East Atlanta Charter School - DeKalb County Schools

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition Table of Contents

I. THE

CASE ................................................................................................................. 3

II. ACADEMIC

OBJECTIVES, PLANS, AND WAIVERS .............................................11

III. ORGA

NIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES, PLANS, AND WAIVERS .............................. 41

IV. GOVER

NANCE ....................................................................................................... 56

V.

CONTRACTS WITH EDUCATIONAL SERVICE PROVIDERS OR OTHER CHARTER PARTNERS ........................................................................................... 69

VI. FINA VII. STUDE

NCIAL OBJECTIVES, PLANS, AND WAIVERS ........................................... 72 NT ADMISSIONS ....................................................................................... 76

VIII. FACI LITIES .............................................................................................................84 IX. STUDE X. OTHE

NT DISCIPLINE .........................................................................................88 R INFORMATION ........................................................................................89

East Atlanta Charter School Petition Appendix Table of Contents Tab Number

Document Name

Page Number

1

Georgia Department of Education Immersion Information

Appendix-001

2

DeKalb County School District Immersion Information

Appendix-010

3

Information about use of Spanish in the United States

Appendix-012

4

Letter of support from expert bilingual professor and author Dr. Rebecca Callahan, together with her article and her C.V.

Appendix-014

5

Summary of the research of the benefits of immersion language education

Appendix-029

6

Sample metropolitan Atlanta jobs that prefer or require Spanish proficiency

Appendix-053

7

Evidence of community support for East Atlanta Charter School: change.org petition results, including comments

Appendix-114

8

Letter of partnership from Georgia State University’s Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research (CULTR), together with information about CULTR and C.V.s of the three Directors.

Appendix-136

9

Spanish Language Arts Common Core standards

Appendix-153

10

Full Curriculum with Alignment to Georgia Performance Standards

Appendix-224

11

Curriculum-based measures

Appendix-285

12

Information about proposed instructional materials

Appendix-340

13

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Performance Descriptors for Language Learners

Appendix-363

14

Job descriptions

Appendix-381

15

Organizational charts

Appendix-394

16

Governing board bylaws and election of officers

Appendix-399

17

Resumes of founding board members

Appendix-414

18

Certification of Incorporation

Appendix-436

19

Board questionnaires/Conflict of Interest forms

Appendix-437

20

Code of Ethics

Appendix-452

21

Letters of Support for the petition from institutions and businesses: Atlanta International School The Language Garden The State Bar of Georgia Nead Werx Locke Law Firm LLC Project Locker Red Tile Roof Studio WonderHealth, LLC

Appendix-458

22

Monthly cash flow projections for first two years of operation (with revenue and expenditures), at full enrollment and at projected enrollment and start-up and five-year operating budgets

Appendix-466

23

Information about the McNair Cluster of schools

Appendix-467

24

Proposed enrollment application

Appendix-485

25

Proposed annual calendar (EACS will follow DCSD’s calendar)

Appendix-487

26

Proposed daily schedule

Appendix-488

27

Facilities plans

Appendix-494

28

Emergency safety plan outline

Appendix-516

29

Family handbook, including student dress code

Appendix-519

30

Insurance/indemnification information

Appendix-535

31

Eligible school checklist

Appendix-548

32

Signed letter of assurances

Appendix-549

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

Executive Summary Charter School Name: East Atlanta Charter School Check one:

_X_ New Start-Up ___ Start-up renewal ___ College & Career Academy

___ New Conversion ___ Conversion Renewal

If renewal, when was the original charter term start date? N/A If renewal, for how many charter terms has the school been in existence? N/A Name of the Georgia nonprofit corporation that will hold the charter, if granted: _East Atlanta Charter School Foundation______________________________ Contact person:

Loren Locke, Chair of the Board of Directors

Contact address: Telephone number of contact: E-mail address of contact: Grade Levels Served: __Kindergarten – 5th_______________________ Ages Served: __5-11______________________________ Proposed Opening/Renewal Date: __August 2016____________ Proposed Charter Term: ___5 years___________________ During the first charter term we propose to serve students as follows: Year/Grade 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020 2020-2021

K 88 88 88 88 88

1 88 88 88 88 88

2 3 4 0000 88 0 0 0 88 88 0 88 88 88 88 88 88

5 0 0 88

Total 176 264 352 440 528

i.

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I.

THE CASE

1. Why do you want a charter? a. What is your motivation for applying to be a charter school? The vision of East Atlanta Charter School (“EACS”) is to create an exceptional educational experience for elementary students that will foster each child’s curiosity, confidence, creativity, and communication skills in two languages. Our student body will reflect and embrace our community’s racial, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic diversity. Our teachers will cultivate confident, bilingual learners who can think critically and creatively, express themselves elegantly in writing and in speech, solve complex problems, and work collaboratively. b. What will you be able to do with a charter that you cannot do without a charter? No other public school in DeKalb County has a whole-school dual language immersion program, and no other school follows Common Core language arts standards in the second language. At East Atlanta Charter School, every child will learn Spanish. Having every student and classroom working toward the same goal of advanced Spanish proficiency will foster extensive opportunities to reinforce and expand on each individual class’s lessons, and more time to provide both structured and unstructured opportunities for each student to communicate in Spanish. Further, a school-wide dual immersion program creates a unity of purpose across the faculty and staff that will result in increased achievement of the student body across all subject areas. At East Atlanta Charter School, our goal is to educate students to be truly at ease beyond their borders. Second language instruction is integral to achieving this goal. Guided by the most current research on language acquisition and evidence showing the significant social and cognitive benefits of learning a second language, we have created a Spanish immersion curriculum designed to educate students who can converse comfortably on subjects ranging from the everyday to the academic, with a focus on global awareness. At East Atlanta Charter School, all students will spend 50 percent of their time learning in English and 50 percent learning in Spanish. All content subjects (language arts, math, social studies, and science) will be taught in both English and Spanish. In addition to the social and personal benefits of bilingualism, current research shows that second language acquisition is highly beneficial to the development of brain functions and cognitive skills. Our coordinated curriculum in both English and Spanish leads to a high level of academic rigor and an opportunity for interdisciplinary learning that is engaging and meaningful. EACS will hire teachers who are extremely well qualified, with extensive training in subject content and in second language instruction. English and Spanish teachers will collaborate to create and nurture the social, emotional and academic growth of their students. Partner teachers will share the responsibility for teaching the content and curriculum and will communicate with each other daily about student progress and concerns. Spanish teachers will use Spanish 100 percent of the time for both instructional and procedural interactions, providing all students with sufficient input for consistent incremental assimilation of the language. Through formal and informal assessments, teachers will monitor students’

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progress and offer opportunities to strengthen their language skills through dynamic and differentiated groupings. Dual language immersion will not produce functionally bilingual students if they are not given enough opportunity and impetus to produce coherent, accurate, and sociolinguistically appropriate speech and writing. A dual language immersion program that provides inadequate opportunity for expressive language produces children who can listen or read in Spanish extremely well, but who are nonetheless “passive bilinguals” lacking the confidence and skill to speak and write in their second language. Because of the freedoms allowed by the charter, East Atlanta Charter School will cultivate the precise environment needed to maximize the success of the students. Our entire educational model is designed to foster each child’s curiosity, confidence, creativity, and communication skills. Pursuing these goals for each child is completely intrinsic and inseparable from our whole-school dual language immersion program. c. Describe how parents, community members, and other interested parties were involved in developing the petition and will be involved with the school. i.

Describe in detail the community support for this school and the need for this particular school in the community it will serve. Support may be evidenced through additional documentation.

When the plan to create East Atlanta Charter School was first widely announced, the community response was immediate and enthusiastic. An online petition of support garnered 100 signatures in the first 24 hours and exceeded 500 signatures within the first month. Similarly, East Atlanta Charter School launched a Facebook page that as of early May, 2015 had received 155 “likes” and continues to be an active hub of DeKalb County parents. Our website, www.EastAtlantaCharterSchool.com, continues to draw dozens of unique visitors per day. Our supporters are passionate and vocal, citing myriad reasons that they would be eager to enroll their own children in East Atlanta Charter School. We have held well-attended public meetings at the Gresham Park public library and by invitation at local homeowners’ association events and neighborhood meetings hosted by members of the Friends of South DeKalb Schools group. According to our supporters, the need for East Atlanta Charter School is clear: -

“We would love to support a charter school in our neighborhood. We've been residents of East Atlanta since 2003, and we've just added a child to our family this year. Our wonderfully diverse area needs a school as unique and special as its residents. We have a lot to share and are eager to learn.” – M. Rose of Atlanta.

-

“Every child deserves a good, local, tuition-free school option, and there currently isn't one. A charter school would be good for everyone in the area and would keep some families with school-age children, including mine, from moving to another school district.” – A. Blackstock of Atlanta.

-

“Our daughters are currently in a Spanish immersion preschool in East Atlanta where we live. We would love to send them to a dual language charter in the area for K-5.” – N. Talero of Atlanta.

-

“There should be no such thing as a "bad" school in any neighborhood. Here's a great opportunity to begin to correct our educational shortcomings, to invest in our neighborhood, our children and America’s future.” – M. Rials of Atlanta. 4

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

-

“I believe in multilingual education and would like more options for my children closer to where we live.” – L. Campbell of Atlanta.

-

“I need to be sure that my children are able to get the best possible education while remaining in DeKalb County.” – Natalie Fernandez of Atlanta. ii.

As part of your evidence of community engagement, you must provide a letter or a petition signed by parents/guardians of school-age children eligible to attend the charter that demonstrates that they would consider enrolling their child in the proposed school. These items may be placed in the Appendix.

Please see Exhibit 7. iii.

Describe the steps you have taken to develop any partnerships and your plans to further develop additional community partnerships.

We have networked intensively to ensure that East Atlanta Charter School will have productive and useful partnerships with organizations across the metropolitan area and around the country. Most notably, we have partnered with Georgia State University’s Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research (CULTR). CULTR is a Title VI Language Resource Center of the U.S. Department of Education. A U.S. Department of Education Language Resource Centers (“LRCs”), CULTR is one of only 16 university-based centers in the country supported by federal grants under Title VI of the Higher Education Act. Together, these 16 LRCs make up a national network of resources to promote the teaching and learning of foreign languages by creating language learning and teaching materials, offering professional development opportunities for teachers and instructors, and conducting research on foreign language learning. (See Exhibit 8.) Founded in 2014 and based at Georgia State University, CULTR is a partnership of the Departments of Modern and Classical Languages and the Department of Applied Linguistics/ESL in the College of Arts and Sciences and the Division of Learning Technologies in the College of Education, in collaboration with the Center for Instructional Innovation. CULTR endeavors to enhance the opportunities of urban and underrepresented students to achieve the language proficiency and cultural competence required for success in the modern global marketplace. Through a variety of initiatives that support research into world language teaching and learning, the development and dissemination of innovative language methodologies and technologies, and through the provision of professional support for language instructors, the mission of CULTR is to promote and improve access to language learning opportunities and global awareness for all learners, opening opportunities for urban students to explore and envision global careers in cultural diplomacy, national security, international business, public health, or the sciences. While education offers individual opportunities alongside wider social benefits, access to education has become increasingly unequal, diverging along social class and, consequently racial, ethnic, and gender lines. Schools in urban areas are frequently under-resourced and accountability concerns in areas such as reading and math sometimes lead to reductions in offerings of courses not deemed “essential,” including foreign languages. These students, many already under-represented, are further marginalized and barred from participation in the opportunities presented by globalization. 5

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

Dr. William Nichols, one of three Co-Directors of CULTR, has submitted a letter of support, stating in part: “Given our purpose of enhancing opportunities for urban and under-‐represented students, CULTR recognizes the potential for a powerful, longstanding partnership with East Atlanta Charter School, which will serve a predominately minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged student population. Given its proximity to GSU and the fact that we can be involved from the very inception of the school, we are particularly well positioned to establish this important collaboration.” Further, CULTR has identified specific areas in which it plans to provide ongoing support to EACS, including: • CULTR will assist in identifying and pursuing appropriate grant opportunities, such as the Foreign Language Assistance Program (LEAS) which provides grants to establish, improve, or expand innovative foreign language programs for elementary and secondary school students. • CULTR proposes to offer workshops for all East Atlanta language teachers. Topics will include technology for language teaching, assessment in the language classroom, and teaching heritage language students. • CULTR will invite East Atlanta Language Teachers to participate in CULTR’s Language Teacher Retention Institute that will serve to develop communication and professional mentoring networks that work to establish the base of a multi-layered mentoring/enrichment program to reduce burnout and attrition in language teachers. • CULTR will provide programming and curricular enhancement and evaluation related to foreign language teaching. • CULTR agrees that one of the three CULTR Co-Directors will reside on the governing board of East Atlanta Charter School on a rotating basis allowing CULTR to provide ongoing professional advice and mentorship to the governing Additionally, we have received pledges of support from other institutions, such as other schools (including The Language Garden, a Spanish immersion preschool that serves many families who reside within the McNair Cluster and the Atlanta International School, the metropolitan area’s oldest, largest, and most highly regarded school offering language immersion to all students). We have also received letters of support from several private businesses and the State Bar of Georgia, the organization to which all licensed Georgia lawyers belong, which exists to foster among Georgia lawyers the principles of duty and service to the public; to improve the administration of justice; and to advance the science of law. iv.

Provide a list of organizations that have committed to partner with your school and the potential nature of the partnerships. Provide evidence of support from the partners in the Appendix.

Please see the Appendix, in particular Exhibits 8 and 20. d. What is the Charter School’s Mission? How does it support the legislative intent of the school’s program to “increase student achievement through academic and organizational innovation?”

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

The mission of East Atlanta Charter School is to nurture a community of young scholars who will not only achieve very high standardized test scores, but who will also be uncommonly adept at expressing themselves effectively in myriad settings. Our curriculum will focus on the liberal arts, and we will utilize evidence-based best practices in education and classroom management. East Atlanta Charter School teachers will engage and inspire children through highly interactive and student-centered lessons that harness the intense curiosity innate to children. Few Georgia public elementary schools offer second language learning opportunities, and even fewer provide the sustained, wide-ranging instruction and exposure that leads to advanced second language proficiency. East Atlanta Charter School will incorporate Spanish language learning extensively--both throughout the curriculum and across all grade levels-- so that our students obtain the demonstrable benefits of becoming bilingual and biliterate. Namely, each student will develop high proficiency in Spanish; improved performance on standardized tests of English and math; enhanced cognitive skills in areas such as memory, cognitive flexibility, attention control, and problem solving skills, as well as an enhanced understanding of English; increased cultural sensitivity; and the long-term benefits of being better prepared for the global community and job markets where a second language is an asset. Spanish is a natural choice for our school’s second language. Spanish is the second-most spoken language in Georgia, and the primary language of about half a million people in the Atlanta metropolitan area. (See Exhibit 3.) In addition to Georgia State University’s Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research (CULTR), East Atlanta Charter School has also gained the support of a notable national leader on bilingual education, Dr. Rebecca Callahan. (See Exhibit 4.) Dr. Callahan is a University of Texas professor in the Department of Curriculum & Instruction and Population Research Center and the author of The Bilingual Advantage: Language, Literacy and the US Labor Market. In her letter of support for EACS, Dr. Callahan states: “[R]ecent research has found an economic advantage to maintaining bilingualism and developing biliteracy as the EACS model proposes to do. In fact, among young adults today, researchers have found a significant advantage in college-going, but also in the likelihood of being hired, and once employed, in the wages earned. Employers report that they are more likely to choose a bilingual employee, all else equal, and more likely to retain bilingual and biliterate employees when facing layoffs and other difficult decisions. The EACS proposal offers not only to address a gap in the educational offerings of the region, but also to provide rich educational, and linguistic, support to a traditionally marginalized student population. I look forward to seeing the EACS community of students in action in the future!” Our mission is closely aligned to the mission of the DeKalb County School System: “to form a collaborative effort between home and school that maximizes students' social and academic potential preparing them to compete in a global society.” e. Please provide specific examples of and documentation regarding programs that would be offered by your school that are not offered in any existing schools in DCSD. Please see Board Policy IBB. “Based on what global companies in Georgia tell us, we have set a goal for Georgia to have twenty dual-immersion programs in place by 2020. These programs will help ensure a Georgia workforce that is fluent in languages and skilled at cultural interactions that are

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

necessary for the economic development of our state and region.” -- State School Superintendent Dr. John Barge. (See Exhibit 1.) In 2014 in the DeKalb School District, only 1,960 children (less than 2% of students in the district) were attending a school that offered dual language immersion instruction. Approximately one half of one percent of DeKalb students were actually participating in a dual language immersion program in any language. Dual language immersion is not a concept invented by the founders of East Atlanta Charter School. Rather, it is a relatively recent breakthrough in elementary education that has lately been gaining greater attention throughout the United States. The Georgia Department of Education set a goal for there to be at least 20 dual language immersion programs in public schools in Georgia by 2020. Thus far, there are 14 programs in Georgia that offer at least a kindergarten immersion program (including 10 traditional public schools and 4 public charter schools). There is no whole-school dual immersion program in DeKalb where every student is learning the same second language. Further, the students of South DeKalb do not yet have meaningful access to dual language immersion education at all. Of the four existing programs in the DeKalb School District, three programs operate within traditional public schools and limit participation to students residing in the local elementary attendance zone (Ashford Park Elementary offers a German-English program; Evansdale Elementary offers a French-English program; and Rockbridge Elementary offers a French-English program). There is only one public dual language immersion program for which children from South DeKalb may apply, which is the Globe Academy Charter School. While the Globe Academy differs from East Atlanta Charter School in many significant ways, perhaps the most fundamental concern regarding how it is not meeting the needs of South DeKalb’s children is that it is located near the opposite end of the school district and does not provide student transportation. Thus, parents who wanted to drive their children from the McNair cluster geographic area would need to drive up to 20 miles each way. Making two round trips per day in standard traffic conditions would take approximately 3 hours per day. Many South DeKalb families have neither the time nor the financial resources to dedicate 15 hours per week to driving a child to and from school. Georgia Department of Education cites the following benefits of Dual Language Immersion (“DLI”):   



Second Language Skills: DLI students achieve higher proficiency in the second language than with traditional Foreign Language instruction. Cognitive Skills: DLI students typically develop greater cognitive flexibility, demonstrating increased attention and memory, superior problem-solving skills as well as an enhanced understanding of their primary language. Performance on Standardized Tests: DLI students perform as well as or better than English-only students on standardized tests in English, including students from a range of socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, as well as with diverse cognitive and linguistic abilities. Intercultural Competency: DLI students are more aware of and generally show more positive attitudes towards other cultures and an appreciation of other people.

