2001). “General services administration upholstered furniture test method – FNAE 80 – 214 : A description of the method with drawings”, Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Extension Publication FNR – 176, 1159 Forestry Bldg., West Lafayette, 47907, Indiana, USA. Eckelman, C. A. (2003). “Textbook of product engineering and strength design of furniture”, Text Book, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, January 15. Eckelman, C.A., Haviarova, E. (2006). “Performance tests of school chairs constructed with round mortise and tenon joints”, Forest Product Journal, 56(3): 51-57. Efe, H., Erdil, Y. Z., and Z., Eckelman, C. (2003). “Mobilya mühendislik tasarımında mobilya sistemlerinin sonlu elemanlar metoduyla optimizasyonu”, G. Ü. T. E. F., I. İleri Teknolojiler Sempozyumu, Bildiri Kitabı, Ankara, 315-323. Efe, H., Kasal, A., Arslan, A. R. ve Likos, E. (2009). “Servis yükleri etkisindeki ahşap iskeletli bir koltukta basınç, çekme, kesme ve eğilme dirençlerinin bilgisayar destekli üç boyutlu analizi” 15. Ulusal Ergonomi Kongresi, Konya. Erdil, Y. Z. (1998). “Strength analysis and design of joints of furniture frames constructed of plywood and oriented strand–board”, Master of Science, Purdue University Graduate School, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, 1-9. Erdil, Y. Z. (2002). “Integrated product engineering and performance testing of furniture”, Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University Graduate School, USA. Erdil Y. Z., Kasal A., Eckelman C. A. (2005). “Bending moment capacity of rectangular mortise and tenon furniture joints”, Forest Product Journal, 55 (12): 209-213. Gawronski T. (2005). “Multiobjective optimisation of a skeleton furniture construction”, Roczniki AR Poznaniu Rozprawy Naukowe. Haviarova, E., Eckelman, C.A., and Erdil, Y. Z. (2001a). “Design and testing of wood school desk frames suitable for production by low technology methods from waste wood residues”, Forest Product Journal, 51 (5): 79–88. Haviarova, E., Eckelman, C.A., and Erdil, Y. Z., (2001b). “Design and testing of environmentally friendly wood school chairs for developing countries”, Forest Product Journal, 51(3): 58-64. Kasal, A., (2004). “Masif ve kompozit ağaç malzemelerden üretilmiş çerçeve konstrüksiyonlu koltukların performansı”, Doktora Tezi, G.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara. Kuşkun, T., (2013). “Zıvana ölçülerinin ve yükleme tipinin sandalye mukavemetine etkileri ve gerçek deney sonuçlarının sonlu elemanlar analizi sonuçlarıyla karşılaştırılması”, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Muğla Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ağustos. Likos, E., Haviorava, E., Eckelman, C. A., Erdil, Y, Z., and Ozcifci, A., (2012). “Effect of tenon geometry, grain orientation, and shoulder on bending moment capacity and moment rotation characteristics of mortise and tenon joints”, Wood and Fiber Science, 44(4) Likos, E., (2013). “Zıvanalı birleştirmelerde kesit formunun sandalye mukavemetine etkisinin analizi”, Doktora Tezi, Karabük Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Aralık. Mihailecsu, T., (2001). “An investigation of performance of mortise and tenon joints using the finite element method”, Journal of Institute of Wood Sci., 15(5): 89. Smardzewski, J., “Strength of profile-adhesive joints”, Wood Science and Technology, 36: 173-183 (2002). Smardzewski J., Papuga, T., (2004). “Stress distribution in angle joints of skeleton furniture”, Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, Wood Technology, 7(1). Yörür, H., (2012). “Ahşap malzemeden üretilen köşe birleştirmelerin simülasyon (ANSYS) ortamında teknolojik özelliklerinin belirlenmesi”, Doktora Tezi, Bartın Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Bartın.

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FARKLI ORANLARDAKİ ÇELTİK - KÖMÜR KARIŞIMININ GAZLAŞTIRMA VERİMİ AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ Abdülkadir KOÇER1, Afşin GÜNGÖR2 1

Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Teknik Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu Dumlupınar Bulvarı 07058 Kampüs, Antalya, [email protected] 2 Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Dumlupınar Bulvarı 07058 Kampüs, Antalya, [email protected] Özet: Hasat sonrası ortaya çıkan atık miktarları incelendiğinde önemli bir potansiyel ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu atıklar toprağa karıştırılarak veya yakılarak değerlendirilmektedir. Bu çalışmada çeltik atıklarının farklı oranlarda kömür ile karıştırılarak gazlaştırma performansları ve enerji potansiyelleri incelenmiştir. Gazlaştırma sistemi için geliştirilen sayısal model, sistemde kullanılacak atığın içerisindeki karbonun tamamının gazlaştığını kabul ederek, sistem çıkışında hidrojen gazı miktarının karbon monoksit gazı miktarının iki katı olması durumuna göre optimum sistem işletme parametrelerini tespit etmektedir. Sistemde optimum işletme şartlarını tespit edebilmek amacıyla gazlaştırıcıdan hemen sonra bir baypas kullanılarak su gazı reaktörleri çıkışında gelen gaz ile gazlaştırıcı çıkışındaki gaz birleştirilmektedir. Yapılan çalışma, enerji üretimi için geliştirilecek sistemlerin daha çevreci ve verimli bir şekilde çalışmasını sağlayacak tasarım parametrelerinin, doğru bir analiz ile yapılabileceğini göstermiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Gazlaştırma,

çeltik, enerji

Abstract:Agricultural products are widespread in our country, every year, huge amounts of crop residue are produced after harvesting and the vast majority of these residues are dumped in landfills and burned. In this study, it was investigated that gasification performance and the energy potential of rice residues – coal blending in different rate. The numerical model developed for the gasification system assumes that all carbon in the coal is gasified and defines the optimum working condition as the amount of hydrogen as the double of the amount of carbon monoxide at the gasification system exit. In order to achieve the optimum parameters, the gases of the gasifier and the gases of water gas shift reactors are combined with the aid of a bypass line. Through the analysis carried out in this study, the most efficient and high-yield method for the operation conditions is emphasized and highlighted, which were suggested in the previous numerical modeling study, a crucial fact for minimizing operating and investment costs. Key Words: Gasification, rice residues, energy

GİRİŞ Gelişen teknoloji ile birlikte enerjiye olan ihtiyaç her geçen gün artmaktadır. Fosil kaynaklardan olan kömürün temiz enerji kapsamında değerlendirilmesi açısından gazlaştırma büyük önem arz etmektedir. Gazlaştırma ile ilgili literatürde birçok teorik ve uygulamalı çalışma mevcut olup bu çalışmalar gazlaştırmanın önemini vurgulamaktadır (Bridgwater 1995; Yin vd. 2002; Gungor 2005, 2011; Carpenter 2010). Her geçen gün bu alanda yapılan çalışmaların artmasıyla sistemin geliştirilmesi ve yaygınlaştırılması sağlanmaktadır. Günümüzde, farklı amaçlara yönelik ticari amaçla kurulan gazlaştırma üniteleri mevcuttur. Gazlaştırmanın uygulama alanları bölgesel proses ısıtmasından gaz türbin kombine çevrimlerinde güç üretimine kadar geniş bir yelpazeyi kapsamaktadır. Bununla birlikte, gazlaşma ünitesinin güç üretiminde kullanımı gelişmekte olan sektörlerden biridir. Bu çalışmada ülkemizde üretimi yaygın olan çeltik üretim atıklarının değerlendirilmesi açısından farklı bir yöntem olan gazlaştırılması ele alınmıştır. Çeltik üretim ve atık miktarları Tablo 1’de verilmiştir. Çeltik atıkları 3 farklı karışım oranında (%25,%50 ve %75) kömür ile karıştırılarak gazlaştırma modellemesi yapılmıştır. Çalışmada kullanılan çeltik atıklarının Karbon (C) ve Oksijen (O) içeriği oldukça yüksektir. Tablo 2’de çalışmada kullanılan kömür ve çeltik atıklarının özellikleri verilmiştir. Gazlaştırma sistemi için geliştirilen sayısal model, sistemde kullanılacak tarımsal atığın içerisindeki karbonun tamamının gazlaştığını kabul ederek, sistem çıkışında hidrojen gazı miktarının karbon monoksit gazı miktarının iki katı olması durumuna göre optimum sistem işletme parametrelerini tespit etmektedir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo1. Çeltik üretim ve atık miktarları (Acar 2012) Ekim Alanı (da)

Üretim (ton)

Atık Miktarı (ton) Tahmin Edilen

990.433

696.000

139.200

Tablo 2. Çalışmada kullanılan kömür ve çeltik atıklarının özellikleri (Yin vd. 2002; Güngör vd. 2011) C (%)

H (%)

O (%)

N (%)

Nem (%)

Kömür

41,81

4,28

8,09

2,16

13,51

Çeltik

36,74

5,51

42,55

0,28

11,7

GAZLAŞTIRICI MODELİ Bu çalışmada daha önceden kömür gazlaştırılması için geliştirilen sayısal model kullanılmıştır (Güngör vd. 2011, 2012; Özbayoğlu vd. 2013). Geliştirilen sayısal model; verilen işletme sıcaklığını, basıncı, su buharı-yakıt ve hava-yakıt oranlarını giriş değeri olarak almakta ve gazlaşma işlemi sonucunda elde edilecek hidrojen, karbon monoksit, azot, metan, su buharı, karbondioksit ve 1 Nm3 gaz elde edebilmek için gerekli yakıt miktarını hesaplayabilmektedir. Bunun yanında; karbon dönüşüm verimini, soğuk gaz verimini (elde edilen gazların çevre sıcaklığına soğutulması durumu için) hesap edebilmektedir. Geliştirilen model; işletme sıcaklığı, işletme basıncı, su buharı-yakıt ve hava-yakıt oranları gibi işletme parametrelerinin gazlaştırıcı verimi ve elde edilen gaz kompozisyonları üzerindeki etkilerini incelemeye de olanak sağlamaktadır. Geliştirilen model; gazlaştırıcı reaktör çıkışında elde edilmek istenen H2/CO değeri için optimum baypas oranı, 1. ve 2. SGY reaktörleri için optimum su buharı oranı ve optimum reaktör sıcaklığı değerini elde edecek şekilde geliştirilmiştir (Güngör vd. 2011, 2012; Özbayoğlu vd. 2013). Gazlaşma işlemi, proseste gerçekleşen reaksiyonlar seti kullanılarak modellenmiştir. Farklı oranlardaki karışımların yanması sonucu açığa çıkan ısı veya gazlaştırıcı dışındaki bir kaynaktan sağlanan enerji ile bu reaksiyonların ilerlemesi sağlanır. Gazlaşma sonucunda, H2, CO, CO2 ve CH4 benzeri yanıcı gazlar açığa çıkar. Bu çalışmada, daha önce kullanılan kömür gazlaşma prosesinin matematiksel modeli aşağıdaki reaksiyonlar dikkate alınarak kurulmuştur. Su-gazı reaksiyonu,

C  H 2 O  CO  H 2

(1)

Boudouard reaksiyonu,

CO2  C  2CO

(2)

Su-gazı yer değiştirme reaksiyonu,

CO  H 2 O  CO2  H 2

(3)

ve metan oluşum reaksiyonu,

C  2H 2  CH 4

(4)

Bu reaksiyonların kimyasal dengede olduğu kabul edilmiş ve denge sabitleri belli sıcaklık aralıkları için Tablo 3’te sunulmuştur (Basu, 2006).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   BAŞLA Giriş Verileri Gazlaştırıcı sıcaklığı, basıncı,buhar/yakıt, hava/yakıt oranları

i = i + 1

Çözülen denklemler   

                             (Karbon dengesi)  (H2 dengesi) 

 

     (O2 dengesi) 

 

 

 

(N2 dengesi) 

 

Doğrulama

Hayır

    Evet

Yeni İterasyon

Evet

i=1 Hayır

Hesaplanan değer yakınsıyor mu?

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Şekil 1. Sayısal model akış diyagramı (Güngör vd. 2011, 2012; Özbayoğlu vd. 2013). Tablo 3. Gazlaşma Modelinde Kullanılan Denge Sabitleri Sıcaklık (K)

K p,w Denk. (1) -11

K p ,b

K p,s

Denk. (2) 5.2x10

-14

K p ,m

Denk. (3) 4.05x10

Denk. (4)

3

2.99x105

400

7.7x10

600

5.1x10-5

1.9x10-6

2.70x101

9.24x101

800

4.4x10-2

1.1x10-2

4.04x100

1.34x100

1000

2.62x100

1.90x100

1.38x100

9.6x10-2

1500

6.08x102

1.62x103

3.7x10-1

2.5x10-3

MODEL ÇÖZÜMÜ Model sonuçlarının elde edilmesinde Newton-Raphson Metodu kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışma kapsamında, daha önceden hazırlanmış olan gazlaştırma sistemi modeli Visual Studio VB.Net Programlama dili kullanılarak tekrar çözülmüştür. Farklı karışım oranları için model çözümü yapılmış ve optimum bypass oranı tespit edilmiştir. SONUÇLAR Bu çalışmada, gazlaştırıcıya giriş noktasında karışım, su buharı ve hava 1 atm basınç ve 25°C sıcaklıkta gazlaştırıcıya girmektedir. Sistem atmosfer basıncında çalıştırılmaktadır. Gazlaştırıcı 877°C sıcaklıkta, SGY I reaktörü 350°C ve SGY II reaktörü 200°C sıcaklıkta çalışmaktadır (Şekil 2). Gazlaştırma sistemi çıkışında H2/CO oranı 2 alınmıştır. Gaz ByPass

 Hava Kömür Çeltik Karışımı Su buharı

Gazlaştırıcı

    SGY I

Su buharı

    SGY II

İstenilen gaz

Su buharı

Şekil 3. Gazlaştırıcı şematik gösterimi Her üç karışım içinde SGY I ve SGY II reaktörlerine sırasıyla %15 ve %5 su buharı eklenmiştir. Bypass oranı ise sistem tarafından optimize edilmiş olup karışımın model sonuçları Tablo 4’de verilmiştir. Gazlaştırma işleminde 1 ton karışım için %10 oranında su buharı kullanılmıştır. Karışımda çeltik oranı arttıkça gazlaştırma verimi artmıştır. Çeltik oranı %25, %50 ve %75 olan karışımın gazlaştırılması sonucunda sırasıyla 111,82; 132,54 ve 141,22 Kmol sentez gazı açığı çıkmış olup bu gazlardan kullanılabilir olanlarının (H2,CO, CH4) miktarı ise sırasıyla 76,92; 95,59 ve 114,21 kmol’dür. Kullanılabilir gazların miktarının, toplam üretilen miktara oranı gazlaştırma verimini vermektedir ve en yüksek %81 ile çeltik oranı %75 olan karışımda, en düşük %69 ile çeltik oranı %25 olan karışımda tespit edilmiştir. Her üç karışımda sistemden çıkan gazlara göre üst ısıl değerleri hesaplanmıştır. Hesaplama sonucunda değerler birbirine yakın çıkmıştır. En yüksek değer 19,69 MJ/kg ile çeltik oranı %25 olan karışımda, en düşük 19,36 MJ/kg ile çeltik oranı %75 olan karışımda görülmüştür.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 4. Karışımların Model sonuçları Karışım I %25 Çeltik - %75 Kömür

Karışım II %50 Çeltik - %50 Kömür

Karışım III %75 Çeltik - %25 Kömür

Mol Miktarı (Kmol)

111,82

132,54

141,22

Üst Isıl Değeri (MJ/kg)

19,69

19,54

19,36

Kullanılabilir Enerji (MJ)

16,13

19,90

23,56

Optimum Bypass Oranı (%)

50,5

60,5

68,5

69

72

81

Gazlaştırma Verimi (%)

Sonuç olarak çeltik atıkları gibi tarımsal atıkların değerlendirilmesinde gazlaştırma yönteminin kullanılması temiz enerji üretiminde önemli bir yer kaplamaktadır. Atıkların doğrudan ya da kömür ile karıştırılması ile gazlaştırılması mümkün olup atıkların değerlendirilmesinde önemli yer tutmaktadır. Ayrıca doğrudan elektrik üretiminin yapılabileceği bir sistemde verimli şekilde kullanılabilir. Yapılan çalışma, enerji üretimi için geliştirilecek sistemlerin daha çevreci ve verimli bir şekilde çalışmasını sağlayacak tasarım parametrelerinin, doğru bir analiz ile yapılabileceğini göstermiştir. KAYNAKLAR Acar M.( 2012), Türkiye Biyoatık Potansiyeli Ve Değerlendirilmesi, Karadeniz Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü, Samsun. Basu P,( 2006), Combustion and Gasification in Fluidized Beds, CRC Press. Bridgwater, A. V.( 1995),The technical and economic feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation, Fuel 74(5): 631-653. Carpenter, Daniel L., et al.( 2010) Pilot-scale gasification of corn stover, switchgrass, wheat straw, and wood: 1. Parametric study and comparison with literatüre, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 49.4, 1859-1871. Gungor, A. (2011), Modeling the effects of the operational parameters on H2 composition in a biomass fluidized bed gasifier, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36(11): 6592-6600 Gungor, A. (2005), Two-dimensional biomass combustion modeling of CFB." Fuel 87(8–9): 1453-1468. Güngör A., Ozbayoglu M., Kasnakoglu C., Biyikoglu A., Uysal B.Z. ,(2012) A Parametric Study On Coal Gasification For The Production Of Syngas, Chemical Papers, vol.66, pp.677-683. Güngör A., Ozbayoglu M., Kasnakoglu C., Biyikoglu A., Uysal B.Z.,(2011) Determination Of Air/Fuel And Steam/Fuel Ratio For Coal Gasification Process To Produce Synthesis Gas, Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, vol.5, pp.799-804. Özbayoğlu M., Kasnakoğlu C., Güngör A., Bıyıkoğlu A., Uysal B.Z. , (2013) A Two-Stage Water-Gas Shift Reactor Model To Obtain Desired Synthesis Gas Characteristics With Adjustable Reactor Parameters, Journal Of The Faculty Of Engıneerıng And Archıtecture Of Gazi Unıversıty, vol.28, pp.339-351. Yin, X. L., et al. (2002), Design and operation of a CFB gasification and power generation system for rice husk, Biomass and Bioenergy 23(3): 181-187.

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FORMER FIRST WRITTEN LAWS - FERMANA IN ANATOLIA AND MESOPOTAMI A TURKISH AND BANS Remziye OKKAR Trakya Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Eskiçağ Tarihi Anabilim Dalı Öğretim Üyesi. Balkan Yerleşkesi EDİRNE. Corresponding author Tel; 0532 407 89 27 Email; [email protected]

Abstract: We don’t know how people solved their legal problems before the discovery of writing. But we think that prehistoric societies was ruled by "customary law" since legal transcription jobs are not yet discovered. In 3500 B.C at southern Mesopotamia and the community in a number of city-states founded on the Sumerians, who initially disagreement among citizens, although tradition has solved according to the law requires. Lagash and Nippur published in the article, the majority of with management, economics, and law pertains to any type and size of the inventory and bills and receipts, sales documents, marriage contracts, wills, and court judgments consisted of. In 3200 B.C Sumerians, cuneiform script after discovering this post, especially trade relations, are used in all kinds of jobs. Sumerian tradition of unwritten law is that over time make written. However, customary law and the written law for the first time when we do not know what site started. But the most ancient Sumerian B.C.24 of Law. Is believed to have lived in centuries Lagaş formed by URUKAG will be considered regardless of the fact that summer about eight centuries after the discovery of the laws put in writing that arises as a result. Keywords: law, to Urukagina Laws, Hammurabi, and the Hittites of Anatolia.

INTRODUCTION 1.

FORMER TURKISH FIRST SOCIAL REVOLUTIONARY in Urukagina

Lagash, the national hero of the corruption of the clergy by the Urukag, rebelled against their spoiled and sat on the throne of Lagash to establish justice in legal and religious provisions in the decisions of the people. In old inscriptions he is described as democrat, liberal, populist, organizational. Urukagina disaster of the last part of that and jumped right in the document, no matter how eloquent, though, is faith and prayer to God for his justice of their disaster. Clergy robbed the people are told they collect all revenues to the temple. However, the Palace regained the lead by making a blow against it. This operation was lead by Urukagina. He was the first social revolutionary we know. In written scripts it's been said that he fought against priests and gave freedom back to his people. After defeating priests he has made social and economic reforms. By making these reforms he prevented priests from stealing. It has guaranteed personal property. But not eliminate the class difference to Urukag. It also spills over into other Sumerian site of his reforms. In case of a change of the slave class is not in question. Urukagina single success was not limited to assigning immanent enforcement officers, tax collectors and officials but he also removed the other parasites. Urukagina, after the overthrow of the clerical administration, which spiraled out of control in their time management was improved. Abuse, corruption, oppression and finally government itself was corrected. Bullying against the poor, widows and orphans ended. Having more than one husband was not permitted anymore. Urukagina, after coming to power he took the action and the action of clerics and officials under tight control. Neglected customs and laws, and he applied to return to justice provisions. It's been noticed that his action were too great. His reform of the inscription, principles which he founded, after describing the laws that preach; hardly a justifiable pride; that put an end to the era of slavery and to say that freedom is brought. (Thuraa in-Danger of Les inscriptions in Sumer et d'Akkad, p.74 et suivi. Paris, l905.) Thus in the centuries after the Babylonian reign him and unjustly on the date (the first law printer) was an example of the introduction of Hammurabi. 2700 B.C rom the Sumerian played a major role in writing the law in the city. Field, including the house and made a slave sales, we see that the actual sales process.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   From the time the king of Lagash 2350 B.C Urukagina's reign, and continually gave to rid his people from tyranny and oppression, and the most valuable in the history of struggle and never-ending and learned from the descriptive document. This document leaked monarch and his court anywhere consisting of communities and save a comprehensive set of reforms that could be based on the widespread corruption so vile bureaucracy. Document between the lines, saray- the temple "church" and "state" - between time, next to the temple of Lagash citizens about the violent power struggle where we can have an idea. Finally, the "Freedom" (Amargi) is used for the first time in the history of the written word, we see the humanity in this document. As for the temple and property, ENS was spent them on their own property. "God's oxen, took the Ensier the onion fields; Ensier onion and cucumber plantations were located in the best land of the gods. "It is also important temple officials, especially the" sangam "to this or had been deprived from their grain and clothing to most of the donkey and ox in this way. Even death could not save the keel and taxes. The dead one is brought to the cemetery for burial (cemetery there were two types), one ordinary and the other is "Ensier the Rushes" I called the cemetery. Many officials and parasites, a lot of the bereaved family, barley, maize, palm wine and cloth and so on. He had acquired the business of present goods to leak. The state from one end to the other until the "tax collectors" had. The palace has led to increasingly rich fat and happy. House's large land and property, forming a continuous fief. Craftsmen and apprentices were forced to beg for food at a reduced and abject poverty. Blinds(prisoners of war and captured slaves) were being used for farm work like animals and only given food enough to survive. Rich "big guys" and managers, forcing donkey and homes to buy, even though they do not want and at lower prices, "şublugal"s (veterans servant of the king) were becoming more richer as the expense of the unfortunate citizens. The needy, the poor, orphans and widows are maltreated and was taken in hand by people acting too little. The craft guilds, some blind workers and other employees, as well as the gala-priest (the temple singers) were allocated rations of food and drink constantly. Craftsmen and apprentices were now having to beg for food. Leaders of the "big guys" şublugal's something of the unfortunate citizens as to prevent the leakage of two "Edict", which from their lower layer was banned by forcing to sell their donkeys or home. Debt, to pay taxes or bogus murder charges of theft and brought release the imprisoned citizens of Lagash. The rich and powerful are ready and helpless victim who comes to widows and orphans, "the powerful people with Urukagina Ningirs of God made a covenant stipulating that unjustly against them. "If a man divorced his wife, ENS five shekel, a shekel queen was taking."If a merchant to prepare a scented oil mixture, ENS five shekels, abgal with queen (palace steward) he was taking a shekel. Sun god of the Sumerians (DINGIR UTU) was the protector of justice. The sun illuminates the hidden works of darkness and unsolved likewise believed that illuminates released. Justice representatives on earth were the judges (Wise-God). The biggest judge was king. But in his absence in court, as the deputy of the king "Sukkai" they look at the case. The Court is not in a particular building, or temple gate was made of the city. Why the Court is not in an enclosed space, such as the door of the temple or in the justification that was not known in an open field. Perhaps the judges to show how transparent they are people who have criminal courts were doing in the open area of the court's decision, they could have removed the object lesson for them. 2.

SUMERIAN TURKS AND FIRST WRITTEN LAW OF RENAISASANCE PERIOD AND LAW OF UR-NAMMU

Sumerians of the "renaissance" of the first king and founder of the dynasty of the era they live in this era "UrNammu" stop. Ur-Nammu's guarantee of justice and law in the country, which has increased the prosperity of the citizens contained a statement that put into practice. Located about three in the law, it is of particular importance for the social and spiritual development of humanity. Sumer and Ur of fraudsters and corrupt are the citizens of oxen, sheep, donkeys as "areas of the hand" dismissal was out. True and unchangeable weights and measurements are made to bring these regulations. Orphans, are not to be a victim of the rich and powerful, "Widows, are not to become a victim of the rich and powerful", "A man worth of one shekel is not to be a sacrifice of a man whose worth a mina(sixty shekel)" for the infrastructure necessary measures. "eye for eye, tooth for tooth" instead of the law shows that it left a more humane approach has been replaced by fines in 2000 B.C. These three laws are as follows: "If ... if someone cut through with one foot.-shirt, it will pay l0 silver shekels. "If someone... if someone with a gun pouch bone, la mina of silver is going to pay him. "If one of someone else's nose" Gespa of "If the tool pouches, pay him 2/3 mina of silver. Ur-Nammu's son and successor sulgen the reign of the start of the thirty-second year Ibb-Sin's reign of tragic and without the pathetic third year, ending the period three hundred more than one tablet group consisting of the court record (Cappadocia in Kayseri region) were found. Is a collection of civil and criminal law as a law. Court proceedings and legal practices of the city government to give up information about social and economic organization, and also describe the customs and traditions of the previous period.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   3. HAMMURABI AND LAWS Which is seated on the throne of Justice and the sun god Shamash's prays in front of King Hammurabi is depicted standing condition when accepted. Full text of the Law; Shamash and depicted under Hammurabi, written monument mobile environment. Code of Hammurabi a primarily "prologue" (Preface) probe a "epilogue" (epilogue) consists of the Law Article 282. The real glory of Hammurabi, all of these organizations, rather than to be revealed "the law codex. This codex contains 300 civil and criminal law related to the matter and seeks to identify the purpose of the relations with the state or with each other subjects. Long before Hammurabi the Sumerians had made a number of laws and regulations for social and economic life of the arrangement. However, these laws were specific to rest in a city or region. The Hammurabi; all laws of the state has changed according to the needs of their speed. Hammurabi codex that its dictates on a stone up to 2 meters in height and at the top of the sun god himself portrayed in a time of inspiration has maintained that these laws. "Talion" (eye for eye, tooth for a tooth) that the law reform based on the principle of "Code of Hammurabi", is evidence that life and property of the subjects of Hammurabi care to ensure safety. Penalties: Whipping, mutilation, (picket line, burning, by drowning) is the death penalty. 4.

MAIN ITTISU LAWS

Subject of the Law Article: Family Law, slaves to rent, prices are determined. "Saddle are beginning to Article Code". "If you're a kid, you're not my father's father say to him (his father) and will hit the stamp will shave her slavery, it will give him silver money." (to be sold). "If a son to his mother, you're not my main course I will shave half a head, they will circulate around the city and will be expelled from the house." "If a father, son, you will lose the house and cattle classes are not my son. (It will be deprived of the house and around the house. ") "If the main kid, you're not my son says, it will lose the house and stuff." (It will be deprived of the house and belongings. "If a woman will hate the husband, you're not my husband says, her (woman) will be in the river." "If the husband and wife, you're not my wife from silver lessons l / 2 mana will be discussed." "If a man is a worker (slave) is hired (he) die (or) will disappear (or) runs away, she tries to leave work or ill, will ignore a BAN barley for a day's labor (to be given)." 5.

CRIMINAL LAW AND GOVERNMENT OF ASSYRIANS

Due to the excessive violence and harshness are away from all other contemporary Criminal Code. The law in the body mutilation and torture are among the penalties are often applied. Sometimes the Mücrim is pierced ears, they are pulled backwards by a rope passed through these holes, and sometimes downright limbs are cut, sometimes people are stuck in the pile. Assyrian violence in the Criminal Law, Public International Law we see in them. Agreement Assyrian tribes of strangers they are, contain many heavy provisions for those who break them. Punishment is cruel manner in Assyrian times: the ears, lower lip and fingers cut off; He emasculated; hot asphalt poured face destroyed. People are intimidated by the brutal of the methods below: Piles line and skinning are mass executions. CONCLUSION God of power and force, alone was not the epitome of Mesopotamians, but also justice, order and morality as they had been regarded as the epitome of hymns. Some of the subjects, such as priests, nobles and inhabitants of fortified towns claimed the right to personal property and land, which they had, or possessions of herds to their own. This was sanctioned under the auspices of the king of the gods who was considered proxy of it. As a result of that, since ancient times, the interests between king and subjects were determined by the law and the most important law has been issued to writing. Mesopotamia's so early in a normal way to take personal ownership and be certified and confirmed by religion and law, the social structure of the country has led to the separation of the various classes of the population. Those of high-class life and crimes against their property or goods were more severe punishment for crimes committed against the person or property and possessions of the members of the lower classes. Mesopotamia, fairly even in ancient times various contracts and pursuing the aim to give an order to this contract and we find a number of laws enacted by the king. Furthermore king, protected the sanctity of this Agreement and the Decree Law were also available.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   After being confiscated by the individual laws are combined with each other and thus caused great law, they wanted to draw up documents in the civil life of the entire state. Thus we see that first appear as Mesopotamia, the cradle of civil law. Legal doctrines here Assyrian country, Upper Syria, Cyprus and Anatolia has penetrated. The development of trade and industry, on the exchange of crops established a primitive economic system of a more perfect way to get into shape and definite size and weight as securities has led to the use of silver bars. Urukagina king of Lagash in this way, considered as the guardian of the lower classes Code of Hammurabi in contact with the criminal law article can be seen clearly that this conception that of continuing to live. We also see that the slave labor of the decisive elements of the economy. There were too many rules of law relating to slavery in the text. The emergence of early Mesopotamian thought of personal property has led to the emergence of the concept of early written law. Commercial documents regulating economic relations with many pre-writing has emerged contracts. It would gradually result in more general laws regulating individual relations. King, all power will arise as the law regulating economic relations dictate tradition in Sumerian, Mesopotamian as take in subsequent state would also affect other pre-Asian states. Relationships based on oral tradition Pioneers will gain written form. This text written by the king at the level of large law journal over time, has been made public based on a religious basis. Shopping behavior of slaves, penalties, etc. this kind of magazines written on the stone monuments preserved in a sacred nature, covering individual relationships. Other laws have also been identified from the literature and writing. Mesopotamia in the city-state have been formed or state alongside the civil and criminal law in the big united states is progressed in the legal dispute between a deal or two states made between Sumerian ruler of the Elamite king recourse to a neutral arbitrator to handle the peace path shows the traditions. We see that the person performing the role of a king mesylic et referee in the border conflict between Lagash and Umma. The king who commanded the law, after describing what they do, would inform the commandments as commandments of a divine power. Hammurabi's law, the law was first collected hitherto believed. Today this tradition in Sumerian sites have since been found to be from earlier periods. URUKAGINA, UR-NAMMU, ANAITTISU, Business SITE LAW, LIPIT-ISTAR (INANNA) ---ESNUNNA LAW to MARKETSHAMMURABI LAWS, Middle Assyrian Laws, FORMER king of Babylon AMMI- SADUQA FERMANA the laws are proving this view. Until now recognized as full text Hammurabi's Law is a law that continues the tradition of the previous Act Putting in a way that affects the largest and beyond. Then ASUR and 2. STATE LAWS this LAWS stable from affected will be commanded. The characteristics of this part of the Act are as follows. These laws "Civil Codex" contains the subject of the so-called laws. "Religious law" is based on understanding. "Trafficking and Possession of" protecting the orders are many. "Class divisions into" are geared. Penalties are very severe. "Measure for Measure" has led to the emergence of the concept. 1. THE WORLD’S FIRST LAW FOUND IN TURKEY When society triumphs, namely the division of labor between individual creates professions, in parallel, social stratification. The relationship between these interests must always be in the same direction. To put the necessary legislation to make the protection of society. Another important aspect of the law as individuals, is to convince society that is fair; Where there is no justice of law. 2. PROTO LINE LAWS The Hittites, the existence of written law, in written documents in Bogazköy, and drink the law and are reproduced in Article 2 tablets made copies of these tablets. 3. HATTI LINES “IF A MAN” LAWS The first of these two tablets .... "If a man", and the second, "If a bond" begins with the words, and include the total law 186 matter. The first tablet; protecting individuals and property law issues, the second; It covers crimes related to the possession of the land acquisition and agricultural equipment, to include a number of tariffs and penalties for sex. Third tablet; “If the man” is a content summary format. 4. HITTITE STATE LAW-CIVIL LAW AND CRIMINAL LAW Hittite law in terms of property-based on judgments on free and slave people. This law is fully clarified today in written form by which the king gained. However, it is understood that requirements deemed necessary since the old state structures inserts. An important feature of the Hittite law offenses and penalties assumptions is that it is presented in the form of thought. Text is not uncovered all of the Hittite Law Act. Inheritance found in the documents of Commerce, there are Civil and Criminal Judgements contains sections such as law and war. Floatingpoint range in the form of two uncovered this law, "If a man" and "If the bonds" that starts with being named after them. Family law is "paternalistic" inheritance is based on the recognition of a family type, the sentence "tit-KISAS"

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   This law is very cost in the form of payment of "the PUBLIC LAW" is available in substance. Interstate relations in the text of the law states that a friend of the great Hittite confederations have organized the small kingdom bound by the enemy country and individual substances. Hittite understanding of the law in many places in Mesopotamia Law comprehension is affected. Hammurabi in Mesopotamia, a book of laws such as the lipid-Ishtar or Urnamm laws, it is necessary to qualify as a codex. Hittite immutable laws of nature and the development of community transport has been on the wishes of the king undergone change over time. Hittite laws are passed through four stages: First collected traditional arrangements. Then the torture penalties (tied to oxen driven to different aspects of the criminal compensation as victims rather than as animal gnawed to the device. Restricted death penalty and increased financial penalties and, eventually, were made to reductions in the amount of the fines. These steps refer to 4.Tuthali l.murşil period of time has occurred in the meantime. 5. THE FIRST FORM OF PRIVATE PROPERTY IN THE IMMOVABLE Hittite justification of war and injustice even, open what they see as a problem, in that sense, to win the war of the right hand, we know that God must believe that to judge it. The angle of view of Hittite law was entirely religious. According to them, gods, protecting the rights of all beings, they were fair and honest master. Their justice, dog and pig even covered. The cattle would not even speak with their mouth, let the gods of injustice. Gods were punishing the bad. Gods who owns the earth, Line as their representative in the king and they gave management the king of the country, as they said they placed a country, they must be sure the law making power to have taken again from the gods. The Hittites are not traders to create communities of Asia Minor Although the law protects trade life. The protection of trade routes, they showed a special significance. Cultural exchanges so that the media will be displayed in Anatolia. 6. TUTHALIYA CASTLES AND CONTRAL OFFICIER TO THE OTHER PEOPLE ORDERS INCLUDING the Edict III. Tuthaliya the fortress commander and other officials or containing the Edict of commandment People: "If (I) do not go myself Majesty to the war, the army which the prince or (my great co) I appoint diagnosis leads that army into battle. (I) Her Majesty (the army) is put into his hands, her whole army always listen and how Majesty's (binding orders) (If you perform). (like hers), perform and everyone agility (?) and you have to fight the enemy exactly !. War Law was also very important. The enemy is defeated, by the end of that delivery is or crushing force, the treatment to be applied, in terms of these rights varied. The enemy is defeated, no matter shook safety could not be tolerated at all about this time. Harbor rights in the area of armed king of a city, there to loot, burn to destroy, to take the city by removing the Line and place where people had the right to confiscate property of animate and inanimate. Is driven and taken part in the live goods, king, participated in the war in the rest of small kings, was the vassal and lord (small kings and shares receivables from if the booty they had participated in the war in the covenant made with vassal princes were detected). According to the current law arranging paragraphs which constitute this article Proto-Hatti since the coming of ritual (legal precedent) at the ancient kingdom of the provisions on the time and finally the changes made in the new imperial era contain. When compared with Hammurabi and Assyrian law, humanitarian law and more of the Hatti appear to be very moderate. This law has been observed with the principle of public law care. Provisions for those who rebel against the government for this reason are severe and unrelenting. The penalties of extortion against members of the killings are relatively moderate. This kind of death in murder rather than punish applied for the ransom and redress. Line in law, relative to the Semitic peoples, women more well-known human rights are given more honorable place in society. According to the current understanding of the law; civilized, we may consider the two parts to other penal provisions. There is no line of law provisions on family law to civil rights in the relevant articles of the text. To marry more than one woman (Polygamie) take (adoption), the situation of children, on issues such as the division will be transferred to us in what way the legacy that no matter no registration. According to quite extensive provisions on the right to marry is present in the present matter, the family no provisions of law are also resolve other important issues, of course. But the king with respect to records from other sources about the successor of the vassal king can draw the conclusion that man is the son of the right of inheritance among the people. Husband was obliged to faithfully against women. The woman in infidelity against her husband, she would see the death penalty. Husband if his wife was found caught in sexual with someone else at home can kill both of them and did not see the penalty (the members of the society were forbidden Line attempt to make their own justice). These rights were owned by the state. To attempt such a move would be punished. Alone, a man and his wife alien species that captures the relationship with her husband was kidnapped father desired to be, they are no exception. 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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   crime and punishment were ignored, of course. If she denominated fixed before the court, they were in relationships are distorted to a married woman make out the death penalty and the woman's husband does not want the death of the palace increasingly wife or fool around, could save them from death (Article 198). But if the situation in rural areas, only men had multiplied the death penalty can not be known whether the woman's consent and consent (Article 197). Line laws, marriage between close relatives is an ugly murder count. According to these laws. Marry a man's sister was an act which entails the death penalty. Even with his uncle and nephew was not permitted to marry. Nearby, including other monarchs in other parts of the song, the girl and at a time when it was fashionable of custom to marry the mother of feathers such an act of Hattie seeing such horrifying murder, shows the moral altitude. As gender relations in line with this law is considered the most serious crimes, it is punished with death (Article 189). Mother or sister of his wife, which also included his brother and his wife engaged in sexual life is considered murder nature (Article 195). Hittite Laws instituted marriage of does not express a prohibition on the deterioration of the divorce, only "if a man" laws (Article 3l ) a free man in the separation of a concubine, the mother alone as a child is given, it is stated that other children are left to the father. The same applies also to free a slave who marries a woman (Article 32). And Article 29, married but a daughter of where the marriage act becomes, if forcible separation girl's parents of the spouse, surrounding given by this case, the men reported they were forced to pay twice as much. Marriage bond, wife-was resolved by the death or divorce from her husband. If the dead in the house of her husband, the dowry was left to her husband. However, if the dowry would be dead in her father's house to her husband (Article 27). Alone it would be joint property of her husband. If the husband dies, the woman would receive shares (Article l92). The husband of the deceased woman, was obliged to take the surviving sister's husband (Article 3l, 32,33). Her ex-husband's grip on children was passed to her new husband. Divorce law is not clear about the ways. Alone when the divorce between a man and a free woman prisoner is considered a substance that left one woman without children about the common heritage of the half. There can be a free woman by a woman prisoner down by law, it found that if divorce occurs between couples can be considered to receive a compensation free of the woman. Criminal Law, Close to the song at that time relative to other tribes belonging to criminal law, shows a property worth pondering over. Criminal laws of the Semitic peoples, kill kill, arm cut of sleeveless leave, eye lift the tit for tat as blind (talio's) principles which form adjacent thereto which is based on Hattie's criminal law they have issued as is inspired from a very human soul. To destroy its existence when assessing fines Hatti people, to poison people's lives, such as lowering the dignity that trend deviation, human life with high thinking, has kept way to protect human dignity, not MUCRINA my punishment, they were based on the principle of compensating for nothing that or damaged. This is life in the set of laws based on principles, trowel, to state authority against murder and accused of destroying the human being as much as possible the penalties, which feared being poisoned, the death penalty, but the state authority and a social context statute of SARS will be revolutionary, natural and disgusting act to break down the moral law It is devoted to human freedom Magadan to prevent rape. Hattie death penalty in the Act are only eight cases. For only a few of them slaves. The rest can be taken with the principles referred to in the text. They are in all crimes except murder and ransom or monetary compensation rather than punishment and the principle was accepted. Hittite Criminal Code offenses rather than pay the price cuts in fine form. For example (based on Article 57) a bull plays, including in several years, is obliged to pay l5 bull. That the penalty is more severe and previously recorded material in the later eased. In the later period, it was reduced to l5 bull. Hittite Laws generally contain more human terms, but goes a step further than the old Orient law. Hittite law seen in the ancient tribes of Law Talio (Retaliation) has no principle. In this respect, not of the Hittite Code of Hammurabi Code, but rather is that I'm inspired by the Sumerian law.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   BIBLIOGRAPHYAKURGAL, Ekrem, Anadolu Kültür Tarihi, TÜBİTAK Yayınları, 9 Baskı, Ankara 2000. ALP, Sedat, “Eski Önasya’da Siyasal İlişkilerden Bölümler” Anma Kitabı, A.Ü.D.T.C.F. Yayını, Ankara l974, s.425-436. ALP, Sedat, Hitit Çağında Anadolu, TÜBİTAK Yayınları, İstanbul 2000, s,45.57.59.76, l47.l75. AKTÜRE, Sevgi, Anadoluda Bronz Çağı Kentleri, Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları, İstanbul l994, s.l0l-l68. BAYRAM, Sadi, “Kaynaklara Göre Güney-Doğu Anadolu’da Proto-Türk İzleri “, Türk Dünyası “, Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları, Sayı 62, Ekim l989, s.9-ll8. BRAİDWOOD, Robert J, Tarih Öncesi İnsan, Çeviri Bilgi Altınok, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları İstanbul l995, s.44, 87,l6l. BRANDAU, BİRGİT-HARTMUT SCHİCKERT, Hititler (Bilinmeyen Bir Dünya İmparatorluğu ), Çeviren: Nazife Mertoğlu, Arkadaş Yayınevi, Ankara 2003, s.l43. ÇAĞLAYAN, Y, Genel Tarih I, Eski Çağlar ve Türk Tarihinin İlk Dönemleri, Ankara l976. ÇIĞ, Muazzez İlmiye, Tarih Sümer’de Başlar, TTK Basımevi Ankara l998, s.25, 47,l58. ÇIĞ, Muazzez İlmiye, Ortadoğu Uygarlık Mirası., Kaynak Yayınları, İstanbul 2002. ÇİLİNGİROĞLU, Altan, Urartu ve Kuzey Suriye, E.Ü.E.F. Yayını, İzmir l984. DİNÇOL, Belkıs, Eski Önasya Toplumlarında Suç Kavramı v e Ceza, İstanbul 2003. ENGİN, Arın, Sümer Türkleri, s.86-93. ERZEN, Afif, Doğu Anadolu ve Urartular, TTK Yayını, Ankara l984. GÖNEY, Süha, Şehir Coğrafyası İ.Ü.Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayını, İstanbul l977, s.20.23.27 GÜNALTAY, Şemseddin, Yakın Şark (Elam ve Mezopotamya). TTK Yayını, 2.Baskı, Ankara l987. GÜNALTAY, Şemseddin, Yakın Şark III ( Suriye ve Filistin), TTK Yayını, 2. Baskı, Ankara l987. GÜVEN, İsmail, Uygarlık Tarihi, Pegem Akademi Yay. Ankara 20l0, s.39-49, 5l. Hititler, 75-87. İPLİKÇİOĞLU, Bülent, Eskiçağ Tarihinin Ana Hatları. Bilim Teknik Yayınevi, İstanbul l994. KAFESOĞLU, İbrahim, Türk Milli Kültürü, 6.Baskı Boğaziçi Yayınları, İstanbul l989. KINAL, Füruzan, “ İlkçağda Kıbrıs”, Belleten lll, Ankara l964. KINAL, Füruzan, “Çivi Yazısının Doğuşu ve Gelişmesi”, A.Ü.D.T.C.F. tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi III, 4-5 (l967). KINAL, Füruzan, “Hitit Devletleri için Kuzey Suriye’nin Önemi”, Atatürk Konferansları IV.l970’den ayrı basım, TTK Basımevi, Ankara l973, s.l-l3. KINAL, Füruzan, Eski Mezopotamya Tarihi, A.Ü.D.T.C.F. Yayını, Ankara l983. KINAL, Füruzan, Eski Anadolu Tarihi, TTK Yayını, 2. Baskı, Ankara l987. KLENGEL, H, Kral Hammurabi ve Babil Günlüğü, Çeviren: N.Oral, İstanbul 200l. KOŞAY, Hamit Zübeyir, “Elam and Central Asian Relations” Makaleler ve İncelemeler, Ayyıldız Matbaası, Ankara l974, s.2l4-2l7. KÖROĞLU, Kemalettin, Eski Mezopotamya Tarihi, İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul 2006. KRAMER, Samuel, Noah, History begins at Sumer, New York l959. KRAMER, Samuel, Noah, Tarih Sümer’de Başlar, Çeviren: Muazzez İlmiye Çığ, TTK Yayını, Ankara l990. KRAMER, Samuel, Noah, Sümerler, Çeviren: Özcan Buze, Kabalcı Yayınevi, İstanbul 2002, s.53.62. LANDSBERGER, Benno.,”Ön Asya Kadim Tarihinin Esas Meseleleri”, II.Türk Tarih Kongresi Eylül l937, s.98ll4. LANDSBERGER, Benno, Sam’al, TTK Yayını, Ankara l948. LLOYD, Seton, The Art of the Ancient Near East, New York l961. MANSEL, Arif, Müfid, Ege ve Yunan Tarihi, TTK Yayını, Ankara l97l. MEMİŞ, Ekrem, Eskiçağ Türkiye Tarihi, Selçuk Üniversitesi Yayınları, Konya l989., s.24,32,39,43, MEMİŞ, Ekrem, Tarihi Coğrafyaya Giriş, S.Ü.Eğitim Fakültesi Yayını, Konya l990. MEMİŞ, Ekrem., “Eski Önasya Medeniyetlerinde Eğitim ve Öğretim”, S.Ü.Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, Sayı 2, Konya l988, s.67-73. MEMİŞ, Ekrem “M.Ö.3.Binyılda Anadolu”da Türkler” Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları, Sayı 53, İstanbul l988, s.3546. MEMİŞ, Ekrem., “ Eskiçağda Mezopotamya”, Ekin Basım Yayın Dağıtım Bursa 20l2. ÖGEL, Bahaeddin., İslamiyet’ten Önce Türk Kültür Tarihi, TTK Yayını, 2.Baskı, Ankara l984. ÖZGÜÇ., Tahsin., Kültepe Kazı Raporu, TTK Yayını, Ankara l948. ÖZTUNA, Yılmaz, Türk Tarihinden Yapraklar, Ötüken Neşriyat İstanbul 2005,s. 11-l4. PARMAKSIZOĞLU, İsmet, Genel Tarih I. Eski Çağlar ve Türk Tarihinin İlk Dönemleri, Ankara l976. SEVİN, Veli., “Anadolu Arkeolojisi, 2.Baskı, İstanbul l999. SEVİN, Veli., “Doğu Anadolu, Orta ve Son Tunç Çağı”, Arkeoloji Atlas Dergisi, Sayı 3, 2004, s.l27-l28. TOGAN, A.Zeki Velidi., Umumi Türk Tarihi’ne Giriş, Enderun Kitapevi Yayını. 3.Baskı, İstanbul l98l. TOSUN, Mebrure-Kadriye Yalvaç., Sümer, Babil, Assur Kanunları ve Ammi Şaduqa Fermanı, TTK Yayını, Ankara l975. 239 Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC)  www.iste‐c.net 

 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   UMAR, Bilge., Türkiye Halkının İlkçağ Tarihi, Cilt l. E.Ü.Basın Yayın Yüksekokulu Yayını, İzmir l982. YILDIRIM, Recep., Önasya Tarih ve Uygarlıkları, İzmir l996. YILDIRIM, Recep, Uygarlık Tarihine Giriş. (İlkçağ Tarihi ve Uygarlığı), 2.Baskı, Ankara 2003. YILDIRIM, Recep., Önasya Tarih ve Uygarlıkları, İzmir l996. YILDIRIM, Recep, Uygarlık Tarihine Giriş. (İlkçağ Tarihi ve Uygarlığı), 2.Baskı, Ankara 2003.

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FOUCAULT’DA MODERN TOPLUMUN ÖZNESİ BİREY Mİ İKTİDAR MI?  Fürkan Alyüz [email protected]  Özet:Bu çalışmada Michel Foucault’un, modern birey eleştirisini modernizm sonrası ortaya çıkan modern iktidarın baskısı altında şekillenen ve nesneleştirilen bir varlık olduğu düşüncesiyle birey iktidar ilişkisi incelenecektir. Çalışmadaki temel amaç, Foucault’un da üzerinde durduğu iktidar tarafından bireye dayatılan hakikatin birey tarafından fark edilmesi, sorgulanması ve ortaya çıkarılmasını sağlamaktır. Çalışmada betimleyici metod kullanılarak, modern toplumun değişen, dönüşen şartları karşısında insanın iktidar birey ilişkisinin neresinde durduğu, eylemlerinde kendisini özgür hissedip hissetmediği sorunsalına cevap aranmaya çalışılmıştır. Foucault’un eserleri üzerinden literatür taraması yapılarak ana sorunsal olan modern toplumda Foucault’un gerçek özne olarak iktidar birey arasında hangi tarafı gördüğü ve görmesinin sebepleri ortaya konulmuştur. Foucault’nun düşüncesine göre birey kavramına bakıldığında, modernizmin oluşturduğu olduğu birey akla gelmektedir. Modern insanın, birey olma sürecini sorun edinen Foucault’cu görüşe göre birey aslında iktidar tarafından tanımlanmışbir olgudur. Bu nedenle bireyi açıklayabilmek için onu çevreleyen iktidar olgusunu çözümlemek gerekir. Özellikle 18. Yüzyılının hakim ekonomik anlayışı olan kapitalizmle birlikte gelişen sanayi ve akabindeki teknolojik gelişmeler bireyin özgürlüğü üzerinde birtakım kısıtlamalar meydana getirmiştir. İktidarın bu teknolojik gelişmelerden faydalanarak bireyin karar verme yetisindeki özgürlüklerini kısıtladığı öne sürülmektedir. Foucault, bir iktidar içerisinde o iktidardan yola çıkarak o iktidar aracılığıyla işleyen belirli bir gerçeklik ekonomisi olmadan iktidarın uygulanamayacağının altını çizmektedir. İktidar sorunu bizim açımızdan yalnızca teorik bir sorun değil aynı zamanda deneyimlerimizin bir parçası olduğunu belirtmiştir. İçinde yaşadığımız çağın toplumlarında sayısız ve karmaşık iktidar ilişkileri düşünüldüğünde bireyin bu ilişkilerdeki durumu tartışmalara sebep olmaktadır.  Keywords: Birey, iktidar, modernizm, özne, foucault 

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FINITE ELEMENT SOLUTION OF DIM DAM UNDER STATIC LOADING USING DUNCAN CHANG MODELLING Ergin ERAYMAN1, Mustafa YILDIZ2, Uğur Ş. ÇAVUŞ3, Ali YILDIZ4 1 , M. Sc. Civil Engineer EÜAŞ General Directorate, Ankara, Turkey. 2 Assoc. Prof .Dr., Department of Civil Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. [email protected] 3 Assist. Prof. Dr., Department of Civil Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey. 4 Res. Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. Abstract:Concrete faced rockfill dams (CFRD) are modern dam types have been started constracting worldwide after invention and usage of vibratory rollers for the rockfill construction which caused so much decrease post construction settlements of the dams comparing to the dumped rockfill dams. Cethana dam in Austraila is the first high dam among these type dams. Dim dam in Alanya having a 135 m height from foundation level is the first designed concrete faced rockfill dam in Turkey (designed between 1993 and 1994). However, Kürtün dam is the first CFRD dam wherein its construction completed before Dim dam. CFRD provides economy and minimizes costs due to its steeper rockfill slopes which leads a decrease in embankment volume and shorten derivation and spillway structure lengths. In general, post construction crest settlements of such type dams should be less than 20 cm for the behavior of stress-strain of the concrete face. Design and construction criteriums of those type dams are also quite different than the conventional clay core rockfill or earthfill dams. In this study, to provide an example for dam designers, stresses and deformations of 135 m heigh Dim Dam located in Turkey is modelled by Duncan Chang and analyzed by FEM using program ANSYS WB. Then, amount of crest settlements are obtained. As a result, it is illustrated that all deformations found from this study are within acceptable amounts for this type dams. Keywords: Alanya Dim Dam (Turkey), Concrete faced rockfill dams, Duncan Chang hyperbolic model, ANSYS, finite element.

1. INTRODUCTION Concrete faced rockfilled dams (CFRD) is being built since mid-19th century. Cooke (1984), divided evolution of dams in to three stage which are early period, growing period and modern period. Heights of the CFRD, which were constructed in early and growing period, reach up to 75 m and 110 m. With developing construction techniques and increasing performance of CFRD, taller CFRD are constructed such as Shuibuya Dam (223 m) China. In the design phase of CFRD, empirical methods are used generally. Deformations, which will occur on the crest and concrete slab, are calculated from some formulas get by analyzing performance of early constructed dams. Estimating behavior of dams in the design stage has a great importance due to safe and economic design. Therefore numerical model using for design should be compatible for real structure. Finite Element Method is the most common technique for numerical modeling of structures.The most important factor for simulating the behavior of dam body, three axial stress parameters of fill materials should be considered. Experimental data for CFRD are not available sometimes because size of rock fill materials can reach 120 cm and testing of these materials requires special laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, experimental parameters got from earlier studies (Marsal (1967), Fumagalli (1969), Leps (1970), Marachi vd. (1972), De Mello (1977), Duncan vd. (1980)) indicate that stressstrain behavior of rock fill materials is nonlinear, strain-dependent and inelastic. To represent behavior of rock fill materials, Duncan and Chang (1970) is one of the most widely used material model. The mechanical properties of rock fill material have been shown in many of the analysis made by the hyperbolic model today. Saboya (1993), make comparison in Foz do Areia dam between deformations find by hyperbolic model and real deformations measured from site, he find that deformations are compatible with each other. Similarly, Khalid vd. (1990) conducted an analysis of deformations of Cethana Dam of same model. In this study, a non-linear static analysis of 2-D plane strain deformations was made for post-construction of Dim Dam. Dim Dam was built at 2009 in Turkey and has a height of 135 m.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Results are compared with measurements made measured made at dam site and it is aimed to show how much chosen material parameters and modeling are compatible with earlier studies. On the other hand, in Turkey, CFRD dam is built energy and irrigation purposes in recent years. Dim dam will contribute to future designing in terms of being an example of a great dam when considered lack of laboratory facilities for Material parameters. Material parameters for non-linear analysis are selected from earlier studies. 2. DIM DAM 2.1. Dam Characteristics Dim Dam built in 2009 in the Alanya district of Antalya province in Turkey is located on Dim River. Dim Dam has height of 135 m from foundation, 123 m from thalweg and is designed for multipurpose such as water supply, irrigation, energy produce and flood control. Its crest length is 365 m and wide is 7.81 m also dam body contains 5 million m3 embankment volume. Dim Hydroelectric Power Plant has 38.3 MW installed capacity and produces 123 GWh yearly. Besides the energy production, Dim Dam provides 47.3 million m3 water Alanya and Tourism centers for consumption. Location and typical section of Dim Dam are given in Figure-1 and Figure-2 respectively.

ANKA Ant

Dim

Figure 1. Location of Dim Dam

Figure 2. Typical section of Dim Dam (Çavuş, 1994) 2.2. Geology of Dam Soil under the foundation is containing limestone and schistous rock. Construction site is located on metamorphic Alanya Massive rocks. The soil is formed by early Paleozoic basement rock units, limestone(Pbk) and schist(Pbs) which are highly affected by tectonics.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Limestone is composed of dolomite Cebireis and Bahçeli Formation limestones. Bahçeli Formation schist are formed by mica schist, chlorite schist, graphite schist. Schist may include limestone and calcschist layers. Stream bas is containing Quaternary alluvium(Qal) (Figure 2). Construction site is classified as IV degree seismic zone.

Figure 3. Geological map of Dim Dam (Koçbay, 2010) 2.3. Properties of Embankment Materials Dim dam, which constructed as CFRD, has upstream and downstream slopes of embankment are respectively 1.4H:1V and 1.5H:1V. The embankment volume is 5 hm3 and dam body is created by 4 zones. Typical section of dam is given in Figure-2. Location, compaction, gradation and water content of materials forming zones are given by Table-1. Table 1. Embankment materials of Dim Dam 3.

Loca tion,

Max.grain size (mm)

Material

Layer thickness (m)

Compaction

Water amount (litre)

2B

80

Pass

0.40

5-6 pas / 16 ton

100

2C

200

Pass

0.40

5-6 pas / 16 ton

100

3A

500

Rockfill

0.80

5 pas / 16 ton

150

3B

800

Rockfill

1.10

4 pas / 16 ton

150

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS 3.1. Duncan-Chang Hyperbolic Model of Soil Kondner(1963) for the first time mention about hyperbolic model showing non-linear soil behavior then model is improved by Duncan and Chang (1970). The model is based on principal of hyperbolic stress-strain relation and was developed with tri-axial soil tests. In present, most of the experiments conducted on rock fill embankment explain mechanical properties of materials by Hyperbolic Model. Saboya(1993) made a compared between deformation calculated by hyperbolic model and deformation measured from real structure and he find out that deformation result are compatible. Similarly, Khalid vd. (1990) calculated deformations in Cethana Dam with hyperbılic model. Hyperbolic strees-straan relation is shown by equation below. ε σ σ (1) ε σ

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σ

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Where σ1 and σ3 are the major and minor princible stresses, ε1 is the major princible strain (axial strain), Ei is the intial tangent modulus and (σ1-σ3)u ultimate deviator stress.

Figure 4. Hyberbolic stress-strain curve Janbu (1963) is summarized relation between Ei the intial tangent modulus and σ3 confining pressure with this equation. E

K∙P

(2)

Where Pa is the atmosphere pressure(Pa=101,325), Ei is the intial tangent modulus, σ3 is the confining(cell) stress, K is the bulk modulus number and n is the bulk modulus exponent. K and n is non- dimensional parameters. The relation between (σ1- σ3)u ultimate deviator stress and (σ1- σ3)f deviator stress at failure are shown below. σ σ R σ σ (3) Where Rf is the failure ratio and value of Rf is always less than or equal 1.0 and veries from 0.5 to 0.9 for most soils. Duncan and Chang show relation between classical Mohr-Coulomb shear stress and (σ1- σ3)f deviator stress at failure and σ3 confining stress below. ∙ ∅ ∙ ∅ σ (4) σ ∅

Where c and φ are the effective stress Mohr-Coulomb cohesion intercept and friction angle respectively. This equation is used with others to determine slope of any point on the strain hyperbola. The resulting equation for the tangent modulus is E

1

∅ ∙







K∙P

(5)

This equation is used for calculate Young’s modulus under any stress for Duncan-Chang hyperbolic model of soil. While conducting analsis, Duncan-Chang hyperbolic model of soil parameters are collected from previous studies(Khalid vd. 1990). The bulk modulus number K=2500, the bulk modulus exponent n=0.25, the failure ratio Rf=0.75 and effective stress Mohr-Coulomb cohesion c=0 are choosen. 3.2. Finite Elements Model Parameters which are found by Duncan-Chang hyperbolic model of soil are used in ANSYS in order to conduct a analysis for 2-D plane strain deformation. While establishing numerical model, behavior of concrete crust where placed upstream side of dam is defined linear elastic and embankment fill materials are defined non-linear. Foundation is not included in to numerical model because of containing very stiff materials such as massive granite.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Dam body is divided in to 10 layer each of has a thickness of 10 m. Rectangular and square components are used in analysis. Total amount of components is 9496 and total amount of node is 21706. General schemas of finite elements are given in Figure-6.