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

 

Long-Term Benefits: DLI students are better prepared for the global community and job markets in the 21st century. Higher Attendance-Rates and Fewer Drop-Outs: Students from DLI programs have higher attendance rates and lower drop-out rates compared to regular programs. (See Exhibit 1.)

The DeKalb County School District cites the following goals for its dual-language immersion programs:      

Improve literacy skills; Increase academic achievement in all content areas; Increase achievement in reading and mathematics significantly; Instill cultural competence; prepare students to be sensitive and skilled in working with others across cultures; Prepare students to be collaborators; and Prepare students to enter the global workforce. (See Exhibit 2.)

In order to meet the objectives of the Georgia Department of Education and of the DeKalb County School District that a critical mass of children become proficient in a world language through dual language immersion education, and in order to open that opportunity to the children of South DeKalb, there must be another option which is geographically suitable and tailored to the needs and desires of the families of South DeKalb. Dual language immersion education should not be restricted to more socioeconomically privileged students in the north part of the county, but rather should be accessible to South DeKalb’s children. In addition to providing the only whole-school Spanish immersion program, East Atlanta Charter School will also be the only dual language immersion program serving diverse and predominantly low-income families. It will provide cultural and pre-professional opportunities to a population of students who historically have had a very low rate of high school graduation. Toward the goal of helping its student population close the achievement gap, it will provide extensive support services for families, most of whom will not be refugees or immigrants, but who have nonetheless struggled to gain economic traction for various reasons. East Atlanta Charter School will be the only program in DeKalb County School District where 100% of fifth graders will speak Spanish proficiently. East Atlanta Charter School has a pragmatic mission aligned with the needs of the families of South DeKalb. Spanish was chosen as the school’s second language not only because of the availability of Spanish-speaking teachers and high-quality instructional materials aligned perfectly with the Georgia Common Core standards, but also because Spanish language proficiency, more than French, German, Mandarin, or any other language, is a valuable asset in the workforce in Georgia. While there is value and worth in studying a dead language or a language that very few Americans will ever encounter, Spanish holds the same advantages, plus it is extremely practical. East Atlanta Charter School will provide very rigorous academic training that will ideally situate its 11 year old fifth graders to continue on the road toward university education, but which will also prepare them for their eventual entry into the workforce. Students who complete 6 years at East Atlanta Charter School will have received a strong academic foundation for success in middle school, high school, and college, but with their fluency in Spanish, they will also have a 9

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

lasting, valuable, marketable, and practical skill. For a student who does not pursue higher education or even necessarily complete high school, his Spanish bilingual ability could be one of the few marketable skills he may have to put on his resume. Every student who completes his or her studies at the East Atlanta Charter School will benefit from all of the research-proven benefits of bilingual education and will be prepared to succeed in middle school. Some will undoubtedly go on to excel in high school, attend prestigious universities, and enter elite fields such as medicine and law. But while many will follow this time-tested yet lengthy path to professional and economic success, others will be prepared to seize more immediate opportunities that exist because of their Spanish bilingualism. One classmate could start his own contracting business, in which he hires and manages Spanishspeaking laborers. Another student could open her own restaurant. Another could work as a diplomat or as a border patrol officer. Another could become a certified court translator or Spanish-language customer service representative, and still another could go into the burgeoning tourism industry of DeKalb County. All of these students will be able to communicate with the substantial minority of people living in the U.S. who speak Spanish as their first, and often only, language. And all of these students will be able to command a higher income and have more professional opportunities because of their bilingual proficiency. Please see Exhibit 6 for a sampling of metropolitan Atlanta employers seeking Spanish speakers for positions across all industries today. The students’ Spanish-language instruction detracts nothing from their subject-matter learning in all of the standard academic areas. Just as one East Atlanta Charter School alumna may one day use her Spanish skills as an interpreter or teacher, another may go in a direction where speaking Spanish is not part of her career. She, too, will reap academic and social benefits from East Atlanta Charter School, where becoming bilingual in Spanish will happen together with learning the full slate of traditional school subjects. The DeKalb County School District and the Georgia Department of Education agree that dual language immersion is proven to lead to advanced second language proficiency while augmenting core academic skills. Yet, nowhere in the district is there a program tailored for a population of low-income students who historically have entered the workforce without attending college. Bilingualism in Spanish is probably the most sought-after, discrete marketable skill that an elementary school could instill in its students. Elementary school is the perfect age to develop second-language proficiency, and one’s ability to do so drops precipitously with age, becoming dramatically weaker by high school when Georgia's students typically first encounter second-language instruction. By high school, having lost the cognitive ability to learn a foreign language easily, most students learn and retain very little and do not become functionally bilingual. It is a running joke in America to laugh about how many years of foreign language classes you took in high school, and on vacation you couldn’t even remember how to ask for directions on the street in that foreign language. This is profoundly different than the experience of dual language immersion in elementary school and the results one achieves through long-term participation in such a program. Unlike other DeKalb charter schools serving overwhelming economically disadvantaged and racially homogenous minority student populations, such as the student population attending schools in the McNair cluster, East Atlanta Charter School offers a carrot and not a stick. Instead of cultivating a rigid school environment and stressful obsession with standardized tests, East Atlanta Charter School will uplift disadvantaged students with Spanish bilingualism -

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

a meaningful, marketable skill that enhances academic learning - while increasing opportunities to succeed for all students, whether headed toward elite universities or straight into the workforce. II. ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES, PLANS, AND WAIVERS 2. What are your school’s performance objectives for the proposed charter term? a. As background for your answer to this question, please see the CCRPI and Beating the Odds goals (Attachments A and B) and review the PowerPoint found on the GADOE’s Charter Schools Division’s website. These goals will be included in your charter contract. The Attachments A and B were reviewed and have informed the goals outlined below. b. In your answer to this question, you will list the specific areas you will target to achieve your CCRPI and Beating the Odds goals. In order to achieve our CCRPI and Beating the Odds goals, we will target our Reading, ELA, and Math scores. In order to achieve our targets, we will increase the minutes of Literacy and Math instruction students receive each day. Please see the attached copy of our proposed school schedule for further details. Furthermore, research indicates that dual-language instruction leads to equivalent or increased scores in Math and Reading. According to “What the Research Says About Immersion,” by Tara Williams Fortune of the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition at the University of Minnesota, based on the research of Lindholm-Leary and Turnbull, Lapkin, and Hart, “English proficient immersion students are capable of achieving as well as, and in some cases better than, non-immersion peers on standardized measures of reading and math.” This research indicates that dual-language immersion, in and of itself, will potentially benefit students’ standardized test scores. (See Exhibit 5.) c. For example, you may choose to target Math or ELA to raise your overall CCRPI score – because your current Math or ELA scores are dragging your CCRPI score down. Please see the answer listed above, which states that we will be targeting Reading, ELA, and Math, as well as how we will raise student achievement in these three critical subjects. d. As a way to be competitive on Beating the Odds, you may also choose to focus on closing the gap in your school between educationally advantaged and educationally disadvantaged students – or you may choose to ensure gifted students are well-served, since average-performing gifted students will lower your Beating the Odds ranking compared to schools and districts with high-performing gifted students. Because our target geographic regions will pull students of a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds, we seek to level the playing field through bilingual education. East Atlanta Charter School values dual-language immersion because research proves that dual-language immersion levels the academic playing field between middle-class and low-income students. In their article “Foreign Languages and the Achievement Gap,” the Joint National Committee For Languages (JNCL) and the National Council For Languages And International Studies (NCLIS) state, “Dual Language Immersion, where students learn academic subjects in English and

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

another language, offers a positive and powerful approach to closing achievement gaps for African-Americans and students of low socioeconomic status.” The JNCL and NCLIS also write that the state of North Carolina has seen dramatic achievement gains from low socioeconomic students through their implementation of dual immersion instruction. (See Exhibit 5.) North Carolina’s data specifically show that:  3 rd and 4th grade African American students in immersion score between ½ and 1 full year ahead of other African American students, in English reading;  5 th through 8th graders score between ¾ and 2 years ahead of their peers in English reading.  When compared to the overall statewide scores, African American children in immersion close the achievement gap (compared to the overall performance statewide) by the 8th grade. “The Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive Development” by Y.G. Rodriguez states that “the evidence seems to suggest that bilingualism may scaffold concept formation and general mental flexibility.” This evidence shows that through bilingual education, children can obtain the ability to grasp concepts and engage in flexible thinking, which will help children from low-performing areas achieve at higher levels. Furthermore, “Positive effects of bilingualism were found on both episodic memory and semantic memory at all age levels,” according to to R.Kormi-Nouri, S. Moniri, and L Nilsson in their article, “Episodic and Semantic Memory in Bilingual and Monolingual Children.” This indicates that children receiving bilingual education will have stronger memory function than they would in an equivalent monolingual setting, which will further their academic achievement and ability to compete with same-age peers. e. Indicate the expected rate of student performance growth in each year of the proposed charter term. As indicated below in the chart outlining projected student growth for our founding first grade cohort, the percentage of students achieving on or above grade level is expected to grow 5% for each year that a student attends our school. On an individual student level, students will be pushed to meet aggressive growth targets on the MAP test, as outlined by the following chart. MAP Percentile 75th percentile or above 50th percentile to 74th percentile 25th percentile to 49th percentile 1st percentile to 24th percentile

Expected Growth In One Year 103% of projected growth goal (according to NWEA) 108% of projected growth goal (according to NWEA) 113% of projected growth goal (according to NWEA) 118% of projected growth goal (according to NWEA)

By setting tiered growth targets according to what quartile in which a student scores in, students will move through the quartiles the longer they are with us. For example, if we were merely to expect a student scoring in the 24th percentile to make one year’s growth, then at the end of the year, that student would still score in the 24th percentile. However, a student who makes 118% of one year’s growth would move to the next quartile. Over multiple years, this growth will move the student so that he/she is achieving on or above grade level.

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

However, at East Atlanta Charter School, we expect all of our students to make higher than projected growth in a year. Therefore, even the highest performing students will be pushed to beat their projected growth goal by 3% (or, in other words, to grow at a rate 3% higher than projected). f.

You are encouraged to include all or some of the components of the current draft of the Georgia Department of Education’s College and Career Ready Performance Index (CCRPI).

All Georgia Milestones performance objectives are informed by the current draft of the Georgia Department of Education’s College and Career Ready Performance Index. g. You are urged to include cohort measures that show the progress over time of a single cohort of students. Please see chart below regarding specific goals for the founding first-grade cohort. h. You are also urged to include national norm-referenced test results among your performance measures. Common Core MAP (Measures of Academic Progress) will be used in each of our subject-area academic performance objectives (except those for Spanish Language Acquisition). MAP is a norm-referenced test created by the NWEA and used across the United States. i.

Be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-based (SMART).

East Atlanta Charter School sets the following rigorous academic performance objectives. (Note that all MAP scores will be the Common Core versions of the MAP.) Reading Subject Reading

Language Arts

Math

Science

MAP 70% of students will meet their RIT growth goals for the year.

GA Milestones Other Measure 92% of students will meet on the Georgia Milestones EOG test. 12% of students will exceed on the Georgia Milestones EOG test. 70% of students 85% of students will meet will meet their on the Georgia Milestones RIT growth EOG tests. 12% of goals for the students will exceed on the year. Georgia Milestones EOG test. 70% of students 77% of students will meet will meet their on the Georgia Milestones RIT growth EOG tests. 8% of students goals for the will exceed on the Georgia year. Milestones EOG test. 65% of students 70% of students will meet will meet their on the Georgia Milestones

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Social Studies

Oral Reading Fluency

Word Use Fluency

Reading Comprehension

Spanish Oral Language Fluency

RIT growth goals for the year. 65% of students will meet their RIT growth goals for the year.

EOG tests. 5% of students will exceed on the Georgia Milestones EOG tests. 73% of students will meet on the Georgia Milestones EOG tests. 5% of students will exceed on the Georgia Milestones EOG tests. 75% of students will meet the following Words Correct Per Minute Goals using DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency: K: N/A 1: 47 2: 96 3: 110 4: 114 5: 127 75% of students will meet the following Word Use Fluency Goals using the DIBELS Word Use Fluency indicator: K: 37 1: 47 2: 50 3: N/A 4: N/A 5: N/A 75% of students will meet the following Reading Comprehension Goals using the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment: K: D 1: J 2: M 3: P 4: S 5: V 80% of students will achieve at the following levels: K: Novice-High oral fluency rate 1: Novice-High oral fluency rate (year one); Intermediate-Low oral fluency rate (years two through five) 2: Intermediate-Mid oral fluency rate 3: Intermediate-

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High oral fluency rate 4: Advanced-Low oral fluency rate 5: Advanced-Mid oral fluency rate 80% of students will achieve at the following levels: K: Novice-High writing/ composition rating 1: Novice-High writing/composition fluency rate (year one); IntermediateLow writing/composition rate (years two through five) 2: Intermediate-Mid writing/composition rate 3: IntermediateHigh writing/composition rate 4: Advanced-Low writing/composition rate5: Advanced-Mid writing/composition rate

Spanish Written Composition

Our Spanish proficiency objectives are reflective of students’ progressive mastery toward oral and written fluency in Spanish. Objectives are written from a standpoint of considering students’ first age of exposure to second language exposure (assuming that second language acquisition beginning in elementary school usually takes approximately 5 years to reach proficiency), as well as individual variability in the overall population in terms of ability to acquire second language fluency in childhood.

School-Wide Objectives for Year 1 and Year 5: Year 1

Year 5

Oral Fluency

By the end of Year 1, 80% of all students will achieve at least a Novice-High oral fluency rate in Spanish, as measured by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language (ACTFL) Proficiency Rubric.

Written Fluency

By the end of Year 1, 80% of all students will achieve at a NoviceMid written fluency rate in Spanish, as measured by the ACTFL Proficiency Rubric.

Oral Fluency

By the end of Year 5, 90% of 4th and 100% of 5th grade students will achieve at least an Intermediate-High fluency rate in Spanish, as measured by the ACTFL Proficiency Rubric.

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Written Fluency

By the end of Year 5, 90% of 4th and 100% of 5th grade students will achieve at least an Intermediate-High written fluency rate in Spanish, as measured by the ACTFL Proficiency Rubric.

Please see the definition of these standards at Exhibit 12, The American Council on the Teach of Foreign Languages Performance Descriptors for Language Learners. Cohort Measures: East Atlanta Charter School projects the following performance standards for the founding first-grade cohort. Year 1 (Spring) Year 2 (Spring) Year 3 (Spring) Year 4 (Spring) Year 5 (Spring) 60% of 65% of second 70% of third 75% of fourth 80% of fifth incoming first graders from the graders from the graders from the graders from the graders will original cohort original cohort original cohort original cohort score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile or higher or higher or higher or higher or higher according to the according to the according to the according to the according to the NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of Academic Academic Academic Academic Academic Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a normnormnormnormnormreferenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test ELA MAP 60% of 65% of second 70% of third 75% of fourth 80% of fifth incoming first graders from the graders from the graders from the graders from the graders will original cohort original cohort original cohort original cohort score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile or higher or higher or higher or higher or higher according to the according to the according to the according to the according to the NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of Academic Academic Academic Academic Academic Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a normnormnormnormnormreferenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test Math 60% of 65% of second 70% of third 75% of fourth 80% of fifth MAP incoming first graders from the graders from the graders from the graders from the graders will original cohort original cohort original cohort original cohort score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile or higher or higher or higher or higher or higher according to the according to the according to the according to the according to the NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of Academic Academic Academic Academic Academic Reading MAP

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Science MAP

Social Studies MAP

Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a normnormnormnormnormreferenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test 55% of 60% of second 65% of third 70% of fourth 75% of fifth incoming first graders from the graders from the graders from the graders from the graders will original cohort original cohort original cohort original cohort score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile or higher or higher or higher or higher or higher according to the according to the according to the according to the according to the NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of Academic Academic Academic Academic Academic Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a normnormnormnormnormreferenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test 55% of 60% of second 65% of third 65% of fourth 70% of fifth incoming first graders from the graders from the graders from the graders from the graders will original cohort original cohort original cohort original cohort score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the will score in the 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile 50th percentile or higher or higher or higher or higher or higher according to the according to the according to the according to the according to the NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP NWEA’s MAP (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of (Measures of Academic Academic Academic Academic Academic Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a Progress), a normnormnormnormnormreferenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test referenced test

3. How will the charter school governing board, management, instructional leadership, faculty and staff know that students are on track to meet these academic goals? a. What assessments will the school administer to obtain performance data for each student? Please refer below to the answer to Question 2, sub-part b. b.

Describe how the school will obtain baseline achievement data.

In August of each academic year, faculty will administer the following screening assessments in order to obtain baseline achievement data in the areas of Reading, Language Arts, Math, Science, and Social Studies. (See DIBELS information at Appendix-286.) Subject Oral Reading Fluency Word Use Fluency Reading Comprehension Reading (General)

Assessment DIBELS assessment for grades 1 through 5 DIBELS assessment for grades k through 2 Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System Common Core MAP Reading Assessment 17

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

English Language Arts Math Social Studies Science c.

Common Core MAP Language Arts Assessment Common Core MAP Math Assessment MAP Social Studies Assessment MAP Science Assessment

Describe how the school will benchmark student growth.

East Atlanta Charter School will benchmark student growth through the following measures:

Reading

Language Arts

Math

Science

Social Studies

Milestones Measure MAP EOY Benchmark Measure Students will take the MAP Common Core aligned benchmarks will be test in the winter of each administered in October and February of each year to year to determine if they are determine students’ mastery of grade level standards. on track to meet their EOY School will use a variety of resources to create goal. benchmarks, including those produced by the Georgia DOE Students will take the MAP Common Core aligned benchmarks will be test in the winter of each administered in October and February of each year to year to determine if they are determine students’ mastery of grade level standards. on track to meet their EOY School will use a variety of resources to create goal. benchmarks, including those produced by the Georgia DOE Students will take the MAP Common Core aligned benchmarks will be test in the winter of each administered in October and February of each year to year to determine if they are determine students’ mastery of grade level standards. on track to meet their EOY School will use a variety of resources to create goal. benchmarks, including those produced by the Georgia DOE Students will take the MAP Benchmarks will be administered in October and test in the winter of each February of each year. Benchmarks will be aligned year to determine if they are with state standards and will be created using on track to meet their EOY resources from the Georgia DOE. goal. Students will take the MAP Benchmarks will be administered in October and test in the winter of each February of each year. Benchmarks will be aligned year to determine if they are with state standards and be created using resources on track to meet their EOY from the Georgia DOE. goal.

d. Describe plans to formally and informally assess student performance in the core academic areas. Throughout the school year, students will be formally assessed in core academic subjects (defined as Reading, Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, and Spanish Language Acquisition) through weekly formative assessments, unit-based summative assessments, termbased benchmarks, term-based ACTFL (American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Language--used for assessing Spanish Oral Fluency and Spanish Written Fluency) assessments 18

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

and the MAP test administered in the fall, winter, and spring. Furthermore, teachers will be required to implement daily Checks for Understanding (CFUs) and administer a daily formative assessment--which may be an exit slip, an independent practice, a CFU, or any other authentic data collection materials. During their daily after school planning time, teachers will be required to analyze daily formative assessments and use that data to inform and adjust (as needed) their future lesson plans. Students will also be measured using the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System, administered four times per year, and DIBELS Word Use Fluency, administered four times per year (K through 2) and Oral Reading Fluency, administered four times per year (1 through 5). (See Appendix-285.) e. Explain how the charter school will work with the local school system to participate in all state-mandated assessments. Provide a statement that the charter school will administer all state assessments in accordance with the DCSD testing calendar. East Atlanta Charter School will coordinate with DeKalb County Schools by sending an assigned Testing Coordinator to all training meetings regarding state-mandated assessments. East Atlanta Charter School will administer all state assessments in accordance with the DCSD testing calendar. f. Describe plans to diagnose educational strengths and needs of students and plans on how this data will be used for instructional planning. Educational strengths and needs of students will be assessed through a rigorous cycle of diagnostic assessment, progress monitoring, and daily formative assessments from the classroom. Each day, teachers will have forty-five minutes of mandatory co-planning between grade level teams (one English teacher and one Spanish teacher per team) in order to review the daily formative assessment, group students, form plans for re-teaching and spiral review, and modify the next day’s lesson plans if necessary. Furthermore, teachers will be required to attend professional development sessions in which they review formative and summative assessment data in grade level and/or content teams at least once every four weeks and to modify lesson plans accordingly. Teachers will be expected to differentiate within their classes in order to meet the individual needs of their students and to ensure that each child is being taught at his/her instructional level. g. Describe the school’s plan for using assessment data to monitor and improve achievement for all students over a set period of time. East Atlanta Charter School will use the MAP assessment to monitor growth over time. The MAP assessment system automatically produces growth goals for each student. The MAP will be administered in the fall, winter, and spring of each year in order to determine if students are on track to meet their growth target (winter) and to determine if students have met their growth target (spring). Furthermore, as described above in Question 2, sub-point f, teachers will meet daily to review formative assessment data. Data will also be reviewed at professional developments sessions at least once every four weeks and used to inform lesson planning in order to drive student achievement. During these professional development sessions, teachers will also review relevant benchmark data, create action plans, and use these action plans to guide their instruction. Through consistent assessment, analysis, and data-driven instruction, students will be able to meet the school’s performance objectives.

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h. Describe how the charter school shall comply with the accountability provisions of O.C.G.A. § 20-14-30 through § 20-14-41 and federal accountability requirements. East Atlanta Charter School acknowledges it is subject to the accountability provisions of O.C.G.A. §§ 20-14-30 through 20-14-41, and will participate in all state-required testing as stated in SBOE Rule 160-3-1-.07, as well as any federal accountability requirements. This includes alignment to all guidelines around how and when assessments are administered and by whom. A designated staff member will be responsible for coordinating assessment administration and will participate in applicable training made available, as well as serving as primary point of contact for all assessment matters. i. Describe how the charter will adhere to all assessment guidelines and procedures as outlined by the State Assessment Handbook, the State Accommodations Manual and other state and local guidance on assessment. East Atlanta Charter School will adhere to all assessment guidelines and procedures as outlined by the State Assessment Handbook and the State Accommodations Manual. East Atlanta Charter School will send a staff member delegate to all required test administration training. The staff member delegated will then train all staff members on the State Assessment Handbook, and further will train all staff members who are testing students who receive accommodations on the State Accommodation Manual. Staff members will be trained in all state and local requirements for testing administration, security, and check-in and check-out procedures. Staff members will follow all required protocol pertaining to testing examiners, testing proctors, and hall monitors. Staff members will be required to attend testing trainings and documentation of attendance will be obtained through staff signatures on a sign-in log. j. Describe how staff from the charter school will attend required test administration training held by DCSD. Each year, a staff member from East Atlanta Charter School will attend all district required test administration training for DeKalb County School District. The first year, the testing coordinator will be a member of leadership team (probably the SELT). After a Vice Principal is hired, the testing coordinator will be the Vice Principal. However, the Principal of the school will be ultimately responsible for all testing regulations and proper administration. 4. What specific actions will the school’s management, instructional leadership; faculty and staff take to ensure student performance objectives are met during the proposed charter term? The school management, instructional leadership, faculty, and staff will take the following steps in order to ensure that student performance objectives are met during the five-year proposed charter term: 1. During teacher pre-planning each fall, teachers will work with their instructional manager to set clear performance objectives based on the Georgia TKES standard. 2. Teachers will be observed by their instructional manager three times each nine weeks and have a formal performance review at the end of each nine weeks using their performance objectives and the Georgia TKES standard. 3. Teachers will participate in regularly scheduled (defined as once every four weeks) professional development sessions in which teachers are required to review MAP data,

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formative and summative assessment data, and benchmark data. Teachers will use this data to drive their instruction. a. Describe the focus of the curriculum. This statement should also discuss any distinctive or unique instructional methods to be used that are research-based and standards driven. East Atlanta Charter School will have a fully dual-language immersion curriculum. The instruction will occur fifty percent in English and fifty percent in Spanish. Students will have two teachers each year--one English teacher who only teaches content in English, and one Spanish teacher who only teaches content in Spanish. b. A full and complete curriculum, aligned, for all grade levels to be served during the proposed charter term is required to be submitted as an Appendix item. This information must be aligned with Common Core and Georgia Performance Standards (where applicable). While East Atlanta Charter School will closely follow the Common Core standards in all grade levels and will rely on the curricular framework developed by Great Minds/Engage NY, we will also give wide latitude to our teachers to select texts, create interesting and engaging lesson plans, and collaborate with other teachers to generate new materials. Please see our full curriculum with alignment to Georgia Performance Standards at Exhibit 10. Our academic goals will be well served within the framework of Common Core. The Common Core framework will allow our teachers to have a great deal of flexibility in delivery of instruction. Thus, we will not require teachers to use (or not use) any particular style of teaching, or any particular textbook. East Atlanta Charter School’s educators will come from myriad backgrounds, very likely including teachers who have been educated abroad or who have taught in other countries; we expect each teacher to rely on a wide variety of tools and skills to teach effectively. While all EACS teachers will participate in ongoing training and workshops in the United States, delivered by our partner Georgia State University Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research and other reputable, accredited institutions, we also expect our teachers to rely on their experience to inform their teaching style. Our teachers will work in partnership with each other. Each class will receive instruction in Spanish for half of the day and English the second half of the day. Thus, each teacher will set up the arrangement of his or her own classroom, will decide when and how to break the class into smaller groups for differentiated instruction, and will collaborate intensively with his or her partner teacher. One way that EACS will attract and retain top teachers will be to treat them as professionals and trust them to use their professional skills and judgment to teach effectively, while closely supervising their performance and providing frequent, meaningful feedback. COMMON CORE STANDARDS ACROSS ALL SUBJECTS, IN BOTH LANGUAGES The San Diego Country Office of Education maintains the “COMMON CORE en Español State Standards Initiative Translation Project” website at http://commoncore-espanol.com/. There, permanently and free of charge, any school can access a version the California Common Core Language Arts and Literacy in History-Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects Standards Standards (Common Core ELA/Literacy) and the Mathematics standards into Spanish. This is not just a mere word-for-word translation, but instead has been both translated and linguistically augmented to meet both the Common Core principles, but also the unique attributes of the Spanish language.

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

The translation and linguistic augmentation of the Common Core Standards in Spanish affords us the opportunity to re-conceptualize classroom practices by acknowledging the ways that students authentically use a primary and second language to organize higher mental processes, mediate cognition, and develop autonomy as they become proficiently biliterate. The Spanish translation of the California Common Core State Standards for Language Arts, Literacy in History and Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects, also presents a new opportunity for the leadership of students, parents, teachers, and school administrators to recognize the link between cognitive development and language, and embrace the responsibility for the continuous improvement of our educational system. Standards-based instruction is at the forefront of education reform because it presents a framework to ensure that all students are engaged in rigorous curricula and prepared to contribute positively to an increasingly complex world. The translated versions of the Common Core Standards establish a guide for equitable assessment and curricular development, resulting in high levels of biliteracy. The primary drafters include four language experts: Teresa Ibarra, Consultant F. Isabel Campoy, Transformative Education Institute; Pía Castilleja, Stanford University Silvia Dorta-Duque de Reyes, San Diego County Office of Education The Advisory Committee overseeing the entire project included: Carrie Heath Phillips, Council of Chief State School Officers Alma Flor Ada, University of San Francisco F. Isabel Campoy, Transformative Education Institute Tom Adams, California Department of Education Cliff Rudnick, California Department of Education Lillian Perez, California Department of Education Verónica Aguila, Butte County Office of Education Mónica Nava, San Diego County Office of Education Silvia Dorta-Duque de Reyes, San Diego County Office of Education Every effort was made during the creation of COMMON CORE en Español to maintain a parallel, aligned, and equitable architecture between the Spanish translation and linguistic augmentation of the California Common Core ELA/Literacy Standards. The purpose of the linguistic augmentation is to address points of learning, skills and concepts that are specific to Spanish language and literacy, as well as transferable language learnings between English and Spanish as provided in educational settings where students are instructed in both languages. This perfectly fulfills the needs of EACS, where students will study both English Language Arts and Spanish Language Arts daily in a 50/50 dual immersion model. The COMMON CORE en Español’s linguistic augmentation was based on the conventions for oral and written Spanish from the Real Academia de la Lengua Española (RAE) promulgated in 2010. The intent is to promote the same expectations and level of rigor for Spanish usage as educators expect for English usage through quality curriculum and instruction. The linguistic augmentation also provides a structure and specific detail for the development of instructional materials that address the specific features of Spanish in support of students’

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academic language learning on par with English in dual language programs. The linguistics experts who held primary responsibility for linguistic augmentation include: Jill Kerper Mora, San Diego State University Silvia Dorta-Duque de Reyes, San Diego County Office of Education Sandra Ceja, San Diego County Office of Education Before it was widely adopted in California and across the country, the COMMON CORE en Español was piloted in the Chukla Vista Elementary School District under the supervision of Dr. Francisco Escobedo, District Superintendent; Emma Sanchez, Executive Director; and the school district’s dual language faculty. The COMMON CORE en Español project is a worthy model for EACS. It has been peer reviewed and is already in wide use in California and in immersion programs across the nation (though none yet in the state of Georgia). A Peer Review is a process of self-regulation used to provide credibility and determine the suitability of an academic document for publication. The peer review for the translation and linguistic augmentation of the Common Core Standards en Español was conducted in 2012 at the CABE Summer Institute in Long Beach, California. The esteemed panel of peer reviewers included: Ana M. Applegate, San Bernardino City Unified School District Daniel Arellano, San Bernardino City Unified School District Fausto E. Baltazar, Cajon Valley Union School District Gilberto D. Barrios, Vista Unified School District Gonzalo de Alba, Fresno Unified School District Ana María Flores, Latino Coalition for Education Charlotte Ford, Contra Costa County Office of Education Carmen Garces, Mount Diablo Unified School District Ana Celia García, San Diego State University Claudia Garcia, Sweetwater Union High School District Norma Gomez-Michel, San Diego County Office of Education Olga Gonzáles, Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund María Heredia, North Monterey Unified School District Ana Hernandez, San Bernardino City Unified School District Izela Jacobo, Cajon Valley Union School District Jill Kerper-Mora, San Diego State University Olivia Leschick, Valley Center-Pauma Unified School District Sandra Lineros, Oak Grove Elementary School District Roy López, Lennox School District Martín Macías, Stanislaus County Office of Education Edna Mikulanis, San Diego Unified School District Antonio Mora, San Diego County Office of Education Karem Morales, Oak Grove Elementary School District Kris Nicholls, Riverside County Office of Education Nilda Ocasio, Mount Vernon Community School Cynthia Ortiz, Hayward Unified School District Sylvia Padilla, Long Beach Unified School District Margarita Palacios, North Monterey Unified School District Janette Perez, Santa Ana Unified School District

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

Lillian Perez, California Department of Education Arlene Quintana-Rangel, San Bernardino Unified School District Veronica Rodriguez, Fresno Unified School District Fernando Rodriguez-Valls, San Diego State University Luz Elena Rosales, San Bernardino Unified School District Silvina Rubinstein, Los Angeles County Office of Education Magdalena Ruz Gonzalez, Los Angeles County Office of Education Martha Servin, San Bernardino City Unified School District Araceli Simeón-Luna, Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund Olivia Yahya, Saddleback Valley Unified School District Nieves Vera de Torres, Girls Preparatory Bronx Community School GREAT MINDS CURRICULUM- GEORGIA COMMON CORE Given our need to prepare EACS students to achieve high scores on the Georgia Milestones assessments, we have identified curricula which comply wholly with Georgia Common Core, or in the case of our Spanish-language curricula, which adhere to national Common Core. Georgia does not have its own Spanish-language Common Core. Instead, for Spanish-language instruction, EACS will follow the Spanish-language California Common Core Standards (CCSS). We have selected a Math and English Language Arts curriculum which has been designed specifically for Common Core (not retrofitted after Common Core was developed). EACS will use the Eureka Math and Wheatley Portfolio developed by Great Minds, a Washington, D.C. based non-profit 501(c)3 organization that seeks to ensure that all students, regardless of their circumstance, receive a content-rich education in the full range of the liberal arts and sciences, including English, mathematics, history, the arts, science, and foreign languages. Since 2007, Great Minds has worked with teachers and scholars to create instructional materials, conduct research, and promote policies that support a comprehensive and high-quality education in America’s public schools. Great Minds developed the Eureka Math curriculum and Wheatley Portfolio in partnership with the New York State Education Department. Thus, the curricular maps in the Appendix are branded as Engage NY - New York State Common Core. In fact, these free materials are extremely similar to the subscription-based Great Minds curricula not specifically branded for New York, because they were developed in tandem based on the Common Core. East Atlanta Charter School will continue to evaluate whether the minimal differences between the Engage NY and Great Minds version justify the expense of subscribing to Great Minds rather than using the publically available EngageNY-branded materials. We have used the Engage NY materials as examples for reference. The Great Minds trustees are Barbara Byrd-Bennett, Chief Executive Officer for Chicago Public Schools; Nell McAnelly, Co-Director Emeritus of the Gordon A. Cain Center for STEM Literacy at Louisiana State University; Carol Jago, Associate Director of the California Reading and Literature Project at UCLA. Dan Cookson, Founder at BansheeBox, LLC; Pascal Forgione, Jr., Executive Director of the Center on K-12 Assessment and Performance Management at ETS; Lorraine Griffith, a Title I Reading Specialist at West Buncombe Elementary in Asheville, North Carolina; Jason Griffiths, Director of Programs at the National Academy of Advanced Teacher Education; Bill Honig, President of the Consortium on Reading Excellence; William Kelly, Cofounder and CEO at ReelDx; Richard Kessler, Executive Dean of Mannes College and the New School for Music; Lynne Munson, President and Executive Director of Great Minds; and Maria Neira, former Vice President of New York State United Teachers.

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Eureka Math/EngageNY connects math to the real world in ways that take the fear out of math and build student confidence—while helping students achieve true understanding lesson by lesson and year after year. Eureka Math serves teachers, administrators, parents, and students with a comprehensive suite of innovative curriculum, in-depth professional development, books, and support materials for everyone involved. The team of teachers and mathematicians who wrote Eureka Math took great care to present mathematics in a logical progression from PK through Grade 12. This coherent approach allows teachers to know what incoming students already have learned and ensures that students are prepared for what comes next. When implemented faithfully, Eureka Math will dramatically reduce gaps in student learning, instill persistence in problem solving, and prepare students to understand advanced math. What Eureka Math is and is not: Using real-world problems Understanding why Explaining your reasoning Doing math in your head

Not endless exercises without context Not isolated memorization Not working alone Not relying on a calculator

While many curricula and textbooks on the market today describe themselves as being “aligned” with the new standards, the content is virtually unchanged from the past. Publishers have merely associated elements of the outdated content with various new standards. Eureka Math was developed specifically to meet the new standards. Eureka Math offers a comprehensive suite of curriculum, in-depth professional development, texts, tools, and support materials that work together to provide teachers, parents, and students with a cohesive approach to the ultimate goal: students who are not merely literate, but fluent, in mathematics. It’s not enough for students to know the process for solving a problem; they need to understand why that process works so they can use it anytime. Teaching mathematics as a story, Eureka Math builds students’ knowledge logically and thoroughly to help them achieve deep understanding. While this approach is unfamiliar to those of us who grew up memorizing mathematical facts and formulas, it has been tested and proven to be the most successful method in the world. Early on during the development of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), Great Minds recognized that these influential standards would have the potential to raise student achievement if the standards were implemented with first-rate curriculum materials. Great Minds therefore set out to create tools that teachers could use to develop strong, CCSS-aligned curricula. The first tool it created is the Great Minds Curriculum for English. The curriculum provides a coherent sequence of thematic curriculum units, roughly six per grade level, K–12. The units connect the skills delineated in the CCSS in ELA with suggested works of literature and informational texts and provide sample activities that teachers can use in their classrooms. The Common Core State Standards call for the new standards to be taught within the context of a “content-rich curriculum.” But the CCSS do not specify what content students need to master, as this fell outside the scope of the standards-setting project. Here is how this is explained in the introduction to the CCSS:

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

“While the Standards make references to some particular forms of content, including mythology, foundational U.S. documents, and Shakespeare, they do not—indeed, cannot—enumerate all or even most of the content that students should learn. The Standards must therefore be complemented by a well-developed, content-rich curriculum consistent with the expectations laid out in this document.” Responsibility for developing such a curriculum falls to schools, districts, and states. The Great Minds Curriculum for English is designed to meet the needs of the teacher, principal, curriculum director, superintendent, or state official who is striving to develop, or to help teachers to develop, new ELA curricula aligned with the CCSS. The curriculum can also serve as a resource for those endeavoring to conduct professional development related to the standards. The development of the Great Minds Wheatley Portfolio was initially funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Currently, membership fees are the key source of support for maintaining the portfolio and for creating new curriculum-related tools and services. Engage NY offers a free version of both Eureka Math and the Wheatley Portfolio which are further tailored to specifically address New York’s version of Common Core. Wheatley Portfolio is intended to serve as a “road map” for the school year, as an aid for jumpstarting the lesson planning process. Our Portfolio does not comprise a complete curriculum, nor does it prescribe how teachers are to teach the material included in the Portfolio. As a common planning tool, the Portfolio can facilitate school and district-wide collaboration. It also can become the backbone of rich, content-based professional development as teachers work together to create and then refine curricula for their particular schools and classrooms. All standards in the CCSS K-12 standards are addressed at least once, if not a number of times. Each grade includes a “standards checklist” showing which standards are covered in which unit. The curriculum writers worked carefully to ensure that the content and skills in each unit would build on one another so that in the aggregate, all standards would be addressed in a coherent, logical way. The standards are grouped so that they could envision fitting together in one unit. For example, if a unit was focused on asking and answering questions in informational text, then standards for shared research and expository writing were included in that unit as well. Great Minds has envisioned a "complete curriculum" to be a working set of documents and practices for daily instruction and assessments that teachers collaboratively develop and refine using the content and skills delineated in the Wheatley Portfolio. A "complete curriculum" would not only include the components of our portfolios as they are now, but also provide further guidance about differentiating instruction to suit advanced and struggling students (for example, those who are reading above or below grade level, English language learners, and students with disabilities). A full curriculum would also include a scope and sequence, samples of student work, more scoring rubrics, and—ultimately—more suggested lesson plans. It could also include pacing suggestions to guide instruction of the content and skills in ways that address specific student objectives and link them to the standards, much like our sample lesson plans do. Other levels of detail might be included, such as lists of important vocabulary words for each text, assessment blueprints, detailed pacing of grammar instruction that is integrated with the work (i.e., sentence structure and usage conventions are studied in the context of what students are reading).