Figure 5. Dam body is divided in to 10 layer

Figure 6. General schemas of finite elements 3.3. Analysis and Results A non-linear static analysis, uses Duncan-Chang hyperbolic model, was made for “post-construction” of Dim Dam. 3.3.1. Parameters of Materials Parameters related to rock fill materials and hyperbolicmodel are taken from literature. Since there is no laboratory test data related model parameters, parameters are obtained from Khalid vd. (1990) and Saboya (1993). They verified compliance of parameters with experimental data and analysis. For each of the 13 layer intial tangent modulus is calculated by equation 2. Boundary conditions and loading situations for post-construction and the maximum and minimum deformation occurring in the dam body is shown in Figure-7 and Figure-8 respectively. Moduli of elasticity for concrete crust is 2.80*107 kN/m2, Poisson’s ratio is 0.20 and unit volume weight is 25kN/m3 are used. 3.3.2. Post-Construction State At post-construction, dam body and upstream face of dam is completed but dam haven’t retain water yet. Dam is only influenced by its self weight. In a such case, additional the rock fill embankment deformation, there will be settlements in crest and dam body until concrete crust completed and dam will start retain water. The parameters used for post-construction state are given in table-2

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 2. Hyperbolic model and material parameters γ kN/m3

υ

E kN/m2

c kN/m2



K

n

Rf

Pa kN/m2

Zon C

22

0.22

-

-

46

2500

0.25

0.75

101.325

Concrete Face

25

0.20

2.8*107

-

-

-

-

-

-

Parametre

Figure 7. post-construction

Figure 8. Settlemesnts at post-construction In order to show deformation direction, graphs are enlarged about 29 times. The largest deformation is 36.65 cm and it was occurred on the crest. The maximum deformation of crest is corresponding about %0.27 of dam is smaller than threshold limit of %0.4 given by Sherard(1963) 4.RESULTS In this study, parameters which are selected from by Duncan-Chang hyperbolic model of soil are used in ANSYS in order to conduct a analysis for 2-D plane strain deformation and non-linear static analysis. Analysis are conducted for post-construction. Settlment of crest is corresponding about %0.27 of dam is smaller than threshold limit of %0.4 given by Sherard (1963) Magnitude of settlements, calculated by Dunca-Chang hyperbolic model parameters, are under or cloose to settlement limist in literature. Also material parameters are consistent with parameters in literature and the the stress-strain relationship has also shown that accuracy to identify the material. Duncan-Chang hyperbolic under the model parameters with the calculated deformation of the crest sitting boundary of the literature or to be close, consistent with the values of the material parameters of literature and the stress-strain relationship has also shown that accuracy to identify the material.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   5. REFERENCES Cavus, U.S. (1994), Final Design and Layout of Dim Dam, General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (DSI)– Dam & Hydro Power Plant Department. Cooke, J. B. (1984), Progress in rockfill dams (18th Terzaghi Lecture), Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, v. 110, No. 10, 1383-1414. De Mello, V. F. B. (1977), Reflection on design desicions of practical significance to embakment dams, 17th Rankine Lecture, Geotechnique, Vol. 27, No. 3, 279-355. Duncan, J.M., Chang, C.Y. (1970), Nonlinear analysis of stress and strain in soil, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division, 96, SM5, 1629-1653. Duncan, J.M., Byrne, P., Wong, K.S. and Babry, P. (1980), Strength, stress-strain and bulk modulus parameters for finite element analyses of stresses and movements in soil masses, in Report No: UCB/GT/80–01, University of California at Berkeley. Fumagalli, E. (1969), Test on cohesionless materials for rockfill dams, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division, ASCE, 95, SM1, 313-332. Janbu, N. (1963), Soil compressibility as determined by oedometer and triaxial tests, Proceedings, European Conference on Soil Mechanics and. FoundationEngineering, Wiesbaden, West Germany, Vol. 1, pp. 1925. Khalid, S., Singh, B., Nayak, G.C., and Jain, O.P. (1990), Nonlinear analysis of concrete face rockfill dam, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol.116, No.5, pp.822-837 Kocbay, A. (2010), Concrete faced rockfill dams example: Dim Dam (Antalya-Turkey), Conference Paper, ISRM International Symposium - 6th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium, 23-27 October, New Delhi, India. Kondner, R. (1963), Hyperbolic Stress-Straim Response of Cohesive Soils, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol.89, SM1, 115-143. Leps, T. M. (1970), Review of shearing strength of rockfill, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division, ASCE, 96, SM4, 1159-1170. Marachi, N. D., Chan, C. K. and Seed, H. B. (1972), Evaluations of properties of rockfill materials, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division, ASCE, 98, SM1, 95-114. Marsal, R. J. (1967), Large scale testing of rockfill materials, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division, ASCE, 93, SM2, 27-43. Saboya, F. Jr. and Byrne, P.M. (1993), Parameters for stress and deformation analysis of rockfill dams, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 30, 690–701. Sherard, J. L., Woodward, R. J., Gizienski, S. F., and Clevenges, W. A. (1963), Earth and Earth-Rock Dams, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

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FIREWALL PARADOX: AN EARTHQUAKE IN PHYSICS  Furkan Semih Dundar [email protected]  Abstract:We give a popular account of a recent and important paradox that appeared in black hole physics. The paradox arises out of an inconsistency between the general theory of relativity and quantum theory which are famously hard to reconcile with each other. At the first step, the basics of black hole physics are introduced. Second, we explain the paradox in basic terms. Third, we talk about a few ways towards the resolution of the paradox. We finish by presenting various ideas towards future developments in the field.  Keywords: firewall paradox, black hole, general relativity, quantum theory 

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FRENCH MANDATORY EDUCATION: THE CASE OF SANJAK (HATAY) (1920-1939) Yusuf KODAZ SelcukUniversity, Ataturk Principlesand Revolution History Department, Konya, Turkey E-mail: [email protected]  Abstract: Although Hatay existed in National Pact borders, it was kept out of Turkish borders with the Ankara Treaty signed on October 20, 1921 in order to stop the armed conflict with France under extraordinary conditions of Independence War. Yet, Ankara Government inserted provisions into this treaty in order that the Turks in the district could pursue their national existence. These provisions were preserved in the same way in Lausanne Peace Treaty and other treaties signed between France and Turkey. The case of Syria, mandated by France in The San Remo Conference, was also approved by The Nations League on July 24, 1922. So, Hatay was mandated by France along with Syria. In the period of French Mandate Government, every community was educated in its own language. Formal schools were opened for non-Turkish groups in Hatay and the opening of private schools was supported. While the children belonging to these groups were formerly educated in the Turkish language, in the newly opened schools the Turkish language was not included at all. Moreover, as in Syria, France implemented educational policies in Hatay which would raise mandate governmentdependent people. Keywords: French Mandatory, Hatay

Introduction Hatay Province, located on the east coast of the Mediterranean sea, is surrounded by Syria on the south and east, the Mediterranean sea on the west, Adana province on the northwest, Osmaniye province on the north, and Gaziantep province on the northeast. Hatay Province, the history of which dates back to antiquity, and is a transition point geographically, has been home to many different culture until today. Alexandretta, a district of Hatay, is an important natural harbour in the Eastern Mediterranean. These features of Hatay made it a focal point for great powers in every period of the history. French tried to train individuals to practice their policies in the field of education, during the period when they mandated Hatay with Syria.

French Occupation of Hatay and the Foundation of Mandate Government After World War I, Sanjak (Hatay) was under the control of Turkish forces, when the armistice of Mudros was signed between Ottoman Empire and Allied Powerp. However, right after the armistice of Mudros, Allied Powers started to occupy the region based on this treaty (Akşin 1991, p.302, Sökmen 1992; p.34-35, Kuçcu 1997; p.23, Durgun 2011, p.180;Fırat-Kürkçüoğlu 2012, p.280). In parallel with the occupation, the region was handed to France in accordance with Sykes-Picot Agreement, which was one of the secret agreements made during World War I. Even it was within Misak-ı Milli (National Oath) borders, Hatay had be left out of Turkish Republic borders with Ankara Treaty signed on 20 October, 1921, due to the extraordinary conditions of the Turkish War of Independence, in order to stop the armed conflict with France. Nonetheless, Ankara government included terms in this treaty, which would protect the rights of Turks in Hatay, and pave the way for the autonomy of the region (Atay 1936 p.1; Benice 1936, p.1; Küçüka 1936, p.3; Nadi 1936; p.1; Erkal 1988 p.15; Sarınay 2001, p.23; Gönlübol-Sar 2013, p.147). These terms were also include in the Treaty of Lausanne ( Başbakanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi; 030.10/224.510-12; Akşin 1991 p.303; Ada 2005 p.104; Çatalçam 2008 p.25; Esmer 1938, p.334-335; Soysal 1985, p.80; Khadduri1945,p.406-425; Dağlıoğlu 1936, p.3). The decisions of San Remo Conference put Syria within the French Mandate on 25 April 1920, and this decision was approved by League of Nations on 23 September 1923. After that, France founded an autonomous government for Hatay region in accordance with the Treaty of Ankara (Tekin 1986; Gönlübol-Sar, 2013). With further treaties signed between Turkey and France, Turkish language was given the official language status, and the terms included in these treaties paved the way for the development of Turkish culture, and established an environment for Turkish cultural activity. Still, France didn’t completely comply with these terms in Hatay during their mandate.

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French Education Policies Practiced in Hatay (1920-1939) French didn’t interfere with the cultural life in their vassal Hatay at the beginning, and allowed cultural development of the residents. This attitude of France started to change after a couple of years, and they started to intervene in the cultural life. Wanting to consolidate their place in the region, France started systematic and programmed activities in order to withstand the reforms conducted by Turkey. Until 1925, Turkish educational program was practiced in Hatay, and the course books were also brought from Turkey. However, this disturbed mandatory managements, and they started work harder to break the connections of the region with Turkey (Bilgili 1939, p.15; Payaslı 2009, p.24-25). “Divide and rule” policy was practiced in French mandated Syria in the process of establishing the domination in the area (Sander 1994, P.72; Ayrancı 2006, p.21). Social structure of the country was also affective in this policy of France, as Syria was a country with the most different ethnic population in Middle East (Ayrancı 2006, p.21). France tried to attain its goals by using this social structure of Syria. To this end, they started to increase the number of missionary priests. These priests worked not only to proselytize but also for the interests of France (Hourani 1997, p.298; Umar, 2002, p.291). Taking advantage of the poorness of Ottoman management and education system in the area, missionaries founded many schools. At French schools in Hatay, they tried to inculcate Arabian students with hostility against Turks, and tried to create animosity between Turks and Arabs. They tried to keep the region under control taking advantage of the upheavals to be created this way. As they did in the administration, French tried to commove any kind of racial and religious tendencies. They cut down the budget of public schools that offered Turkish education, and they also tried to reduce the number of these. On the other hand, they tried to increase the number and the budget of the schools that served for French interests. This way, they tried to train individuals loyal to mandatory government (Umar 2002, p. 303-304). Due to their policies, French didn’t only deal with non-Turkish groups. They also tried to promote the reformist and conservative attitudes among Turks, in order to create conflict within them. For this purpose, they made former primary schools semi-public schools under the name of “EcolCoranique”. Teachers educated in madrasahs were assigned to these schools and financial aid was provided (Bilgili 1939, p.15;Payaslı2009, p. 25). Conservative families mostly sent their children to these schools. These schools offered rote learning with traditional methods. They tried to prevent the development of thinking skills of the children who attended these schools. There were many schools founded in constitutional period in Hatay, when French occupied the area. These were 1 high school with five classes, 1 girls’ junior high school, 1 boys’ junior high school in Antakya, and one junior high in Alexandretta and Belen. Additionally, there were a total of 41 primary schools in various places in Hatay. Even these schools were closed during World War I, France allowed the re-opening of them right after the war. In order to maintain their cultural inheritance, Hatay residents followed the developments in Turkey closely. French mandatory government was totally disturbed by this attitude of Hatay people. In this context, they introduced the educational developments in Turkey as alienation from Islam, and tried to keep religious-traditional institutions active. (Payaslı 2009, p.23-25). Primary schools opened in Hatay during constitutional period were 3 grade schools, and mostly offered religious education. These schools continued their education this way until 1928, and they were re-organized as 5 grade schools in that year. These schools taught in French and Arabic as of first grade, and their objective was to train students for colleges. At schools in Turkey, a standard programmed curriculum was followed in classes, though Hatay schools offered un-programmed education for groups. After 5th grade of primary schools, students were given certificates according to their proficiency in French, regardless of their achievement in other courses. French mandatory government started to increase the number of these schools as of 1928, and in 1938 there were 26 of these schools. The same education of the same of the purpose was also given in schools in villages (Kıymat 2007,p.12). In his book titled Mandatory Government: Cultural Life in Hatay, Mesut FaniBilgili provided this information about the education of Turkish children during mandatory government: “Of the 21000 Turkish children at school age between 6-14, only 2600 could learn to read. Compared to children of other ethnic groups, cultural condition of Turkish children was a disaster. While Turkish children were in such a bad situation, of the 3800 Armenian children at school age 2873, of the 1909 eastern orthodox children 1181, of 1272 catholic children 826, of 244 protestant children 216, and of 79 Jewish children 57 followed schools regularly. Additionally, Christian children in Hatay were educated under the aegis of missionaries. Today, while 75-80% of Christian children are literate, while only 10% of Turkish children are”.

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Conclusion Hatay, is an area where different ethnic groups have lived in peace and tolerance for centuries. France tried to maintain its dominance in Hatay making use of this cultural diversity. Educational policies were also set accordingly. In spite of all these policies, France couldn’t settle in Syria easily. Divide and rule policy and the pressure policies of France resulted in a reaction to France by local residents. France faced many rebellions in its vassal Syria. Yielding to independence requests from the nationalist groups, France signed an independence agreement on 9 September 1936. After Syria-France Independence Agreement, Turkey carried Hatay dispute to international grounds bringing up the terms of Ankara Treaty. As a result of successful policies, Hatay first separated from Syria, and gained independence. Then, on 23 June 1939, Hatay Assembly decided to become part of Turkey.

Reference Ada, Serhan, (2005),Türk-Fransız İlişkilerinde Hatay Sorunu (1918-1939),İstanbul: Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları. Akşin, Aptülahat (1991), Atatürk’ün Dış Politika İlkeleri ve Diplomasisi, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları. Ayrancı, Zişan Şirin (2006), Türkiye-Suriye İlişkileri, Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Atay, Falih Rıfkı,Fransa ve Sancak, Ulus, 22 Kasım 1936. Başbakanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi, 030-10-224-510-12. Benice, Etem İzzet,Antakyalılar İntihaba Zorla Götürülemezler, Açıksöz, 16 Kasım 1936. Bilgili, Mesud Fani,(1939),Manda İdaresinde: Hatay Kültürel Hayatı, Antakya: İktisat Basımevi. Çatalçam, Aytekin,(2008),1923-1938 Atatürk Dönemi Türk Dış Politikası’nda Lozan’ın Etkisi, İstanbul: Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Dağlıoğlu, Hikmet Turhan,Antakya Anadolu Kadar Eski ve Anadolu Kadar Halis Bir Türk Yurdudur!, Cumhuriyet, 7 Ekim 1936. Durgun, Sezgi,(2011), Memalik-i Şahane’den Vatan’a, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları. Erkal, Şükrü,(1988),Atatürk ve Hatay, Atatürk Haftası Armağanı (Ölümünün 50inci Yılında Atatürk), Ankara: 1988. Esmer; A. Şükrü,(1938),Cumhuriyet ve Dış PolitikamızLozan-Montrö-Hatay, Siyasi İlimler (Mülkiye) Mecmuası, Ekim 1938, No:91, s.334-335.; Fırat, Melek-Kürkçüoğlu, Ömer,(2012),Sancak (Hatay) Sorunu, Türk Dış PolitikasıKurtuluş Savaşı’ndan Bugüne Olgular, Belgeler, Yorumlar (Cilt:I 1919-1980), Editör: Baskın Oran, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları. Gönlübol, Mehmet -Sar, Cem,(2013) Atatürk ve Türkiye’nin Dış Politikası (1919-1938), Ankara: Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Yayını. Hourani, Albert,(1997),Arap Halkları Tarihi, (Çeviren: Yavuz Alagon), İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları. Khadduri , Majid,(1945),The Alexandretta Dispute, The American Journal of İnternational Law, Wol.39, No:3. Kıymat, Zeynep,(2007),Hatay’ın Anavatana Katılmasından Sonra İskenderun İlçesinde Eğitim Alanında Gelişmeler (1939-2000), Konya:Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Kuşcu, Samet,(1997),Hatay’ın Kurtuluşu ve Kurtarılışı Konusunda Özet Bir İnceleme II, Güney’de Kültür, Cilt:9, Sayı:96. Küçüka, Necibali,Davamız Milletler Cemiyeti Konseyinde, Ulus, 13 Aralık 1936. Nadi, Yunus,Sancak Meselesinde (Er Nuvel) Gazetesini Tenvir İçin, Cumhuriyet, 7 Aralık 1936. Payaslı, Volkan, (2009), Atatürk Dönemi Eğitim-Kültür Politikalarının Hatay’a Yansımaları (1921-1938), Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Türk İnkılap Tarihi Enstitüsü Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Sander, Oral, (1994), Türk Siyasi Tarihi 1918-1994, Ankara: İmge Kitapevi Yayınları. Sarınay, Yusuf, (2001),Atatürk Dönemi Türk Dış Politikası ve Hatay, Anavatana Katılışının60. Yıldönümünde Hatay, (Yayına Hazırlayan: Berna Türkdoğan), Ankara: Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Yayını. Soysal, İsmail; (1985),Hatay Sorunu ve Türk-Fransız Siyasal İlişkileri (1936-1939), Belleten, Cilt:XLIX, Sayı:193. Sökmen, Tayfur, (1992), Hatay’ın Kurtuluşu İçin Harcanan Çabalar, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayını. Umar, Ömer Osman,(2002),Suriye’de Fransız Emperyalizmi, Elazığ: Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Cilt:12, Sayı:1.

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FRICTION AND WEAR PERFORMANCE OF POLYMER ELASTOMER BLENDS HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE / STYRENE - BUTADİENE RUBBER  Sezgin Ersoy [email protected]  Abstract:In the present work, the friction and wear property of high density polyethylene / styrene butadiene rubber polymer blends was studied. SBR addition in the HDPE was 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt. In this study, the results obtained in this study indicate that HDPE / SBR polymer applied to the abrasion test indicate that road and load values to increase the effect of wear, but this effect by increasing the rate of SBR additives lead to a reduction in wear is observed that value. %. The result showed that the addition of fillers to the composite changed the friction coefficient and wear rate.   Keywords: Friction, wear, high density polyethylene, SBR, polymer composites. 

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FUEL SAVINGS OF POWER TRAIN MODELING IN THE PARALLEL HYBRID TRACTOR  Hyeonseop Yi1, Jinseong Kim2, Sukwon Cha3, Yeongil Park4 1 2

[email protected] 

[email protected]  3 4

[email protected] 

[email protected] 

Abstract: Unlike vehicles, tractors need much traction power because of operating auxiliary power for dealing with crops which is called PTO, Power Take Off. PTO which has secondary transmission and a clutch for dealing with heavy load is located between engine and main transmission. Operated load in PTO is hundred times bigger than conventional vehicle wheel load.  In some cases, a tractor which has engine as traction power source alone cannot be capable of carrying out heavy load in the agricultural fields. That is the reason hybrid tractors have been developed for having big PTO.  In general, parallel hybrid tractors have motor as second power source in charge of load. Therefore most of parallel hybrid tractors have been developed in concept of motor as auxiliary power source that deals with load which engine does not cover with.   However, development of hybrid tractors for better traction performance shows less fuel consumption saving than conventional tractors. It means that the different way to control power sources is needed for hybrid tractors.   In this study, saving fuel consumption in parallel hybrid tractors is proved by control of engine torque after modeling of power train. Then vehicle performances such as operating points between controls of traction power source for traction and fuel consumption improvement are compared and analyzed each other.  Keywords: Power take off (PTO), Parallel type hybrid tractor, Fuel consumption, Power train modling 

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GİRİŞİMCİLERDE BULUNMASI GEREKEN ÖZELLİKLER: GİRİŞİMCİ VE ÖĞRENCİ GÖRÜŞLERİ  Güven Özal [email protected]  Özet: Girişimcilik kavramı, yetenek, cesaret ve bilgi gibi üç temel özelliğe sahip ticaret insanlarına hitap eden çok özel bir kavramdır. Girişimci ise, mal ve hizmet üretimi yapabilmek için, üretim öğelerini en iyi koşullar altında bir araya getiren kişidir. Üniversiteler araştırmaların ticarileştirilmesi yoluyla ve yeni girişimler için saha açarak girişimciliğin gelişimine doğrudan katkıda bulunurken, girişimci adaylarına verilen eğitim ve öğretimleri ile de dolaylı yoldan katkı sağlamaktadırlar. Bu çalışmada, girişimci özelliklerinin ne olması gerektiği ve üniversitelerdeki girişimcilik eğitiminin nasıl olması gerektiğine yönelik hem girişimcilerin hem de öğrenci görüşlerinin belirlenmesi planlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda 35 girişimci ile yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Ayrıca 136 meslek yüksekokulu işletme bölümü öğrencisinin girişimcilik hakkındaki görüşleri anket çalışması yoluyla elde edilmiştir.  Elde edilen veriler karşılaştırıldığında, girişimciler ile öğrenciler bir girişimcide bulunması gereken temel özellikler konusunda (dürüstlük, özgüven, risk alma) hem fikir oldukları görülmüştür. Girişimcilik eğitimi konusunda girişimci katılımcılar, teorikten ziyade uygulamaya ağırlık verilmesini, , öğrencilerin bu konu üzerinde cesaretlendirilmelerini ifade ettiler. Öğrenciler ise girişimcilerin bu konudaki görüşlerine katılmaklar birlikte, alan hocalarının girişimcilik üzerine teorik ve pratik donanıma sahip olmaları gerektiğini, ayrıca uygulamalı projelere yönelik çalışmaların daha ağırlıklı yapılması gerektiğini belirtmişlerdir.  Keywords: girişimcilik, işletme bölümü, meslek yüksekokulu, öğrenci görüşleri

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GLOBAL GÜNEŞ IŞINIM DEĞERLERİ TAHMİNİNDE FARKLI AMPİRİK MODELLERİN DEĞERLENDİRMESİ Abdülkadir KOÇER1, Afşin GÜNGÖR2, İsmet Faruk YAKA2 1 Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Teknik Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu Dumlupınar Bulvarı 07058 Kampüs, Antalya, [email protected] 2 Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Dumlupınar Bulvarı 07058 Kampüs, Antalya, [email protected], [email protected]

ÖZET: Güneş enerjisi temiz ve çevre dostu bir enerji türü önemli bir enerji kaynağıdır. Güneş enerjisi destekli sistemlerin tasarımında önemli bir parametre ışınım verilerinin bilinmesi önemli bir ayrıntıdır. Her yatırım yapılacak bölgede ölçüm istasyonu bulunmamaktadır. Bunu gibi durumlarda daha öncedeki çalışmalardan ortaya çıkan deneye dayalı (ampirik) modeller kullanılarak güneş ışınım tahmin yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada Niğde ili için farklı ampirik modellerin verileri ile meteoroloji veriler karşılaştırılmıştır. Belirlilik katsayısı (R2), ortalama sapma hatası (MBE) ve karekök hatası (RMSE) gibi istatistiksel hata analizleri yapılmıştır. Anahtar kelimeler: Güneş Enerjisi, Global Işınım, Modelleme Abstract: Solar is an important energy source for the environment and energy production. The global solar radiation on horizontal surface at the location of interest is the most critical input parameter employed in the design and prediction of the performance of solar energy systems. In this study, different empirical sunshine based models are compared correlating the monthly mean daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface with monthly mean sunshine records for Nigde, Turkey. Models are compared using coefficient of determination (R2), the mean bias error (MBE) and the root mean squared Error (RMSE). According to our results, all the models fitted the data adequately and can be used to estimate the specific monthly global solar radiation. Key words: solar energy, global radiation, modeling

GİRİŞ Gelişen teknoloji ile birlikte enerji ihtiyacı her geçen gün artmaktadır. Fosil yakıtların çevreye verdiği zararlar ve dışa bağımlılık dikkate alındığında yenilenebilir enerjinin önemi ortaya çıkmaktadır. En önemli ve diğer yenilenebilir kaynakların temeli olan Güneş, verimli kullanıldığında enerjiye olan ihtiyaç giderilebilir. Güneş ışınımlar belirli istasyonlarda meteoroloji tarafından ölçülmektedir. Ölçüm yapılmayan yerlerde ışınım tahminleri yapmak için daha önceden deneysel olarak (ampirik) modeller ortaya çıkmıştır. Literatürde birçok örneği mevcuttur (Mecibah vd 2014; Bakırcı 2009; Kaygusuz 1999; Ertekin ve Yaldız 2000; Tahran ve Sarı 2005; Togrul ve Togrul 2002). Angström ve Prescott (1924), aylık ortalama günlük global güneş radyasyonu tahmin için ilk ve en yaygın kullanılan ilişkiyi denklemlerle ifade etmişlerdir (Angstrom 1924; Prescott 1940). Birçok bölgede kullanılan lineer güneş ışınım modelinin oluşturulmasında temel oluşturmuştur. Mecibah ve arkadaşları tarafından birkaç ampirik formül geliştirilmiştir (Mecibah vd 2014). Bu formülleri güneş ışığı bazlı, sıcaklık bazlı ve bulutluluk bazlı olmak üzere üç ana kategoride toplamıştır. Besharat ve arkadaşları yaptığı çalışmada ampirik modelleri toplayarak; güneş ışığı bazlı, bulutluluk bazlı, hava sıcaklığı bazlı ve meteorolojik parametre bazlı şeklinde sınıflandırmıştır (Besharat vd. 2013). Bu çalışmanın amacı Niğde ili için iki farklı ampirik modelin verileri ile 2001 -2010 yılları arasında ölçümü yapılan meteoroloji verilerin karşılaştırılarak modellerin kullanılabilirliği incelenmiştir. Çıkan sonuçlar ile Belirlilik katsayısı (R2), ortalama sapma hatası (MBE) ve karekök hatası (RMSE) gibi istatistiksel hata analizleri yapılmıştır.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   MATERYAL VE METOT Yaygın kullanılan global ışınım tahmin yöntemlerinde kullanılan en önemli parametre güneşlenme süresi olup bunu hava sıcaklığı takip etmektedir. Birçok çalışmada güneş ışınımı bazlı tahminlerle ilgili modeller geliştirilmiştir (Almorox vd. 2011; Chen vd. 2004). Bu çalışmada güneş ışınımı bazlı modeller kullanılarak ölçümden bağımsız olarak hesaplamalar yapılmıştır. Literatürde geçen regresyon eşitlikleri kullanılarak modelleme yapılmıştır (Tablo 1). Tablo 1. Literatürde geçen regresyon modelleri Model No.

Modeller

Regresyon Eşitliği

Liner

1

H H 0  a  b   S S0 

Kuadratik

2

H H 0  a  b   S S0   c   S S0 

Logaritmik

3

H H 0  a  b  log  S S0 

Eksponansiyel

4

H H 0  a  b  exp  S S0 

Üssel

5

H H 0  a  S S0 

Üçüncü Derece

6

H H 0  a  b  S S0   c  S S 0   d  S S0 

2

b 2

3

Bilinmesi gereken parametrelerin başında atmosfer dışı ışınım miktarı ve maksimum güneşlenme süresi gelmektedir. Aşağıda verilen standart eşitliklerle bu parametrelerin değerlerini hesaplayabiliriz (Düzen ve Aydın 2012).

H0  (

24 x60



) I SC dr [cos( ) cos( )sin(s )  s sin( )sin( )]

d r  1  0.033cos(

(1)

2 J) 365

(2)

 2  (248  J )   365 

  0.4093sin 

(3)

s  arccos[ tan( ) tan( )]

(4)

Denklemde geçen dr bağıl yer-güneş mesafesi,



denklinasyon açısı (rad),

s

güneş batış açısı (rad),



enlem

2

(rad) ve J gün sayısı olup Ocak 1 den itibaren sayılır, Isc güneş sabiti olup değeri 0.082 MJ/m /min (1367 W/m2) (Chen vd. 2004). Verilen ay ile ilgili ortalama gün uzunluğu aşağıdaki eşitliğe gore hesaplanır (Bakırcı 2009).

So 

2s 15

(5)

Hesaplamalar sonunda kullanılan regresyon eşitliği için bulunan katsayılar Tablo 2’ de verilmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Tablo 2. Regresyon model sonuçları

Modeller

R2

Regresyon Eşitliği

Liner

H H 0  0.4616  0.3066   S S0 

Kuadratik

H H 0  0.4799  0.2447   S S0   0.0491  S S0 

Logaritmik

H H 0  0.7463  0.1848  log  S S0 

0.9382

Eksponansiyel

H H 0  0.4857  0.4694  exp  S S0 

0.9483

Üssel

H H 0  0.7513  S S0 

0.9402

Üçüncü Derece

H H 0  0.807  1.4492  S S0   2.8723  S S0   1.5166  S S0 

0.9508 2

0.9511

0.2836 2

3

0.9540

Global ışınım değerlerinin bunların çeşitli regresyon modelleriyle tahmin edilmesi ve sonuçların gerçek değerler ile karşılaştırılması literatürde önemli yer tutmaktadır. Sonuçların karşılaştırmasında bir çok istatistiksel yöntem kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada ortalama sapma hatası (MBE) ve karekök hatası (RMSE) gibi istatistiksel hata analiz yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Yöntemlerle ilgili eşitlikler aşağıda verilmiştir.

MBE 

1 n  (Yi,m  Yi,c ) n i 1 2

n

1 RMSE  n

 (Y

i ,m

i 1

Denklemde geçen berraklık indeksi



(6)

(7)

 Yi ,c )

Yi ,m , Yi ,c ve n değerleri sırasıyla ölçülen berraklık (clearness) indeksi  Hm H 0  , hesaplanan Hc

H

0

 ve gözlem sayısıdır.

Türkiye güneşlenme süreleri açısında önemli bir konumdadır. İç Anadolu Bölgesinde yer alan Niğde için ölçümü yapılan güneş ışınım değerleri Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü’nden elde edilmiştir. Ölçümler piranometre kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Niğde’nin yıllık toplam güneş ışınım değeri 1935 kWh/m2 (5.3 kWh/m2 gün) olup toplam güneşlenme süresi 2759 saat(h) ‘dir. Niğde iline ait coğrafik veriler Tablo 3’ de verilmiştir. Niğde ili çin her bir aya ait aylık ortalama atmosfer dışında yatay düzleme gelen ışınım miktarı (Ho) ve maksimum güneşlenme süresi (So) yukarıda verilen temel eşitlikler ile hesaplanmıştır. Tablo 3. Niğde iline ait coğrafik veriler İl

Enlem(N)

Boylam(E)

Yükseklik(m)

Niğde

37.59

34.42

1250

Güneşlenme Süersi (h/gün) 7.6

SONUÇLAR Bu çalışmada Niğde ili için 6 farklı ampirik modelin verileri ile meteoroloji veriler karşılaştırılmıştır. Belirlilik katsayısı (R2), ortalama sapma hatası (MBE) ve karekök hatası (RMSE) gibi istatistiksel analizler yapılmıştır

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   (Tablo 4). R2 değeri 0 ile 1 arasında bir değer olup 1’e en yakın değer en iyi sonuç olarak yorumlanır. En iyi sonucun 0,9540 değeri ile üçüncü derece (Model 6) modelinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. 0,9382 değeri ile en küçük değer logaritmik modele (Model 3) aittir. Ortalama sapma hatası (MBE) analizinde en düşük değer logaritmik modelde (Model 3), en yüksek değer ise eksponansiyel modelde (Model 4) görülmüştür. Karekök hatası (RMSE) analizinde ise en düşük değer üssel modelde (Model 5) ve en yüksek değer eksponansiyel modelde (Model 4) görülmüştür. Daha farklı modellerde uygulanarak farklı sonuçlar çıkarılabilir. Tablo 4. Literatürdeki modellerin uygulamasındaki MBE ve RMSE değerleri Model 5

Model 6

Model 1

Model 2

RMSE Model Model 3 4

Model 5

Model 6

-0,0782 -0,0535 -0,2229 -0,0471 -0,1736

0,0724

0,736

0,7545

0,6353

0,7624

0,6619

0,9027

-0,4484 -0,4221 -0,6142 -0,4163 -0,5569 -0,2408

1,037

1,0523

0,9848

1,0608

0,9901

1,1748

-0,1647

-0,152

0,0146

-0,1608 -0,0977 -0,1985

0,6635

0,6677

0,6154

0,6733

0,6287

0,6959

0,5127

0,4898

0,6597

0,4729

0,616

0,4446

1,1849

1,1877

1,2014

1,1864

1,1944

1,1756

0,2846

-0,418

0,4907

0,2169

0,4262

0,3313

0,7272

0,793

0,8364

0,7035

0,7984

0,7288

0,1378

0,2343

0,1676

0,2297

0,1696

0,2899

1,1732

1,1207

1,2067

1,1121

1,1852

1,2082

0,1441

0,19

-0,0743

0,2297

-0,0319 -0,0009

1,1767

1,161

1,2706

1,3523

1,243

1,3239

0,3282

0,3685

0,1326

0,8525

0,1706

0,2281

0,8395

0,8535

0,8015

0,8578

0,8034

0,8509

-0,5188 -0,5046 -0,5935

0,3809

-0,5841 -0,5242

0,9706

0,9504

1,0732

0,9438

1,0516

1,0589

-0,1808 -0,2014 -0,0765

0,3809

-0,1101 -0,1495

0,5076

0,5167

0,4828

0,5234

0,4887

0,4759

0,1341

0,1227

0,2054

-0,2163

0,1841

0,1094

0,3576

0,362

0,3567

0,3629

0,3547

0,363

0,2265

0,2522

0,0471

0,1136

0,1099

0,438

0,564

0,5937

0,4336

0,6043

0,4554

0,8815

Model 1 Ocak Şubat Mart Nisan Mayıs Haziran Temmuz Ağustos Eylül Ekim Kasım Aralık

Model 2

MBE Model Model 3 4

Güneş ışınım değerlerinin ölçümü yapılmayan yerlerde bu gibi modellerin kullanılması ışınım tahmininde yol göstermektedir. Böylelikle güneş ışınımından faydalanılacak yatırım ve projeler için model kullanımı yol gösterici niteliktedir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   KAYNAKLAR Almorox, J., C. Hontoria, and M. Benito. (2011). Models for obtaining daily global solar radiation with measured air temperature data in Madrid (Spain). Apply Energy 88: 1703-9. Angstrom, A. (1924). Solar and terrestrial radiation. QJR Meterol Soc 50: 121-5. Bakirci, K. (2009). Models of solar radiation with hours of bright sunshine: a review. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev 13: 2580–8. Besharat, F., Dehghan, A. A., & Faghih, A. R. (2013). Empirical models for estimating global solar radiation: A review and case study. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 21, 798-821. Chen, R. S., E. S. Kang, J. P. Yang, and at all. (2004). Validation of five global radiation models with measured daily data in China. Energy Convers Management 45: 1759-69. Duzen H., and H. Aydin. (2012). Sunshine-based estimation of global solar radiation on horizontal surface at Lake Van region (Turkey). Energy Convers Management 58: 35-46. Ertekin C, Yaldiz O.(2000), Comparison of some existing models for estimating global solar radiation for Antalya (Turkey). Energy Convers Manage 41:311-30. Kaygusuz K.(1999), The comparison of measured and calculated solar radiations in Trabzon, Turkey. Energy Sources, 21:347-53. Mecibah, M. S., T. E. Boukelia, R. Tahtah, and K. Gairaa. (2014). Introducing the best model for estimation the monthly mean daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface (Case study: Algeria). Renew Sustainable Energy Rev 36194-202. Prescott, J. A. (1940). Evaporation from water surface inrelation to solar radiation. Trans R Soc Sci Aust 64: 11425. Tahran S, Sarı A.(2005), Model selection for global and diffuse radiation over the Central Black Sea (CBS) region of Turkey. Energy Convers Manage, 46:605-13. Togrul IT, Togrul H.(2002) Global solar radiation over Turkey: comparison of predicted and measured data. Renewable Energy, 25:55–67.