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

East Atlanta Charter School teachers will use the Wheatley Portfolio curriculum as a “road map” for the school year, using it to jumpstart the lesson planning process. As a common planning tool, the portfolio also can become the backbone of rich, content-based professional development as teachers collaborate to refine the curricula for their particular schools and classrooms. The Great Minds Wheatley Portfolio reflects the input of the many dozens of teachers who have reviewed the curriculum. In the fall of 2010 the portfolio was made available for public comment. Hundreds of teachers, superintendents, principals, curriculum directors, and many others have provided further feedback, and the curriculum has been enriched by their input. The American Federation of Teachers convened the same panel of AFT teachers that reviewed the Common Core State Standards to review the first edition of the Great Minds curriculum. The Milken Family Foundation and the National Alliance of Black School Educators assisted further in connecting Great Minds to superintendents, teachers, and content area specialists from across the country to review our curriculum as well. Wheatley Portfolio is based on the Common Core State Standards. The CCSS dictated both the goals and contours of the curriculum. In addition to the CCSS, Great Minds has consulted a wide range of model curricula and other content materials, including the International Baccalaureate course outlines, curriculum maps and scoring rubrics used by the Brooklyn Latin School, and the Massachusetts English Language Arts Curriculum Frameworks. Great Minds has incorporated the best aspects of these successful programs and materials into its curriculum, such as a focus on a sequence of specific content, the inclusion of both oral and written expressions of student proficiency, and attention to the detailed aspects of genres, subgenres, and characteristics of various kinds of literary and informational texts. Each Great Minds curricular unit includes the following components: Overview. This is a brief description of the unit. It explains the unit’s theme and provides a summary of what students will learn. It explains the structure, progression, and various components of the unit. It may offer some guidance regarding the selection of texts. The unit descriptions illuminate the connections between the skills identified in the standards and the content of the suggested works. Essential question. The “essential question” highlights the usefulness, the relevance, and the greater benefit of a unit. It is often the “so what?” question about material covered. It should be answerable, at least to some degree, by the end of the unit, but it should also have more than one possible answer. It should prompt intellectual exploration by generating other questions. Here’s an example from eighth grade: “How does learning history through literature differ from learning through informational text?” Focus standards. These standards are taken directly from the CCSS and have been identified as especially important for the unit. Other standards are covered in each unit as well, but the focus standards are the ones that the unit has been designed to address specifically. Suggested student objectives. These are the specific student outcomes for each unit. They describe the transferable ELA content and skills that students should possess when the unit is completed. The objectives are often components of more broadly-worded standards and sometimes address content and skills necessarily related to the standards. The lists are not exhaustive, and the objectives should not supplant the standards themselves. Rather, they are

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

designed to help teachers “drill down” from the standards and augment as necessary, providing added focus and clarity for lesson planning purposes. Suggested works. These are substantial lists of suggested literary and informational texts. In most cases (particularly in the middle and high school grades), this list contains more texts than a unit could cover; it is meant to offer a range of options to teachers. Several permutations of the list could meet the goals of the unit. The suggested texts draw heavily from the “exemplar texts” listed in the CCSS. Exemplars are works the CCSS identified as meeting the levels of complexity and rigor described in the standards. These texts are identified with an (E) after the title of an exemplar text. An (EA) indicates a work by an author who has another work cited as an exemplar text. Art, music, and media. These sections list works of visual art, music, film, and other media that reflect the theme of the unit and that a teacher can use to extend students’ knowledge in these areas. Each unit includes at least one sample activity involving the works listed under this heading. In some cases, a prompt also has been provided. ELA teachers who choose to use this material may do so on their own, by team teaching with an art or music teacher, or perhaps by sharing the material with the art or music teacher, who could reinforce what students are learning during the ELA block in their classroom. The inclusion of these works in our curriculum is not intended to substitute for or infringe in any way upon instruction students should receive in separate art and music classes. Sample activities and assessments. These items have been written particularly for the unit, with specific standards and often with specific texts in mind. Each activity addresses at least one standard in the CCSS; the applicable standard(s) are cited in parentheses following the description of each activity. The suggested activities or assessments are not intended to be prescriptive, exhaustive, or sequential; they simply demonstrate how specific content can be used to help students learn the skills described in the standards. They are designed to generate evidence of student understanding and give teachers ideas for developing their own activities and assessments. Teachers should use, refine, and/or augment these activities, as desired, in order to ensure that they will have addressed all the standards intended for the unit and, in the aggregate, for the year. Reading foundations. To help kindergarten through second-grade students master the skills necessary to become strong readers, Great Minds offers a consolidated pacing guide of instructional goals for the teaching of the CCSS reading Foundational Skills. Additional resources. These are links to lesson plans, activities, related background information, author interviews, and other instructional materials for teachers from a variety of resources, including the National Endowment for the Humanities and ReadWriteThink. The standards that could be addressed by each additional resource are cited at the end of each description. Terminology. These are concepts and terms that students will encounter—often for the first time—over the course of the unit. The list is not comprehensive; it is meant to highlight terms that either are particular to the unit, are introduced there, or that play a large role in the work or content of the unit. These terms and concepts are usually implied by the standards, but not always made explicit in them. Interdisciplinary connections. This is a section included only in our curriculum for the elementary grades. Here we very broadly list the content areas the unit covers and then suggest

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

opportunities for “making interdisciplinary connections” from the curriculum to other subjects, including history, civics, geography, and the arts. This section may be particularly helpful EACS teachers, who will each teach multiple subjects. Sample Lesson Plan. One unit in each grade includes a supplementary document that outlines a possible sequence of lessons, using one or more suggested unit texts to meet focus standards. These sample lessons include guidance for differentiated instruction. Standards Checklist. Each grade includes a standards checklist that indicates which standards are covered in which unit—providing teachers an overview of standards coverage for the entire school year. THE WHEATLEY PORTFOLIO LEAVES THE CHOICE OF TEXTS TO EACS TEACHERS, WHILE ALIGNING WITH COMMON CORE RECOMMENDATIONS Many of the texts listed as exemplars in the CCSS Appendix B are included in the Great Minds Wheatley Portfolio. These texts take priority in the Great Minds units and indeed shape unit themes. Like the exemplar texts themselves, the additional texts suggested in our curriculum include literary works and informational texts that have stood the test of time, as well as excellent contemporary titles. The suggested texts include novels, short stories, poetry, essays, speeches, memoirs, biographies, autobiographies, fables, folk tales, and mythology. Teachers will find texts written by authors of wide-ranging diversity: young and old, living and dead, male and female, American and international. In the early grades, the Wheatley Portfolio prioritizes students’ exposure to traditional stories and poetry, Mother Goose rhymes, and award-winning fiction and nonfiction chosen for quality of writing and relevance to themes. They also emphasize concepts of print, phonological awareness, phonics, and text reading fluency. In upper elementary grades, students read a variety of fiction and nonfiction on science and history topics, as well as diverse selections of classic and contemporary literature. Along the way, the Wheatley Portfolio highlights numerous points of connection with history, science, and the arts. c. Identify materials/programs that the school plans to obtain/purchase to support the stated curriculum. East Atlanta Charter School will obtain copies of the Wheatley curriculum (see appendix for a copy of Wheatley). East Atlanta Charter School will obtain copies of the Eureka curriculum (see appendix for a copy of Eureka). East Atlanta Charter School will obtain copies of the Santillana Science curriculum. East Atlanta Charter School will purchase licenses for MAP testing. In addition to the content from Eureka Math, Wheatley Portfolio, and Engage NY, East Atlanta Charter School will supply classrooms with an abundant number of authentic texts and instructional books, in both English and Spanish. Both our Spanish- and English-language Our instructional books will be aligned with Common Core. We have identified as a likely source for books Santillana USA, a part of Grupo Santillana, the largest educational publisher in the Spanish-speaking world. Santillana offers comprehensive instruction solutions to the K-12 educational community. Santillana USA offers world-class Spanish literature and a wide range of instructional materials and services appropriate for use within the Common Core. The Common Core challenges students, teachers, and school systems to become world-class readers, writers, and thinkers. If we are to meet the challenge, instruction needs to shift away from finding the right answer

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

choice and defining words, toward using text evidence to support a position, inform others, or solve a real-world problem. High levels of literary analysis require that students and teachers examine high-quality authentic literature. Instructional materials published by Santillana USA are standards based and research based. We have identified its Spanish language arts Spanish-speaker programs, Yabisi K–6 as an appropriate series for EACS students. The Español Yabisí K–6 Spanish language arts program completely aligns to the ELA Georgia Common Core State Standards. It also integrates technology with literacy, vocabulary development, writing, phonics and phonemic awareness, and language mechanics progressive skills development. Santillana USA’s Spanish programs are designed to help students communicate in all modes of expression -listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills- to ensure students use the language effectively. The goal is to develop literacy skills through culturally authentic fiction and nonfiction selections and readers, and to create meaningful cultural and content-area connections. This focus on developing language, literacy, and content knowledge in all dimensions of language allows for the alignment of Santillana’s content to the Georgia Common Core, which shares the same focus and the same strands. d.

Describe the educational innovations that will be implemented.

East Atlanta Charter School will maximize student achievement by instructing students in a fully dual-language immersion setting. This instruction will focus on equipping students with communication skills (both oral and written) in both English and Spanish. East Atlanta Charter School will be the only fully dual immersion bilingual school in DeKalb County in which all students receive 50% of their instruction in English and 50% of their instruction in Spanish. e.

Provide a clear explanation of how the innovations will increase student achievement.

Extensive research indicates that dual-language immersion programs lead to increased student achievement, cognitive development, and creativity. (See Exhibit 5). In the article “Foreign Languages and the Achievement Gap,” the Joint National Committee For Languages (JNCL) and the National Council For Languages And International Studies (NCLIS) state, “Dual Language Immersion, where students learn academic subjects in English and another language, offers a positive and powerful approach to closing achievement gaps for African-Americans and students of low socioeconomic status.” The JNCL and NCLIS also write that the state of North Carolina has seen dramatic achievement gains from low socioeconomic students through their implementation of dual immersion instruction (see Appendix-029): North Carolina’s data specifically show that:

f.



3 rd and 4th grade African American students in immersion score between ½ and 1 full year ahead of other African American students, in English reading;



5 th through 8th graders score between ¾ and 2 years ahead of their peers in English reading.



When compared to the overall statewide scores, African American children in immersion close the achievement gap (compared to the overall performance statewide) by the 8th grade. Describe why the innovations are appropriate for this unique school.

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

East Atlanta Charter School will be the only school in DeKalb County that regularly assesses Spanish proficiency and that includes Spanish proficiency performance objectives as part of its academic goals. Since we are a fully immersion school, it is vital that we maintain strict assessment timelines and procedures to ensure that our students are on track for obtaining mastery. Therefore, with our outlined testing schedule, using assessments recommended by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, we will be able to regularly track our students’ Spanish language proficiency through both oral and written measures. Our Spanish proficiency objectives are unique in DeKalb. The other DeKalb immersion programs have not established specific school-wide goals by which to measure students’ progress toward mastery of a second language. g. Describe the anticipated teacher-to-student ratios and the rationale for maintaining these ratios. Please describe your intended class sizes, including the minimum and maximum number of students. Be sure to explain the source of any additional funding necessary if the class sizes are smaller than those set forth in the SBOE Class Size Rule 160-5-1-.08. East Atlanta Charter School will have a 22:1 or better student to teacher ratio in each classroom. The purpose for maintaining these ratios is to ensure that students are obtaining and retaining mastery in all subject areas, particularly both English and Spanish language acquisition and communication skills. The minimum number of students in a classroom will be 20 (with the exception of potential resource or self-contained Special Education classes) and the maximum number of students in a classroom will be 23. Additional funding will be obtained through external grants and donations. h. If this is a charter high school, describe how the charter high school will determine that a student has satisfied the requirements for high school graduation, including the credits or units to be earned and the completion credentials to be awarded. N/A. East Atlanta Charter School shall not be a high school. 5. What are the school’s plans for educating special populations? (Reciting the requirements of law and rule is not sufficient) Please review the answers to questions 5, 6, and 9, written below, to see East Atlanta Charter School’s plans for educating ELL, Special Education, and Gifted students. 6. Describe methods, strategies and/or programs for meeting the needs of students identified as gifted and talented. Include any diagnostic methods or instruments that will be used to identify and assess those students. East Atlanta Charter School will meet the needs of all students, included those who are gifted and talented. We recognize the importance of providing additional enrichment opportunities, above and beyond the standard curricular opportunities, for students who exhibit gifted capacity in certain areas. Students will be identified and referred for evaluation via the referral process outlined by the Georgia Department of Education. Students who are referred for gifted evaluation will be diagnosed for gifted services via the eligibility criteria put forth by the Georgia Department of Education and will be in compliance with all laws and regulations. Children must qualify for the gifted program through one of two processes as follows:

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

Process A (Must meet each of the criteria--Mental Ability and Achievement) Mental Ability

Achievement

K – 2nd: 99th percentile on composite or full scale score of a standardized test of mental ability

K – 5th: 90th percentile (or higher), on total reading, total math or total battery score of a standardized achievement test

3rd – 5th: 96th percentile (or higher) on composite or full scale score of a standardized test of mental ability

A superior rating (numerical score of 90 or better on scale of 1-100) on a student generated product or performance as evaluated by a panel of three or more qualified evaluators

Process B (Must meet 3 of 4 criteria) Mental Ability

Achievement

Creativity

Motivation

96th percentile (or higher)

90th percentile on total

90th percentile (or

90th percentile (or

by age on a composite or

reading, total math or

higher) on the total higher) on a

full scale score or

total battery score of a

battery of a

appropriate component

standardized

standardized test of characteristics

score of a standardized test

achievement test creativity

of mental ability

OR OR

standardized

rating scale (motivational) OR

gen

A superior rating 90th percentile (or

superior rating

(numerical score higher) on a of 90

(numerical score of

or better on scale of 1-

standardized

at least 90 on scale

100) on a student

creativity

of 1-100) on a

erated product or

characteristics struc

tured

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

performance

as evaluated by a panel of

rating scale OR evalua

three or more qualified evalua

observation/ tion of student generated

tors

products and/or performances as evaluated by a panel of three or more qualified evaluators

OR superior rating

Grade point average

(numerical score of of at least 3.5 on a at least 90 on a

4.0 scale, using an

scale of 1-100) on a

average of core

structured observation/

grades over the

evaluation of

previous two school

creative products and/or performance

years

East Atlanta Charter School will utilize the following assessments to measure students’ aptitude in the aforementioned areas: 1. Mental Ability: Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test®–Second Edition (NNAT®–2). The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (second edition)—NNAT2 is the chosen ability measure for East Atlanta Charter School for grades K-5 because it uses progressive matrices to allow for a culturally neutral evaluation of students’ nonverbal reasoning and general problem-solving ability, regardless of the individual student’s primary language, education, culture or socioeconomic background. We will also provide the WISC-IV as an alternative. 2. Achievement: Students can qualify in this category based on results on MAP reading and math scores. 3. Creativity: Torrance® Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) 4. Motivation: The Gifted Rating Scale-Motivation subset Although all children will be engaged in challenging learning opportunities at East Atlanta Charter School, students who qualify for the gifted program will be given additional opportunities to excel and demonstrate expertise in their specific areas of strength. Such 33

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

projects will require advanced skills in relation to projects such students might encounter in the typical learning environment. In all grades, students will be pulled for gifted segments using a resource model in which students are pulled for at least 225 minutes per week out of the general education setting into a more rigorous classroom environment with a certified gifted education teacher. For example, students who are in a gifted math segment will attend math class in a different classroom environment than their homeroom peers. Students will receive opportunities for bolstering critical and creative thinking skills, as well as affective and reasoning skills. Additionally, projects in the gifted program will be geared toward providing students with opportunities to apply their knowledge to real world issues and challenges, and will promote decision-making and higher order thinking skills. 7. Describe how the charter school will provide state and federally mandated services for students with disabilities. Include any diagnostic methods or instruments that will be used to identify and assess those students. East Atlanta Charter School will comply with all special education laws and regulations, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act and the IDEA. Through the implementation of a Student Support Team, East Atlanta Charter School will ensure that students suspected of having a disability will be screened, monitored, and assessed. East Atlanta Charter School will implement the Response to Intervention (“RTI”) process and allow students to appropriately matriculate through the various RTI steps. Curriculum-based measures from DIBELS, Fountas and Pinnell, and easyCBM will set the benchmark for the RTI model, as well as percentiles romt he Common Core MAP. Individual student growth will be continually assessed through strategic, skilltargeted monitoring, and progress monitoring. Curriculum-based measures will be consistently used for various assessment purposes at East Atlanta Charter School because they allow educators to directly and continually assess basic skills. Additionally, DIBELS and easyCBM provide data collection and analysis tools that will help guide instructional decision making. In the event that a student completes the final step in the RTI process without significant growth being obtained, the student will be referred to the special education and educational psychology department for initial hearing and vision screenings and initial achievement and ability psychological assessments. Any student found to have a disability will be provided with an Individual Education Plan (“IEP”) that will outline specific goals and objectives, as well as FTE percentages of special education services that should be received, and the specific environment in which services should be received (such as inclusion, resource, or selfcontained). The IEP will be implemented as it is written, and all accommodations and modifications will be shared with both general education and special education teachers serving such students. East Atlanta Charter School will always default to placing students in the Least Restrictive Environment allowable for that child’s specific disability and needs. Most students with disabilities will be able to be served in an inclusion classroom or a mixed model of partial inclusion and partial resource settings. In the event that a child should be best served in a self-contained or other higher restrictive placement, provisions will be made to provide such placements. For students entering East Atlanta Charter School with an existing IEP, all goals and objectives, services, and placements will be followed as is federally mandated. East Atlanta Charter School will work diligently to remediate students who qualify for special education placements. The goal is to eventually return students to a complete general education setting or a progressively less restrictive environment with the strategies necessary

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

for being successful. EACS will implement research-based, direct instruction and intervention curricula. For example, we plan to use Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention, Foundations (for grades K-3), and Wilson Reading System (for grades 4-5) to remediate reading and spelling difficulties, and Scott Foresman focusMath Intensive Intervention for math. Students will be continually assessed, monitored, and re-evaluated for eligibility as mandated by the Individual Education Plan. East Atlanta Charter School understands the importance of having a competent, experienced, certified special education department to address the needs of students with disabilities. Special education staff will be contracted or hired as needed, based on the population of students requiring services, and their placement in the Least Restrictive Environment continuum. For students who are low performing and do not qualify for special education services, but qualify for a less restrictive amount of intervention under Section 504, a Section 504 team will be in place. East Atlanta Charter School will provide tutoring outside of the school day and Early Intervention Program (EIP) services as necessary for students as well. All teachers will follow the appropriate modifications and/or accommodations outlined in each student’s IEP. Each student with an IEP will have a special education teacher/case manager who will be responsible for sharing written documentation of such modifications and accommodations with each qualifying student’s general education teachers (including specials teachers). Teachers will be expected to differentiate and utilized baseline and progress monitoring assessments to plan targeted small group and individual lessons, giving disabled students access to curricular content that will improve their skills and assist them in transitioning out of the special education program or into a less restrictive special education model. In summary, East Atlanta Charter School agrees to the following guidelines: East Atlanta Charter School will: 

Establish a Student Support Team (SST) in accordance with state guidelines and local school board policies and use DCSD forms for SST.



Establish a Section 504 team in accordance with state guidelines and local school board policies and use DCSD forms for Section 504.



Handle all discipline issues regarding Section 504 students in accordance with federal regulations, state guidelines, and local school board policies including the Code of Student Conduct.



Participate in workshops, in-service and/or trainings offered by DCSD for persons serving as SST/Section 504 chairpersons and Exceptional Children staff.



Comply with Section 504 by providing the appropriate accommodations and equipment.



Immediately notify the DCSS Director of Charter Schools upon receipt of a complaint made by a parent/guardian or student concerning Section 504 and/or Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act, furnish a copy of such complaint and cooperate fully in the investigation, defense and resolution of such complaint.



Hire or contract certified special education teachers to provide services to eligible students.

East Atlanta Charter School acknowledges that the DCSD will:

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition    

Provide professional development training for the SST.



Provide professional development training for the Section 504 team.



Provide technical/consultative assistance to charter schools requested by the charter school.



Conduct Compliance Reviews of all charter schools to ensure that students with disabilities are provided a Free Appropriate Public Education.



Approve and assign all administrative student placements for students that the district determines cannot be served appropriately in their charter schools through the Office of Student Assignment.

In the event of a parent/guardian or student complaint concerning Section 504 and/or the Individuals with Disabilities Act, East Atlanta Charter School will immediately notify the DCSD Director of Charter Schools and furnish a copy of such complaint and cooperate fully in the investigation, defense, and resolution of such complaint. 8. Describe methods, strategies and/or programs for students receiving supplemental education services. These services should be provided pursuant to SBOE Rule 160-4-5-.03 and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act/No Child Left Behind. Pursuant to SBOE Rule 160-4-5-.03 and No Child Left Behind (NCLB), East Atlanta Charter School will provide Supplemental Education Services (SES) for students in need of such support due to not making adequate achievement progress as measured by criterion referenced and standardized assessments. East Atlanta Charter School will post a Request for Proposals for approved SES providers in both math and reading/language arts, and will subcontract such providers to provide SES services. The budget is reflective of these services. 9. Describe methods, strategies and/or programs for meeting the needs of students at-risk of academic failures through remediation. Include any diagnostic methods or instruments that will be used to identify and assess those students who are performing below grade level as well as the processes/programs/tools to be used in providing them with remedial instruction. These services should be provided pursuant to SBOE Rule 160-4-5-.01 and NCLB. East Atlanta Charter School will follow all requirements of SBOE Rule 160-4-5-.01 as well as all related state and federal laws regarding the identification and implementation of remedial services for students who qualify for such services. Through continuous, authentic, formative and summative assessments, East Atlanta Charter School will monitor the progress of all students and immediately put plans in place to remediate students at risk of academic failure. The tools used to monitor and track student progress in specific skill areas will be curriculum-based measurement by DIBELS, Fountas and Pinnels, and easyCBM. Students qualifying for the Remedial Education Program (REP) based on state requirements and guidelines will be placed in the appropriate number of REP segments as determined by the Student Support Team. 10. Describe how the charter school will provide state and federally mandated services for English Language Learners (ESOL). Include any diagnostic methods or instruments that will be used to identify and assess those students, including:

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

a. A description of the special language instructional program to be provided to ELLs that is designed to teach English, as well as general curriculum and who on staff will coordinate this effort. b. A provision indicating that ELL students will not be excluded from curricular and extracurricular activities in school because of the inability to speak and understand the language of instruction. c. Appropriate evaluative standards for measuring the linguistic and academic progress of ELL students, including program exit criteria. The percentage used to calculate the ELL FTE in East Atlanta Charter School’s budget was the same percentage as the percent of ELL students in the DeKalb County School District for FY 2012. This percentage is approximately 2%. The most common first language of ELL students in DeKalb Country is Spanish. East Atlanta Charter School will use the WIDA-ACCESS Placement Test (W-APT), the English language proficiency screener to incoming students who may be designated as English language learners. This assessment guides programmatic placement decisions such as identification and placement of students who are ELLs. All services will be provided for English Language Learners in accordance with all applicable Federal and State laws, rules, and regulations. A significant benefit of the dual-language immersion model is that it is also a federal and state approved instructional method for English Language Learners. Thus, students who qualify as English Language Learners can remain in the standard curricular program with their peers while receiving instruction appropriate to bolstering English language proficiency. For our ELL students who are native speakers of Spanish, gaining language and literacy skills in Spanish will bolster their ability to become proficient speakers and users of the English language, as it provides them with a framework from which to make comparisons and analyses. Further, these students will benefit tremendously from maintaining their heritage language and increasing their level of Spanish speaking, reading, and writing. Heritage language speakers who are able to continue using and improving their heritage language at school realize important economic gains as adults, as well as increased self-esteem and cultural pride. No student will never be excluded from curricular and extracurricular activities at East Atlanta Charter School because of the inability to speak and understand the language of instruction. In fact, ELL students at East Atlanta Charter School will be valuable members of our community, with the Spanish speakers serving as a resource and model to their native English-speaking peers. Proficiency in multiple languages will be celebrated and highly regarded among every member of East Atlanta Charter School. Due to the nature of the dual-language immersion instructional model, ELL students will be assessed using the same formative and summative assessments in the language domain as their native English speaking peers, the oral and written language rubrics set forth by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages proficiency guideline rubrics. However, for ELL students, the objectives for second language proficiency as outlined in the goals and objectives portion of the charter application will refer not only to their Spanish proficiency but also to their English oral and written language proficiency, whereas native English speakers will only be working toward an advanced level of proficiency in Spanish.

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

By our very nature, all students at East Atlanta Charter School will be “Learners of Other Languages”. All children will be assessed continually in both Spanish and English at East Atlanta Charter School. In addition to this evaluation rubric, ELL students will be assessed annually each January using the ACCESS ESL proficiency assessment. Results from ACCESS will inform student growth and guide decision making in the ELL program. Scores will be sent to the DCSD. In summary, East Atlanta Charter School will utilize a variety of resources for curricular materials for all language learning assessments. We will identify assessment tools in Spanish that are aligned to the proficiency guidelines set forth by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (see Exhibit 12). East Atlanta Charter School will use these proficiency guidelines to set benchmarks for oral and written second language proficiency (both for Spanish and for English as a second language) for all students. The ACCESS assessment will be used as a standardized measure of students’ English proficiency each January. Results from the ACCESS testing will be provided to the DCSD. East Atlanta Charter School acknowledges receipt and understanding of all notes contained in the petition application regarding the professional development and other services that will be provided by DeKalb County Schools. 11. List all proposed extracurricular activities or other auxiliary educational activities along with the grade levels in which these activities will be offered. Please list and describe the partnerships the school has developed to offer extracurricular activities (ex: chorus, band, sports, clubs, art). This information should explain who the partner organization is, at which location the activity will be offered, and any charges associated with providing these activities. Please provide copies of contracts or correspondence setting forth the terms of the partnership. East Atlanta Charter School will offer a variety of extracurricular and auxiliary educational activities. Children in all grades may participate in activities such as studio or dramatic art, or vocal and/or instrumental music, at least 2 days per week. All students will have daily PE and daily recess. One of the goals for the extracurricular and auxiliary educational activities will be to provide structured and unstructured opportunities for students to speak Spanish in varied circumstances which are reflective of real life experiences and encourage authentic spontaneous production of language. In recognition of the high percentage of South DeKalb families who do not have a parent or other caregiver at home during the typical workday, East Atlanta Charter School will provide enriching, high-quality before and after school care, likely via subcontract with one or more auxiliary and enrichment vendors of such services. Prior to school opening, the governing board will create a before and after school committee. The committee will be responsible for submitting an RFP to subcontract vendors in the areas of overall afterschool enrichment and management of after school activities, as well as specified vendors such as those specializing in martial arts, dance, science, technology, and sports. All vendors will be required to provide a sliding scale for families who cannot afford the full price of services. All activities will occur onsite to facilitate the participation of all students. 12. Which of the specific actions in the academic plan require a waiver of state law, rule, or guidelines? Although you will be granted a broad flexibility waiver if you are granted a charter, please demonstrate why a charter is necessary for this school by providing examples of significant

38

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

components of your academic plan for which you need a waiver. Please also identify the specific waivers that are required to allow the implementation of those components. East Atlanta Charter School acknowledges that it is subject to the control and management of the DCSD Board of Education and that the school is expected to abide by and enforce the general rules and regulations governing all public schools to support the safety, welfare, and educational success of all students. EACS seeks a broad flexibility exemption per O.C.G.A 20-2-2065(a) in order to provide an education program tailored to the needs of EACS students. Because the school seeks to provide an environment and education program unlike anything currently offered in the state, it is critical that school leadership and the board have the flexibility to waive regulations that could prohibit maximum impact of the school program, even if they are not deemed critical to the model at this time. The particular sections of Title 20 of the Official Code of Georgia and other regulations outlined below are included in this broad flexibility exemption. The identification of these specific sections is in no way intended to replace the broad flexibility exemption, but simply to set forth specific examples that may be of particular importance to the school. Sections of Title 20 not listed herein are still considered to be waived under the broad flexibility exemption as permissible by law as part of the request for a broad flexibility waiver. EACS will comply with all the requirements of the Single Statewide Accountability System and will meet or exceed the performance-based goals included in the charter through its use of an innovative model. A broad flexibility waiver will enable school leaders and the board to make swift decisions around programmatic elements in order to meet the unique needs of students enrolled. Examples of how the broad flexibility waiver may be used to meet and exceed the performance goals outlined herein include the following:     

Paraprofessional services may be provided by a university partner (such as a representative of GSU’s CULTR), rather than by a staff member who is hired with the title of paraprofessional. A vendor who provides a competitive quote for services to the school because of their mission-alignment may not be a preferred vendor for DCSD. The staffing model may need to be adjusted annually to accommodate the needs of students as dictated by their IEPs. Staff who are certified in ELA may be asked to provide math remediation to a small group of students during an RTI period in order to accommodate small groupings and create a seamless staff support model for each student. The local board for the school will be charged with a number of responsibilities that may fall to the district in traditional schools, providing local control over the operation of the school. Examples include designation of and participation in a local grievance policy for stakeholders, organization and procurement of benefits for staff, creation of a salary scale, and oversight of the board in fiscal and operational decisions.

There are a number of waivers the school may require in its opening years and will not require in subsequent years, and vice versa. For this reason, the broad flexibility waiver best equips the school’s leadership to make real-time decisions in the best interest of students in the school and school community, while maintaining the integrity and spirit of the regulations. IFCB-R Field Trips

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As an independent charter school, EACS seeks maximum flexibility with regard to scheduling and coordinating its fieldtrips to best serve the needs of its students. The school will honor the spirit of this regulation by only scheduling learning trips aligned to content standards within school hours and will ensure all trips scheduled are planned with clearly aligned learning outcomes. IHEA-R Make-up work by students EACS seeks maximum flexibility to design and implement its own strategies with regard to make up work to best accommodate the learning needs of each student. All students will be required to make up work for classes missed; however, the nature and timing of the make up work will be determined by each teacher in accordance with the needs of each student. IKI-R Lesson Plans EACS seeks maximum flexibility with regard to the development of lesson plans to align this process and appropriate templates with the methodology being implemented. State Board to Prescribe Textbooks – O.G.C.A. 20-2-1010 and Electronic Format of Textbooks, O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-1015 and SBE Rule 160-4-4-.10(k). EACS intends to choose and offer textbooks that may not be on the state approved list, such as the Santillana Yabisi science books. The state has not evaluated Spanish texts for immersion (rather than for middle and high school traditional foreign language study). All curricula at EACS will be aligned to the CCGPS. Personnel Required- School Size— SBE Rule 160-5-1-.22 EACS seeks to waive requirements around personnel required and school size as the staffing configuration will be aligned to the needs of the students enrolled. Limited Public School Choice – SBE Rule 160-5-4-.09 As a public charter school, EACS seeks to be excluded from any rules related to limited public school choice and transportation. EACS should also not be subject to any transfer decisions by the local board of education as EACS is a school of choice and will enroll students as accepted by lottery (or first-come, first-served as described in the enrollment section). Values and Character Education— SBE Rule 160-4-2.33 EACS seeks to waive any requirements to follow a character education program outside its choosing. The unique population targeted for enrollment will be served by the individualized approach, which will support academic and personal growth. The curriculum that may be delivered to bolster character and personal development will be selected by the school leader and staff to ensure the curriculum and/or materials best align with the needs of the student population. Therefore, EACS does not want to be required to use other programs that might not reflect its values or practices. Course Listings—SBE Rule 160-4-2.20 As a public charter school, EACS seeks maximum flexibility in designing its courses that best meet the needs of its students and school culture. It is not the intent of this waiver to neglect to offer state recognized courses, but rather to allow EACS the freedom to create interdisciplinary coursework. KIB-R Special Interest Materials Distribution

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EACS seeks flexibility with regard to distribution of such materials. As EACS intends to be a research resource for GSU’s CULTR (only to the extent that it will not interfere with instruction), this flexibility, combined with appropriate oversight, will facilitate the development of successful tools and strategies that can be generated through such research (with informed parental consent). KNBA-R Complaints about Instructional Materials As EACS will be governed independently through its own board of directors, EACS maintains a grievance policy for all stakeholders that directs concerns to the board as the final authority in the process. As such, stakeholders are instructed to direct any and all grievances, including those about instructional materials, to the proper channels as identified in the school’s grievance policy. IFA-R, IFA-R(1), IFA-R(2) Instructional Materials Media and Equipment EACS seeks to use its own media for instruction and intends to utilize different media to ensure the use of authentic Spanish materials that align with the CCGPS. III. ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES, PLANS, AND WAIVERS 13. State the school’s Organizational Goals and Measures. a. School organizational performance objectives should reflect where the school envisions itself organizationally at the end of the charter term. b. Objectives should include areas such as: governing board training, student and teacher retention, and student, parent and teacher satisfaction. East Atlanta Charter School has created the following observable and measureable objectives aligned to the school’s mission. The mission of East Atlanta Charter School is to nurture a community of young scholars who will not only achieve very high standardized test scores, but who will also be uncommonly adept at expressing themselves effectively in myriad settings. Our curriculum will focus on the liberal arts, and we will utilize evidence-based best practices in education and classroom management. East Atlanta Charter School teachers will engage and inspire children through highly interactive and student-centered lessons that harness the intense curiosity innate to children. GOAL 1: Support the development of each child’s curiosity, confidence, creativity, and communication skills. Fostering creativity, imagination, and a love of learning is central to the mission of East Atlanta Charter School. Each child will participate in a rich, interdisciplinary curriculum that focuses on inquiry, discovery, and building community. Our faculty will foster the development of motivated, independent and confident learners by encouraging all students to think critically and act responsibly. To achieve our ambitious academic goals, a safe and inclusive environment is essential. Each child must feel intrinsically valued by his or her teachers and peers. We will treat each other with respect and affection as we learn to work collaboratively. Communication skills are the foundation of society, so reading, writing, and public speaking are central elements of the curriculum. Love of listening and telling stories expands quickly to fluency in reading and writing. Children have much to share within the community, and these basic skills allow them to reach out to the world. Through the exploration of literature in 41

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

English and Spanish, students develop more sophisticated reading skills that are ultimately mirrored in their writing. Elementary school is a time of explosive growth. East Atlanta Charter School students will also undertake the formal study of math and discovery-based science, exploring a problem both to seek a solution and to understand the principles it demonstrates. Math instruction will focus on understanding the fundamental principles of mathematics, logical thinking, and problem solving. Opportunities to speak and share information will complement our students’ Spanish language acquisition and support beginning computer skills as children learn to use technology. Class projects will frequently involve a mix of traditional disciplines, using math, science, reading, writing, and art, allowing children to see the interconnectedness of knowledge. Music, theater, visual arts, and physical education will add depth and richness to our interdisciplinary studies while expanding the creativity of our students and offering more settings in which to develop robust Spanish vocabulary and skills. The world is changing at a fantastic speed, and we cannot know yet what careers today’s children will have decades from now. To be prepared for an unknowable future requires the ability to problem-solve, adapt, and communicate in workplaces and environments that are increasingly complex. Creativity creates jobs, drives economic growth, provides answers to societal needs, and maximizes human potential. Creativity is critically valuable, but research indicates it’s been declining significantly on a global scale over the last 20 years. This decline is evident in the challenges children are facing in school, life and work. A 2011 report in the highly-regarded Creativity Research Journal states that “children have become less… expressive… energetic… humorous… imaginative… unconventional… less likely to see things from a different angle.” http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10400419.2011.627805#.VTMzOyHBzRY We believe in the vision for creative education as envisioned by Tom Peter in the book Reimagine. Specifically, we believe that school should recognize that learning is natural, that a love of learning is normal, and that real learning is passionate learning, and we believe that a school’s curriculum should value questions above answers, creativity above fact regurgitation, individuality above uniformity, and excellence above standardized performance. We will respect our faculty and grant them the autonomy to do their jobs as the creative individuals they are, and for the creative individuals in their charge. When students are being creative in the classroom they are likely to: 

Question and challenge. Creative students are curious, and question and challenge the limits.