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HACI MAHMUT AĞA TEKKESI VE MESCIDI RESTORASYON ÇALIŞMASI 1

Serdar KASAP, 2Kübra BASOOĞLU, 3Funda ARSLAN YILMAZ

1

İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi/Gelişim Meslek yüksekokulu ([email protected]) 2 Serbest Mimar ([email protected]) 3 İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi/Gelişim Meslek yüksekokulu ([email protected]) Özet:Kent kültürünün ve kent kimliğinin önemli bir parçası olan, tarihi mescitlerin yerlerini birer birer betonarme camilere bırakması, ya da kaderlerine terk edilmesiyle birlikte yöresel ahşap camilerin ve yakınındaki türbelerin sayıları gittikçe azalmaktadır. Tarihi eserlerin gerekli kültür varlıkları olarak tanımlandığı düşünülürse, bu eserlerin belgelenerek literatüre kazandırılması, doğru korunması ve restorasyon uygulamalarıyla eserlerin malzeme, teknik ve mimari özelliklerini koruyarak gelecek kuşaklara aktarılması önemlidir. Bu çalışma üzerinde, Hacı Mahmut Ağa mescidi ve tekkesi, mevcut malzeme ve strüktür onarım yapılamayacak durumda olmasından ötürü korunması gerekli taşınmaz kültür varlıklarına uygulanabilecek müdahale türleri kapsamında, rekonstrüksiyon işlemi seçilerek, öncelikle bilimsel olarak tespit çalışmaları yapılarak raporlanmıştır. Ardından edinilen bilimsel veriler ışığında, detaylı rölöveleri alınarak restorasyon ve restitüsyon projeleri hazırlanmıştır. Hazırlanan projeler kapsamında yapının mevcut malzemeleri numaralandırılıp ve yerlerinden sökülerek istiflenmiştir. Yapımda tekrar kullanılacak malzeme ayrılarak kullanılamayacak malzemelerin envanterleri alınmıştır. Daha sonra alınan rölöve çalışmasına sağdık kalınarak kullanılamayacak malzemelerin birebir kalıpları alınarak üretilip yerlerine uygulanmıştır. Anahtar kelimeler : Rölöve, Restorasyon, Rekonstrüksiyon, Onarım, Ahşap Cami. Abstract:Because the historical mosques, which are essential part of culture and identity of cities , are either being replaced with reinforced concrete mosques or left to their fate, the number of local wooden mosques and nearby shrines has been diminishing. Considering the fact that historical artifacts are cultural entities, it is vital to document them, preserve their material, technical and architectural features by means of proper preservation and restoration so that they could be transferred to next generations. The Mosque of Hacı Mahmut Aga and its shrine has been reported after scientific evaluation studies were carried out and reconstruction process was selected in the context of intervention types applicable to cultural premises which need to be preserved as their material and structural repairment cannot be executed. In the light of scientific data obtained thereafter, both restoration and restitution projects have been prepared after detailed building survey was fulfilled. Having dismantled, the materials of the structure have been enumerated and stockpiled in the scope of prepared projects. The material to be reused in the construction has been spared and the inventory of the ones not to be used have been taken. Following this, moulds of the materials have been taken after which they have been produced and implemented to their places. Keywords : Survey, Restoration , Reconstruction , Repair , Wooden Mosque.

Giriş Kentler tarihsel sürekliliğin etkisiyle değişip dönüşerek şekillenmekte ve farklı tarihsel dönemlerin izlerini taşımaktadırlar. Bu bağlamda tarihi kentler için kaçınılmaz olan yeni yapı, tarihi dokular ile ilgili hassasiyetin ve bilinçlenmenin artmasına bağlı olarak bütün boyutları ile irdelenmektedir. Tarihi mekânlar ve yapılar korunarak kentlerin mimari sürekliliği sağlanabilmektedir. Böylelikle yaşanılabilir ve kimlik sahibi tarihi kent mekânlarının çağdaş mekânlarla bütünleşmesi sağlanmış olur. Tarihi mekânların korunması ve iyileştirilmesi kültürel bir sorun olduğu gibi aynı zamanda sosyal ve ekonomik bir sorun olarak da karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Günümüzde, tarihi yerleşme ve binaların dokusunun bozulması, sosyal ve kültürel yapının değişmesi, ekonomik koşulların getirdiği bakımsızlık ve ilgisizliğin ortaya çıkardığı bir problem olmuştur. Türkiye’deki zengin kültür mirasının önemli bir bölümünü Vakıf eski eserleri oluşturmaktadır. Vakıf eski eserlerinin tarihi, mimari değer ve özellikleri, yapım teknik ve malzemeleri, yapısal durumları, sahiplikleri ve kullanımlarına ilişkin veriler eksik ve dağınık olup; kolay erişilebilir ortamda değildir (Yeğin, 2008). Son yıllarda dünyada olduğu gibi Türkiye’de de önemli açılımlara konu olan restorasyon, ulaşılabilirlik ve akreditasyon kavramlarının mimari tasarımda artık sık sık bir arada irdelenmesi söz konusudur.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Ulaşılabilirlik standartlarının; koruma bağlamında son derece ciddi ve disiplinli bir platformda, tarihi yaşam kalıplarıyla şekillenmiş yapılarda uygulanabilmesi ve ulaşılabilirliğin restorasyon uygulamalarında da sağlanabilmesi başlı başına bir problem arz etmektedir. Tarihi çevre ve tarihi yapıların korunması temelde çağdaş bir kültürel istektir ve toplum kültürünün çağdaşlaşmasına paralel olarak gelişir (Ünver, ve ark.). Türkiye'de eski eser restorasyonunun tarihi oldukça eskidir. Ayasofya strüktürlerini sağlamlaştırmak için yapılan Türk ekleri bir restorasyon eylemiydi. Fossati kardeşlerin yine Ayasofya'daki çalışmaları, Bursa Yeşil Cami'sinin onarılması, restorasyonun ülkemizde de uzun bir geçmişi olduğunu gösteriyor. Fakat günümüzdeki uygulamalara bakacak olursak, bu uzun deneme süresinin bize fazla bir şey öğrettiğini söylemekte güçlük çekeriz. Türkiye'de çok küçük bir uzman veya ilgili grubun dışında kalanlar için restorasyon halâ ve sadece, büyük anıtların tamiri anlamına gelmektedir ( Kuban, 2003). Tarih ya da sanat değeri taşıyan yapıların, doğal değerlerin veya kent parçalarının niteliklerini kaybetmeden yaşamlarını sürdürebilmeleri için gerekli önlemlerin alınması kısacası korunması ve aslını bozmadan onarılması gerekir. Çünkü bunlar önemli tarihsel nitelikleri olan, geleceğe ışık tutan; bir toplumun sosyal, bilimsel, kültürel, sanatsal yaşamı hakkında net sonuçlar verebilecek değerlerdir. Doğan Hasol’un Mimarlık Sözlüğü’nde koruma, “Tarih ya da sanat değeri taşıyan yapıların, doğal değerlerin ya da kent parçalarının yaşamlarını sürdürebilmeleri için gerekli önlemleri alma” olarak tanımlanmıştır. Restorasyon kavramına gelince; sözlük anlamı “aslını bozmadan onarma” olan restorasyonda amaç, koruma kararı alınmış bir yapı veya yapı grubu ile ilgili çeşitli çalışmalar yapıldıktan sonra, anıt onarımı için gerekli tekniklerden yararlanılarak olabildiğince az müdahale ile anıtın tarihi belge ve estetik değerinin korunmasıdır (Akgün, 2005). Koruma kavramının genişleyen bu yeni çerçevesi farklı nitelikteki mimari ürünlerin de içerilmesini, doğal olarak da çeşitlenen kültür varlıklarının büyük oranda müdahale görmelerine neden olmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, restorasyon kavramı da, Türkiye'ye özgü yeni bir tanıma hızla kayma eğilimi göstermekte, uygulamaların niteliği kavramsal çerçeveyi ülke ölçeğinde etkilemektedir. Ancak restorasyon kuramı bağlamında yanıt, bu denli kolay olmamalı ( Asatekin, 95). Genel tanımıyla restorasyon, günümüze ulaşmış anıtsal yapıların bir tarih ve kültür belgesi olarak tüm özgün özellikleri ile ömrünü uzatmak için yapılan mimari ve yapısal müdahalelerin tümüdür. Eski bir yapıyı ayakta tutmak için yapılan müdahale, içerdiği bütün düşünsel, estetik, teknik, kültürel, ekonomik ve örgütsel etkinliklerle birlikte kullanıldığında restorasyon eylemini oluşturmaktadır. Restorasyon; temelde bugün kazandığı bilimsel ve kavramsal içerikten soyutlanırsa, insanların bütün tarihleri boyunca bildikleri tamir etkinliğidir ( Kuban, 2000). Bilimsel restorasyon yapının analitik etüdü ile başlar. Bu etüt üç açıdan yapılır: a. Tarih açısından, b. Estetik açıdan, c. Teknik açıdan (yani strüktür ve konstrüksiyon açısından.) Her üç etüt kendi içinde ayrıca üç düzeyde ele alınır: a. Yapının çevresiyle ilişkisi açısından; b. Yapının bütünü açısından; c. Yapının detayları açısından ( Kuban, 2003). Tarihi eserlerde, yapılacak müdahalenin türüne ve derecesine bağlı olarak korumaya ve anıtsal yapının ömrünü uzatmaya yönelik gerçekleştirilen bu tamirler, restorasyon eylemi olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Restorasyon, yapının belli ölçüde orijinal haline geri götürülmesi, sağlamlaştırılarak ayakta daha uzun süre kalmasını sağlamak olarak tanımlanırken, yapının hem tamirini, hem de beraberinde eski fonksiyonunu devam ettirmesi ya da yapıya yeni bir fonksiyon verilmesini içerir. Restorasyonda yapıya gerek eski fonksiyonunu devam ettirmesi, gerekse yeni bir fonksiyon kazandırılır iken, yapının kullanımının sağlanması koruma kültürünün önemli hecelerindendir. Restorasyonda nadir hallerde, yapının ilk orijinal haline tam bir dönüş sağlayan (Rekonstrüksiyon) işlemi olabileceği gibi, çoğu kez mevcudun korunması amaçlanır. Bu nedenlerle, yapılacak tamir/tamamlama işlemlerinin kapsamı, elbette yapıdaki hasar oranı ile ne seviyede restore edilmek istendiğine sıkı sıkıya bağlantılı olacaktır ( Yılmaz, 2012).

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1. Haci Mahmutağa Mescidi Tarihçesi

Resim 1 : Hacı Mahmut Ağa Mescidi, ( Tanman, 1990)

1481-1512 yılları arasında II.Beyazıd Döneminde yapıldığı tahmin edilen Hacı Mahmut Ağa Mescidi temel kazısına mescit, genişleyen müştemilatlarla devam etmiş ve sonlandırılmıştır. Mescit 1874 tarihinde tevhidhane ile birlikte yeniden yapılmış olup ihtiyaçtan doğmuş olan çeşitli eklerle 1925 yılına dek varlığını sürdürmüştür (Resim – 1).Zamanla mescit doğa koşullarına teslim olmuş, çoğunluğu toprak altında kalan mescidin ve harem kısmının günümüzde sadece mescit duvarları kısmen kalmış ve kazı alanının önceliğini oluşturmuştur. Mescidin Önemi, kurulduğu mahallenin sadece dini bir mekanı olmasının yanı sıra, mahallede bir toplanma meclisi, kıraat mekanı gibi olguları karşılayan bir toplanma yeri olmasından dolayı sosyal bir olgu olarak ele almak gerekmektedir. Çalışma esnasında yapı ve bölümleri arasında mescit, tevhidhane, selamlık, harem, mutfak ve hela üniteleri çıkacağı tahmin edilmektedir. Bu mekanlar bize burası ile ilgili olarak sosyal bir alan olduğu konusunda da mekanı yorumlama fırsatı vermiştir. Mekanın yakın dönemlerde de fonksiyon eklentisi veya ihtiyaç doğrultusunda sıbyan mektebi olarakta kullanıldığı kaynaklarda geçen sıbyan mektebi ile ilgili bir diğer yorum olmuştur. Bize ulaşan bu kalıntılardan yapının temellerine ve o döneme ait buluntulara ulaşarak rölöve, restitüsyon ve restorasyon projeleri hazırlanmıştır.

Resim 2 : Hacı Mahmut Ağa Mescidi ve müştemilat bölümleri planı, ( Tanman, 1990)

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3. Restorasyon Kararlari ve Uygulama 3.1. Haci Mahmut Ağa Mescidi Rölöve Raporuİstanbul İli, Zeytinburnu İlçesi, Mevlevihane Caddesi üzerinde 2931 ada 12 parsel üzerinde bulunmaktadır. Hacı Mahmut Ağa Mescidinin II. Beyazıt döneminde yapıldığı ve 18.yy’ da II. Mahmut döneminde parsel içinde güneybatıya doğru genişleyen bir şekilde mescit sıbyan mektebini de içine alan planimetrik olarak arazide yerini almıştır. İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzesi denetiminde yapılan kazıda yapı temellerine inilmiş ve yapı sistemi konusunda fikir elde edilebilecek şekilde alanda sistematik düzende plansal kurgu açığa çıkarılmıştır. Hacı Mahmut Ağa Mescidi Mevlevihane Caddesine paralel komşu parselin cadde yönüne dikey kesmesiyle kuzeydoğu mescit duvarının kestiği üçgen hazire ile başlamaktadır. Sonrasında güneybatıya doğru 55metrekarelik mescit bölümüyle genişlemiştir. Bu alan yığma moloz taş örgü sistemiyle düzensiz şekilde inşa edilmiştir. Duvarlarda karma düzen dediğimiz moloz taş örgü aralarında almaşık düzene benzeyen ahşap hatıllar kullanıldığını görmekteyiz. Mescit bölümü kuzeydoğu-güneybatı aksında dikdörtgen olarak bulunmaktadır. Haremin temelde kuzeybatı-güneydoğu aksında 40 cm ayırıcı duvarla iki parçaya ayrıldığı görünmektedir. Haremin Güneydoğusunda ahşap hatılların, briket ve moloz taş örgünün hakim olduğu diğer cephelere göre daha fazla müdahale edilmiş bir cephe bulunmaktadır. Bu cephede 287cm yüksekte 110-135cm ebatlarında kareye yakın iki adet pencere bulunmaktadır. Bu pencerelerden sol taraftaki iyi durumda iken sağ taraftaki pencerenin kısmi olarak bütünde varlığını sürdürdüğü görülmektedir. Bu pencereler sol üst taraftan başlayan briket duvar düzeni altında formlar kısmen belli olan şekillerde bulunmaktadır. Bu cephede bir diğer önemli yer de -21 kotunda bulunan kesme taşlardan düzenlenmiş niş açıklığıyla haremin en önemli yeri olan mihraptır. Burası koyu kırmızıya benzer bir renkte taştan düzenlenmiştir. Burada yerlerinden ayrılmış ve kırılmış birçok taş bulunmaktadır. Mihrap cephesinde 118 cm den başlayan ve 280 cm açıklıkla 341 cm yüksekliğinde bir yıkılmış duvar bulunmaktadır. Bu yıkıntı alanının önünde bu alanın günümüzde girişi bulunmaktadır. Bu cephede güneydoğu duvarının yıkılmasına mani olmak için düzenlenmiş ahşap destek ayaklar görülmektedir. Harem bölümünün kuzeydoğu cephesi ise hazire bitişiğinde olan duvarda üç adet pencere bulunmaktadır. Bu pencereler dikdörtgen formlu olup, üzerlerinde tuğla düzenleriyle oluşturulmuş yuvarlak kemerli düzene sahiptir. Buranın yüksekliği 680 cm’dir. Moloz taş cephede kapatılmış pencere içlerinde briket, Horasan sıva ve ahşap yatay hatıllar bulunmaktadır. Kuzeybatı cephesinde ise harem bölümüne son cemaat yerinden girilen harem kapısı bulunmaktadır. Kapı küfeki taş sövelerden çevrelenmiş 150*219 cm olarak yerinde bulunmaktadır. Bu cephede sağ tarafta yıkılmış duvar form üzerinde taş sövelerle 88*125 ebatlarında pencere boşluğu bulunmaktadır. Kısım kısım horasan sıva kalıntılarının görüldüğü bu cephede kapının solunda 115 cm’lik bir açıklık görülmektedir. Cephede malzeme düzenleme analizinde briket hariç diğer özelliklerle paralellik göstermektedir. Güneybatı cephesinde ise moloz taş örgü ve çoğunluğu yıkılmış olan duvar görülmektedir. Temel kazısı sırasında tespit edilmiş yıkılma riskinden dolayı bu cephede duvarın sol tarafına yerden desteklenen koruyucu ahşap destek yapıldığı görülmektedir. Diğer cephelerde bulunan bitkilenme bu cephede de yer yer karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Haremin kuzeydoğu cephesinde 39 m ² bir üçgene benzeyen hazire alanı bulunmaktadır. Burada dört adet Osmanlı dönemi mezar taşı bulunmaktadır. Hazire Mevlevihane Caddesi yönünde küfeki taş kaplama ile çevrilidir. Doğudan ve güneydoğudan sıva kaplı tuğla duvar ile çevrilidir. Hazire güneybatıda üç tane pencere açıklıklı mescit duvarı ve kuzeybatı yönünde devamında oluklu sac levha ile çevrelenmiştir. Bu moloz taş örgü üzeri oluklu sac levha ahşap parçalar ve demir kapı son cemaat yeri mescidin kuzeybatısında bulunmaktadır. Zemini taş örgülü olan bu kısım batıdan komşu bina, kuzeybatı ve kuzeyden Mevlevihane caddesiyle çevrilidir. Güneydoğuda mescit giriş kapısı ile çevrelenmiştir. Bu alan üzeri açık zeminde taş kaplama düzen ile kurgulanmıştır. Bu mekanın kuzeyinde 69*68,5 cm beyaz yek pare taş ağızlıklı, küfeki taş örgülü, üzeri beton kare kapakla örtülü bir kuyu bulunmaktadır. Kuyunun tam önünde 205’e 80 cm yekpare küfeki taş bulunmaktadır. Bu alanda bir adette taş yalak bulunmaktadır. Güneybatı aksında devamla güneydoğu cephesinde yapıya girişte karşımıza çıkan bölümle devam edecek olursak 50 cm duvar kalınlığıyla 5,5 m ² bir alana sahip kareye yakın bir alan karşımıza çıkar. Temel sınırlarıyla günümüze gelebilmiş olan mekan bütünle paralel olarak, karma düzen moloz taş düzenle oluşturulmuştur. Buranın güneybatısında kuzeybatı-güneydoğu aksında müştemilatın sofası olduğunu tahmin ettiğimiz yığma taştan oluşturulmuş, dikdörtgen hacimli 22 m ² bir alan olarak karşımıza çıkar. Burada duvar kalınlığı 50 cm olarak uygulanmıştır. Buranın güneydoğusunda dikdörtgen 2,5 m ² zemini sarı renkli özel bir döşeme taş ile oluşturulan avlu tarzı bir özellik gösteren küçük bir alan olarak karşımıza çıkar. 50 cm duvar kalınlığıyla devam eden mekan kurgularında mekanlar, güneydoğu yönünden itibaren güneydoğu-kuzeybatı aksında büyükten küçüğe doğru sıralanmaktadır. Kuzeybatı-güneydoğu aksında sıralanan mekanlar içinde güneydoğuda en büyük mekanla başladığımızda burası kuzeydoğu-güneybatı aksında dikdörtgen, 50 cm duvar kalınlığına sahip 18 m ² bir alan olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Zemini toprak olan mekanın temel duvarları moloz taş olarak düzenlenmiştir. Buranın kuzeybatısında bir önceki mekan ile bitişik daha küçük çaplı mekana geçilmektedir. Bu diğer mekan 11 m ² bir alanda yer almaktadır. Batı duvarında bir kısmı yıkılmıştır. Kuzeybatıda da iç mekan duvarlarından bir kısım yıkılmıştır. Duvarlar moloz taştan oluşturulmuştur. Kuzeybatıdaki son küçük alanın mekan düzenleri içinde WC olduğunu tahmin 264 Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC)  www.iste‐c.net 

 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   etmekteyiz. 50 cm duvar kalınlığına sahip 1 m ²’ye yakın alanıyla, zemini toprak olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Mescit harici zemin üzeri duvar göremediğimiz için mescit çevresindeki mekanlar temel duvarları ile dikkate alınmıştır. Kuzeybatıda WC bölümünün dışında L şekilli olarak kuzeydoğu-güneybatı aksında bir moloz taş duvarda tespit edilmiştir.

3.2. Haci Mahmut Ağa Mescidi Restitüsyon Raporu Söz konusu binaya ilişkin ekte sunulan kaynaklar, binanın eski fotoğrafı, binada yaşayan kişinin verdiği bilgiler, fotoğraflar ve yerinde yapılan incelemelerin değerlendirilmesi sonucu restitüsyon projesi hazırlanmıştır. Mescid kısmı ile ilgili olarak kalıntıdan mescidin giriş kapısı, giriş kotu, doluluk boşluk alanları, mihrap yeri, ahşap döşeme izleri, saptanmıştır. Son cemaat yeri ekteki fotoğraftan yararlanılarak önerilmiştir. Mevcut pencere boşluklarından son cemaat yerinin mescidin yüksekliği hesaplanabilmiştir (Resim – 3). Son cemaat mahallinin giriş kapısını kesmesinden dolayı içeriden basamak yapılmıştır. Binanın köşesinde bulunan köşe çalığı ve görgü tanığının tarifinden son cemaatin giriş katında mescid duvarından daha içeride olduğu anlaşılmıştır.

Resim 3 : Mescit Kuzey-doğu Sol Yan Yüz İç Görünüşü Yine görgü tanığının tarifinde anlatılan ahşap sütunun son cemaatin üst katta çıkan cumbasını taşıdığı anlaşılmıştır. Üst kata çıkan ahşap merdiven de görgü tanığının tarifine göre yerleştirilmiştir. Mescit ile ek binalar arasındaki kot farkı yaşayan kişinin tarif ettiği geniş doğal taş basamaklarla çözülmüştür. Ekteki fotoğrafta görüldüğü gibi ahşap olan son cemaat yerinin giriş cephesinde giriş kapısının iki yanında pencere tarif edilmiştir ( Resim – 4). İçerideki döşemenin ahşap olduğu belirtilmiştir. Sol yan cephede ise üst kat penceresinin iki adet olduğu kaynaklardan anlaşılmıştır.

Resim 4 : son cemaat yerinin giriş cephesi Mescidin taş söveli giriş kapısı ve taş söveli pencere doğramaları ahşap olarak önerilmiştir. Sol yan cephede bulunan taş söveli bir pencere ile diğer iki pencere doğramaları ekteki fotoğrafta da görüldüğü gibi düzenlenmiştir.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Mescidin arka cephesinde kaynaklarda yer alan mihrap yanında iki pencere ve niş tarife göre çizilmiştir. Niş arkasındaki ahşap bölme kaynaktan yararlanılarak önerilmiştir. Döşemenin ahşap olduğuna yapım sisteminden ve yaşayan kişinin tarifinden anlaşılmaktadır. Duvarlar içeride ve dışarıda sıvalıdır. Ancak köşe çalığının bulunduğu kısım kesme taştan yapıldığı için sıvasız olduğu düşünülmüştür. Kadınlar mahfilinin yeri görgü tanığının tarifi ile kesinleşmiştir. İçeriden ahşap bir merdivenle ahşap direkler üstünde taşınan kadınlar mahfilinden görgü tanığını anlatımı ile ek binaya geçildiği anlaşılmıştır (Resim – 5). Kadınlar mahfilinden mescide bakan kafesli açıklıklar önerilmiştir. Mescit tavan döşemesinde sade ahşap paşalı tavan önerilmiştir. Ahşap çatı alaturka kiremit ile kaplıdır. Kaynaklarda belirtildiği gibi son cemaat ile tek çatı altında birleştirilmiştir.

Resim 5: Kadınlar Mahfili Ahşap Çıkış Merdiveni Temel kalıntısı mevcut olan ek binada duvar ve temel izlerinden plan şeması anlaşılmaktadır ( (Resim – 6 ). İç donanımında ekteki kaynakta giriş kapısı, lavabonun yeri, odalardaki dolaplar, tarif edilmektedir. Yaşayan kişi ise merdivenin yerini, hela, lavabo kısmını, pencere sayılarını, sağır duvarları anlatmıştır. Eski fotoğraflardan duvarların ahşap yalı baskısı kaplamalı ve bu kaplamanın zemin seviyesinde başladığı görülmektedir.

Resim 6: Temel Kalıntısı Bu kaynaklara göre hazırlanan bina ahşap karkas ve iki katlıdır. Son cemaatle aynı yönde olan zemin kata giriş kapısı iki kanatlı ahşap olarak önerilmiş olup, bir sofaya açılmaktadır. Sofanın sağ tarafında lavabo, hela, yıkanma yeri tarif edilmiş ve temel izlerinden de yeri tahmin edilebilmektedir. Lavabonun önünde bir ahşap bölme olduğu yaşayan kişi tarafından belirtilmiştir. Aynı yönde iki oda yer almaktadır. Her odada kapı üstünde de devam eden yüklükler bulunmaktadır. Birinci odada sağ yan cephede iki pencere, İkinci odada sağ yan cephede üç pencere, arka cephede bir pencere önerilmiştir. Binanın arka cephesinde sofadan çıkılan bahçe kapısı yeri bahçedeki taş döşemeden tahmin edilerek önerilmiştir. Ahşap duvarlar dışarıda yalı baskısı kaplıdır içeride bağdadi sıvalıdır.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Zemin kat döşemesi ve tavan döşemesi ahşap olup döneminde yaygın olan sade bir tavan önerilmiştir. Sofanın sol tarafındaki kısım da merdiven olduğu ve merdiven altının kullanıldığı yaşayan kişi tarafından anlatılmıştır. Ahşap merdivenin sahanlık seviyesinde kadınlar mahfiline geçiş olduğu belirtildiğinden bu düzenleme sağlanmıştır. Birinci kata çıkıldığında yaşayan kişinin tarifinde merdivenin sağ tarafının kullanıldığını anlatmıştır. Bu nedenle cumba önerilmiştir ve bu cumbanın altında ahşap dikme olduğunu ifade etmiştir. O nedenle payandaya gerek duyulmamıştır. Alt kat şeması yukarıda da aynen devam etmiştir. Odalar aynı düzendedir. Yer ve tavan döşemesi ahşaptır. Üst kat tavan döşemesi dekoratif olarak önerilmiştir. Dış cephede basit bir profilli ahşap saçak silmesi önerilmiştir. Dönemine uygun olarak ahşap çatı sistemi alaturka kiremit ile kaplıdır.

3.3. Kullanilan Yöntemler Hacı Mahmut Ağa Tekkesi ve Mescidi kalıntısı ve elde edilen dokümanlar değerlendirilerek hazırlanan restitüsyon projesine uygun olarak restorasyon projesi hazırlanmıştır. Binanın taş temeli mevcut olup, kalıntı temizlenerek projeye uygun bir şekilde horasan harç ve orijinal malzemenin özeliklerinde kaba moloz taş ile sağlamlaştırılmıştır (Resim – 7). Mescide ait olan mevcut duvarlar ise numaralandırılarak sökülmek suretiyle yeniden örülmek üzere öncelikle kenara istiflenmiştir. Kullanılabilir molozlar ayrılarak aslına uygun şekilde örülerek yetersiz kalan malzemelerin yerlerine orijinal malzemeye uygun olacak şekilde yeni malzemeler getirilerek kullanılmıştır( Resim – 8). Eksik malzeme aynı nitelikteki yeni malzeme ile tamamlanmıştır. Kapı ve pencere taş söveleri kullanılabilir durumda olduğundan tekrar kullanılmıştır, ancak tuğla pencere kemerleri taşıyıcı özelliğini yitirdiğinden dolayı aynı nitelikte yeni malzeme ile değiştirilmiştir. Ahşap yapı elemanları ise hiç kalmadığından projeye uygun şekilde yeni imalat yapılmıştır (Resim -9). Mescidin kalıntılarından ahşap döşeme kirişlerinin yerleri belli olduğundan dolayı üretilen kirişler izleri doğrultusunda yerlerine oturtulmuştur. Ahşap yapı ise mevcut temeller üzerine aynen yeniden yapılacaktır.

Resim 7: Moloz Taş Örülmesi

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Resim 8: Mescidin Mevcut Moloz Taş Duvarının Tamamlanması

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Resim 9: Mescidin genel görünümü Özgün yapıdan farklı olarak her iki bölümde de zemin ve çatı yalıtımı yapılarak yapı suya karşı korunmak istenmiştir( Resim – 10). Ahşap yapıda ahşap çatı sistemi ve alaturka kiremit kaplama kullanılmış ve gizli dere sistemi uygulayarak çinko yağmur olukları yapılmıştır. Hacı Mahmut Ağa Tekkesi ve Mescidi genel görünümü ( Resim – 11) de görülmektedir.

Resim 10 : Çatı yalıtımı görünümü

Resim 11: Hacı Mahmut Ağa Tekkesi ve Mescidi genel görünümü

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4. Sonuç Ve Değerlendirme Geçmiş medeniyetlerin içerisinde bulundukları dönemde sanat, kültür, estetik, ihtiyaç, malzeme ve yapım tekniği ile biçimlenmiş tarihi mescitler, korunması ve yaşatılması gerekli kültürel varlıklarımızdandır. Restorasyon uygulaması ile yapının zamanla yaşadığı olumsuzluklar nedeniyle içine girdiği bozulma ve yok olma sürecinden kurtulması, yapılan uygulamalar ile önlenmiştir. Yapının projelendirme ve uygulama aşamasında özgünlüğünün korunmasına, geleneksel malzeme, teknik ve yapım sisteminin uygulanmasına çaba gösterilmiştir. Proje aşamasında belirlenen izler ve geçmişte bölgede yaşayan görgü tanıklarının da bilgilerine başvurulması sonucu ortaya çıkartılan mescidin ikinci katı ve taşıyıcı sistemlerinin ahşap olarak belirlenmesi ile yapı özgün haline getirildi.

KAYNAKÇA Ahmet Bey, Binada Yaşamış olan kişi ve arşiv fotoğrafları. Akgün H. G. (2005)."Restorasyon ve Koruma Bağlamında İki Somut Örnek; Bakibey Konağı ve Taşoda", 1. Burdur Sempozyumu, Burdur Eğitim Fakültesi, Bildiriler Cilt 2, s. 1320-1325. Asatekin, G. Türkiye'de Kuram/Kılgı İlişkileri - I Restorasyon' Teriminin Yüklendiği Yeni Anlam, ‘95/266-Mimarlık-66. Demirel, İ., E. (1998). İstanbul Tekkeleri Mimarisi Eklentileri Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü

ve Restorasyonu, (Doktora Tezi),

Kuban, D. (2000). “Tarihi Çevre Korumanın Mimarlık Boyutu” YEM Yayınları, İstanbul). Kuban, D. ( 2003). Modern Restorasyon İlkeleri Üzerine Yorumlar, Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü Yayınları, Vakıflar Dergisi, Ocak 196 Sayı: VIII Ayrı Baskı Öz, T. İstanbul Camileri, Cilt I-II., Türk Tarih Kurumu, Sf. 65 Tanman, B. (1990). İstanbul Tekkelerinin Mimari ve Süsleme Özellikleri Tipoloji Denemeleri, Sanat Tarihi Doktora Tezi, İÜ Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul 1990, s. 824 – 826 Ünver, H. (2014). Yamaçlı, R., Ve Tokman, L., Y., (2014). Mimari Tasarımda Restorasyon Ve Ulaşılabilirlik: Akreditasyon İhtiyacı, Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi, 2 (2014) 295–306) Yeğin, M. (2008). Geleneksel Yapıların Restorasyonunda Malzeme, Teknoloji ve Tekniklerin Araştırılması ve Geliştirilmesi, Üniversite-Sanayi İşbirliği Merkezleri Platformu (USİMP) Üniversite Sanayi İşbirliği Ulusal Kongresi, Adana. Yılmaz, İ. (2012). Osmanlı Dönemi Mimarlık Eserleri Restorasyon İnşaat Maliyetlerinin Yapay Zeka Yöntemleri İle Tahmini, Doktora Tezi, Tez Danışmanı: Dikmen, S., Ü., Ana Bilim Dalı: İnşaat Mühendisliği, Programı: Proje Yönetimi, İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü.

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HOT EXTRUSION CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMI SOLID MG-10AL-0.3MN ALLOY   Minsu Jo1, Dae-hwan Kim2, Su-gun Lim3 1

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2

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Abstract:In this study, hot extrusion characteristics of semi-solid Mg-10Al-0.3Mn alloys during hot extrusion at different temperature were investigated. The hot extrusion was direct extrusion and performed at an extrusion temperature from 300 to 380oC under ram speed of 2.4mm·s-1 and extrusion ratio of 19.In order to inspect the extrusion quality after hot extrusion, the surface of the extruded Mg10Al-0.3Mn alloys was observed with a digital and optical microscope. Hot extrusion results, all extruded round bar was significantly sound and its surface was similar to mirror. In the case of Mg10Al-0.3Mn alloy extruded at extrusion temperature of 300oC, its tensile strength showed approximately 327MPa at room temperature and the highest tensile properties compared to other hot extruded bars. The experimental results showed that tensile temperature and extrusion condition have significant effect on the peak flow stress.  Keywords: Hot extrusion, semi-solid alloy, Mg-10Al-0.3Mn, cooling plate 

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IMMOBILIZATION OF GLUTAMINASE ENZYME FROM HYPOCRIA JECORINA ON POLYACRYLIC ACID: PREPARATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION  Emine Karakuş1, Mesut Karahan2, Neşe Atacı3 1 2

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[email protected]  3

[email protected] 

Abstract: Enzymes and polyelectrolytes (PE) in the presence of transient metal ions (Fe3+, Ba2+, Cu2+, etc.) compose the water-soluble and water-insoluble ternary polycomplexes. Such polyelectrolyte (PE)-metal (M)-protein polycomplexes (PMC) have been obtained by simple mixing of solutions of proteins, metal ions, and PE in water at different pH values. This method consists of the use of small concentrations of metal additives, which promote PE binding to protein molecule without causing any unexpected changes in the chemical structure of components. These studies revealed that in the presence of metal ions many nitrogen- and carboxyl-containing PE can form ternary PMC with different proteins [1,2].   Immobilization of enzymes has been taken to improve catalytic stability of enzymes and can expand the application of the neutral catalysts. There are many materials, including synthetic organic polymers, biopolymers, hydrogels, inorganic supports, and smart polymers, to be used to immobilize to enzyme, and good activity retention, and enhanced thermostability are often observed [3]. A range of functional groups which can be used in the covalent immobilization of enzymes include amino, hydroxyl, carboxyl and phenolic groups. The physical structure and chemical composition of support can also influence the microenvironment of the immobilized species and consequently their biological properties [4].  L-Glutaminase (L-glutamine amidohydrolase E.C 3.5.1.2) is widely distributed in animal tissues, plants and microorganisms including bacteria, fungi and yeast. L-glutaminase is a hydrolytic enzyme, that hydrolises L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid and ammonium ions [5]. L-glutaminase is used as a flavor enhancing in food industry, enzyme therapy for cancer [6,7].  In this work, polyacrylic acid (PAA) was selected immobilization matrix for the immobilization of our produced glutaminase enzyme from Hypocrea jecorina in the presence of Cu 2+ ions in aqueous solution.   The immobilized enzyme was characterized by determining kinetic constants, optimum pH and temperature, thermal and storage stability. The properties of the PAA-glutaminase enzyme from Hypocrea jecorina-Cu+2 complex were compared to those of free enzyme. The effect of various factors such as pH, temperature, heat and storage stability on immobilized enzyme were investigated. Kinetic parameters of the immobilized enzyme (Km and Vmax values) were also determined.  Keywords: L-Glutaminase; Microorganism; Enzyme production; Polyacrylic acid; Ternary metal complexes; Immobilization. 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY USE TOWARDS THE AGGRESSİON AND ANGER IN ADOLESCENTS  Mehmet Çağlar1, Emete Gerçel2 1

[email protected]  2

[email protected] 

Abstract: Individuals' communication values through using technology have changed substantially. While communication has simplified through technology, this convenience has brought in a lot of negativity. Today's technological tools as mobile phone, internet, computer and telephone has been involved in human life at very early ages, and this has affected people without them knowing. They considered such use of technological communication tools so naturally and, it has caused them to perceive as a part of their life and culture.  It is considered that the technology's negative effects on individuals' behaviour like anger and aggression causes the emergence of other problems. For this purpose, " Assessment of Technology's Effects on Adolescent Aggression and Anger" is intended for this study, which was applied to determine the opinions of students.  The population involved total 215 students studying during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 academic year in a public school Lefkoşa Türk Lisesi and a private school Near East College in TRNC, Nicosia.  The survey was carried out in order to create a situation assessment about whether the use of technology on adolescents is effective on behaviour like anger and aggression. This research is a "Relational Scan" model that is located within the general screening models. It also is a descriptive study.  Whether the factors affecting the use of technology, which was attempted to determine with quantitative research models used change according to the demographic characteristics of students were examined in this study. With this aspect, this research can also be called Comparative Case Study. For quantitative data obtained from the analysis of data collected by survey and scale, SPSS 16 software was used and correlation, T_ test and F test statistics were used. In the analysis, the significance level was taken as p <0.5.  According to the obtained data, students' use of technological tools affects anger and aggression. There is a significant difference between students' gender and their use of technological tools. Also the use of technological tools is higher among the female students than male students.  Keywords: Technology, adolescent, anger and aggression. 

270   

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

INDEPENDENT COLLEGE, A UNIQUE INNOVATION, IN THE HISTORY OF CHINESE HIGHER EDUCATIİON: THE TEN-YEAR PRACTICE AND EXPLORATION OF NANKAI UNIVERSITY BINHAI COLLEGE Ting Wen1, Min Guo2, Dongsheng Zhang3 1

[email protected] 2

3

[email protected]

[email protected]

Abstract: Independent college is widely regarded as an unique innovation in the history of Chinese higher education with its advantages of “excellent education, independent administration and private ownership”. Born and developed in the popularizing process of Chinese higher education, independent college has made remarkable achievements and outstanding contributions to Chinese higher education after 15-year hard work and great efforts. With the deepening of all-round reform in Chinese education, independent college now faces a grave challenge to its existence and development. Catching the opportunity when government introduces new policies, living up to the expectations of students and their parents, deepening the reform and innovation, realizing the goal of building high-level independent college through reform and innovation–all have become important tasks for us to study and solve. This thesis is based on the ten-year practice and exploration of Nankai University Binhai College and the rational analysis of founding background, types and existing problems of independent colleges. It studies the university-running model, which features the cooperation with Chinese government, prestigious universities listed in 211 Project and 985 Project, the government of economically developed areas and leading enterprises. Therefore the sustainable and healthy development of independent college will be unswervingly promoted. Keywords: Independent college; Chinese higher education; A unique innovation

271   

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

INFLUENCE OF ANNEALING ATMOSPHERE ON THE HFO2 BASED GAS SENSORS Irmak Karaduman1, Özlem Barin2, Metin Özer3, Esra Yıldız4, Selim Acar5 1

[email protected] 2

[email protected] 3 4

[email protected]

[email protected] 5

[email protected]

Abstract: With the development of modern industry, environmental problems are an increasing threat to human health and safety. A large proportion of air-polluting gases are nitrogen oxides such as NO2. Environmental monitoring and protection are widespread concerns worldwide. In many fields, such as environmental stewardship, energy management, car design, food safety, and medical care, demands are increasing for various types of high-performance gas sensors. Therefore, the study of various types of gas detection with rapidly reversing response, which can detect low concentrations of gas, especially nitrogen oxide, has become increasingly prominent [1-2]. Desirable qualities such as high sensitivity, selectivity, and speed of response of the sensors are important for gas sensing applications. To be able to realize a sensor fulfilling these demands, further development of the materials comprising the different materials is necessary [3]. Recently, metal oxide semiconductors are used for gas sensing applications. The sensitivity of metal oxide semiconductors are influenced by many characteristic properties such as their operating temperatures, morphology, chemical composition of the films, UV light treatment and production methods [3].The atmosphere of annealing is one of the important parameters for enhancing the gas sensing properties. When the atmosphere of annealing becomes rich in oxygen and the oxygen vacancy is disappeared, a clear shift toward the response of gas. However, the atmosphere of annealing is N2, the more oxygen vacancies occur. So, annealing treatment change the surface stoichiometry and these changes of oxygen vacancies affect the adsorption behaviors of gas molecules on metal oxide surface. In this study HfO2/p-Si thin films are produced by Atomic Layer Deposition Method and investigated gas sensing properties towards NO and NO2 gas. The morphologies of thin films were examined as a function of annealing atmosphere conditions: N2 compared to oxygen which is at 800 C. It can be clearly seen from results, the electrical response depended strongly on the annealing atmosphere and oxygen vacancies. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK) under Project No, 114F074 and Gazi University Scientific Research Fund under project no 05/2015-02 [1] H.Ming, J. Ding-Li, L. Qing-Lin, L. Ming-Da, S. Peng, ‘Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the room-temperature NO2-sensing properties of WO3 thin films under LED radiation’, Chin. Phys. B Vol. 22, No. 6 (2013) 068204 [2]A. Arfaoui, B. Ouni , S. Touihri, A. Mhamdi , A. Labidi , T. Manoubi’ Effect of annealing in a various oxygen atmosphere on structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of MoxOy thin films’Optical Materials 45 (2015) 109–120 [3] R.Sun , H.-Y. Zhang , G.-G. Wang , J.-C. Han , X.-Z. Wang, X.-P. Kuang , L.Cui, L. Jin , J.-L. Tian, Influence of annealing atmosphere on the structure, morphology and transmittance of Nincorporated Ga2O3 films, Superlattices and Microstructures 60 (2013) 257–262 Keywords: Gas Sensor, HfO2,NO2

272   

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

INVESTIGATION OF EVAPORATIVE COOLING EFFECTIVENESS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AIR – COOLED CHILLERS İbrahim Atmaca1, Sezgi Koçak Soylu2, Ayla Doğan3 1 2 3

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

Abstract: The cooling performance of air-cooled systems highly depends on ambient air conditions. It is widely known that, the performance of the system decreases when the inlet air temperature increases. This effect especially occurs in summer when the ambient air temperature is high and the cooling load is at its peak value. In order to decrease the inlet air temperature, evaporative cooling can be used. Evaporative coolers can be well combined with air-cooled chillers to decrease the inlet air temperature of condenser. Evaporative cooling is simple and economical way for cooling the inlet air since it does not require any mechanical refrigeration and consumes very low power by fan and pump. Therefore combining these two systems can be considered as energy efficient method. As known, evaporative cooling performance strongly depends on the effectiveness of the evaporative cooler. In this study, studies on air cooled chillers with evaporatively cooled condenser have been assessed and the evaporative cooling effectiveness on the performance of air – cooled chillers is investigated. Keywords: evaporative cooling, effectiveness, air-cooled chillers

273   

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

INVESTIGATION OF NEUTRON SHIELDING WITH BORON CONCRETE ADDITIVE Hakan Sarıkaya1, Raşit Altındağ2 1

[email protected] 2

[email protected]

Abstract: Natural resources have an important role in the economical development of the countries. Today economical development is in connection with the amount of mineral resources that a country owns and the consumption of those mineral products. As a result of the researches in the total boron reserves of the world the share of our country is 72,2 %. In this study, by using boron minerals in different proportions, featured concretes inclined towards different purposes have been produced and the neutron holding coefficients of the produced concretes have been investigated. In the measurements NaI (Tl) type neutron gamma detector 5 Ci'lik 239 Pu-Be (alpha-n) neutron source has been used. Consequently, investigating the producibility of featured concrete that can be used in various engineering structures, a distinctive approach has been put forward for the use of boron minerals a great amount of which our country owns. Ulexite and colemanite boron compounds added in the concrete have been observed to increase neutron holdind of concrete. Keywords: Boron, Concrete, Neutron Shielding

274   

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

INVESTIGATION OF NEW CHEMICALS THAT CAN BE USED INSTEAD OF SODA IN TEXTILE Aydın Tavman1, Adem Çınarlı2, Reşat Uca3 1

[email protected] 2

[email protected] 3

[email protected]

Abstract: Dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes is carry out at pH=11 with using soda (Na2CO3). In the process, 15 – 20 kg soda is used for every 100 kg of cotton. Consequently, quite a lot of soda is released to environment, particularly into water. Therefore, the waste load of soda is too much in textile. In a dyeing process, 170 – 220 litres of water are used to remove one kilo of soda from cotton after dyeing. During the dyeing process, a textile factory spends approximately two tons of water in one day. To remove the soda, near 400 tons of water are needed. In this study, the chemicals that can be used instead of soda were investigated to decrease the amount of waste water. We investigated saving of water, energy and time by using some traditional products instead of soda which serve the same purpose. According to the obtained results, the process is completed with less impurity, less energy and much less water according to soda. Keywords: Cotton, Soda, New chemicals, Textile dyeing, Water and energy saving

275   

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

INVESTIGATION OF PHYSICAL COMFORT CONDITIONS AND USERS’ SATISFACTION IN COTTAGE HOSPITALS: THE CASE OF NİLÜFER, BURSA,TURKEY Filiz Şenkal Sezer1, Yasemin Erbil2 1 2

[email protected]

[email protected]

Abstract: Health structures are institutions; which is designed to contribute to the health of a society and included necessary diagnosis and treatment units in this regard. Family health centers as known as cottage hospitals are established in the first step of these organizations in Turkey. Today, public family health center buildings provide the climatic, audial and visual comfort in some standarts. However, users are not satisfied from provided conditions and they always voice some problems. In this study is aimed assessment of indoor comfort conditions with the opinion of users regarding dimensional use, indoor temperature, thermal comfort, indoor air quality, audial comfort, natural ventilation and natural lighting condition. to determine user satisfaction during using buildings is a commonly used method in terms more efficient use of current buildings and to direct to future desings. Research methods of this study; literature review of the subject which is analysed and reviewing on the information fields related to indoor space requirements, preparing a questionnaire for the user experience’s feedback in designed area, evaluating the survey stage in order to understand the degree of satisfaction of space performance requirements was defined. Nilüfer is selected area for survey, is the province of Bursa which is the Turkey's 4th largest city. Selecting the most heavily used in 10 of a total of 26 family health centers in Nilufer district, 100 people of each center's as total 1,000 people were interviewed. 14 questions were asked to users. The data obtained from the questions which is related demographics features, dimensional use, indoor temperature, thermal comfort, indoor air quality, natural ventilation and natural lighting condition, audial comfort is evaluated by the chart. The obtained data under this study will open new horizons to design the new health centers and would help the designers and authorities about current arrangements is being considered. Keywords: Family health centers, cottage hospital, thermal comfort, indoor air quality, natural lighting, audial comfort.

276   

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

İNSAN DOĞAL ORTAM ETKİLEŞİMİ BAKIMINDAN GELENEKSEL HARRAN KUBBE EVLERİ Abdulkadir GÜZEL1, Mehmet ÖZCANLI2 1

Harran Üniversitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fak. Coğrafya Bölümü, Türkiye [email protected] 2 Harran Üniversitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fak. Coğrafya Bölümü, Türkiye [email protected] Özet: İnsanların eliyle oluşturulan kır hayatının en karakteristik eseri olan yerleşmeleri oluşturan meskenlar (konut), çeşitli eklentileriyle bir bütünlük oluştururlar. İnsan’ın gelişmesi ve farklı coğrafi ortamlarda varlığını devam ettirebilme çabası genellikle bir mesken içinde olur. Mesken; insanların dışarıdan gelen tehlikelerden korunmak, değişik karakterdeki atmosferik olayların olumsuzluklarından etkilenmemek, aile bireylerini güven içinde koruyabilmek, dinlenmek, ürettiği veya satın aldığı alet, edevat, yiyecek ve içeceğini güvenli bir alanda tutabilmek amacıyla yapmış olduğu tesislerdir. Yeryüzünde topraktan, ağaçtan, taştan, mağaradan, çadırdan, karavandan vb. maddelerden yapılmış iyi kötü bir konutta insanın sığınmış olması, insan ile konut arasındaki ilişkilerin önemini göstermesi bakımından önemlidir. Gerek Iraktaki Arkeolojik kazılardan elde edilen verilerden, Suriye steplerinde, Arabistan’da ve İtalya ile İrlanda gibi ülkelerde benzerlerini görebildiğimiz Harran Kubbe Evleri doğal faktörlerden; Jeolojik özellikler, iklim tipi, doğal bitki örtüsü, ekonomik faaliyetler, sosyal yapı vb. özelliklerin etkisiyle meydana getirilmişlerdir. Yerleşme ve meskenlerin sosyal yanını ise aile denilen örgüt meydana getirmektedir. Çünkü gelenek ve göreneklerin yanı sıra dini inançların da sözü edilen meskenlerin oluşumu üzerinde derin etkileri bulunmaktadır. Bu kubbeli evlerin oluşumunda birçok faktörün etkisi olmasının rağmen belirgin faktör iklim ve doğal ortamdan temin edilen yapı malzemesidir. Sözü edilen bu konutlar soğuk kutup bölgelerinde kış mevsimin de ikamet amacıyla yapılan igloo’lara hem şekilsel hem de yaşanabilirlik yönünden benzer özellikler taşırlar. En eski kubbeli Harran evlerinin duvarları (yaz mevsiminde hava sıcaklığının gündüz 50 C yi geçtiği bir sahada) yere tamamen gömülmüş olup kubbeler yerden itibaren yükselirler. Sözü edilen evler yaz mevsiminde yere gömülmüş olmakla sıcaktan korunmuş olmalarının yanında, gündüz ancak kubbelerinin yarısı güneşi gördüğünden sıcaklığa karşı korunaklıdırlar. Yerden itibaren üç metre yüksekliğindeki kubbelerin üstü açık olduğundan dolayı içeride ısınarak yükselen hava kubbe deliğinden sirkülasiyon sağladığından dolayı mekân serinler. Ayrıca bu civarda yaz mevsiminde hakim rüzgar yönü olan kuzey istikametine açılan nisbeten büyük pencerelerlerden gelen rüzgar güneye doğru açılan küçük pencerelerden hızlanarak sirküle olduğundan mesken yaşanabilir bir özellik alır. Doğal ortamdan temin edilen alivyal toprakların saman ve tuzla karıştırılması sonucu elde edilen çamurların sıcak yaz günlerinde kalıplar içinde kurutulmasıyla meydana getirilen kerpiçler bu yapılardaki duvarların örülmesinde kullanılır. Yazın çadırlarda yaşayan Eskimolar kışın sıcaklıkların -65-70 C düştüğü, dondurucu rüzgârların etkili olduğu bir mevsiminde kardan yaptıkları kubbeli evlere çekilirler. Çünkü insanların yaşadıkları bu çevrede meskenlerin inşasında kardan başka kullanılabilecekleri bir malzeme yoktur. Bu meskende İnsan Vücudundan ve yemek pişirme esnasında tencereden çıkan sıcak hava yükselip kubbenin içine hapsolacaktır. Soğuk hava ise alçalacağı için tünel yoluyla dışarı atılacaktır. Ancak iglooların kubbelerine Harran evlerinde olduğu gibi havalandırma delikleri de açılmaktadır. Meskenin dışı soğuk ve rüzgârlı olsa da, oksijensizlikten boğulmamak için tavana en az bir tane hava deliği açılır. Havalandırma deliklerinin açılmaması durumunda mekân içinde karbon monoksit zehirlenmeleri olabilir. Sözü edilen “igloo” ve “kubbeli Harran evleri” birbirinden tamamen farklı özellikler arz eden iki iklim kuşağında bulunmalarına rağmen insanın doğal ortamı kullanması bakımından aynı özellikleri taşımaktadırlar. Kubbeli Harran evleri geleneksel dokuları tarihi özellikleriyle insan doğal ortam etkileşimine örnek verilebilecek ilginç yapılardır. Bu yapılar belirli bir işletme modeli çerçevesinde turizm faaliyetlerine açılarak, eskiler korunmalı, yenilerin yapılmasına uygun ortamlar hazırlanmalıdır. Sadece koruma altına almakla bunların uzun süre korunmalarına imkân yoktur. Çünkü ekonomik anlamada değer ifade edebilen her nesne zamanın yıpratıcı etkilerine karşı kendini koruyabilmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Harran Kubbe Evleri, Doğal ortam mesken ilişkisi, Yerleşme Coğrafyası

277   

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN TERMS OF HUMAN INTERACTION HARRAN DOME OF TRADITIONAL HOUSES Abstract:Human hand created the most characteristic work of rural life settlements that those premises (residential) to form a unity with various add-ons. The development and the efforts to maintain its presence in different geographical contexts, usually in a human dwelling. residential; people to be protected from threats coming from the outside, to be affected by negative atmospheric phenomena in different character family to keep in trust the individual, relax, product, or instrument purchased, tools are facilities that have made the food and drink in order to keep in a safe area. Earth, earth, wood, stone, caves, tents, etc. from the caravan. In the best of a bad housing have sought refuge from the man-made substances is important because it shows the importance of the relationship between the human subject. The data obtained from archaeological excavations in Iraq, the Syrian steppes, Dome Houses Harran can see the like in countries such as Ireland and Italy to Arabia of natural factors; Geological features, climates, natural vegetation, economic activities, social structure and so on. They were generated due to the properties. The settlement and the social side of abode constitute organization called the family. Because of traditions and customs, as well as religious beliefs are profound effect on the formation of abode mentioned. Despite the many factors that influence the formation of this dome home is a significant factor in climate and natural environment that supplied building materials. It said it made the igloo housing in order to reside in the winter cold polar regions have similar characteristics in terms of both formal as well as their viability. Harran home of the oldest domed walls (summer daytime temperatures of 50 C to a field in late season) is completely embedded in the ground domes are rising from the ground. Being buried in the ground next to the summer houses said to be protected from heat, protected from the heat during the day but often he saw the dome of the midnight sun. It provides sirkülasiyo three meters in height from the ground from the top of the dome is open due to the rising air inside heats the dome hole for space cooling. Also in this neighborhood is a habitable dwelling is circulated dominant feature of accelerated summer wind coming from the south towards the small window opened relatively large windows opening to the northern direction of the wind direction. The adobe bricks drying in the mold formed on hot summer days is obtained from the natural environment as a result of alivyal territory of straw and mud mixed salts used to built the walls in this building. Summer the Eskimos living in tents -65-70 C where winter temperatures fall, freezing winds and snow a season attracted to their home dome to be effective. There is no other material can be used in the construction of the surrounding residential snow because people live. This residence will be trapped inside the dome of hot air rising from the pan during cooking and the Human Body. The cold air will be exhausted through the tunnel to be lowered. However, as in Harran ventilation holes on the dome of the igloo house was opened. The exterior of the dwelling is cold and windy, though, at least one vent in the ceiling opens to asphyxiate. In case of carbon monoxide poisoning could be the opening of the vent hole in space. Said "igloo" and "domes Harran houses" each other despite the presence of two climate zones completely different characteristics that are the same characteristics in terms of use of the natural environment of the human. Harran houses with domed human tissue features traditional historic structures can be given an interesting example of the natural environment interact. These structures are opening to tourism activities within the framework of a specific business model, the former should be protected environments suitable for the construction of new should be prepared. It is not possible to protect them for a long time just getting under protection. Because the express understanding of the economic value of each object can protect itself against the harsh effects of time. Key Words: Harran Dome Homes, Residential Natural Environment Relationship, Settlement Geography

278   

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

GİRİŞ Dört bin yıldan günümüze kadar değişmeden gelebilen “HARRAN “ adı Sümerce ve Akadça’da “Seyahat Kervanı” anlamına gelen “HARANU” dan gelmektedir. Bazı kaynaklarda bu kelimenin “kesişen yollar” veya “ şiddetli sıcaklık” geldiğini kaydetmektedirler. Tevratta “ HARAN” olarak geçen yerin burası olduğu söylenir. İslam kaynakları şehrin kuruluşunu Nuh peygamberin torunu “KAYNA” ya veya İbrahim peygamberin kardeşi ARANA na bağlarlar(Kürkçüoğlu:2000). Harran Ovasının oluşumu ve Harran şehrinin oluşumuna etki eden faktörlere bakacak olursak; güneydeki stabil karakterli Arabistan bloku nisbeten daha genç ve hareketli olan Anadolu yarım adasını sürekli olarak kuzeye doğru itmesine bağlı olarak güneydoğu Anadolu bölgesinin güney kısımlarında kırılmalar meydana gelmiştir. Bu kırılmalar sonucunda meydana gelen çökmelerden biri de Harran grabenidir. Harran grabeninin batısında Çaykuyu, doğusunda ise Tektek horstu meydana gelmiştir. Sözü edilen kırılmalara bağlı olarak çöken graben alanına Cullab suyu, Karakoyun deresi ve Sırrın çayı vasıtasıyla alivüyal malzemeler biriktirilmiştir. Harran yerleşmesi ise sözü edilen bu alivyal dolgu alanının kuzeyindeki fay hatlarından çıkarak Aynel-arus gölü üzerinden Fırat nehrine ulaşan Cullab deresinin batı kenarında kurulmuştur. Doğudan Bağdat-Musul’dan gelerek NusaybinKızıltepe üzerinden Harran’a ulaşılan kervan yolu Urfa üzerinden Fırat nehrini geçerek batıya doğru uzanmaktaydı. Yine kuzeyden Diyarbakır-Siverek üzerinden gelerek Tektek platosu güzergâhı boyunca güneye inen yol Harran’a uğradıktan sonra Rakka şehrini geçerek Suriye içlerine doğru uzamaktaydı. Suya, yola ve verimli alivyal topraklara bağlı olarak gelişen Harran bir dönem ilim ve ticaretin önemli merkezlerinden biri olmuştur. Buna bağlı olarak burada birçok bilim adamı ortaya çıkmıştır. Foto.:1

Foto: 1. Ortalama 8 km uzunluğundaki Surların içinde Kalan Harran Kasabasın Sit Alanındaki Kubbeli Meskenler 13. Yy. da Timur’un Anadolu seferiyle birlikte yıkılan şehir, daha sonran ümit burnunun bulunmasıyla ticari etki sahasının dışında kalarak unutulmuştur. Günümüzde İslam öncesi ve sonrasını içeren maddi kültür varlıkları arkeolojik çalışmalarla gün yüzüne çıkarılmaktadır. Harran Üniversitesi Arkeoloji bölümünce 2015 yılı yaz mevsimi boyunca Ulu cami doğu kapısı önünde devam eden kazı çalışmalarından Eyyubi dönemine ait su yapıları, hamamlar ve eğitim alanları gün yüzüne çıkarılmıştır. Harran şehrinin yıkılmasıyla bu civardaki birçok bedevi Arap aşiret mensuplarınca kışlak alanı haline getirilmiştir. İlkbahar mevsiminin gelmesiyle birlikte Ceylanpınar’ın(Resul-ayn) güneyindeki Abdulaziz dağlarındaki yaylalara götürülen hayvanlar kış mevsiminin gelmesiyle birlikte tekrar Harran’ a kışlamak amacıyla geri getirilmekteydi. Bedevilerin kış mevsimi boyunca barınak olarak kullanmak amacıyla yaptıkları Kubbeli Harran evleri daha sonra yerleşikler tarafından geliştirilerek büyütülmüşlerdir. Dünyanın faklı bölgelerinde bulunulabilen kubbe evler turizm bakımından önem arz etmektedir. Türkiye’de sadece Güneydoğu Anadolu bölgesindeki Şanlıurfa ilinin Harran, Akçakale, Bozova, Halfeti ve Suruç ilçelerindeki

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   sözü edilen meskenler (günümüz insanlarının değişen ihtiyaçlara bağlı olarak) bakım ve onarımları yapılmadığından dolayı doğal ve beşeri faktörlerin olumsuz etkisine bağlı olarak yıkılıp yok olmaktadırlar. Sözü edilen bu evler günümüzde sadece ambar, mutfak ve ahır olarak kullanılmaktadır. Amacımız kubbeli evleri insan doğal ortam ilişkileri bağlamında değerlendirerek turizm amaçlı kullanımı için tanıtılması ve bunların korunmasına dikkatlerin yoğunlaştırılmasıdır. Bu çalışmamız esnasında özellikle kubbeli evler üzerine yazılmış literatür taraması yapıldıktan sonra elde edilen verilerin değerlendirilmesi yapıldı. Harran yerleşmesinin oluşumuna etki eden coğrafi faktörler üzerinde çalışıldı. Daha sonra özellikle çeşitli kubbeli ev planları üzerinde araştırmalar yapıldı, meskenlerin genişlikleri duvar kalınlıkları, kullanılan malzemeleri, iklimlendirme özellikleri üzerinde duruldu. İnsanların eliyle oluşturulan kır hayatının en karakteristik eserleri olan meskenlar(konut), çeşitli eklentileriyle bir bütünlük oluştururlar. İnsan’ın gelişmesi ve farklı coğrafi ortamlarda varlıklarını devam ettirebilme çabaları genellikle bir mesken içinde olur. Mesken insanların dışarıdan gelen tehlikelerden korunmak, değişik karakterdeki atmosferik olayların olumsuzluklarından etkilenmemek, aile bireylerini güven içinde koruyabilmek, dinlenmek, ürettiği veya satın aldığı alet, edavat, yiyecek ve içeceğini güvenli bir alanda tutabilmek amacıyla yapılmış tesislerdir. Yeryüzünde toprak, ağaç, taş, mağara, çadır, karavan vb. maddelerden yapılmış konutlarda insanın sığınmış olması, insan ile konut arasındaki ilişkilerin önemini göstermesi bakımından önemlidir. Jeolojik özellikler, iklim tipi, doğal bitki örtüsü, ekonomik faaliyetler, sosyal yapı vb. özellikler kırsal meskenlerin oluşumunu önemli ölçüde etkilemektedirler. Gelenek ve göreneklerin yanı sıra dini inançların da meskenlerin oluşumu üzerinde derin etkileri bulunur( Tunçdilek, 1967:79). Meskenlerin eklentileri, ise Anadolu’da çoğunlukla “müştemilât” olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Konut eklentileri, kırsal yerleşmelerde çoğunlukla yapılan ekonomik faaliyete göre beliren ihtiyaçlar sonucunda ortaya çıkmıştır. Örneğin mısır üretiminin önem kazandığı Karadeniz Bölgesi’nde “serender” veya hayvancılığın önemli bir ekonomik faaliyet olduğu Doğu Anadolu’da kırsal meskenler yanında yer alan ahır veya ağıllar, ihtiyaçları tamamlayan birer unsur olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Konut eklentileri ekonomik faaliyetlerinin yanı sıra mesken sakinlerinin günlük ihtiyaçlarının bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkmış yapılardır. Örneğin kırsal bir meskenin yanı başında bulunan tandır veya tezeklik, günlük yaşamın bir ihtiyacı olarak ortaya çıkmıştır(Şahinalp, 2012:882). “Şehir ve kasaba alanları dışındaki kırsal alanlarda yer alan, şehir ve kasabalara oranla fonksiyonel özellikleri yeterince ilerleme gösteremeyen ve doğal ortamda yalın özelliklere sahip yerleşmelere kırsal yerleşmeler denilir”(Özçağlar, 2000:67)“Kır evlerinin değişmesi veya yenilenmesinde ekonomik faktörlerin büyük rolü vardır. Eskiyi karakterize eden kapalı ekonomik sistemin 1980 yıllardan sonra hızla değişime uğramasıyla kırlardaki insanlar yakın çevrenin sert aşılmaz kabuğunu kırarak etraflarındaki şehir ve kasabalarla daha kolay temasa geçebilmişlerdir. Dış çevre ile temasa geçişte yeni yol şebekelerinin rolü önemlidir. Kır insanını şehir ve kasabalara ulaştıran yollarla, kırların ihtiyacı olan maddeler köylere taşınmıştır. Önceleri gaz tuz şeker kumaş gibi lüzumlu maddeleri daha sonra yapı malzemeleri takip etmiştir. Kırlarda ekonomik ve kültürel seviyenin yükselmesine paralel olarak meskenlerde kullanılan malzeme değişmiş, teknik bilgi ve gösteriş ön plana çıkmıştır. Bunun sonucunda eski meskenler zamanla terke edilerek yıkılmaya yüz tutmuşlardır”( Tunçdilek, 1967:93). Bu nedenle sözü edilen meskenlerin fonksiyonlarında değişimler meydana gelmiştir. Dışarıdan getirilen inşaat malzemeleriyle düz damlı betonarme binalar yapılmıştır

HARRAN KUBBE EVLERİNİN OLUŞUMUNA ETKİ EDEN DOĞAL VE BEŞERİ FAKTÖRLER FAKTÖRLER Dünyadaki hemen hemen tüm kır meskenlerinin yapı malzemelerinin temini, inşa şekilleri, mimari özellikleri ve görünüşleri üzerinde rol oynayan başlıca iki ana faktör bulunmaktadır (Tanoğlu, 1966: 216). Bunlar doğal ortam özellikleri ve sosyo-ekonomik şartlardır. Meskenler üzerinde rol oynayan doğal ortam şartları, kolay malzeme temini (taş, toprak, ahşap malzeme), iklim ve topografya şartlarından oluşmaktadır. Sosyo-ekonomik özellikler ise bir bölgede yaşayan insanların gelenek ve görenekleri, alışkanlıkları, inançları ile yapılan ekonomik faaliyet ve ekonomik düzey gibi şartlardan oluşmaktadır.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   1. DOĞAL FAKTÖRLER 1.1. JEOLOJİK ÖZELLİKLER İnsanoğlu neolitik dönemle beraber yerleşemeye geçtiği günden bu yana doğal ortamda var olan malzemeleri kullanarak meskenini inşa etmiştir. Günümüzde özellikle kırsal meskenlerde bu etki önemli ölçüde devam etmektedir. Harran Ovası topraklarındaki kil ve mil oranının yüksekliğine bağlı olarak açılan rezerv alanlarından elde edilen topraklar önce çamur haline getirilerek kalıplara dökülüp yaz mevsimindeki günlük yüksek sıcaklıklar altına kurutulmaya bırakılmıştır. Daha sonra bunlar ocaklarda pişirilerek dayanaklı malzemeler haline dönüştürülmüştür. Sözü edilen el yapımı bu tuğlalar farklı boyutlarda olabilirler ortalama olarak bir tam tuğla 24x24x5 cm. yarım tuğla 13x24x5 cm. ebatındadır. Gerek 3. Jeolojik zamanın eosen döneminde çökelmeler sonucu oluşturulan kalker özellikteki Tektek platosunda açılan taş ocaklarından( Bazda mağarası vb. alanlar) elde edilen taşların Harran şehir surlarında ve yapılarda kullanılmış olması yanı sıra toprağın pişirilmesi neticesinde elde tuğlaların şehrin oluşturulmasında kullanılmıştır. Foto.: 2. On üçüncü Yüzyılda Moğol istilasıyla şehrin yıkılmasıyla bol miktarda yapı malzemesi ortaya çıkmıştır.