Make connections and see relationships. Creative students think laterally and make associations between things that are not usually connected.



Envision what might be. They imagine, see possibilities, ask “what if?” and picture alternatives, and look at things from different viewpoints.



Explore ideas and options. Creative students play with ideas, try alternatives and fresh approaches, keep open minds and modify their ideas to achieve creative results.



Reflect critically on ideas, actions and outcomes. They review progress, invite and use feedback, criticize constructively and make perceptive observations.

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Creative teaching may be defined in two ways: firstly, teaching creatively and secondly, teaching for creativity. Teaching creatively might be described as teachers using imaginative approaches to make learning more interesting, engaging, exciting, and effective. Teaching for creativity might best be described as using forms of teaching that are intended to develop students own creative thinking and behavior. At EACS, teachers will encourage student creativity in the following ways: 

Create an inviting and exciting classroom environment.



Provide an abundant supply of interesting and useful materials and resources.



Create a classroom climate where students feel mistakes are acceptable and risk taking is encouraged, and appropriate noise, mess and autonomy are accepted.

Curiosity is the key to learning, yet fostering children’s curiosity can be difficult in a traditional classroom environment. Curiosity is an essential ingredient in wanting to learn. Especially for schools that serve students from socioeconomic backgrounds that are traditionally underperforming, notions about curiosity research or development of inquisitiveness could be seen as well-intentioned but superfluous. What our struggling students need, educational policy seems to say, is more time in class, more assessment, and more-pervasive testing. Yet, school achievement and success in other arenas do not take place in a vacuum. The influence of psychological factors such as motivation, self-concept, and readiness to take on challenges has attracted the attention of researchers. Typically, children enter the middle-childhood years very optimistic about their ability to master a wide array of tasks and activities, including their schoolwork, with little relation to their actual level of skill. By age 10, however, children have typically become far less optimistic about their own capabilities, and there is a much stronger relation between their self-ratings and their actual performance. Their ability self-concepts and their expectations for success tend to decline over the elementary school years. For school subjects, this decline in self-confidence and motivation continues through adolescence, when it may lead students to avoid challenging courses or to drop out of school altogether. As some children pass through middle-childhood, experiencing more frustration and becoming more pessimistic about their abilities, they may shy away from activities in which they are unlikely to succeed at first. Under usual circumstances in the American culture, children come to conclude that failure is an indication of their incompetence, not a condition that can be modified by learning or practicing. If they believe they lack innate ability (especially intellectual, athletic, or artistic ability), children understandably become discouraged and withdraw from the activity or task. By contrast, if children view abilities as subject to incremental improvement, they understand that they can become more competent with practice and development. When it is coupled with appropriate help from supportive adults, a belief that ability can be cultivated reduces children’s frustration with failure and allows them to maintain high expectations for future success. Expectations of success help to explain children’s willingness to engage in tasks and to strive to succeed, but engagement is also influenced by children’s interests and by the belief that a given task is important. Especially valuable are school activities and courses that provide children with (1) the opportunity to learn without continual social comparison norms, (2) chances to control their own learning, (3) respect for all participants, and (4) strong emotional and social support. Thus, EACS will endeavor to foster an environment for each child that helps the child preserve and grow self-confidence.

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

Objectives: Curiosity Every fifth grade student will complete an individual, self-designed, interdisciplinary project that will culminate in a public presentation in front of fellow students, families, and community members. Each fifth grader’s project presentation should demonstrate the grade level speaking benchmarks established by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, detailed below. Communication Skills In addition to the benchmarks EACS has established as academic goals in literacy and writing, we will provide meaningful, regular opportunities for all students to develop and demonstrate age-appropriate oral communication skills in both Spanish and English. We aim for each child to achieve all of the speaking development goals established by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, in both Spanish and English, by the end of each school year. For those who do not begin EACS in kindergarten or first grade, we aim for them to hit their grade level communication goals in Spanish by the end of their third academic year, and the goals of the grade level below their own by the end of their second academic year. For example, a new third grader should achieve the third grade speaking goals by the end of the year in English, while not being expected to meet those same goals yet in Spanish. Thus, she should be able to participate in group discussions using specialized vocabulary during social studies class taught in English, but she would not yet be expected to contribute effectively to class discussions in science class taught in Spanish. By the end of her second year –fourth grade--, she should achieve the fourth grade goals in English, and the third grade goals in Spanish. Finally, by the end of her third year –fifth grade--, she should achieve the grade level speaking goals in both languages. Each teacher will formally evaluate each of their students’ achievement in oral communication at least twice per year. Thus, each child will receive at least four evaluations per year (two for English speaking, and two for Spanish). Kindergarten: 

Be understood by most people.



Answer simple "yes/no" questions.



Answer open-ended questions (e.g., "What did you have for lunch today?").



Retell a story or talk about an event.



Participate appropriately in conversations.



Show interest in and start conversations.

First Grade: 

Be easily understood.



Answer more complex "yes/no" questions.



Tell and retell stories and events in a logical order.



Express ideas with a variety of complete sentences.



Use most parts of speech (grammar) correctly.



Ask and respond to "wh" questions (who, what, where, when, why).



Stay on topic and take turns in conversation.



Give directions.

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   



Start conversations.

Second Grade: 

Be easily understood.



Answer more complex "yes/no" questions.



Ask and answer "wh" questions (e.g., who, what, where, when, why).



Use increasingly complex sentence structures.



Clarify and explain words and ideas.



Give directions with 3-4 steps.



Use oral language to inform, to persuade, and to entertain.



Stay on topic, take turns, and use appropriate eye contact during conversation.



Open and close conversation appropriately.

Third Grade: 

Speak clearly with an appropriate voice.



Ask and respond to questions.



Participate in conversations and group discussions.



Use subject-related vocabulary.



Stay on topic, use appropriate eye contact, and take turns in conversation.



Summarize a story accurately.



Explain what has been learned.

Fourth Grade: 

Use words appropriately in conversation.



Use language effectively for a variety of purposes.



Understand some figurative language (e.g., "the forest stretched across").



Participate in group discussions.



Give accurate directions to others.



Summarize and restate ideas.



Organize information for clarity.



Use subject area information and vocabulary (e.g., social studies) for learning.



Make effective oral presentations

Fifth Grade: 

Make planned oral presentations appropriate to the audience.



Maintain eye contact and use gestures, facial expressions, and appropriate voice during group presentations.



Participate in class discussions across subject areas. 45

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   



Summarize main points.



Report about information gathered in group activities.

GOAL 2: Maximize student retention through building strong relationships with students’ families Becoming highly proficient in Spanish through a dual language immersion school model is a long and complex process, one that takes an average child about four to six years. Thus, it is ideal for students to begin as early as possible and remain in the program through its highest grade level (in our case, fifth grade). Thus, we seek to retain all entering students through their completion of fifth grade. Given normal attrition caused by relocation and other factors, which particularly affects students who live in poverty, we aspire to retain at least 90% of our students from year to year (excluding our fifth graders headed to middle school). In order to retain our students, we will work extremely closely with families, starting with widespread public engagement to inform McNair Cluster families about dual language immersion, its many benefits, and its potential challenges. Based on initial outreach, we expect to find many eager families excited to enroll their children. Each year, after the lottery, we will host open houses, question and answer sessions, and special events where families accepted into EACS but not yet enrolled can meet with faculty and current EACS families, to learn more about the school and immersion education, empowering them make an informed decision about whether they want their children to attend. Just as the three DeKalb immersion programs do now, we will ask each parent to voluntarily commit to continuing to send their child to EACS through the fifth grade. Though the commitment will be non-binding, we hope that it will encourage families to make a careful decision that they are prepared to stick with. Once children begin attending EACS, we will make a robust, ongoing effort to communicate with parents about their children’s education. Our teachers will reach out regularly and will also make themselves available for meetings and correspondence with parents and guardians, even beyond the regularly scheduled parent-teacher conferences and class-wide letters home with general updates and information. We strive to make each EACS parent an advocate for his or her child’s school experience and journey toward Spanish proficiency. Rather than rely on surveys to tell us whether our children’s families are satisfied with EACS, we will make sure each teacher has a personal relationship with each of their students’ families. Each EACS teacher will be required to document his or her spoken or written communication with each child’s family at least once per month. Thus, every EACS family will have at least two personal contacts at the school (their child’s English-language and Spanish-language teachers), in addition to access to a responsive Principal. The teachers will provide individualized feedback to each family about their child on a regular basis, and will also proactively find out whether the family has any questions or concerns about the child’s school experience. In cases where children are struggling in school due to challenges at home, we will seek to connect the family to resources and wraparound services that will improve the home environment. GOAL 3: Attract, retain, and develop highly capable instructional staff in order to facilitate academic excellence and high-level Spanish proficiency for all students.

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Measure 1: All instructional staff will participate in data-driven, mandatory, frequent professional development. Each year, all teaching staff will attend a summer professional develop workshop designed specifically for immersion educators. Teachers will be required to earn 2 PLU (20 contact hours) per calendar year. Our faculty will participate in the annual summer workshops delivered by GSU’s Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research, a partner of East Atlanta Charter School. Measure 2: Teacher retention rates, as measured by retention of teachers whom were offered a contract for the next academic year, will be at least 80% annually. Measure 3: Our teachers will be highly qualified and continually improving their own skills. Those teachers who do not have Georgia teacher certification will proceed with all necessary steps to obtain it in the most rapid manner possible. Measure 4: Our Spanish teacher candidates who are not native speakers of Spanish will be required to pass ACTFL proficiency testing to show that they test at the Advanced level. Measure 5: Faculty and staff hiring will be made with a preference given to Spanish speakers, and all faculty and staff will project a positive and enthusiastic attitude about communicating in Spanish. To reinforce the children’s use of Spanish in a variety of settings, all faculty and staff who are able will communicate with students in Spanish, including in the hallways, at lunch, at recess, and in specials such as art and physical education. GOAL 4: The school will establish and implement sound and accurate financial management practices in all areas of business operations, including GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) and other best practices. Measure 1: In each year of the charter, yearly balance sheets will demonstrate that the Charter School maintains adequate cash on hand and is able to consistently meet financing commitments. Measure 2: As a result of an annual financial audit, the school will obtain an unqualified opinion as to whether the financial statements are presented fairly, in all material respects, with respect to financial position, results of operations, and cash flows in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. 14. What specific actions will the school take to achieve its organizational performance objectives? a. Describe the organizational innovations that will be implemented during the proposed charter term. Please see above where the Goals are combined with specific Measures, and explanations about why they are promising innovations for our school model. b. Provide a clear explanation of how the innovations will increase organizational effectiveness. Our innovations go to the heart of our primary goal of preparing our students for lifelong success through high-level proficiency in Spanish and sophisticated communication skills. c. Describe why the innovations are appropriate for this unique school.

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

Our innovations support East Atlanta Charter School’s goal to retain students through fifth grade so that they maximize their acquisition of Spanish. 15. Which of the specific actions in the organizational plan require a waiver of state law, rule, or guidelines? a. Although you will be granted a broad flexibility waiver if you are granted a charter, please demonstrate why you need a charter by providing examples of a significant component of your organizational plan for which you need a waiver. Please also identify the waivers that are required to allow the implementation of that component. East Atlanta Charter School will comply with all federal, state, and local laws, policies, procedures, and requirements unless specifically waived in the charter. East Atlanta Charter School will use the flexibility provided by the broad flexibility waiver to meet or exceed the performance-based goals included in the approved charter, including but not limited to raising student achievement as follows: As required by O.C.G.A. § 20-2-2065(b), East Atlanta Charter School shall be:

(1) A public, nonsectarian, nonreligious, nonprofit school that is not home-based,

provided that a charter school's nonprofit status shall not prevent the school from contracting for the services of a for-profit entity;

(2) Subject to the control and management of the DCSS school board, as provided in the charter and in a manner consistent with the Constitution;

(3) Organized and operated as a nonprofit corporation under the laws of this state; (4) Subject to all federal, state, and local rules, regulations, court orders, and statutes

relating to civil rights (including, but not limited to, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act); insurance; the protection of the physical health and safety of school students, employees, and visitors; conflicting interest transactions; and the prevention of unlawful conduct;

(5) Subject to all laws relating to unlawful conduct in or near a public school; (7) Subject to an annual financial audit conducted by the state auditor or, if specified in the charter, by an independent certified public accountant licensed in this state; Subject to the provisions of Part 3 of Article 2 of Chapter 14 of this title, and such provisions shall apply with respect to charter schools whose charters are granted or renewed on or after July 1, 2000;

(8) Subject to all reporting requirements of Code § 20-2-160, subsection (e) of Code § 202-161, Code § 20-2-320, and Code § 20-2-740;

(9) Subject to the requirement that it shall not charge tuition or fees to its students except as may be authorized for local boards by Code § 20-2-133; and

(10) Subject to the provisions of Code § 20-2-1050 requiring a brief period of quiet reflection.

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East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

East Atlanta Charter School requests the following waivers in order to enable the flexibility to set policies and procedures that allow it to meet the rigorous goals set forth in this charter application: 2. Article 7: TEACHERS AND OTHER SCHOOL PERSONNEL PART 7. TERMINATION, SUSPENSION, NONRENEWAL, DEMOTION, OR REPRIMAND O.C.G.A. § 20-2-940 through § 20-2-947. East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from these sections because we wish to allow the governing board and executive leadership team to define all policies and procedures surrounding the termination, suspension, nonrenewal, demotion, or reprimand of teachers and other school personnel. O.C.G.A. § 20-2-390 through 20-2-396 – Borrowing for Operating Expenses. East Atlanta Charter School requests waivers from these sections to allow the school to have the autonomy needed to effectively manage all borrowed funds as deemed necessary to meet the mission, goals, and objectives of the charter. O.C.G.A. § 20-2-300 – Implementation and Funding Authorized. In an effort to allocate all time toward meeting the mission, goals, and objectives of the charter, East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver from this section to the extent that any proposed programs may contradict or interfere with the delivery of programming and curriculum established at East Atlanta Charter School. O.C.G.A. § 20-2-230 through 20-2-232 Staff Development. East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver from this part only to the extent that it requires East Atlanta Charter School staff to participate in staff development programs that are not consistent with the unique dual immersion, communications-focused curriculum at East Atlanta Charter School. East Atlanta Charter School will offer professional development that is tailored to the unique mission of East Atlanta Charter School including but not limited to professional development offered in other languages, and professional development focused on language acquisition, such as that offered through our partner GSU Center of Urban Language Teaching and Research. East Atlanta Charter School will evaluate and make revisions to East Atlanta Charter School’s curriculum as needed and will offer annual professional development opportunities consistent with East Atlanta Charter School’s unique academic model. This waiver will help East Atlanta Charter School achieve its mission by ensuring that all staff development is relevant and beneficial to teachers delivering East Atlanta Charter School’s unique curriculum. This waiver is not inconsistent with the purpose of this section because the staff will still engage in professional development in support of our mission and instruction of state standards. O.C.G.A. § 20-2-290 Organization of Schools. East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver from this part because state law has precedent over school board policy and a school’s charter, and East Atlanta Charter School believes it is important to make sure that nothing in this section of the law would allow an organization or reorganization of East Atlanta Charter School by the board of education of DCSS that is incongruent with this charter. This waiver will help East Atlanta Charter School achieve its performance goals by ensuring that the organization of East Atlanta Charter School is not unilaterally changed by the local school system.

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O.C.G.A. § 20-2-850-853 and 20-2-880-925 Personnel Policies and Benefits. East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver from these parts to the extent they are inconsistent with any personnel policies and benefits programs that may be established from time to time for Charter School personnel. East Atlanta Charter School does not waive the right of any of its personnel to participate in any benefits program that may be available to them as public school teachers. This waiver will help East Atlanta Charter School achieve its performance goals by ensuring that East Atlanta Charter School is able to hire teachers who are best suited to meet the needs of the school’s student body and to effectively deliver the school’s curriculum. Specifically, East Atlanta Charter School may need flexibility in the benefits offered by East Atlanta Charter School in order to provide benefits that are beneficial for all of East Atlanta Charter School’s staff, including those who are not citizens or lawful permanent residents of the United States, but who are instead nonimmigrants with limited work authorization. This waiver is not inconsistent with the purpose of these parts because the charter school will develop personnel policies and a benefits package that are competitive with those offered by the DCSS. School climate management program; model codes of behavior and discipline— O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-155 EACS plans to use the DCSD code of conduct, but will be developing model codes of behavior and discipline aligned with the school culture. Assistant Principals and Secretaries—O.C.G.A 20-1-185 EACS seeks flexibility in determining the type and number of personnel for roles such as Assistant Principal and/or Secretary. As a public charter school, EACS requests the freedom to determine the leadership and support structure that best fits the needs of its school’s culture. EACS intends to designate leadership support roles and assistants on staff, but requests flexibility in title, role, and salary level for these positions. Certification Requirement of Hired Professionals - O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-200, Professional Standards Commission Rule 505-2-.09 1(a) and DeKalb County Schools Policy GBBD for Professional Certification EACS seeks the flexibility to employ or otherwise engage non-certified personnel in the event that the individual is determined by EACS to be the best individual to fulfill the role. Teachers may be deemed qualified to teach and provide support in content and enrichment areas for which they do not retain specific Georgia certification, while they may have appropriate certification in another jurisdiction.