Foto : 2. Harran Şehrinin Taş İhtiyacının Karşılandığı Bazda Mağaraları 1.2. İKLİM ÖZELLİKLERİ İklim insanın giyimine kuşamına, beslenmesine, ekonomik faaliyetlerine, ulaşım imkanlarına, toprak özelliklerine, doğal bitki örtüsüne, turizm faaliyetlerine etki ettiği gibi meskenlerin oluşumuna da etki etmektedir. Bu bağlamda araştırma sahasının iklim özelliklerine bakacak olursak; Harran Ovasında yarık kurak iklim şartları hâkimdir. Bozulmuş bir Akdeniz iklim tipinin hâkim olduğu ovada, yılın hiç bir ayında sıcaklık ortalması O C nin altına düşmez, sıcaklık ortalaması mayıs ayından itibaren 20 C nin üzerine çıkmaktadır. Temmuz ayı sıcaklık ortalaması 33.1 derecelik bir maksimuma ulaştıktan sonra Ağustos ayında da hafif azalma gösterse de 30 C nin üzerinde seyreder. Yıllık yağış ortalaması Şanlıurfa istasyonunda ortalama olarak 460 mm olmakla beraber güneye gidildikçe yağış miktarında azalmalar olur.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Kış mevsiminden yaz mevsimine geçiş hızlı olup, ilkbahar mevsimi yaklaşık iki aylık bir dönemi kapsamaktadır. Özellikle Temmuz ayında açık havada sıcaklıkların 55 C’nin üstüne çıktığı günlerin sayısı fazladır. Yıl içerisinde sıcak dönem, Mayıs ayından itibaren başlayıp, Eylül ayı ortalarına kadar devam eder. Bu nedenle ovada beş aylık, uzun bir sıcak dönem hâkim olmaktadır. Yukarıda bahsedilen iklim şartları göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, sıcak dönemin hâkim olduğu bir iklim tipi görülmektedir. Bu nedenle konut yapımında özellikle yüksek sıcaklıkların etkisini azaltıcı bir konut tipinin inşa edilmesi zorunluluk haline gelmektedir. Konutlar, yaz mevsimi sıcaklıklarını azaltıcı özelliklere sahip şekilde inşa edilmişlerdir. Bu nedenle meskenler yüksek sıcaklığın etkisini azaltıcı özellikteki kubbe çatıların kullanıldığı tarzda inşa edilmişlerdir. Kubbeler zeminden yaklaşık olarak 4,5-5 metrelik bir yüksekliğe sahip, olması nedeniyle tavanda biriken hafif sıcak hava üzeri açık bacadan dışarı atılarak sıcaklığın mesken içindeki etkisi azaltılmıştır. Sözü edilen meskenlerin duvar kalınlıkları 50-55 cm civarındadır. Hem duvarlarda hemde konik kubbede ateş tuğlaları iyi bir ısı izalasyonu sağladığından dolayı hem sıcak hemde soğuk dönemlerde kullanım alanının ısı dengelenmesinde önemli bir etken olmuştur. Ayrıca meskenlerin kuzeye bakan duvarlarına 30x30 cm ebadında pencereler açılarak yaz mevsiminde kuzeyden esen rüzgârın oda içinde sirkülasyonu sağlanarak içerinin serinlenmesi sağlanmıştır. Birçok mesken ortalama olarak 50 cm. Toprağa gömülerek özellikle yaz mevsimi sıcaklıklarına karşı korunaklı duruma getirilmiştir.Foto.:3,4

Foto:3. Yere Gömülerek Yazın Serinletilen bir Mesken

3x3 metre uzunluğunda ortalama olarak 190-200 cm yüksekliğindeki kare planlı duvarların üzerine bindirilen konik kubbeli odalar iç kemelerle birbirine bağlanan oda dizinleri doğu- batı ve kuzey güney yönünde yan yana getirilmiştir. Böylece saat 14 ten sonra 30x30 metre abatındaki avluların serinlemesi sağlandığı gibi etkisi oldukça artan öğleden sonraki güneşin evin içine girmesi önlenmiştir.

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Foto:4. Bindirme tekniği ile oluşturulan kubbe ve içerinin aydınlanmasını sağlayan delikler

1.3. DOĞAL BİTKİ ÖRTÜSÜ MESKEN İLİŞKİSİ Herhangi bir iklim bölgesinde iklim ve toprak özelliklerinin etkisiyle yetişen otsu ve odunsu bitki topluluklarının tümüne doğal bitki örtüsü denilir. Ülkemizin en kurak ve yaz mevsiminde en sıcak bölgesinde yer alan Şanlıurfa da tarihi dönemlerden bu yana havadaki bağıl nem oranı düşük olduğundan dolayı özellikle Suriye sınırına doğru kurakçıl ve zayıf otsu türler bulunur. Özellikle Suruç, Harran ve Ceylanpınar ovaları cılız step karakterli doğal bitki örtüsünün yayıldığı alanları oluşturmaktadır. Sadece Harran ovasının doğusundaki Tektek Platosunun kuzey bölümlerinde yabani Antep fıstığı ile yabani incir doğal olarak yetişebilmektedir. Yörede ağacın doğal olarak yetişmesi çok zor olduğundan dolayı kubbeli meskenlerin çatısında kullanılabilecek yeterli miktarda ağaç yoktur. Bu nedenle bindirme tekniği ile gittikçe daralan halkalar şeklinde tuğlaların üst üste bindirilmesiyle kubbeli çatı meydana getirilmiştir. Genel anlamda 3x3 metre kare planlı meskenlerden daha geniş meskenler elde etmek amacıyla 3,5x 3,5 metre abatında yapılmış meskenlerin kubbesini oluşturmak zahmetli olduğundan yarım kubbeler oluşturularak üzeri fazla kalın olmayan ahşap direkler ve kamış yardımıyla örtülmüştür.

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Foto:5. Yarım Kubbe Mesken 1955 yılına kadar Fırat nehri üzerine herhangi bir karayolu köprüsü kurulamadığından dolayı Fırat doğusu ile batısı arasında ulaşım kelek denilen şişme tulumlarla sağlanmaktaydı. Bu durum doğu ile batı arasındaki ticaretin yeterli seviyede artmasına bir engel teşkil etmekteydi. Fırat Nehri üzerine Birecik köprüsünün yapılmasıyla birlikte Harran ovasına ahşap direklerin girmesinin kolaylaşmasıyla birlikte kubbeli damların yapımına yavaş yavaş son verilerek yerine daha geniş ve düz damlı evlerin yapımına başlanmıştır. 1.4. TOPOĞRAFİK ÖZELLİKLERİN MESKENLERİ ETKİLEMESİ Kuzeyden güneye doğru eğimi gittikçe azalan Şanlıurfa ilinde ana morfolojik şekillerden ovalar ve platolar geniş yer kaplamaktadır. Platolar tarımsal anlamda fazla verimli olmadığından yerleşme dokusu gevşektir. Güneye doğru eğimin binde beş oranında azaldığı Harran ovasında yerleşme dokusu )suyun azlığı güvenli sağlamanın zorluğuna bağlı olarak) sıktır. Çok yerde belirli belirsiz bir sokak özelliği vardır. Yollar bazen çıkmaz sokaklar haline gelmektedir. Şanlıurfa ilin ovalarının tümünde olduğu gibi konutlar tek katlıdır. Yeterli alanın olmadığı yerlerde iki katlı konutlarının varlığına karşılık ovalarda yeterli arazinin varlığına bağlı olarak konutlar geniş bir avlu içinde yer almakta olup tek katlıdırlar. Kuzeyden güneye olan eğime bağlı olarak konutların ana cephesi güneye doğrudur. Arazi şartlarının elverişli oluşu nedeniyle, ahır veya depo gibi eklentiler meskenin etrafında yer almaktadır. Harran Ovası’ndaki yerleşmelerde arazi şartlarının zorlamasıyla fazladan kat yapma zorunluluğu olmamış, aksine düz arazi şartları nedeniyle eklentiler meskenin etrafında dağınık olarak yer almıştır(Şahinalp, 2012:889) 3.SOSYOEKONOMİK ÖZELLİKLERİN YERLEŞME VE MESKENLERE ETKİSİ Güneydoğu Anadolu bölgesinin feodal yapısına bağlı olarak doğurganlık oranı yüksek olduğundan dolayı meskenlerin oda sayısı fazladır. Özellikle erken yaşta evlendirilen erkek çocukları için evlere eklentiler yapıldığından dolayı bu evlerde genelde üç kuşak bir arada yaşamıştır. Aile reisinin odası aynı zamanda misafir odası olarak kullanıldığından dolayı iki veya üç oda kemerle birbirine bağlanarak geniş alanlar elde edilmeye çalışılmıştır.(Foto 6)

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Foto 6: Kemelerle Biri birine Bağlanan Odalar(misafir Odası) Bazen de özellikle en büyük erkek çocuğun evlendirilmesiyle geniş alan elde etmek için iki oda geniş kemerle birbirine bağlanılmaktadır. Burada genelde kemer genişliği 2- 2,5 metre arasında değişmektedir. Ayrıca ambar ve ahır olarak kullanılacak meskenlerin aydınlatılmaları diğerlerine oranla daha azdır. Meskenler yapılan ekonomik etkinliklere bağlı olarak avlular taş duvarlarla çevrili olup avlu duvarlarının yüksekliği 170-180 cm. civarında olup konut dışarıya karşı güvenli hale getirilmiştir.suruç, Bozova ve Birecik teki kırsal kubbeli meskenlarin duvarlarında kuş takalarının bulunmasına karşı Harran evlerinde kuş takaları( kuş yuvaları) yoktur. Güneydoğu Anadolu bölgesinin genelinde olduğu gibi Yaz mevsimi sıcaklarında insanlar düz damlı evlerde veya avludaki sekiler üzerinde geceleri yatarlar. Harran kasabasındaki sekiler genellikle konutun duvarına bitişik olup yerden 50-60 cm. dir. Harran evlerinde banyonun olmamasına karşılık tuvaletler avlu kapısının çıkışına yapılmıştır. Geniş aile fertlerinin beslenmesi için yemeklerin pişirildiği, yufka ekmeğinin her sabah üretildiği mutfak oda dizinlerinin karşısında kurulmuştur. Meskenlerde tam anlamıyla bir haremlik selamlık bölümlenmesinden bahis edilememesine karşılık misafir odası evin diğer bölümlerinden daha bakımlı ve geniş olup biraz daha bağımsızdır. Harranın sokak dokusuda konutları gibi organiktir. Aynı aşirete mensup insanlar akrabalık ölçüsüne bağlı olarak birbirlerine yakın meskenlerde yaşamak isterler..bunun sonucunda rastliğgele bir sokak sistemi ortaya çıkmıştır. Sürekli göçebecilikten dönemlik göçebecilyiğe geçişte hayatlarını tarım ve hayvancılıkla kazanan insanlar ekonomik değerleri olan hayvanlarına yakın olmak zorunda olduklarından hayvan barınakları konutun bir parçası haline gelmiştir (Özdeniz ve diğerleri, (1998:205)

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SONUÇ Doğal ortamla uyumlu devşirme malzemelerle yapılan kubbeli Harran evlerinin geçmişi 150-200 yıla dayanmaktadır. Harran’a ait 19, yy. çekilmiş bir fotoğrafta kubbeli yapıların çadır gibi hemen yerden başlayarak birden bire yükseldiğini göstermesi bu meskenlerin zamanla değişime uğradığını göstermektedir.20. yüzyılda tüm kubbeler kare planlı temel yapının üzerine kurulmuştur. Harran evlerinden kafe olarak kullanılan Halil Özyavuzun evi ile Harran kaymakamlığının onardığı Harran Kültür evi gibi 2-3 konut hariç diğerlerinin tümü ahır ve depo olarak kullanılmaktadır. il genelinde sadece Harran sur içi kubbeli meskenlerde devşirme tuğla kullanılmasına karşılık diğer bütün kubbeli meskenlerde kerpiç kullanılmıştır. Kerpiçten yapılan meskenler yaz ile kış mevsimleri arasındaki sıcaklık farkları ile kış mevsimindeki yağışlara bağlı olarak kerpiçten yapılmış konutlarda duvar ve kubbenin erimesiyle meskenler daha kısa ömürlüdür. Meskenlerdeki kubbe güneş ile temas alanını azalttığından dolayı yaz sıcaklarına karşı yaşanabilir bir özellik kazanmışlardır. Günümüzde sit alanı içinde kalmalarına rağmen bir çok mesken Birecik, Suruç ve Bozova’ da olduğu gibi bakımsızlıktan dolayı yıkılmaktadır. 19.yüzyıl meskenlerinin kullanım amacında hayvancılık fonksiyonları ön planda olmasına karşılık daha sonra hayvancılık fonksiyonun yerini tarımsal fonsiyonlar almıştır. Günümüzde ise kubbe evler sadece hayvan ahırı ve ambar olarak kullanılmaktadır. İtalya’da olduğu gibi kubbeli meskenlerin tümü sit alanı içerisine alınarak bakımları yerel yönetimler veya il turizm müdürlüğüne verilmelidir. Ayrıca sözü edilen meskenler çoğaltılarak tanıtımları yapılmalıdır. Bu konutlar zamanla kafe, butik otel ve lokanta olarak kulanılmalıdır.

KAYNAKÇA Kürkçüoğlu, C., (2000) HARRAN Yolların Buluştuğu Kent, Şanlıurfa Valiliği Yayını, Ankara . Özçağlar, A., (2000) Coğrafyaya Giriş, Hilmi Usta Mabaacılık, Ankara Özdeniz, M., Bekleyen, A. (1998) “Toprağın Sırrı ve Harran Yöresel Mimarisi”, Şahinalp, S., (2012)” Yok Olmaya Yüz Tutmuş Bir Kırsal Mesken Tipi Veya Kültürel Miras: Suruç Kümbet Evleri”, Gaziantep Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (http://sbe.gantep.edu.tr) 2012 11(3):881 -916 Tanoğlu, A., (1969) Nüfus ve Yerleşme, İ..Ü.Cogr.EnsLYay.45, İstanbul Tunçdilek, N., (1967) Türkiye İskan Coğrafyası- Kır İskanı (Köy altı İskan Şekilleri). İ. Ü. Coğrafya Enst. Yayınları, No:49, İstanbul

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INVESTIGATION OF BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURES ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT LOCAL SITE CLASSES FOR L TYPE REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME BUILDING HAVING A1 AND A3 IRREGULARITIES 1

Rıfat SEZER, 2Ceyhun AKSOYLU, 3Nail KARA Selcuk University, Civil Engineering Department, Konya, Turkey, 1 [email protected] 2 [email protected] 3 [email protected] Abstract:In this study, a series of investigation was carried out considering Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 type soils stated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC-2007) for the reinforced concrete frame model having torsional irregularity (A1) and plan irregularities (A3) with high ductility level of L type central floor load-bearing system designed in accordance to TEC-2007. The investigated structure is an 8-floor school building having the building importance factor of I = 1.4 and existing in 1st degree Seismic Zone. The earthquake analyses were performed with SAP2000 v.16.1.1. computer program by considering the Equivalent Seismic Load Method (ESLM) and Mode Combinaion Method (MCM). Base shear force, torsional force, overturning moment, effective mass participation ratio, building period, floor displacement and effective relative floor projection were calculated considering the commonly used calculation methods and the boundary conditions of TEC-2007 for different soil classes in terms of structure-soil interaction and compared according to commonly used calculation methods.

INTRODUCTION Three elastic calculation methods are defined to be used in earthquake calculation in the buildings to be constructed according to the Turkish Earthquake Code-2007 (TEC-2007). These are “Equivalent Seismic Load Method (ESLM)”, “Mode Combination Method (MCM)” and “Time History Analysis (THA)”. It is stated in the regulation that all three calculations methods can be used in the event that specific conditions are fulfilled. The obligation of conducting three dimensional structure analyses has been imposed in all of these methods. In addition, whereas the regulation has imposed specific limitations for the application of ESLM, no limitation has been imposed on other two methods. As our country is located on a seismic belt, big earthquakes tend to occur from time to time and many structures are either damaged or destroyed. When the buildings which are damaged or destroyed due to earthquakes are examined, it is observed that not attaching the necessary importance to structure-soil interaction has mostly been very influential (Livaoğlu and Doğangün 2002). Nonetheless, in the calculations which are made to determine the behavior of buildings to earthquake, the structure-soil interaction has been ignored for a long time and the abutments of structures have been assumed to behave according to the pre-defined earthquake movement. First of all, all abutments have been accepted to be attached to the soil with a single rigid block and a single component of the movement has effect on this block (Korkmaz and Demir 2012). With this consideration, solutions have been reached by generally accepting that the foundations are fixed and there is no change of location or rotary motion in foundations. However, the complexity of structure systems have increased in time and the fact that the earthquake movement needs to be taken into consideration in two and three dimensional coordinate systems also have come to the fore due to the detection of collapses and rotary motions in foundations even in the analysis of structure systems under static loads. The structure-soil interaction is traditionally defined as the mutual interaction of structure and soil in the framework of a model in which soil environment and super structure are taken into account together under the effect of earthquake (Aydınoğlu 2011). There are numerous studies in the literature examining the effect of structural irregularities on earthquake performance. Related studies have particularly focused on the issues of poor bearing story, soft story and torsion irregularity (İnan and Korkmaz, 2011, Özmen and Unay, 2007., Tezcan, 1998). Moreover, there are other studies containing flooring discontinuities and the protrusions included in the plan (Öztürk et all., 2015 and Arslan, 2007).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   It is known that in damages observed in reinforced concrete structures after earthquakes, structures which did not receive engineering services have been heavily damaged or completely destroyed (Arslan and Korkmaz, 2007., Sezen et.al, 2003., Doğangün, 2004., Inel et. al, 2008). In addition, the fact that damage increases in buildings and the total collapse of the building is facilitated with structural irregularities stated in earthquake Code has been observed in field works (Tezcan and Alhan, 2001., Arnold and Reitherman, 2002.,Gülay and Calim, 2003., İnan and Korkmaz, 2011). In this study, contrary to the analysis of a single irregularity in structures in the literature, the effect of an L-type reinforced concrete frame system, in which torsion irregularity (A1) and the existence of protrusions in the plan irregularity (A3) co-exist in the scope of irregularities in plan, on structural behavior towards 4 different soil classes (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4) has been examined through a case analysis study by taking the structure-soil interaction according to ESLM and MCM into consideration as well. As a result of this examination, base shear force, torsional moment, overturning moment, effective mass participation ratio, building period, story displacement and relative story displacement have been calculated for different soil classes and have been compared with the used calculation methods. METHODS USING IN EARTHQUAKE CALCULATIONS The selection criteria of the calculation method to be used in earthquake calculation has been stated in the 2.6 section of the TEC-2007. According to this section, whereas ESLM can only be used after meeting certain conditions, MCM can be used in all buildings in the scope of the regulation. Analyses have been carried out according to ESLM and MCM which have been allowed in the earthquake calculation of building and buildingtype structures in TEC-2007. Equivalent Seismic Load Method For the application of ESLM in buildings where earthquake calculations will be made, conditions presented in Table 1 must be met. Table 1. Buildings that are suitable for applying equivalent seismic load method Earthquake Zone

Type of Structure

Total Height Limit (meter)

Structures that do not have torsion irregularity of A1, if they have, it is needed to provide (ηbi)≤2 ratio for each floor

HN≤25m

1,2

3,4

Structures that do not have torsion irregularity of A1, if they have, it is needed to provide (ηbi)≤2 ratio for each floor and structures that do not haveB2 irregularity All Structures

25m< HN≤60m HN≤75m

While the first mode of the building is taken as a basis in the ESLM method, the earthquake forces which affect the stories are accepted as being proportional to the mass of each story and to the height of stories from the foundation (Uçar and Merter 2012). This method is considered as a dynamic method based on the building’s first degree of freedom as it also takes the mass of the building into account in the period calculation and distribution of earthquake load (Celeb and Kumbasar 2004). In line with the earthquake which is taken into account, the equivalent earthquake load (base shear force) which effect the whole building is determined by calculating it as Vt (TEC-2007)





0,1 ∗

∗ ∗

(1)

In Equation (1), W indicates building total weight, A(T1) indicates spectral acceleration coefficient taken as a basis in the determination of earthquake load, Ra(T1) indicates earthquake load reduction coefficient, A0indicates efficient ground acceleration coefficient and I indicates building importance coefficient. The obtained base shear force (Vt) is distributed as horizontal static single forces in line with the appropriate dynamic degrees of freedom along the height of the building. This distribution is mostly accepted as linear in Code

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   and the horizontal force affecting the 1st story in line with the dynamic degree of freedom (Fi) is calculated by using Equation (2) (TEC-2007).





∗∑

(2)



In this equation, wi is the weight of the building’s 1st story and Hi is the height of the building’s 1st story which is measured as from the top of the foundation. The additional equivalent earthquake load affecting the top story of the building (ΔFN) value is determined by utilizing Equation (3) (TEC-2007).

0,0075 ∗



(3)

Mode Combination Method Maximum internal forces and transposition in MCM is obtained by the statistical combination of the maximum contributions calculated for each of the natural vibration mode in sufficient number in the building. The reason behind the statistical combination lies in the fact that these maximum contributions occur at different times (Uçar and Merter 2012). Moreover, this method can also be considered at the assessment for each of the mode types delivering the behavior of systems with multitude degrees of freedom (Celeb and Kumbasar 2004). The reduced acceleration spectrum ordinate to be taken into consideration in any nth vibration mode is determined through Equation (4) below (TEC-2007).

(4) In the equation above, SaR(Tn) indicates reduced spectral acceleration for the nth natural vibration mode, Sae(Tn) indicates elastic spectral acceleration and Ra(Tn) indicates the earthquake load reduction coefficient calculated for the nth natural vibration mode. The sufficient vibration mode which needs to be taken into consideration will be determined according to the rule that the total effective mass which is calculated for each mass in each of the perpendicular horizontal earthquake directions can never be less than the 90% of the building’s total mass (Taşan 2012). This condition has been presented in Equation 5 and 6.





0,90 ∗ ∑İ

(5)





0,90 ∗ ∑İ

(6)

In these equations, Mxn and Myn are the effective mass in the building’s nth natural vibration mode for the calculated earthquake direction, Mnis the modal mass of natural vibration mode, mi is the mass of the building’s 1st story. The calculation of Lxn and Lyn with Mn, indicated with Equation 5 and 6 for buildings in which floorings serves as rigid diaphragm has been presented in Equation 7,8 and 9.









(7)





(8)



ө



ө

(9)

Here, Φxin and Φyin are the horizontal component of the n’th mode type in line with the perpendicular x and y axis on the first story, Φөin is the rotation component around the horizontal axis of the n’th mode type on the first story. mөin indicates the building’s mass moment of inertia according to the horizontal axis which pass through the nondisplaced mass center of the first story.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   There are some rules in the MCM method for the statistical combination of non-concurrent maximum contributions which are calculated for each vibration mode to be applied separately for each of the magnitudes such as the total earthquake load, story shear force, internal force components, transposition and relative story displacement affecting the building. On the condition that the natural periods of any two vibration modes taken into account meet the requirement of Tm/Tn<0,8 with Tm


β∗



(10)

In the equation above, BD is an amplified value which belongs to the BB magnitude and BB is any magnitude which is found with the combination of mode contributions in RSM (Uçar and Merter 2012). In case of the existence of at least one A1, B2 or B3 irregularity in the building, the β value to be taken into account in Equation 10 will be assumed as 0.90 whereas in the existence of none of these irregularities, the β values will be assumed as 0.80. ANALYTICAL STUDY In this study, a reinforced concrete frame model in L-type which does not contain other irregularities has been created for the analysis of buildings with A1 and A3 irregularities. The storey heights have been selected as 3 meters in the designed model. The axle intervals of the building whose total length is 25 meters in both directions have been determined as 5 meters. The designed reinforced concrete building in L-type with eight stories has been modeled in SAP2000 (V.16.1.1). The building has been thought to be located on a 1st degree seismic earthquake zone and its efficient ground acceleration has been considered as 0.4g as stated in TEC-2007. The soil on which the building is located has been accepted as Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 type soil class which is stated in TEC-2007 respectively. On these type of soils, corner periods (spectrum characteristic periods) varies between 0.10 seconds and 0.90 seconds. In load-bearing system, sections have been determined as 50/50 cm for columns and as 25/50 cm for beams. The sections have been selected as fixed on each story. Base slab foundation thickness has been assumed as 50 cm and the slab thickness designed with beams has been assumed as 15 cm. In the system whose structure geometry has been identified, C30 class concrete and S420 type reinforcement have been used. In addition, the fixed and mobile load in flooring has been accepted as g=0.150 t/m2 ve q= 0.200 t/m2to unit area according to TS-498 (TS-498,1997) and TS-500-2000 (TS-500,2000). 20 cm thick exterior load has been defined as gd=0.625 t/m and 10 cm thick interior wall load has been defined as 0.4375 t/m. The plan, horizontal, three dimensional geometry of the related building have been presented in Figure 1 and the parametered which have been taken into account have been presented in Table 2. The investigation of beams and columns have been conducted according to TS-500-2000 and TDY-2007 which are parallel to ACI 318 (ACI 318, 1995). In the earthquake calculation of the building, the reduction coefficient for systems which have high earthquake load ductility levels applicable to frame-type structures has been accepted as 8. In TEC-2007 it is stated that ESLM can be used in buildings with torsion irregularity whose height does not exceed 25 m on the condition that torsion irregularity coefficient ηbi≤2 rule is met. As no condition about MSM exists in the related regulation, earthquake loads have been affected on the building according to these two calculation methods. In modellings, base slab has been ties to the foundation soil with horizontal springs. Column beam connection areas have been selected as rigid. While finding internal force values in TEC-2007, Ex and Ey loadings have been taken as a basis for ESLM and Response SpectrumX (RSx)and Response SpectrumY (RSy) have been taken as a basis for MCM.

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Figure 1. Plan, vertical section and 3 dimensional view of designed structure

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 2. Parameters that were taken into account for designing L type structure Determination Method and Acceptances for L Type Structure

Equivalent Seismic Load Method

Mode Combination Method

Earthquake Zone Structure Significance Ratio (I) Behavior Ratio of Load Bearing System (R) Ductility Level Concrete Unit Weight (t/m3) Cz1 Soil Ratio (t/m3) Cz2 Cz3 Cz4

1. Zone 1.4 8 High 2.54 10,000

1. Zone 1.4 8 High 2.54

Periods Related to Soil Type (Second)

Soil Ratio (t/m3) 3,000 1,500 1,000

Z1

TA =0.10

TB= 0.30

Z2 Z3 Z4

TA =0.15 TB= 0.40 TA =0.15 TB= 0.60 TA =0.20 TB= 0.90 C30 S420 0.6 1.5 1.15

Periods Related to Soil Type(Second

Concrete Type Reinforcement Type Reduction Ratio of Living Loads Concrete Safety Ratio Reinforcement Safety Ratio

C30 S420 0.6 1.5 1.15

The elastic design acceleration spectrums which are stated in the earthquake regulation and determined according to soil groups are obtained with the help of Table 3 and Table 4 below (Urtimür 2012). Table 3. Characteristic Periods related to Local Soil Types Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4

Local Soil Types A class soils B class soils where h1≤15m B class soils where h1>15m B class soils where h1≤15m C class soils where15m< h1≤50m D class soils where h1≤10m C class soils where h1>50m D class soils where h1>10m

TA(s)

TB(s)

0.10

0.30

0.15

0.40

0.15

0.60

0.20

0.90

Table 4. Elastical Acceleration Ratio for Relevant Gaps in Designing Period Gap 0≤ T≤TA TA ≤ T≤TB T>TB

S(Ti) 1+1.5*T/TA 2.5 2.5* (TB/T)0.8

Elastic acceleration spectrums for each soil class can be obtained as in Figure 2 by putting the characteristic periods presented in Table 3 into the related intervals presented in Table 4 (Livaoğlu and Doğangün 2002).