Appropriate Organizations to Provide In-Service or Continuing Education – O.C.G.A. 20-2-201(c) EACS will provide robust continuing professional development and training, but the school has and is forming partnerships with experts who may be better positioned to provide this training and support. For this reason, EACS does not seek a waiver necessarily from the requirement of additional training, but rather from the subsection (c) pertaining to the development of these inservice opportunities by local areas of administration and “other appropriate organizations.” The unique needs of our school model may best be met through staff training and support that are provided by entities and partners who may not currently be in network with state and district providers.

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Conditions of Employment— O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-210 and Teacher Contracts – O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-211(a), 20-2-211(b), and 20-2-211(c). Teacher Salary Schedules and Increases – O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-212 through 20-2-212.6 and SBE Rules 160-5-2-.04 and 160-5-2-.05 EACS seeks to waive the state’s requirements related to annual performance evaluation, as it will rely on its own model to evaluate staff. This model is aligned to the mission and best practices of the model EACS provides. Further, EACS seeks to waive requirements related to salaries in order to retain flexibility to determine its own salary schedule and compensation for its employees. EACS further seeks flexibility to ensure merit-based increases as funding allows. EACS intends to offer a highly supportive and rewarding work environment with a specialized focus that will attract the best candidates for the positions available. Conditions of Employment – O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-850-853 and Grounds and Procedure for Terminating or Suspending Contract of Employment— O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-940 EACS will manage and administer its own human resource policies related to employment, sick leave, and benefits. Further, EACS employees will be at-will employees. School Administrator – O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-942(1.1) relating to school administrators EACS seeks to waive any rules and regulations relating to school administrators as it will recruit, hire, and retain the best principal it deems necessary to realize the mission of the school. GBRA-R(1) Professional Personnel Personal Leaves and Absences As EACS will hire and retain its own staff, it will develop its own policies with regard to leave and absences that otherwise conform to the law and are in the best interest of the instructional program being delivered. EC-R(0) Equipment and Supplies Management As EACS will utilize its own equipment and supplies, it seeks maximum flexibility in the purchase, management and disposal of its materials to ensure all equipment and supplies best meet the needs of the EACS students and staff. KG-R Allowable Use of School Facilities EACS seeks flexibility in the guidelines related to the use of school facilities recognizing that the use of the building cannot conflict with the mission of the school and its primary objective of educating its student body. O.C.G.A. Sections 20-2-240 through 20-2-242 – Powers and Duties of the State Board, State Superintendent, and Local school systems. East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver only from the below listed State Board Rules, which were promulgated pursuant to O.C.G.A. § 20-2-240: Rule 160-5-1-.36 – Local School Board Governance. East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver of this rule as its Board of Directors will govern East Atlanta Charter School. However, East Atlanta Charter School will fully comply with all of the ethics and open record and meetings requirements as stated in this State Board Rule. Rule 160-5-2-.05 Experience for Salary Purposes. East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver of the above listed State Board Rules in order to give it the flexibility in the staffing and training of its teachers and other staff members to carry out its stated mission and goals as described in this petition. This flexibility in making personnel decisions will allow East Atlanta 51

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Charter School to ensure that the maximum amount funding is allocated specifically to the instruction of its students. Despite asking for a waiver of these State Rules, East Atlanta Charter School will work with and utilize any existing DeKalb County School System resources made available to East Atlanta Charter School in order to abide by the intent of these Rules. East Atlanta Charter School further seeks a waiver from any actions that may be required or authorized by either the State School Superintendent or the Local school system that would be inconstant with this charter or with the waivers allowed by O.C.G.A. § 20-2-2065 that are incorporated into this charter petition. These waivers will help East Atlanta Charter School achieve its performance goals by ensuring that the rules, regulations, policies, and procedures that apply to the charter school and the duties of various persons or entities to enforce certain rules, regulations, policies, and procedures are consistent with the charter including the waivers. These waivers are not inconsistent with the purpose of these sections because the rules, regulations, policies, and procedures that apply to East Atlanta Charter School will still be enforceable by the appropriate entities at appropriate times as set out in the charter and in the Charter Schools Act of 1998. DeKalb County School District Requested Waivers: East Atlanta Charter School is requesting waivers of specific DCSD Policies in an effort to effectively meet its mission. Such waivers exist in the categories of personnel, curriculum, school calendar, instruction, and transportation as follows: Policy CI-R(1): Administrative Intern Program East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver of the above listed Policy in order to give East Atlanta Charter School the flexibility in the staffing and training of its teachers and other staff members to carry out its stated mission and goals as described in this petition. This flexibility in defining hourly requirement and processes will ensure best use of funding allocated for our students. Policy CJ: Administrative Consultants East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver of Section F & G in order to give East Atlanta Charter School the flexibility in the staffing and training of its teachers and other staff members to carry out its stated mission and goals as described in this petition. This flexibility in making personnel decisions will allow East Atlanta Charter School to ensure that the maximum amount funding is allocated specifically to the instruction of our students. Code G: Personnel Policy GAD: Professional Learning Opportunities Policy GAD-R(1): Professional Learning Opportunities East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from this section, only for systemwide professional development opportunities that would not be relevant or related to the mission, curriculum, and philosophy of East Atlanta Charter School. Policy GBD: Professional Personnel Hiring Policy GBI: Professional Personnel Evaluation

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Policy GBKA: Professional Personnel Lay-Off Policy GBO: Professional Personnel Resignation Policy GBRI: Professional Personnel Personal Leaves and Absences East Atlanta Charter School requests waivers from the above policies as the school and its governing board wish to exercise the right to full authority regarding all personnel matters Policy GBR: Professional Personnel Working Conditions (All Sections) All matters regarding attendances/absences shall remain in the authority of East Atlanta Charter School’s school leader and the school’s governing board. East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from this policy to keep these matters within the jurisdiction of the school and the governing board as opposed to the DeKalb County School System superintendent. Policy GCRB-R: Classified Personnel Time Schedules Policy GDRB-R: Paraprofessional Time Schedules Policy GBRB: Professional Personnel Time Schedules East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from these policies, as the school may follow an academic calendar different from the DeKalb County School System. However, East Atlanta Charter School will maintain a July 1 through June 30 fiscal year and calendar year for all 12month personnel. Policy GBBA: Professional Personnel Qualifications and Duties (Section I. – Teachers) EACS requests a waiver from the policy for section I only, which states the minimum requirements for teachers including a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college. East Atlanta Charter School is requesting this waiver to allow for the hiring of international, qualified teachers who have graduated from college programs but who have been determined by a reputable U.S. credentials evaluation firm (such as Trustforte) to have earned the foreign equivalent of a U.S. bachelor’s or higher degree. Policy GBB: Professional Personnel Positions East Atlanta Charter School requests waivers from the above policies as the school and its governing board wish to exercise the right to full authority regarding all personnel matters Policy GCA: Classified Personnel Compensation Guides and Contracts Policy GCA-R: Classified Personnel Compensation Guides and Contracts Policy GBA: Professional Personnel Compensation Guides and Contracts (Sections B – Review of Compensation Plan & C – Levels of Compensation) Policy GBA-R: Professional Personnel Compensation Guides and Contracts East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver of the above listed policies and regulations for classified and professional staff in order to give East Atlanta Charter School the flexibility in the compensation plan and salary schedule, including but not limited to, salary increases based on merit and performance, and compensation packages that may include salary plus other benefits such as housing for international teachers. East Atlanta Charter School has created a salary scale for teachers. East Atlanta Charter School requests waivers from the above policies as the school and its governing board wish to exercise the right to full authority regarding all personnel matters. Policy GCRD: Classified Personnel Overtime Pay 53

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East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from this policy to the extent that overtime pay must be approved by the Superintendent. Overtime will be approved by the school leader via the governing board which has governance over our school’s budget. Code I: Instructional Program Policy IA: Instructional Program Philosophy Policy IA-R: Instructional Program Philosophy Policy IC: Curriculum Development Policy ICFA: Curriculum Guides and Course Outlines Policy IDA: Basic Program Policy IDA-R(1): Basic Program Policy IDA-R(3): Basic Program Policy IDA-R(4): Basic Program Policy IDA-R(5): Basic Program Policy IDA-R(6): Basic Program East Atlanta Charter School requests waivers from the above policies and regulations so as to appropriately exercise the autonomy to employ the school’s prescribed curricular framework, such as the scope and sequence. Teachers at East Atlanta Charter School will follow East Atlanta Charter School curriculum as opposed to that prescribed by the DeKalb County School District. East Atlanta Charter School’s instructional philosophy is tied to its mission and vision, and although it aligns to that of the DeKalb County School District, it is a philosophy independent of the DCSD. East Atlanta Charter School’s curricular framework is included in this petition, including a detailed scope and sequence with alignment to the GA Performance Standards and Common Core Standards. Policy IDAC: Kindergarten East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from this policy to the extent that it requires funding to be obtained from the school district. East Atlanta Charter School may eventually pursue a state-approved pre-kindergarten program that could potentially be funded by other entities and/or community partners. Should East Atlanta Charter School pursue a Pre-K program, the program would still be licensed and approved by the appropriate state entity, Bright from the Start: GA Department of Early Care and Learning. Policy IDCA: Summer School Policy IDCA-R: Summer School Policy IDE: Co-Curricular Activities Policy IDE-R: Co-Curricular Activities Policy IDF: Interscholastic Activities East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from all of the above policies, as East Atlanta Charter School may organize its own summer school, co-curricular, and interscholastic activities in alignment with the schools vision, mission, and specific curricular model. The School Leader will be directly responsible for the oversight of policies and procedures surrounding these activities.

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Policy IED: Scheduling for Instruction Policy IED-R: Scheduling for Instruction East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from the above policies and regulations, only to the extent to which an off-site instructional activity could potentially be deemed noninstructional by the DeKalb County School District. East Atlanta Charter School wishes to exercise the right to define “instructional activities” in a way that will be meaningful and supportive of the mission and vision of East Atlanta Charter School, as described in this petition. Policy IFA: Instructional Materials East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from the above policies so that it may effectively implement the instructional strategies outlined in Section III of this application. Policy IFBGB: Web Pages (Section III) East Atlanta Charter School will manage its own website and social media messaging. Such content will remain professional and standards will remain in alignment with the District’s Web Publishing and Compliance Guidelines. Policy IFCB-R: Field Trips and Excursions East Atlanta Charter School wishes to waive this policy, only to the extent that it requests no educational field trips during the last two weeks of school. East Atlanta Charter School does not wish to adopt this policy, as there may be valuable field trip opportunities (tied to the school’s curriculum and mission) that become available during the last two weeks of school. Additionally, East Atlanta Charter School wishes to waive that section of the above policy requiring approval from the Executive Director of Transportation for all field trips, as the school may secure the use of other modes of transportation such as a charter bus. All other facets of this policy will be adhered to such as student supervision and parent permission. Policy IH: Student Achievement East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from this policy, as the school will employ methods for measuring and reporting (i.e. progress reports and report cards) student achievement data different from those methods employed by the DCSD in an effort to increase student achievement and meet the mission of East Atlanta Charter School, as described in this petition. Policy IHA: Grading Systems While we plan to use a letter grade grading system, we seek the flexibility to incorporate progress metrics, teacher narratives, portfolios, and foreign language assessments. Policy IHB: Homework East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from this policy to the extent that such policy should ever contradict the instructional philosophy and mission of East Atlanta Charter School. Homework at East Atlanta Charter School will be meaningful, developmentally appropriate, and tied to students’ instructional day. It is our intention never to assign homework that would require our students’ parents to have any Spanish proficiency whatsoever, as we consider the families’ role to reinforce the child’s home language. Policy IJ: Evaluation of Instructional Program East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from this policy as the school wishes to utilize its school leadership and faculty to evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional program. East Atlanta Charter School will review the effectiveness of its instructional program annually, taking

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student achievement data (including Spanish proficiency assessment data) and parent and teacher feedback into account. Policy IKI: Lesson Plans East Atlanta Charter School requests waivers from the above policy and regulation to the extent that lesson plans must be aligned to the DCSD-approved curriculum. Teachers at East Atlanta Charter School will align lesson plans to East Atlanta Charter School’s curriculum, as included in Section III of this application, which is aligned to the Common Core Standards and Georgia Performance Standards. Policy JCD: Student Conduct East Atlanta Charter School is requesting waivers of the JCD Policy, specifically those sections allowing for corporal punishment. East Atlanta Charter School administration will never use corporal punishment under any circumstances. Policy JCDAF: Use of Electronic Devices by Students East Atlanta Charter School is requesting a waiver of to the extent that East Atlanta Charter School students may use electronic devices with educational merit, such as iPads, as part of their instructional time. While highly interactive, live, in-person communication is the gold standard for language acquisition, we may wish to integrate high-tech learning tools in a careful and limited way. Policy MFB: Student Teaching and Internships East Atlanta Charter School requests a waiver from this policy to the extent that internships should not be subject to approval by the Department of Professional Learning. East Atlanta Charter School board and administrative team will approve all student teaching and internship placements.

IV. GOVERNANCE A key characteristic of charter schools is that an autonomous governing board makes decisions on behalf of the school. It is imperative that all governing boards demonstrate substantial autonomy, decision-making authority and capacity. 16. Describe how an autonomous governing board will make decisions for the school. a.

Identify each member of the governing board; describe the composition of the governing board (number of members, skillsets to be represented, how members are/will be representative of the school and the community, etc.; describe how and when board members will be selected, and the terms that governing board members will serve. Briefly explain the recruitment plan of new members if vacancies occur.

According to our bylaws, East Atlanta Charter School’s governing board will be composed of five (5) to twenty (20) members of the community with broad and diverse backgrounds such as law, finance, elementary education, higher education, human resources, language acquisition, special 56

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education, marketing, fundraising, and business operations. Members with previous board experience will be sought. Prospective board members will be solicited by strategically placed announcements (Chamber of Commerce publications, etc.); nominations for board members will also be accepted. The board will have a governance committee that will oversee the process for selecting new board members. Prospective board members will attend an orientation/training session and complete a skill set inventory. The candidates which best fill the board vacancies based on a skills inventory will be nominated and elected by current board members to fill these vacancies. A three-year term length for governing board members will be set in the bylaws, and the expiration of individual terms will be staggered so that no more than two board members end their service at one time to prevent loss of foundational and institutional knowledge. The board will affirm renewals of consecutive terms. No board member shall serve more than three consecutive terms. Each board member will fill out, sign, and submit a Conflict of Interest Disclosure Statement on an annual basis. Handbooks will be provided to each new board member and will include a plan for rotation, succession, and transition as well as a clarification of roles of members of the board. No board member will be compensated for time served on the board, except as allowed for reasonable and actual expenses incurred in connection with performance of duties as necessary. The founding board will strategically transition to the governing board by carefully considering the skill sets of the founders based on skill set inventories. Those founders who wish to transition to the governing board may do so as long as the essential skill sets are covered. The founding directors will select the initial slate of governing board members based on the skills inventory and on covering the necessary skill sets for the governing board. Additional members for the governing board will be sought to satisfy the missing skill sets. Within the first year after East Atlanta Charter School has been approved by both the county and the state, the governing board will establish a clearly delegated strategic plan with a calendar of annual milestones. A calendar of major board decisions will be established during the first year of operations to show a timeline of all major activities of the year, including scheduled public board meetings. The founding board will meet the third Monday of every month. The governing board will continue that regular meeting schedule, which will be clearly communicated to all stakeholders. Protocol and policy will be established to ensure that all meetings are efficient and orderly and that all specified business is addressed. In accordance with the provisions of O.C.G.A. § 50-14-1, all meetings of the governing board will be open to the public unless a meeting meets the requirements mentioned in the law for a closed executive session. Any resolution, rule, regulation, or other official action adopted at a meeting which is not deemed open to the public will not be binding. Meeting locations, times, and dates will be posted in on the school’s website and in the school office in an area available to the public at least two weeks prior to any public meetings. The board will follow open meetings law for any special called or emergency meeting. Agendas and minutes for each open meeting will be made publically available on the school’s website. The board will set policy for an inclusive and transparent public comment process and will remind the public of the policy at each open meeting. In addition, East Atlanta Charter School will comply with all provisions of the Open Records Act (O.C.G.A. § 50-18-70), except in those

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cases where records are excluded by court order or by law are prohibited or specifically exempt from being open. All open records will be available for personal inspection by any citizen of the state of Georgia at a reasonable time and place and individuals in charge of those records cannot refuse this privilege to any citizen. Reasonable time, not to exceed three business days, shall be given to determine if requested records are considered open and to provide these open records to the requesting party. Upon request, records maintained by computer shall be made available where practical by electronic means. b.

Describe the governing board’s function, duties and role in the areas of budget, resource allocation, personnel decisions (primarily school leader selection, evaluation, and termination), establishing and monitoring the achievement of school improvement goals, curriculum and school operations.

Please find this information in complete detail in the Bylaws at Exhibit 16. c.

Please use the Governance matrix (found on the Charter School Division’s website) to illustrate the level of autonomy your Governing Board will have. Please note: This matrix will become part of your charter contract.

Charter School Governance Decision-Making Matrix East Atlanta Charter School (DeKalb): Personnel Decisions

Board Authority

Actual Board Authority and How and When it will be implemented

- Hire, support, manage, and assess the Principal. - Ensure that the Personnel Committee utilizes LKES leader keys to evaluate the school leader and leadership team. - Ensure ongoing professional development opportunities for the Principal. - Delegate management roles to the Principal. - Ratify all personnel decisions. - Ensure frequent and ongoing communication between the Board and the Principal, especially regarding the school’s educational and financial goals and personnel matters. - Develop a leadership succession plan. - Develop a grievance policy and act as an appeals board when necessary.

As soon as possible after approval of the charter, the Board will select a capable Principal. The Principal, with the advice and consent of the Board, will select initial staff. From that point forward, the Board will support the Principal and ensure that the leadership development and resources are available and adequate.

Financial Decisions & Resource Allocation

- Ensure responsible and ethical fiscal management of EACS assets. - Establish and monitor fiscal health indicators. - Hire an independent auditor. - Oversee the budget process and school investments. - Ensure effective organizational planning.

The Board holds all fiscal responsibility. Financial oversight will be shared by the full Board or a committee of the Board, but not by any individual member of the Board.