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Figure 2. Spectrums of Elastical Acceleration (Livaoğlu ve Doğangün 2002) Results Of Analytical Study The 8-story reinforced concrete frame structure in L type which has torsion irregularity A1 and protrusions in the plan irregularity A3 have been modeled in the study for four different soil classes and its analyses have been conducted. In the case of existence of these two irregularities in the structure for analysis, the change in internal forces which occurs in the face of different soil classes has been analyzed. The change in internal forces has been grouped as figures and tables according to the data obtained from SAP2000(V.16.1.1) in modellings. Base shear force, base tipping moment and base torsion moment changes have been demonstrated for four different soils in Figure 3,4 and 5 respectively.

Figure 3. Shear Force in Basement Related to Soil Class

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Figure 4: Momentum of Basement Over turn Related to Soil Class

Figure 5. Momentum of Basement Torsion Related to Soils Class As can be seen from the figures above, the change in internal forces which has been calculated by utilizing ESLM and MCM varies according to soil type. Whereas the minimum value in terms of the base shear force and base tipping moment has been calculated with ESLM-Z1, the maximum value has been obtained with ESLM-Z4. While the minimum value in terms of the base torsion moment is in MCM-Z1, the maximum value has been found in MCM-Z4. As only the structure with A1 and A3 type irregularities is analyzed, it will be appropriate to conduct an investigation for the soft story formation mentioned in earthquake Code (referred to as B2in TEC-2007) as well. The rigidity irregularity coefficient (ƞki) according to the equation presented in Table 5 for the formation of soft story in TEC-2007 is indicated as the reduced relative story displacement on the first story of the building Δi and the story height of the building’s first story (hi). For the occurrence of soft story irregularity, the rigidity irregularity coefficient (ƞki) needs to be higher than 2.0.As this value has not been reached in any of the models, it is not possible to mention the formation of soft story. However, it has been observed that this coefficient has been obtained from Reinforced Concrete Frame (BAÇ8_Z4) the most according to soil class.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 5. Soft Storey Control Model Type Name

Rigidity Irregularity Between adjecent floors B2 (Soft Storey) BAÇ8_Z1

BAÇ8_Z2

BAÇ8_Z3

BAÇ8_Z4

1.05

1.06

1.065

1.07

In the event that ƞbi, which is the torsion irregularity indicating the ratio of the biggest relative story displacement in any story for any of the two perpendicular earthquake directions to the mean relative displacement in the same direction on that story, is higher than 1.2, the existence of A1 irregularity is detected. Whereas in the event that both dimensions of the protrusions in building story plans in two perpendicular directions exceed the 20% of the total plan dimensions in the same directions of that story of the building, the existence of A3 irregularity can be discussed. It has been observed that in all models, the related value has been exceeded for both of the irregularities stated above. While demonstrating the existence of torsion irregularity in Table 6, the fact that this coefficient has been obtained from Reinforced Concrete Frame (BAÇ8_Z4) the most has been detected. Tablo 6. Torsion Irregularity Control Torsion Irregularity (A1)

1.2

Model Type Name BAÇ8_Z1

BAÇ8_Z2

BAÇ8_Z3

BAÇ8_Z4

1.66

1.72

1.75

1.77

As the torsion irregularity coefficient is in 1.2< ƞbi<2 interval in the conducted analyses, the ±%5 additional eccentricity has been amplified by being multiplied with the Di coefficient calculated in Equation 11 for both earthquake directions in the calculation of relative story displacements. ƞ .

(11)

As the rigidity of the system will decrease with the change of the soil class from good to be bad, the increase of the first mode period must be expected. In analyses, the lowest period values have been found for the Z1 class while the highest period values have been found for the Z4 class. The first three mode periods of four different soils have been demonstrated in Figure 6.

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Period Values for First 3 Mod Period (second)

1,05 1 0,95 0,9 0,85 0,8 0,75

Z1_1. mod

Z1_2. mod

Z1_3. mod

Z2_1. mod

Z2_2. mod

Z2_3. mod

Z3_1. mod

Z3_2. mod

Z3_3. mod

Z4_1. mod

Z4_2. mod

Z4_3. mod

Periyot 0,939

0,934

0,863

0,969

0,958

0,874

1,003

0,985

0,884

1,033

1,006

0,891

Figure 6. First Mod Values Determined for 4 Different Soil Types Considering the mode periods of four different soil classes, the sufficient vibration mode number has been determined as 5 by taking the effective mass participation ratios into account. The total effective mass participation ratios for different soil classes have been presented in Figure 7.

Figure 7. Efficient Attendance Mass Ratio

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Figure 8. Alteration of floor displacement values concerning different soil class

Figure 9. Alteration of floor offset values concerning 4 different soil class

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In this study, the analyses of the A1 and A3 type irregularities, which affect the earthquake performance of structures adversely and cause plan irregularity in plan, for four different soil classes according to EELM and MSM have been examined in line with the conditions stated in TDY-2007. In Accordance with this purpose, an L-type reinforced concrete building with 8 stories has been taken as a model. Models have been created in the plan according to discontinuous different soil class (BAÇ8_Z1, BAÇ8_Z2, BAÇ8_Z3, BAÇ8_Z4) to be able to observe the irregularities occurring in the plan and the internal force differences these created. In the event that A1 and A3 irregularities exist when the concluded analytical studies for the L-type building stated in Figure 3, 4 and 5 are examined, the occurring change in internal forces has been obtained. Following conclusions have been reached as a result of the conducted analytical study:  In the analyses conducted according to different soil classes, base shear force, base tipping moment and base torsion moment values have been found. The total design earthquake load (base shear force) and base tipping moment calculated from EELM is higher than the value calculated from MSM. Whereas this value occurs on the Z4 type soil the most, the ration of EELM to MSM is at a 10% level in the base shear force and 9.8% level in the base tipping moment.  In terms of base torsion moments, however, the value found from MSM is 38.91% higher than the value of EELM. The reason behind this lies in the fact that in EELM, a conclusion is reached by taking all the mode conditions and particularly the distortion mode into consideration contrary to horizontal load which affect as earthquake load.  Whereas the highest value in terms of the base shear force and base tipping moment in the L-type reinforced concrete structure with A1 and A3 irregularities has been obtained from EDDYY-Z4_FY, the lowest value has been obtained from MSM-Z1_FX.  In terms of the base distortion moment, the highest value has been obtained from MSM-Z4_Mz while the lowest has been obtained from EELM-Z1_Mz.  As the rigidity of the system will decrease with the change of the soil class from good to be bad, the increase of the first mode period must be expected. Thus, analyses have also found the lowest period values for the Z1 class with 0.939 second and the highest period values for the Z4 class with 1.033 classes.  Considering the effective mass participation ratio for four different soil classes, the sufficient vibration mode number has been determined the fifth mode as a value which exceeds the 90% value.  Whereas the model in which the L-type reinforced concrete building exhibited displacement the most in terms of story displacements and effective relative story displacement has been obtained in Z4XEELM and the least displacement has been observed in Z1YMSM. While 0.093 meter displacement occurred in the Z4XEELM model in terms of story displacement, 0.002760 meter displacement occurred in the Z1YMSM model. It is evident that the structure with low period exhibits less displacement.  Lastly, in structures which have been analyzed in this study, no problems which could prevent story floorings from safely transferring earthquake forced to horizontal load-bearing system components has occured. However, the analysis of different structures with A3 irregularity condition in which such a problem may occur is aimed at in future studies.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   REFERENCES Arslan, M.H. and Korkmaz, H.H. (2007) “What is to be learned from damage and failure of reinforced concrete structures during recent earthquakes in Turkey?”, Engineering Failure Analysis, 14. Aydınoğlu, M.N. (2011) Zayıf Zeminlerde Yapılan Binalarda Dinamik Yapı – Kazık – Zemin Etkileşimi İçin Uygulamaya Yönelik Bir Hesap Yöntemi, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Kandilli Rasathanesi Ve Deprem Araştırma Enstitüsü Deprem Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı, Rapor No. 2011 / 1. Arnold, C. andReitherman, R. (2002) "Building Configuration and Seismic Design", John Wiley&Sons.Inc., New York, USA. ACI 318-95, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. Celep Z., Kumbasar N., (2004) "Deprem Mühendisliğine Giriş ve Depreme Dayanıklı Yapı Tasarımı" İstanbul, Beta Dağıtım. Dogangun, A. (2004) “Performance of reinforced concrete buildings during the May 1, 2003 Bingol Earthquake in Turkey”, Engineering Structures, 26, 841–856. Gulay, F.G. and Calim, G. (2003) “A comparative study of torsionally unbalanced multi-storey structures under seismic loading”, Turkish Journal Engineering Environment Science, 27, 9-11. Inan, T. and Korkmaz, K. (2011) “Evaluation of structural irregularities based on architectural design considerations in Turkey”, Structural Survey, 29, 303-319. Inel, M.,Ozmen, H.B. and Bilgin H. (2008) “Re-evaluation of building damage during recent earthquakes in Turkey”, Engineering Structures, 30, 412–427. Korkmaz, A. K. ve Demir, F. (2012) "Yapı-Zemin Etkileşiminin Yapıların Deprem Davranışına Etkileri", Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 3 (1): Livaoğlu, R., Doğangün, A., (2002) "Deprem Yönetmeliğindeki Farklı Zemin Sınıflarına Göre Yapı Davranışlarının Irdelenmesi, Gümüşhane ve Yöresini Kalkındırma Sempozyumu", Gümüşhane, 1, 142152. Ozmen C. and Unay, A.I. (2007) “Commonly encountered seismic design faults due to the architectural design of residential buildings in Turkey”, Building and Environment, 42, 1406–1416. Öztürk, O., Aksoylu, C., Arslan, M.H. (2015). Frame Type Reinforced Concrete Buildings On The Vertical LoadBearing System To Address Discontinuity Of Reconstructing. International Burdur Earthquake and Environment Symposium, 7-8-9 May 2015, page: 113-123. Sezen, H.,Whittaker, A.S., Elwood, K.J. and Mosalam, K.M. (2003), “Performance of reinforced concrete buildings during the August 17, 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake, and seismic design and construction practise in Turkey”, Engineering Structures, 25, 103–114. Taşan, Z. A., (2012). Comparation Turkish Earthquake Code-1998 (TdY-98) with Turkish Earthquake Code-2007 (TDY-2007), Master's tThesis, Çukurova University. Graduate School Of Natural Sciences. Adana. Tezcan, S. (1998) "An Architect’s Log Book for Earthquake Resistant Design", Turkish Earthquake Foundation Press, Istanbul, Turkey. Tezcan, S. and Alhan, C. (2001), “Parametric analysis of irregular structures under seismic loading according to the New Turkish Earthquake Code”, Engineering Structures, 23, 600–609. TEC. 2007. Turkish Earthquake Code. Ministry of Environment and Urban. Ankara. TS500. (2000). Reinforced concrete Structures design and construction Rules. Turkish Standards Institute, Ankara. TS 498. (1997). Design Loads for Buildings. Turkish Standards Institute, Ankara. Uçar, T. ve Merter, O. (2012) "Binaların Deprem Hesabında Kullanılan Doğrusal Elastik Hesap Yöntemleriyle İlgili Bir İrdeleme", Ordu Üniv. Bil. Tek. Derg.,Cilt:2,Sayı:2,2012,15-31/Ordu Univ. J. Sci. Tech.,Vol:2,No:2,2012,15-31. Ünsal, İ. (2013). Regulation Of The Turkish Earthquake Seismic Analysis Methods Of Structures Depending On Examining Geometrisine. Master's Thesis. Çukurova University. Graduate School Of Natural Sciences. Adana. Urtimür, S. (2012). Equivalent to using the method of Earthquake Load effects of Earthquake Regions Earthquake Buildings regulation on Buildings to be done shera wall of 2007 According to the Investigation.Master's thesis. Çukurova University. Graduate School Of Natural Sciences. Adana

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INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF CONVENTIONAL AND WIPER COATED CARBIDE TOOLS WITH DRY CUTTING ON CUTTING FORCES, SURFACE ROUGHNESS, AND MATERIAL HARDNEES IN TURNING 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL Mustafa AY1, Gültekin BASMACI2 1

Marmara University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering e-mail:[email protected] 2 Mehmet Akif Ersoy University The Faculty of Engineering and Architecture e-mail:[email protected]

Abstract: In this study, an experimental investigation on cutting forces, surface roughness and the hardness of material after machining in turning of 17-4 PH stainless steel using wiper and conventional insert cutting tools with dry cutting condition were presented. The influences of feed rate, depth of cut, and corner radius on surface roughness, cutting force and material hardnesswere examined. In order to optimize the turning process, Taguchi optimization method has been used. The influence of each parameter on obtained results was determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The relationship between dependent parameters and independent parameters were modeled by Regression analysis. The optimal machinability of 17-4 PH stainless steel with coated carbide insert was successfully determined in this study. Keyword-ANOVA, Taguchi method, wiper and conventional tools, Surface roughness, cutting force, Hardness

INTRODUCTION Machining has maintained its importance for years and the researches in this field have been closely followed by the manufacturers. Every act of manufacturing has a cost and there are some factors which determine them. The cost of cutting tools and the cost of the work-piece can be considered as the two important factors in question. Thus, to lower the manufacturing cost and buy the product on cheap, those factors should be taken into consideration. For the cutting tools to be long lived and to prevent the waste of the raw material by producing the work-piece at the required level of quality, the need for the optimization of the cutting performance and conditions has arisen. To achieve that, the factors which affect the life of the cutting tools and the determination of the quality of the work-piece have been searched by the scientists. The researches have revealed the fact that there are a number of parameters and conditions in turning, which affect the above-mentioned points (Shaw,1984, Cakır,2000). These are geometric properties of the cutting tool, tip angles, approach angle, feed, cutting speed, depth of cut, coatings, cooling liquid, chip breaker form, work-piece, rigidity of the cutting tool etc (Shaw,1984, Cakır,2000, Kurt,2006, Lin,2001). These parameters’ being selected suitable to the property of work-piece material reduces the cost of manufacturing and the applied energy with lengthening the life of the cutting tool and the surface quality of the manufactured product (Lin, 2001, Saglam, 2007, Gokkaya, 2006, Field,1989). When all these are taken into consideration, it is obvious that the selection of the cutting parameters in turning is very essential. The machining of stainless steel inherently generates high cutting temperature, which not only reduces tool life but also impairs the workpiece surface quality (Kumar, 2006, Noordin, 2007). Obtaining the desired surface quality is very important for the functional maintenance of a part. One of the stainless steel family materials most commonly used in the production facility is steel with austenitic structure. The austenitic stainless steels structure is a combination of good mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance (Korkut, 2004, Elbah, 2013, Grzesik, 2006 ). In this study, an experimental investigation on cutting forces, surface roughness and the hardness of material after machining in turning of 17-4 PH stainless steel using wiper and conventional insert cutting tools were presented. The influences of feed rate, depth of cut, corner radius, dry cutting condition on surface roughness, cutting force and material hardness were examined. In order to optimize the turning process, Taguchi optimization method was used.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   The influence of each parameter on obtained results was determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The relationship between dependent parameters and independent parameters were modelled by regression analysis. The optimal machinability of 17-4 PH stainless steel with coated carbide insert was successfully determined in this study. MATERIALS and METHODS The samples used in the experimental study were in the shape of stick. Their length was 130 mm and diameter was 25 mm. Chemical composition of 17-4 PH stainless steel were presented in Table 1. A JOHNFORD TC 35 CNC Fanuc 0T CNC lathe was used. Table 1. Chemical composition C Mn Cr Mo Ni Co Cu 0.04 0.78 15.9 0.40 4.69 0.06 3.4 In the experimental study, KENNAMETAL KC5010 PVD TiAlN coated conventional (FF) and wiper (FW) inserts were used. The surface roughness value and hardness on the work-piece obtained after the machining process was measured by MAHR-Perth meter and three measurements were performed on the machined surfaces determine the Ra values. For the force measurements, KISTLER 9121 force sensor, KISTLER 5019b charge amplifier and DynoWare analysis program were used.

Figure 1. Experimental set up Experimental Design For the experimental design Taguchi method was employed.

1 n  S / N ( )  10 x log  yi 2   n i 1 

(1)

Experimental factors and their levels were presented in Table 2 and L9 experiment design in Table 3. Schematic drawing of the experimental set up is given in Figure 1.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 2.Experimental Factors and Their Levels (A) (B) (C) Parameters Feed Depth of cut Corner Radius (mm/rev) (mm) (mm) Level I 0.1 0.4 0.4 Level II 0.2 0.8 0.8 Level III 0.3 1.2 1.2 Table 3.Taguchi L9 experiment design (A) (B) (C) Experiment Variables f d r No. (mm/rev) (mm) (mm) 1 A1B1C1 1 1 1 2 A1B2C2 1 2 2 3 A1B3C3 1 3 3 4 A2B1C2 2 1 2 5 A2B2C3 2 2 3 6 A2B3C1 2 3 1 7 A3B1C3 3 1 3 8 A3B2C1 3 2 1 9 A3B3C2 3 3 2

Surface Roughness (µm)

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Evaluation of surface roughness results In general, the obtained roughness value has been between 0.55-2.37 µm, which meets the expectations. The surface roughness values obtained as a result of those 18 experiments are shown in Figure 2. 2,37

2,5 1,71 1,47

2 1,5 1

1,02 0,81

0,84 0,68

0,63 0,55

1,04 0,87

1,12 0,95

1,95 1,35 1,19

1,26 1,02

0,5 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Experiments Wiper Insert

Conventional Insert

Figure 2. The surface roughness results

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Evaluation of Cutting Forces Results In general, the obtained cutting force value has been between 153.42- 390.53 N, which meets the expectations. The cutting force values obtained as a result of those 18 experiments are shown in Figure 3.

400

373,28 353,65

370,56

342,22

Cutting Force (N)

350

303,18

175,14

209,05 216,54 180,55

2

3

250 178,71 153,42

272,4

269,59

260,76

300 200

390,53 373,97

348,67

216,1

150 100 50 0 1

4

5

6

7

8

9

Experiment Wiper Insert (N)

Conventional Insert (N)

Figure 3. The cutting force results Evaluation of Hardness Results In general, the obtained hardness value has been between 32.17- 39.67 HRC, which meets the expectations. The material hardnessvalues obtained as a result of those 18 experiments are shown in Figure 4.

40

Hardness (HRC)

35

33,07 32,17

35,6 38,23 37,73 34,15

39,6738,9 37,8 38,73 38,73 37,37 35,63 37,13 36,87 36,81 35,27 34,33

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Experiment Wiper Insert (HRC)

Conventional Insert (HRC)

Figure 4. The material hardness results

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Evaluation of ANOVA Results In turning of 17-4 PH stainless steel, nine experiments have been carried out using three different factors at three different levels and different Ra, N, and HRC values have been obtained from each experiment. Whether these differences are only a coincidence or result from the factors and the influence of each factor in this answer will be determined by the analysis of variance. The ANOVA results of the average values of surface roughness are presented in Table 4 and 5. As a result of the machining of 17-4 PH stainless steel with wiper and conventional insert cutting tools, the feed with a proportion of 51.70% and 48.88% has been the most effective factor in the formation of the roughness on the machined surface. Notations

A B C Error (e) Total

Notations

A B C Error (e) Total

Degree of freedom 2 2 2 2 8

Table 4. ANOVA versus Ra for wiper insert Sum of Variables F Ratio Squares 0.75709 0.13016 0.57696 0.02942 1.49362

0.37854 0.06508 0.28848 0.01471

25.73 4.42 19.61

Table 5. ANOVA versus Ra for conventional insert Sum of Variables F Ratio Degree of freedom Squares 2 2 2 2 8

1.03740 0.17407 0.87927 0.05087 2.14160

0.51870 0.08703 0.43963 0.02543

20.39 3.42 17.9

Percentage Ratio (%) 51.70 8.88 39.40 0.02 100

Percentage Ratio (%) 48.88 08.19 42.91 0.02 100

The ANOVA results of the average values of cutting forces are presented in Table 6 and 7. As a result of the machining of 17-4 PH stainless steel with wiper and conventional insert cutting tools, the depth of cut with a proportion of 73.6% and 49.76% has been the most effective factor in the formation of the cutting force on the machining. Notations

A B C Error (e) Total

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Table 6. ANOVA versus cutting forces for wiper insert Degree of Sum of Variables F Ratio freedom Squares 2 2 2 2 8

9712.5 33957.7 2443.6 240.2 46354.0

4856.2 16978.9 1221.8 120.1

40.44 141.38 10.17

Percentage Ratio (%) 21.06 73.64 05.29 0.01 100

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Notations

A B C Error (e) Total

Table 7. ANOVA versus cutting forces for conventional insert Degree of Sum of Variables F Ratio freedom Squares 2 2 2 2 8

22815.0 24914.5 2339.6 2339.6 1809.6

11407.5 12457.3 1169.8 120.1

12.61 13.77 1.29

Percentage Ratio (%) 45.57 49.76 04.66 0.01 100

The ANOVA results of the average values of material hardness are presented in Table 8 and 9. As a result of the machining of 17-4 PH stainless steel with wiper and conventional insert cutting tools, the corner radius with a proportion of 62.48% and 71.58% has been the most effective factor in the formation of the material hardness on the machined surface. Notations

A B C Error (e) Total

Notations

A B C Error (e) Total

Table 8. ANOVA versus material hardness for wiper insert Degree of Sum of Variables F Ratio freedom Squares 2 2 2 2 8

11.7807 0.7406 20.8588 1.0263 34.4063

5.8903 0.3703 10.4294 0.5131

11.48 0.72 20.32

Percentage Ratio (%) 35.30 02.21 62.48 0.01 100

Table 9. ANOVA versus material hardness for conventional insert Degree of Sum of Variables F Ratio Percentage freedom Squares Ratio (%) 2 2 2 2 8

8.9384 0.9606 24.9444 1.8827 36.7261

4.4692 0.4803 12.4722 0.9413

4.75 0.51 13.25

25.66 02.75 71.58 0.01 100

Evaluation of Regression Analysis Results Regression models aim to determine the relationship between variables where a cause and effect relationship is estimated. In this context, in application of the regression model, estimating that there is a conceptual relationship between independent factors and dependent factors is highly important for the model developer. To formulate a predictive equation between the control factors used during chip removal (feed rate, depth of cut and corner radius) and the result (average surface roughness, cutting force, material hardness) and to define this relationship, linear regression analysishas been used. A represents the feed rate, B cutting depth and C corner radius. In addition, ε stands for inaccuracy. Linear regression coefficients were obtained using equations 2 to 7, where ε indicates error. R2 is the coefficient expressing the appropriateness of the equation. Although an acceptable value of R2 can vary depending on the relationships between dependent and independent variables used in each discipline or model, the optimal value is the one that is closest to 1. As R2 gets closer to 1, it is considered that statistical approximation of the regression model to the real relationship increases. A regression model represents the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. According to Pearson coefficient, If R2 has a value of 0.80 and greater, it is considered a strong relationship, while 50-70% is considered to be a moderate relationship. In this case, when the modeled statistical regressions (Equations 2 to 7) are analyzed, it is understood that they are within acceptable limits.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   There is a particularly strong relationship between the variables in Equation 6. Based on this finding, it is concluded that the factors (independent factors) selected in the experimental study as having a strong effect on dependent variables (surface roughness, cutting force, material hardness) were accurately estimated. In this case, it is concluded that the regression model provides a good estimation of reality. The Ra equation formulated for this experimental study is represented below wiper and conventional insert: Surface Roughness (Wiper Insert) = 0.748 + 0.353 A+ 0.0850 B - 0.285 C+ (ε) (2) R2 = 0.857 In this equation, the coefficient of determination of the equation is 0.857. Surface Roughness (Conventional Insert)=1.00+0.415 A + 0.062 B - 0.348 C +(ε) (3) R2 = 0.833 In this equation, The coefficient of determination of the equation is 0.833. The cutting force equation formulated for this experimental study is represented below wiper and conventional insert: Cutting Force (Wiper Insert) = 55,0 + 38,3 A + 73,1 B + 14,1 C +(ε) (4) R2 = 0.907 In this equation, The coefficient of determination of the equation is 0.902. Cutting Force (Conventional Insert) = 39,4 + 59,3 A + 64,4 B - 19,3 C +(ε) (5) R2 = 0.929 In this equation, The coefficient of determination of the equation is 0.929. The Material Hardness equation formulated for this experimental study is represented below wiper and conventional insert: Material Hardness (Wiper Insert) = 30,0 + 1,39 A + 0,342 B + 1,85 C +(ε) (6) R2 = 0.954 In this equation, The coefficient of determination of the equation is 0.954. Material Hardness (Conventional Insert) = 29,1 + 1,21 A+ 0,208 B + C +(ε) (7) R2 = 0.924 In this equation, The coefficient of determination of the equation is 0.924. CONCLUSION This study of the machinability of 17-4 PH stainless steel alloy material with KENNAMETAL KC5010 PVD TiAlN coated conventional (FF) and wiper (FW) inserts have produced some useful results. The criteria for the machinability are surface roughness, cutting force and material hardness. Three control factors which were considered to be effective in creating the most suitable conditions for the criteria (feed rate, depth of cut and corner radius) were chosen at three different levels and applied in the experimental study. Below is the summary of the results:  The most effective control factor on the surface roughness value on the machined surface is feed rate. It has also been observed that feed is the most serviceable factor, still depth of cut and cutting speed play a role as well.  The effective parameters for the increase of cutting forces are depth of cut, cutting speed and feed rate.  The most effective control factor on the surface material hardness is in the direct proportion with corner radius and wiper insert.  Taguchi method is beneficial for the experimental design of the machinability of 17-4 PH stainless steel alloy material. Having optimized the parameters, it is also fruitful for keeping the response values at required levels.  The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is helpful in determining which control factor has how much importance in the determination of the results obtained from the experimental study.  The test results prove the effectiveness of the wiper inserts in providing excellent surface roughness. The results also suggest that the use of the wiper insert is an effective way that significantly increases cutting efficiency without changing the machined surface roughness in high feed turning operations. Acknowledgments The authors would like to express their gratitude to the University of Marmara for the financial support Under Project No. FEN-D-110815-0384.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   REFERENCES Shaw M.C. (1984). Metal cutting principles. Oxford University pres. Cakır MC (2000). Modern Machining Methods. VIPAS A.S. 349-410. Kurt A., (2006). Cutting Forces Generated During Machining and Mechanical Stresses The Creation of Mathematical Models and Experimental Investigation. Gazi University Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences Mechanical Education Branch PhD. Thesis. Lin W.S., Lee B.Y., Wu C.L., (2001). Modelling the surface roughness and cutting force for turning, International Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 108: 286-293. Saglam H., Yaldiz S., Unsacar F., (2007). The effect of tool geometry and cutting speed on mail cutting force and tool tip temperature. Materials and Design. 28: 101- 111. Gokkaya H., Nalbant M., (2006). Formation and Distribution of Temperature During Chip Removal Cutting. Electronic Journal of Machine Technology. 2: 33-43. Field M., Kahles J.F., Koster W.P., (1989). Surface finish and surface integrity. Metals Handbook-Machining-16. Ninth Edition. ASM International Materials Park-Ohio. 19-36. Kumar, A. S. Durai, A. R. Sornakumar, T. (2006) The effect of tool wear on tool life of alumina-based ceramic cutting tools while machining hardened martensitic stainless steel, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 173, p.p. 151-156. Noordin, M.Y. Venkatesh, V.C. Sharif, S. (2007). Dry turning of tempered martensitic stainless tool steel using coated cermet and coated carbide tools, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 185, p.p. 83-90. Korkut, I. Kasap, M. Çiftçi, I. Şeker, U. (2004) Determination of optimum cutting parameters during machining of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel, Materials and Design, vol. 25, pp 300-305. Noordin, M. Y., Kurniawan, D. and Sharif, S. (2007). Hard turning of stainless steel using wiper coated carbide tool. International Journal of Precision Technology1.1: 75-84. Jawahir, I. S., et al. (2011). Surface integrity in material removal processes: Recent advances. CIRP AnnalsManufacturing Technology 60.2: 603-626. Elbah, M. et al. (2013) Comparative assessment of wiper and conventional ceramic tools on surface roughness in hard turning AISI 4140 steel. Measurement . Volume 46, Issue 9, Pages 3041–3056. Grzesik, W.,and Wanat. T. (2006) Surface finish generated in hard turning of quenched alloy steel parts using conventional and wiper ceramic inserts. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 46.15: 19881995.

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INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATION DAMPING IN THE PASSENGER SEAT Lutfiye DAHIL1, Abdurrahman KARABULUT2, M. Serhat BASPINAR3, I. MUTLU4 1

Istanbul Aydın University, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Turkey. Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Turkey 3 Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Technology, Materials and Metallurgical engineering Turkey. 4 Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Technology, Automotive Engineering, Turkey. [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] 2

Abstract: In this study, it was aimed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. For this purpose, seat legs were manufactured from aluminum foam material by utilizing vacuum casting method. The aim of this study is to provide a comfortable and healthy to travel by decreasing the vibration coming from the chassis of the intercity buses. In experimental study, 2 seats having different legs were placed into the same type of vehicles. It was performed in two different experimental studies. In the first, modal analysis was used and Freguency Response Function (FRF) graphs were obtained. The second acceleration measurement was made and acceleration graphs were obtained. Both graphs obtained by this method were compared to two legs. It was observed that legs made of foam material shows better damping propertiesin vibration than 2 mm thick sheet metal original legs. Besides, it was observed that the foam material improved the comfort and delayed the tiredness threshold. Keywords: modal analysis, acceleration, vibration, aluminum foam, damping, car seat

INTRODUCTION In current century, one of the most important efforts of scientists is on finding the solutions of health problems triggered by negativities depending on developing technology use. One of the most important negativities is the vibrations with which we always face at any point during our daily lives. Under the lights of scientific studies, it is known that the vibration has significant effects on living creatures and non-living things. Human body faces with many different vibrations daily. In that study, the vibration has been classified as whole-body vibration and hand-arm vibration (Griffin, 1997). Scientists have worked on modeling the human body-seat system within a vibration medium, and it has been determined that it is required in order for model of a human sitting on a seat to be established to evaluate the factors such as seat cushion, suspension system and seat surface geometry and the general human dynamics together (Rosen and Arcan, 2003). Estimating the response of integrated human body-seat structure to vibration signal is very hard nowadays. That’s because of the complex dynamic behavior of the human body seating on seat in response to the vibration (Leo, Fard, Subic and Jazar, 2013). In theoretical analysis of vehicle vibrations and a computer modeling study, the vibrations occurring in a vehicle were examined theoretically, and particularly the responses of the vehicle to signals coming from the road were taken as base (Er, Orak and Par, 2006). The medical and biological effect of the vibration depends mostly on the amplitude and the duration of exposure. The frequency of the vibration having significant effect on human body is between 1 Hz and 100 Hz (Candır, 2012). In general, the dynamic response of the seats is examined in tests, where the acceleration is measured at the ground and seatbottom while there is a passenger on the seat (Corbridge and Griffin, 1986). It has been emphasized that the roughness and the velocity on road is a factor increasing the vibration value (Eaton, 2003).The standards of seat test require the use of human objects for measuring vibration isolation of the seats (Lewis, Griffin, 2002). In porous material, the damping coefficient depends on the pours. As the number of pours increases, then the damping also increases (Dahil, Baspinar and Karabulut, 2011). In vehicles, the effect of vibration firstly emerges as tiredness. Tiredness gradually increases the muscle tension of driver, and leads to increase in hormonal secretion by affecting nervous, blood circulation and digestive systems (Babalık and Orak, 1992). The reason of spinal failures has been, in many studies, found to be the vibrations transmitted from the vehicle to driver. In a clinic study carried on a person spending more than half of his working hours on driving a motor vehicle, it has been determined that he was more compliant about the back ache than other people do (Bovenzi and Zadini 1992, Dupuis and Zerlett 1987, Troup, 1988 ).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   The aim of this study is to ensure the comfortable and healthy journeys of passengers. In order to do it, the seat legs made of porous material have been manufactured via vacuum method. These legs have improved the damping, and decreased the vibration reaching to the feet of passengers. MATERIALS AND METHODS First of all, the mold to be used in production of porous material via vacuum method was designed. In order to cast the open-porous aluminum foam material that will be used in seat legs, the mold made of SAE1040 material with dimensions of 50 x 30 x 500 mm to be used in leg manufacture was prepared. After the mold production, the casting process of the foam material to be used in seat construction was started. 4 seat legs at dimensions of 25 x 40 x 250 mm were produced from porous aluminum material by using vacuum casting method. The foam Legs as seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1 The foam legs The most important measurement value required for modal analysis is the Frequency Response Function (FRF). By comparing the obtained FRF, the information about the dynamic behaviors between the leg types was obtained. Since the stimulation effects to come to the seat will occur at the point of connection of the seat with floor, these points were selected to be the points where the stimulation will be implemented during measurement. The points where the vibrations coming from the floor will be transmitted directly to the passenger (connection points between the legs and seat structure) were determined to be the response points. The free-free conditions were ensures as well as possible before the tests. The data was gathered from the seat via 2 accelerometers having 3 axes. The stimulation is provided from the bolt holes where the legs are mounted on the floor. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software.

Figure 2 Acceleration measurement test work

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   The vehicle had pass over the speed bump at speeds of 25 km/h, 50 km/h and 75 km/h. The accelerations occurring as a result of vibrations reaching to passenger from original leg and foam leg were compared through these graphics. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passenger seat, as seen in Figure 2, the passenger was sit on 3 directional acceleration receiver – test pad placed on the seat. In order to prevent any weight change throughout the study, the person sitting on the seat during the study was the same person in all the measurements. The acceleration in 3 directions was recorded HVM 100 device during 2 minutes of vehicle travel RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The changes in stimulation and response points lead to changes in frequencies and amplitude values in FRF graphics. From the change in amplitude values, it is seen that the actual mode frequency overstrains the part. In order to obtain a FRF graphic, 5 hammer impacts have been applied on each of stimulation points, and the mean of these 5 FRF graphics were taken.

Figure 3 FRF graphic in direction of x-axis in 0-100 range

It is seen in Figure 3 that it has postponed the 1st mode of original leg to higher frequencies, that it has increased the damping rates for 1st mode, and that it has led to improvement from this aspect. It has also been observed that it hasn’t led to any improvement useful for 2nd mode of original leg, that it has made damping worse, and that it has postponed the mode to slightly lower frequencies. It has been seen in original leg that the decreases occurred in modes in high frequencies and there occurred improvements from this aspect.

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Figure 4 FRF graphic in direction of y-axis in 0-100 range

As seen in Figure 4, it has been observed that it postponed the 1st mode in original band to higher frequencies, and that it led to a little increase in damping rates for 1st mode. In proportion to original leg, the improvements were observed in damping rates, and there occurred the improvements from this aspect.

Figure 5 FRF graphic in direction of z-axis in 0-100 range

As seen in Figure 5, it has led to an improvement by postponing the 1st mode in the original leg at 20-45 Hz higher frequencies, but it hasn’t created any improvement for 2nd mode but made the damping worse. As the level of acceleration increases, the duration of tiredness decreases. In other words, as the acceleration gets higher, the patient reaches at the tiredness threshold sooner. The accelerations of both of seat legs were measured at 3 speed levels. While the vehicle passes over the speed bump, the acceleration in vehicle is higher than it is on a normal road.

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Figure 6 Acceleration-time graphic of original and foam legs at 25 km/h

Figure 7 Acceleration-time graphic of original and foam legs at 50 km/h

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Figure 8 Acceleration-time graphic of original and foam legs at 75 km/h As seen in graphics, whole of the vehicle passing over the speed bump showed vertical rigidity. On the other hand, both of speed and acceleration of the vehicle reached maximum. The graphics prepared are the graphics of vertical acceleration. It was observed that acceleration values increased as the speed increased. CONCLUSIONS As seen in FRF graphics; while the amplitude levels are low in certain frequencies, they reach very high amplitudes (peak points) at certain frequencies. The force implemented at these special frequency points, where the amplitudes peak, transforms more into vibration within the structure. Considering the lower frequencies, it is seen in the graphics that the foam leg would work better, while it is seen that the original leg would work better while considering the higher frequencies. As seen in acceleration graphics that acceleration has increased in both of legs as the speed increased. Acceleration measured at seat with aluminum foam leg was found to be lower than the acceleration measured at the seat with original leg. Acceleration levels of the seat with original leg increased before the seat with foam leg did. It was observed that the foam material improved the comfort and delayed the tiredness threshold. Accordingly, the seat with foam leg damped the stimuli forces better than original legs did. Faster movement of vehicles decreases the tiredness threshold. Thus, passengers get tired sooner. As a result of both experimental studies, foam leg foot was observed that better than the original leg vibration damping. REFERENCES

Babalık, F.C. Orak, S. (1988). Received with constructive measures of vibrations in the tractor driver seat. Turkey. 53-60. Bovenzi, M. Zadini, A. (1992). Self-reported low back symptoms in urban bus drivers exposed to whole body vibration. Spine. 17(9), 1048-1059. Candır, M. (2012). www.fmo.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/6TitreşimCorbridge, C. Griffin, M.J. (1986). Vibration and comfort: vertical and lateral motion in the range 0.5–5.0 Hz. Ergonomics, 29(2), 249-272.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Dahil, L. Baspinar, M.S. Karabulut, A. (2011). Damping effect of porous materials. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Science 9, 21-26. Dupuis, H. Zerlett, G. (1987). Whole body vibration and disorders of the spine. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 59, 323-336. Eaton, S. (2003). Bus drivers - Human vibration. Worker’s compensation board of BC engineering section report, Project Number: 7.24-03257 Canada. Er, U. Orak S. Par, B. (2006). An theoretical analysis and computer modeling of vehicle vibration. Eng & Arch. Fac. Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 19(2), 35-39. Griffin, M.J. (1997). Vibration and Motion. Handbook of human factors and ergonomics. A.Willey-Interscience Publication John Willey & Sons Inc., New York, Leo, L. Fard, M. Subic, A. Jazar, R. (2013). Structural dynamic characterization of a vehicle seat coupled with human occupant. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 332(4), 1141-1152. Lewis, C.H. Griffin, M.J. (2002). Evaluating the vibration isolation of soft seat cushions using an active anthropodynamic dummy. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 253(1), 295-311. Rosen, J. Arcan M. (2003). Modeling the human body/seat system in a vibration environment. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 125(2), 223-231. Troup, J. D. G. (1988). Clinical effects of shock and vibration on the spine. Clinical Biomechanics, 3, 227-231.

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KARBON PREPREG DİSK YAYLARIN İNCELENMESİ Haşim Fırat Karasu1, Melih Belevi2 1 2

[email protected]

[email protected]

Özet: Bu çalışmada amaç, çelik disk yayın karakteristik eğrisine yaklaşan ya da daha iyi karakteristikte kompozit disk yay üretmektir. Yani disk yayın kuvvet / deformasyon oranından uzaklaşmadan tasarımı hafifletmektir. Bunun için öncelikle, üretilecek kompozit disk yayın, belirlenen 5 farklı koni yüksekliğinde karbon prepreg malzeme için bilgisayar ortamında analizleri yapılmış ve bu analizlerden yararlanarak disk yay belirlenen yöntemle üretilip deneye tabi tutulmuştur. Çelik ve kompozit disk yayların yapılan basma deneyleri sonucunda yay karakteristikleri elde edilip karşılaştırılmış ve ağırlıktaki kazanımlar da dikkate alınarak buna göre değerlendirilmiştir. Baz olarak alınan çelik disk yay için kataloglardan ortalama bir disk yayın ölçüleri seçilmiştir. Kompozit disk yay için iç çap ve dış çap değerlerini değiştirmeden farklı koniklik açısı değerleri denenmiş, buna bağlı olarak farklı kalıplar tasarlanarak üretime geçilmiştir. Keywords: Disk yay, yay karakteristiği, karbon prepreg, koniklik açısı, basma deneyi, yay kalıbı

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KAVRAM YANILGILARININ ONTOLOJİK AÇIDAN TESPİTİ VE ARGÜMAN ÇALIŞMALARI İLE GİDERİLMESİ Aysegul Kinik1, Hale Bayram2 1

[email protected] 2

[email protected]

Özet: Yapılan çalışmada,“Kuvvet ve Hareket” ünitesinde yer alan kuvvet, sürtünme kuvveti, iş, enerjinin korunumu, mekanik enerji, kinetik enerji, potansiyel enerji, yayların depoladığı enerji gibi temel Fizik kavramları ilgili öğrencilerde bulunan kavram yanılgılarını ortaya çıkarmak ve bu yanılgıları ontolojik açıdan değerlendirilip, kategorileştirildikten sonra oluşturulan argüman ortamları ve uygulanan geleneksel yaklaşımlar ile gidermek amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın amacı, temel problemi ve cevap aranan alt problemler dikkate alındığında ön test-son test kontrol gruplu yarı deneysel modeldir. Çalışmada uygulanan deneysel desende, bağımlı değişkenler akademik başarı, bilimsel süreç becerileri ve kavram öğrenme olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu bağımlı değişkenler üzerinde etkisi incelenen bağımsız değişken ise uygulanan öğrenme-öğretme yaklaşımıdır. Bu araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, İstanbul İlinde bir Vakıf Üniversitesinde 2013-2014 eğitim-öğretim yılında iki farklı grupta öğrenim gören öğrenciler oluşturmuştur. Çalışma grubu 60 kız, 10 erkek olmak üzere, 2. Sınıf, Sınıf Öğretmenliği 70 öğretmen adayından oluşmaktadır. Çalışma için ön test sonuçları temel alınarak çalışma grupları belirlenmiş ve grupların sayıları eşitlenerek 35 olarak oluşturulmuştur. İki farklı öğretim yönteminin öğrencilerin akademik başarısı üzerine etkisini incelemek amacı ile, Kuvvet ve Hareket Ünitesi Akademik Başarı Testi, kavram öğrenmeleri üzerine etkisini belirlemek amacı ile, Kuvvet ve Hareket Ünitesi Kavram Testi, bilimsel süreç becerileri üzerine etkisini belirlemek amacı ile Bilimsel Süreç Becerileri Testi, çalışmada veri toplama araçları olarak kullanılmıştır. Çalışma 2012-2013 eğitim-öğretim yılının güz döneminde toplam on üç eğitim öğretim haftasında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Deney Grubunda Kuvvet ve Hareket Ünitesi ile belirlenmiş temel konular ortaokul yedinci sınıf Fen ve Teknoloji Dersi ders ve çalışma kitabında yer alan öneriler doğrultusunda hazırlanan argümantasyon çalışmaları şeklinde verilmiştir. Oluşturulan on farklı argüman çalışmaları ders ve çalışma kitabında yer alan konuların yanı sıra, ön test olarak uygulanan Kuvvet ve Hareket Ünitesi Kavram Testi sonucunda ortaya çıkarılan kavram yanılgıları baz alınarak geliştirilmiş ve içerik zenginleştirilmiştir. Kontrol Grubunda da Kuvvet ve Hareket ünitesi yine ortaokul yedinci sınıf Fen ve Teknoloji Dersi ders ve çalışma kitabında yer alan öneriler doğrultusunda araştırmacı tarafından verilmiştir. Öğrencilerle birlikte yapılan çalışmalar, geleneksel yaklaşımın kullanıldığı aktiviteler şeklinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Uygulamanın ardından deney grubu ile kontrol grubu arasında, bilimsel süreç becerilerinden değişkenleri tanımlama, işlemsel açıklamalar yapma, araştırma tasarlama ile grafiği ve verileri yorumlama boyutlarında deney grubu lehine anlamlı bir fark oluşmuştur. Yine gerçekleştirilen uygulamanın ardından deney grubu ile kontrol grubu arasında, akademik başarı ve kavram öğrenme düzeyleri açısından deney grubu lehine anlamlı bir fark oluşmuştur. Yapılan uygulamaların öncesi ve sonrasında Kuvvet ve Hareket Ünitesi ile ilgili belirlenmiş temel Fizik kavramları ontolojik olarak incelenip kategorileştirdikten sonra, deney grubundaki öğrencilerin, uygulamadan önce üst kategoriye yerleştirmeden kaynaklanan 301 kavram yanılgısı, yanal kategoriye yerleştirmeden kaynaklanan 150 kavram yanılgısı tespit edilmiştir. Üst kategoriye yerleştirmeden kaynaklanan bu 301 kavram yanılgısının 252’si yapılan argüman çalışmaları sayesinde giderilmiştir. Üst kategoride giderilen kavram yanılgısının oranına bakıldığında %83,72 olduğu bulunmuştur. Yanal kategoriye yerleştirilen 150 kavram yanılgısının 128’unun da yapılan argüman çalışmaları sonrası giderilmiştir. Yanal kategoride giderilen kavram yanılgısının oranına bakıldığında %85,33 olduğu bulunmuştur. Bu durum öğretim süreci boyunca kullanılan argüman çalışmalarının olumlu etkisini ortaya çıkarmıştır. Üst ve yanal kategoride ortaya çıkan kavram yanılgıları büyük bir oranda ortadan kaldırılmıştır. Üst ontolojik ve yanal kategoriler kendi içerisinde incelendiğinde, özellikle yanal kategoriler içerisine yerleştirilmiş kavram yanılgılarının, yapılan argüman çalışmaları sonrası daha fazla giderildiği görülmüştür. Kontrol grubundaki öğrencilerin, uygulamadan önce üst kategoriye yerleştirmeden kaynaklanan 318 kavram yanılgısı, yanal kategoriye yerleştirmeden kaynaklanan 131 kavram yanılgısı tespit edilmiştir. Üst kategoriye yerleştirmeden kaynaklanan bu 318 kavram yanılgısının 122’si giderilmiştir. Üst kategoride giderilen kavram yanılgısının oranına bakıldığında %38,36 olduğu bulunmuştur. Yanal kategoriye yerleştirilen 131 kavram yanılgısının 59’ü giderilmiştir. Yanal kategoride giderilen kavram yanılgısının oranına bakıldığında %45,03 olduğu bulunmuştur. Bu durum labaratuar ortamında yapılan geleneksel çalışmaların, yanal kategoriye yerleştirilmiş kavram yanılgılarını gidermede, üst kategoriye yerleştirilmiş yanılgılara göre daha başarılı olduğunu göstermektedir. Bunun yanı sıra geleneksel olarak uygulanan çalışmaların öğrencilerde yeni kavram

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   yanılgıları da çıkan sonuçlardan görülmektedir. Yapılan çalışmalar sonrasında 31 yeni kavram yanılgısı ortaya çıkmıştır Keywords: Ontoloji, kavram yanılgısı, argümantasyon

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015  

KLİNİK KARAR DESTEK SİSTEMLERİ ÜZERİNE TÜRKİYE’DE YAPILAN LİSANSÜSTÜ TEZLER Öznur Körükçü1, Kamile Kabukçuoğlu2 1

[email protected] 2

[email protected]

Özet: Klinik karar destek sistemleri önceki deneyim ve bilgiye dayalı olarak elde edilen mevcut bilgiden çıkarımlar yapılmasını sağlayarak hekimlere, hemşirelere veya diğer sağlık personeline alacağı klinik kararlarda destek sağlayan bilgisayar programlarıdır. Klinik karar destek sistemleri, güncel bilgileri kullanmanın yanı sıra hastaya özel bilgileri de dikkate alarak, sağlık personelinin hastayı en iyi biçimde değerlendirmesi yönünde yardım ederler. Diğer bazı işlevleri; hastalara özel değişkenlere bağlı olarak özel ilaç tavsiyesinde bulunmak, hastalara ait özel bilgileri uzman bilgi tabanı ile mukayese ederek hasta yönetimi ve konsültasyon işlevini gerçekleştirmek, klinik ve finansal bilgi depolarını bir araya getirerek, hizmet kullanımının, maliyet bileşenlerinin ve klinik performansın değerlendirilmesi işlevini yerine getirmektedir. Klinik karar destek sistemleri kullanıcılara bakıma ilişkin seçeneklerin belirtildiği iletiler sunarak karar vermeye yardım etmekte ve hastanın sorunlarına yönelik kapsamlı bir bakım hizmeti alabilmesini sağlamaktadır. Ayrıca farklı disiplinler arasındaki iletişimi de güçlendirerek tıbbi hataların ve ilaç yan etkilerinin azaltılmasına; klinik rehberlere, protokollere uyumun artmasına; hastanın hastanede yatış süresinin kısalmasına; hasta bakım hizmetlerinin kalitesinin ve sonuçlarının iyileşmesine yardımcı olmaktadır. Bu çalışma klinik karar destek sistemleri kullanılarak yapılan lisansüstü tezleri bir araya getirmek amacı ile derleme şeklinde hazırlanmıştır. Yöntem: Çalışmadaki lisansüstü tezlere Yüksek Öğretim Kurumu (YÖK) Ulusal Tez merkezinden ulaşılmıştır. Tarama, tıp dizini seçildikten sonra, “klinik karar destek sistemi”, “klinik karar verme”, “karar verme” anahtar kelimeleri kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Bulgular: Klinik karar destek sistemleri üzerine yapılan ikisi yüksek lisans, beşi doktora olmak üzere yedi çalışmaya ulaşılmıştır.Karar destek sisteminin ilaç etkileşimlerinin engellenmesinde, sağlık alanında çalışan araştırmacıların ve öğrencilerin hipotez testlerini seçmesinde, Alzheimer (AD) hastalığını doğru tahmin etmede, hastaya uygun radyolojik tetkik seçiminde, rektum kanseri tedavisinde doğru ilacın seçilmesinde, kanser hastalarının bakım gereksinimlerinin belirlenmesinde, enteral beslenen hastaların gastrik rezidüel volüm miktarı ve diyare görülmesinde azalma olması konusunda etkin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sonuç: Bu nedenle tıp alanında da uzmanlara teşhis ve tedavi sürecinde yardımcı olacak bilişim teknolojileri kullanılarak oluşturulmuş karar destek sistemlerinin geliştirilmesi önem taşımaktadır. Keywords: Karar destek sistemleri, sağlık bilimleri, lisansüstü

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KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS LEVEL OF CONSUMERS IN SHOPPING MALLS IN KONYA ABOUT CONSUMER RIGHTS 1

Gök Gülden, 2Özen Ufuk, 3Yörük Erdal

1

Selçuk University, Vocational High School of Social Sciences [email protected] 2 Beykent Üniversitesi [email protected] 3 Selçuk University, Vocational High School of Social Sciences [email protected] Abstract: Nowadays, consumer rights are gaining great significance at national and international levels. The objectives of this study is to determine knowledge and awareness level of consumers in shopping malls in Konya about Consumer Protection Act, numbered 6502, has been enacted and became effective on 7.11.2013 in Turkey. In this study, to decide consumer knowledge and awareness, a questionnaire was fulfilled with 1498 consumers in shopping malls in Konya. At the end of the study, it is concluded that; Consumers are aware about Consumer Protection Act but they don’t know how they use their rights properly. Income level, living place and marital status affect knowledge and awareness level of consumers. Keywords: Consumer Awareness, Consumer Rights, Goods and Services, Defective goods

1. INTRODUCTION According to the Consumer Protection Act No. 6502 , consumer is the natural or legal person who buys, uses or benefits from any goods or services on a non-commercial or professional purposes. (Published in Official Gazette: 28.11.2013, Number: 28835 ) Another definition says that consumer is the person, institution or family that purchases or generates the ultimate goods or services to meet the economic, social and cultural requirements without exchanging it. (Tükoder, State Planning Organisation, Specialization Commission Report : 1 ) The consumer concept has emerged and used especially beginning from 19th century. Before the industrial revolution of the 19th century, person who buys goods or services to meet needs was considered as buyer, rather than consumer ' (Aslan: 1996: 1). The industrial revolution increased the production of various types of goods, boomed the consumption level to frenzy bringing several issues with it. Consumers who failed to reach enough information about goods and services such as market prices, quality and healthy level, stayed weak position against to strong manufacturers. They didn't know what they do or where they complain when they face problems about products. As the number of complaints increases, consumers forced authorities to solve that kind of problems in legal ways and brought consumer rights on the agenda. Since the early 19th century this topic has gained momentum steadily. 1.1. The Emerge of Consumer Rights in Europe US President j. Kennedy, laid the base of the consumer rights in his speech at the Congress for the first time at 15 February 1962. (Ede,Calcıch,1999;113). He said: Consumers ' fundamental rights are : the right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to choose, the right to be heard (Skınner,1990;673); Kennedy's highlights affected not only advanced Western countries, but also other countries in the world in that direction and resulted in positive approaches to solve consumer problems . (Göle;1983;24, Tokol;1977;18, Erdinç:2011;2). Starting from 1993, consumer rights gained importance in the European Union. European Union consumer law was mentioned in the Maastricht Treaty for the first time. (Erdinç;2011:2). After that time, consumer rights was accepted in European countries such as England, Germany, France, Belgium, Swiss (Poroy; 1979;517).

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   1.

3. The Basis of the Legislation in Turkey Related To Consumer Rights

The basis of the legislation in Turkey related to consumer rights are : Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Universal Declaration of Consumer Rights of U.N As to article 172 of 1987 Constitution: "the State takes protective and enlightening measures for consumers, encourages consumers’ preventive initiatives." Related laws are: -1982 Constitution's 172. item (direct), items 167 and 171 (indirect). -The consumer protection Act 6502"' in 2013 - The Protection of Market Competition Law, - Obligations code (in particular the new code of obligations). -Turkish Commercial Code (especially The New Turkish Commercial Code). -The Turkish Penal Code. -Public Hygiene Law Consumer protection law entered into force in 1995 in Turkey. The latest changes in this law were made in 2003.Nowadays, following governmental or non- governmental institutions work to protect consumer rights in Turkey: Turkey Consumer Organisations, Consumer Associations, Consumer Protection And Competition General Directorate, Ministry Of Industry and Commerce, Consumer Council, Consumer Issues Arbitration Committee, Advertising Board, Consumer Courts (www.tupadem.hacettepe.edu.tr., www.mevzuat.adalet.gov.tr/html/862.html) 2. LITERATURE RESEARCH There are a lot of works to measure consumer awareness in the literature. The first scientific field study to decide awareness level of citizens about consumer rights was done by Borak in Turkey in 1984. Borak’s study revealed that consumers did not know their rights and consciousness level of using these rights was low. (Borak; 1989; 80-98). A study named "The Importance of Consciousness Level in Consumer Protection, An Application on Households” was done by Kaynak and Akan. Two results of this study are: Vast majority of consumers did not know the existence of the Consumer Protection Law , consumers did not believe the existence of enough consumer protection in the country. The rate of becoming aware of the consumer protection law increased as to education level in this study. The rate of being aware of the consumer law was 100% in post graduate, while those who graduate from primary school were 62.7%. Although more than half of the respondents considered themselves as none- conscious consumer, the rates of considered themselves as a conscious consumer were 65,8% (first place) at those who have postgraduate education, only 39.1% at primary school graduates. Babaoğlu’s survey on same subject says that: 37.8% of consumers are not aware of their legal rights. 84.8% of them don't know where she or he applies for a purchased defective good or service. 2.8% of the consumers know 8 Fundamental Consumer Rights. 77.3% of consumers have not heard “Arbitration Committee for Consumer Issues” yet. 75,8% of consumers don’t know non-governmental organizations aimed at consumer protection. 90,4% of consumers do not know consumer advice phone number. 54.2% of them do not know “Consumer Protection Act, numbered 4077”. 42.1% of them don’t believe that they have properly protected rights. Only 0.5% of the consumers are members of any consumer organisations. (www.tupadem.hacettepe.edu.tr/.../tuketicinin_korunmasi_bilinc_duze) Dickinson and Shaver made a study in the United States in 1982 to decide the level of information related to consumer rights and to what extent they use this information when they have a problem. In this study, it was come out that consumers who had upper grades than high school were more conscious consumers than those who had high school or under grades. (Dickinson, Shaver, 1982:241-260). Singh K. and his colleagues made a study named Awareness of Consumer Protection Act (CPA) Among Doctors in Udaipur City in India in 2009. The survey was in a cross sectional study, a total of 448 professionals (253 males, 195 females) belonging to dental (222) and medical (226) categories were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire. Results: The awareness scores were significantly higher for medical professionals compared with those of dental professionals. Similarly, postgraduates showed more awareness in both the professions and it was found that private practitioners significantly have more awareness than the academic sector.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Conclusion: Though medical professionals have more awareness of CPA compared to dental professionals, considering the present scenario, better knowledge of CPA is necessary for both professionals in order to be on the safer side. 3. METHOD 3.1. The Sample The survey was designed to measure and evaluate attitudes of consumers in shopping malls in Konya. The survey was performed with a questionnaire. The data set of this study was collected by conducting the questionnaire to consumers that were selected randomly. Frequency distribution and differences between groups were analyzed using suitable tests by SPSS. Like similar studies, easy sampling method was used to collect data in this study because of providing quick access to a large amounts of data sampling (Cui vd., 2003; Zhou, 2004). (Nakip, 2003). The universe of the study was limited to the consumers of some shopping malls in Konya. During the implementation of the application of the survey for two months, 1498 questionnaires were achieved. 3.2. The Hypothesis of the Survey Developed Hypothesises are as follows: Hypothesis 1: There's a difference between the levels of awareness of consumer rights as to gender. Hypothesis 2: There's a difference between the levels of awareness of consumer rights as to marital status. Hypothesis 3: There's a difference between the levels of awareness of consumer rights as to monthly income. 4. FINDINGS 4.1. Sample Some of 1498 participants unanswered some questions in the questionnaire. Those absentees were neglected since they don’t change the percentages when they are distributed in proportionally. Graph 1: Gender distribution of the sample (%) Men

Women

46% 54%

Note: 1% of participant’s gave no answer to this question. As to the above graph, men are 4% more than women in the sample.

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 1: Marital status distribution of the sample (%) Number % Married 659 44% Single 681 45% Divorced 93 6% Alone 53 4% Invalid 12 %1 Total 1498 100 More than half of the participants were unmarried. There are enough participants at married and unmarried group to analysis the levels of awareness of consumer rights as to these groups. Graph 2: Monthly income distribution of the sample (%) 50 39

40

27

30

17

20 10

8

8

2000 and over

Invalid

0 400‐1000 TL

1000‐1500 TL

1500‐2000 TL  % of participants

Note: 123 participants gave no answer to this question Almost 85 % of participants in the sample have less than 1500 TL as monthly income. This reflects average income level of citizens in Konya in Turkey. Graph 3: Mostly consumed and mostly complained product groups of the participants (%) 39%

23%

10%

 

11%

10%

Automotive

10%

White goods

17%

Cloths

Foods

Food products

White goods

Electronics

Cosmetics

Cleaning agents

5%

Mostly consumed

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22%

14%

Foods‐food products

45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Mostly complained

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   First five consumed and complained product groups are shown at above graph. Foods and food products are far away from others in consume list. They have also first places in the most complained product groups list. Cleaning agents, cosmetics and electronics didn’t get significant complaints. White goods appear at the 5.th place in consume list and get 4.th place in complaint list. Automotive didn’t take any place at first five consumed list but got 5.th place at complaints list. This figure shows the importance of complaints about automotive. Graph 4: Mostly consumed and mostly complained service groups of the participants (%) 25%

23% 21%

22%

20%

20% 17% 16% 15%

10%

5%

0% Transportation

Health

Education

Mostly consumed

Health

Education

Security

Mostly complained

First three consumed and complained service groups are shown at above graph. The most consumed service is transportation which didn’t take any of first three places at complaints list. Education and security took considerable high complaints. 4.2. Reviews on the Hypothesis of the Survey In order to determine the level of awareness about consumer rights, items in the table 2 were asked to the participants in the form of a likert scale. As to the evaluation criteria, “certainly not agree” shows 0 point, “certainly agree” shows 5 point as to the scale. Items 1,2,3 and 4 were evaluated reversely. The factor analysis of survey questions are given below in the table.

 

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International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Table 2 : Factor analysis of consumer conscious level questions Factor loadings

Item

1

2

1

The most advertised product is the cheapest one and the best one

0,741

2

Seller has the right to say "No return for purchased goods."

0,73

3

It is certain that we get a positive result if we apply to “Consumer Issues Courts “

4

If we buy a product by instalment, we don’t have any consumer rights

5

We can use internet application for a defective product to get a positive result too Before buying a product, we have to read the information about it such as including, producer, etc. To check the price of a product at different markets before buying it is a conscious consumer behaviour If the marked price and the cashier price of a product is different, the price that is consumer's favour is valid. This is a good application. It is a rule that we have to return a defective product to the seller within 30 days

6 7 8 9

Cronbach Alfa

3

-697 0,419 0,778

0,567

0,596 0,752 0,715 0,712

Notes: i. Factor analysis has been applied for items. Factor loadings are given at above table. Three components meet %54,068 of total variances. ii. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value is 0,728 . As to Bartlett’s test, ki square value is 1547,358 and p<0,01 , so factor analysis is started. iii. Cronbach's Alpha value is 0,567> 0,5 Table 3: The awareness level of whole participants on consumer rights Items The most advertised product is the cheapest one and the best one If we buy a product by instalment, we don’t have any consumer rights Seller has the right to say "No return for purchased goods." It is a rule that we have to return a defective product to the seller within 30 days To check the price of a product at different markets before buying it is a conscious consumer behaviour It is certain that we get a positive result if we apply to “Consumer Issues Courts “ Before buying a product, we have to read the information about it such as including, producer, etc. If the marked price and the cashier price of a product is different, the price that is consumer's favour is valid. This is a good application. We can use internet application for a defective product to get a positive result too As to total points i. n=1498, The number of participants

Ave.

S.D.

3,93 3,67 3,58 3,53

1,28 1,40 1,38 1,36

3,51

1,46

3,33

1,23

3,27

1,57

3,21

1,42

2,82 30,8

1,33 5,88

Items for measuring the awareness level of whole participants are listed from the maximum point to the minimum in table 3. Consumers’ averages of each item is more than half point and they got 30,8 average points of total 45 points (%68) shows higher awareness level. Small standard deviations of items show that awareness level of participants is close. Consumers are most opposed to the item “The most advertised product is the cheapest one and the best one” with 3,93 average and 1,28 standard deviation. This means the opinions of consumers about advertisement are pessimistic and close to each other. Consumers evaluated the item “We can use internet application for a defective product to get a positive result too.” with the lowest point (2,82). The reason for this can be low ability of internet usage among consumers. Item “Before buying a product, we have to read the information about it such as including, producer, etc.” got the maximum standard deviation shows that some consumers didn’t give any notice to the information on the products. 324 Copyright © International Science and Technology Conference (ISTEC)  www.iste‐c.net 

 

International Science and Technology Conference, St. Petersburg RUSSIA, September 2-4, 2015   Whether the awareness level of participants on consumer rights change as to gender or not was also examined in the study. The results are in Table 4 below. Table 4 : The awareness level of participants on consumer rights ( as to gender) Men Women Items (n= 799 ) (n= 686) Aver. S.D Aver. S.D The most advertised product is the cheapest one and the 3,89 1,31 3,96 1,24 best one Seller has the right to say "No return for purchased 3,63 1,38 3,53 1,37 goods." It is certain that we get a positive result if we apply to 3,32 1,26 3,36 1,18 “Consumer Issues Courts “ If we buy a product by instalment, we don’t have any 3,66 1,41 3,67 1,38 consumer rights We can use internet application for a defective product 2,86 1,32 2,75 1,34 to get a positive result too Before buying a product, we have to read the 3,28 1,51 3,23 1,47 information about it such as including, producer, etc. To check the price of a product at different markets 3,51 1,47 3,50 1,46 before buying it is a conscious consumer behaviour If t