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Curriculum & Instruction Establishing & monitoring the achievement of school improvement goals

School Operations

d.

- Establish committees and delegate specific duties for proper resource allocation and management as necessary. - Develop a fundraising strategy and manage fundraising activities . - Select curriculum, including any changes in curriculum as needed to improve student achievement. - Hold Principal accountable for implementation and timeline of school improvement goals, evaluate success, and make revisions as needed. - Develop a curriculum and set measuring standards to ensure that the curriculum can satisfy school goals. - Ensure that the viability and effectiveness of the curriculum is monitored by a Board committee. - Develop an assessment structure and schedule. - Monitor local, state, and federal assessment scores and standards and EACS student performance against them . - Create bylaws for the Board and review them annually. - Create any policies which will impact the operation of the school. - Develop and implement a strategic plan. - Develop a viable and sustainable fiscal management plan. - Develop an engaging educational program. - Implement monitoring tools to measure student academic performance. - Ensure compliance with all legal and regulatory requirements. - Establish a fixed order of business for meetings to ensure that all appropriate business is discussed effectively.

The Board is responsible for ensuring that appropriate resources are available to meet the mission and goals of EACS. The Board will ensure that the Principal and faculty implement the selected curriculum and will oversee its ongoing use. The Board will work with school officials to ensure the improvement goals are met.

At least one day per quarter will be dedicated to review and discussion of the milestones of the strategic plan. Policies and bylaws will be established before the opening of the school and will be reviewed and edited once per calendar year. The board will establish an accountability plan to ensure that all fiscal, legal, and educational regulations and objectives are met.

Use this section to provide a narrative of your matrix, including anything in the matrix that requires further explanation or clarification.

As the governing body of East Atlanta Charter School, the board is not only charged with seeing the mission of the school fulfilled, but also holds the charter and is ultimately accountable for the school meeting and exceeding the goals as articulated herein. The board connects the school to the wider community, provides expertise to the organization, assists with fundraising, confers

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credibility on the school, oversees and supports the principal’s performance, and helps fulfill many governance functions including legal responsibilities, general oversight, planning and policy-making and fiduciary requirements. The board is legally and morally accountable for the health, vitality, and effectiveness of the school. Therefore, the board assures due diligence for the entire organization. e.

Describe your plan for ensuring that you maintain a diverse board with broad skillsets.

From our school’s origin as an idea developed by two mothers, one African American and one Caucasian, the founders of East Atlanta Charter School have been purposeful and intentional in recruiting Board members and advisors who are diverse in many senses, including but not limited to race, gender, socio-economic background, sexual orientation, linguistic background, and native country. What unites the Board is that each Board member offers substantial professional competency in a skillset that is necessary to our success, and each Board member is committed to the children of South DeKalb, with almost all members residing within the limits of the DeKalb County School District, and most of them within the McNair Cluster itself. The Board continues to seek to add new members to ensure that it reflects the demographics of the area and the needs and interests of the South DeKalb community. The founding board includes several lawyers, educators (both K-12 and university level), an accountant, multiple business owners, a federal government officer, and others, and the skills represented on the team are both broad and deep, from information technology to business consulting to grant writing to general fundraising to grassroots community activism. f.

Describe how and why governing board members may be removed.

Governing board members may resign by written notice to the board Chair or Vice Chair, with resignations being effective immediately or as outlined by the board member’s written notice. Governing board members will be expected to act in the best interests of the charter school. An individual governing board member may be removed for any reason including but not limited to the following as decided by the majority vote of the full governing board: absence from meetings without notice or just cause (the attendance record for each governing board member should be 75% or better, with anything lower being grounds for dismissal), not fulfilling duties as defined in the by-laws, not acting in accordance with the mission and vision statements of East Atlanta Charter School, and acting negligently or against the laws of the state of Georgia when representing East Atlanta Charter School. Please see the bylaws for complete information. g.

Georgia law now requires Charter Schools to provide initial training for newly approved charter school Governing Boards as well as annual governance training thereafter. Governance training should help build the capacity needed to make decisions in the above-mentioned areas. Trainers must be selected from a SBOE-approved list that ensures that the training covers certain SBOE requirements. Beyond those requirements, as a best practice, Charter Schools should also ensure that it selects a training program that covers areas of identified needs.

Upon approval of the petition, we will provide appropriate initial training for the entire governing Board, followed by annual governance training thereafter.

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h.

Describe your plan and timeline for securing a provider for your initial governance training as well as annual training thereafter. Include in this plan, areas of focus that are specific to your board and school. Provide a brief plan for continuous governance training, recruitment and retention of high quality governing board members.

As detailed in EACS’s bylaws and herein, the Nominating and Governance Committee is responsible for Board training. New directors will be identified by this committee in conjunction with the school community and encouraged to become involved in school governance through committee membership before being nominated for the Board. Once elected, the new director will be provided with an appropriate collection of best practices around board participation, information about the school and its mission, minutes from the most recent meetings, and other information helpful to new members. Each new director will meet with a member of the nominating committee to receive one-on-one training to support his or her effective participation on the Board. At its annual retreat, organized by the Vice Chair, the Board will initiate a self-evaluation process that will highlight key board priorities for the next year. Annual performance data provided by the principal that includes student assessment outcomes, staff and parental survey data, and key operational outcomes, will supplement this self-evaluation, providing a blueprint for the Nominating and Governance Committee’s training plan for the following year. Georgia State University’s Center for Urban Language Learning and Teaching has pledged to establish an agreement that one of the three CULTR Co-Directors will reside on the Board on a rotating basis allowing CULTR to provide ongoing professional advice and mentorship to the Board. Some founding board directors have participated in USDOE and Georgia Charter Schools Association webinars, and the Board Chair will make these opportunities available to all directors as they arise. Once this petition is approved, the Board will join the Georgia Charter Schools Association and avail themselves of their board training program. Additionally, the Board will consult with BoardOnTrack, a company that provides a guided program to optimize charter school boards. i.

Disclose any potential conflicts of interest and describe how the governing board will ensure that current and future board members avoid conflicts of interest.

EACS will continue to use the conflict of interest form required by DeKalb County and use this as a basis for evaluating areas of concern and conflict. As conflicts arise the standing board will evaluate the nature of and extent and work with a new potential board candidates, and jointly determine if these are insurmountable. If the conflict is for example financial in nature, EACS will provide guidelines for voting abstinence as necessary for a member. Evaluation of each board member, of available committees, and potential areas of conflict to prevent any exposure of liability will be the working goal of the board. EACS feels that full disclosure, an approach of regular governance training will allow for the board to maintain an active balance and diverse membership. j.

How will the governing board’s role uphold the school’s mission and vision? Please provide specific examples.

The governing board's role will uphold the school's mission and vision by using strategic thinking to develop intentional board practices that support a results-oriented approach to EACS's academic, fundraising, and organizational goals. As accomplished community leaders,

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our governing board members bring credibility to the school in the broader community and serve as its ambassadors. k.

How will the governing board evaluate the principal’s performance? This should include the assessment tool that will be used to determine effectiveness.

The Executive Committee is responsible for evaluating the principal annually. This committee will utilize a research-based rubric to measure teacher and principal effectiveness. l.

How will the governing board ensure effective organizational planning and financial stability? Please provide specific examples.

The board has developed a pragmatic budget poised for aggressive growth through grants, ensuring EACS's financial strength and sustainability. m.

How will parents, community members, or other interested parties be involved in the charter school’s governing board?

The governing board will have between five (5) and twenty (20) voting members available for community membership. There will also be non-voting advisory roles, and various committees which will provide options for parents and other parties to participate. The governing board will hold regular meetings open to the public, and encourage parental involvement and attendance where ever possible. n.

How will the school promote parental and staff involvement in school governance?

The school will promote a high functioning Parent Teacher Association to give parents an opportunity to actively participate in the governance of the school. This will help support classroom education and give more opportunities for both the teachers and parents to work towards a closer understanding and involvement in their students' and children's education. o.

How will the school communicate with students’ families?

The school will, in addition to sending notifications home with students as has been historical way teachers send notifications to parents and guardians, leverage technology to assist in providing clear and abundant communication with students' families. Items such as school activities, scheduled events, and plays will be available to parents via regular emails from the school, the school website, and appropriate social media. Homework assignments, and student performance or attendance related items will be made available to parents by way of the schools private and secured Learning Management System, Parent/Teacher classroom discussion boards, emails, or possibly via phone calls. The nature and extent may change as technologies grow but always with legal requirements (such as FERPA compliance) kept in mind. Please see III, 13, regarding our Goal to retain all students. 17. Grievance

s

a. What will be school leadership’s role in resolving teacher, parent and student grievances and other conflicts? Describe the rules and procedures concerning how the school will address grievances and complaints from students, parents, and teachers. The grievance policy should clearly articulate how individuals may present grievances, how those

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grievances will be reviewed, and who will undertake the task to review grievances, as well as the time frame for disposing of a grievance. Student/Parent Grievances Student/parent grievances will be addressed first at the school, with parents encouraged to communicate openly and frequently with staff through ongoing informal and formal measures initiated by the school. All parents will have access to each staff member’s email, and all emails will be responded to in a timely manner as a part of each staff member’s job requirement. Parents a re encouraged to visit the school site and all staff will make themselves available to confer with parents by appointment. If a parent is unable to resolve a grievance with the staff member or if the grievance involves school leadership, parents may schedule an appointment with the principal. An appointment to discuss a concern will be made promptly, and parents will be asked to communicate the nature of the concern and parties who should attend the conference when scheduling the appointment. Parents may bring representation to this appointment if they so desire. After the meeting with the principal, an official response (in print) to the grievance will be made by the principal within 5 business days. If the grievance is still unresolved after this step or if the grievance is with the board, parents will be able to contact the board chair to schedule an audience with the board. Upon communication of the grievance, the board chair will determine whether the grievance should be heard at the next regularly scheduled board meeting or in closed session before the next board meeting. Parents may also bring representation and/or witnesses to this appointment if they so desire. The board will make a decision regarding the grievance within 5 business days of the hearing, and the written decision will be submitted to the parents and any involved staff, as pertinent. The say of the board is considered the final say in the grievance. Staff Grievances Staff grievances will follow the same chain of command, starting with strong encouragement to resolve the grievance amongst the parties involved through informal measures. If the grievance cannot be resolved by the staff member’s manager, the matter will next be heard in a scheduled appointment with the principal. If the grievance is still unresolved after this step or if the grievance is with the board, the staff member will contact the board chair to schedule an audience with the board. Upon communication of the grievance, the board chair will determine whether the grievance should be heard at the next regularly scheduled board meeting or in closed session before the next board meeting. Staff members may also bring representation and/or witnesses to this appointment if they so desire. The board will make a decision regarding the grievance within 5 business days of the hearing, and the written decision will be submitted to the staff member and any other involved party, as pertinent. The say of the board is considered the final say in the grievance. General staff grievances will be aired and addressed through the two elected staff representatives on the board, who may be asked to recuse themselves from grievance hearings for other staff members. Under the whistleblower policy, staff members must report suspected fraud and dishonest conduct to the chair of the board or the chair of the board finance committee, who then have responsibility to investigate all reported violations.

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b. What will the governing board’s role be in resolving teacher, parent, and student grievances and other conflicts? This should include specific procedures and protocols for grievance resolution for each group. Describe the plan or method that the charter school’s governing board will utilize for resolving conflicts with the DeKalb County School District and/or Board of Education. Explain how conflicts will be addressed and resolved. Please see above. c. Describe the method that the governing board plans to utilize for resolving internal conflicts. The governing board will resolve internal conflicts by using good practices in managing conflict. The board will pay attention to good interpersonal communications, devoting time at the annual retreat to discuss good communication practices; operate with a strategic plan that helps to articulate goals, objectives, and outcomes that will reduce conflict over the meaning of the organizational mission, strategic choices, and priorities; keep clear the roles and responsibilities of individual directors and officers and the board’s role in relation to staff; receive professional development annual in conflict resolution at the annual meeting; establish a code of conduct for directors, setting rules on issues such as confidentiality, conflicts of interest, lobbying of fellow board members, and speaking with one voice; undergo annual performance evaluation; be mindful of gender and cultural differences; and celebrate agreements and new understandings in order to acknowledge the hard work that is involved in expressing and working through tough issues. 18. In the appendix, attach an official copy of the certificate of incorporation for the required Georgia nonprofit corporation from the Georgia Secretary of State, pursuant to O.C.G.A. § 20-22065(b)(4). The certificate of incorporation for East Atlanta Charter School, Inc., issued by the Georgia Secretary of State, can be found in the Appendix at Exhibit 18. 19. Provide a brief description for each governing board member that explains what role they will play on the board and why they were chosen to participate in the founding group. Attach the member résumés or curriculum vitas in the appendix. Governing board members were selected to comprise a balanced board of diverse skills that best benefit the founding and establishment of an organization. The founding board is comprised of: Loren Locke (Chair) practices immigration law at Seyfarth Shaw LLP. Loren previously served as diplomat in the U.S. Foreign Service, posted to the U.S. Consulate in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. A graduate of the University of Richmond and William & Mary Law School, Loren experienced a year of language immersion herself as a high school exchange student in Meaux, France, and in college she studied abroad in both Argentina and Ecuador. Having worked very hard to learn Spanish and French as an adolescent and adult, Loren is raising her two children to be bilingual in English and Spanish from early childhood. Mijha Butcher Godfrey (Vice Chair) attended Wellesley College, where she majored in Urban Studies and Spanish. Mijha completed her JD at Yale Law School. Mijha’s legal experience includes corporate finance, real estate, fair housing, and community development. Mijha has worked as an affordable housing developer at the Atlanta Neighborhood Development

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Partnership, Inc. (ANDP). Since childhood, Mijha has studied the progress of African-American rights from the nation’s beginnings through the civil rights movement and beyond. She has served on the board of Georgia WIN List and as the President of Young Democrats of Atlanta. Mijha is a member of the bar in New York, New Jersey and Georgia. She lives in South DeKalb County with her husband and young daughter. Josh Bennett (Treasurer) has been an accountant since 2010 and is currently employed by Turner Broadcasting in the international live programming department. Josh brings to the table a solid foundation and understanding of accounting principles as well as the desire to have his children and other children in the community immersed in an innovative dual language charter school. Due to his ties with CNN Español and the Spanish speaking community, which he deals with in his day to day operations, he sees great value in obtaining the skills to speak to others in many countries all over the world. Josh has a deep desire to help his community obtain the skills and education that is necessary for the children to have a bright future. Josh is very committed to his community and is more than willing to help in fundraising activities to ensure the future of our innovative charter school. Jean Wilson-Stayton (Secretary) is the current Student Support Coordinator at KIPP STRIVE Academy in southwest Atlanta. She has five years of charter school experience and has worked in a variety of instructional roles within the KIPP network. Jean originally entered education as a corps member in the 2010 Teach for America Atlanta Corps. Jean graduated Magna Cum Laude from Davidson College with a Bachelor of Arts degree. Jean first became interested in East Atlanta Charter School because her research has taught her that dual language immersion schools are an effective method of closing the achievement gap and leading to bilingual proficiency. Kennisha Davis is a graduate of Southern University A&M College, and she is pursuing a Master’s degree in Public Affairs. Kennisha has worked for the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services for more than 7 years as an Immigration Services Officer. She is a DeKalb county resident and mother of two. Through her work she came to understand the value of a bilingual and bicultural education. She has since made it her passion to provide her children and others with an education that equips them to succeed on a global scale. Nickolas Downey is founder and CEO of Nead Werx, Inc., an Atlanta software company. Nead Werx was named the 2012 Georgia Tech Cooperative Employer of the year, and was also named one Atlanta's top 45 best and brightest companies to work for that same year. Nick is a ruling elder at Oakhurst Presbyterian Church, an active member of the Atlanta Technology Angels, and sits on the Board of Directors of several Atlanta companies and nonprofit organizations. Nick graduated from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2002 with a Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering and lives in East Point with his wife Candi and their son. David Fuentes is the pastor of youth and families at Oakhurst Presbyterian Church in Decatur, Georgia. Prior to his work in the church, David worked for the Democratic Party of Georgia, where he was the top fundraiser for Grassroots Georgia two years in a row. He also worked as a campaign organizer. David has over ten years of experience working with youth and children in both the private and public sectors. He is drawn to Spanish immersion education because of his own Puerto Rican heritage. Jeremy Greenup has over eleven years’ experience as a human resources consultant in fields ranging from compensation, benefits, change management, and talent retention and evaluation. Prior to beginning his career in this field, he taught high school for three years in Japan and also

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taught at the undergraduate levels at Georgia State University and Georgia Perimeter College during his time as a graduate student. He has extensive non-profit board experience, having served on the Alumni Board of Oglethorpe University, as Board Treasurer for 50 Cents. Period and SPARK! Reproductive Justice Now and most recently as Board Secretary for Positive Impact Health Centers, one of the largest HIV/AIDS service clinics in the southeast. Dr. Jonathan T. Lyon is an associate professor of chemistry at Clayton State University. He received his BS in Chemistry at Michigan State University and his PhD in Chemistry at the University of Virginia. His doctoral thesis was titled “Infrared Spectroscopic and Theoretical Investigation of the Matrix-Isolated Reaction Products of Small Molecules with Laser-Ablated Transition and Actinide Metal Atoms.” Dr. Lyon was an Alexander von Humboldt Postdoctoral fellow at the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society in Berlin, Germany before joining the faculty at Clayton State University. He is the author of over 40 scholarly publications. Dr. Lyon resides in DeKalb County with this family. Ryan Locke is a trial attorney at Locke Law Firm LLC and an adjunct professor of law at Emory University School of Law. In law school at the University of Georgia, Ryan represented children with disabilities who were not receiving a free and appropriate public education through the Special Education Clinic. Ryan has represented immigrant children seeking asylum in South Texas and, while a public defender, children charged with delinquencies in the Fulton County Juvenile Court. He has served on the State Bar’s Juvenile Law Committee. Ryan performs extensive pro bono and volunteer work, including representing charter schools in transactional matters and coaching Southwest DeKalb High School’s mock trial team since 2011. He lives in DeKalb County with his wife and children. David Spake is an IT professional with over 25 years of progressive experience in IT management, systems, networking, and solution architecture. He has five years specific experience in IT in educational institutions as a project manager, application designer, and implementation specialist for curriculum solutions. During his career he has implemented several CRM, ERP, HR, and Networking solutions. He has established help desk systems and managed employees throughout all levels technology environments. David has won competitive RFP awards in Higher Education IT, and he led the coordination, writing and submission of these responses. A lifelong foreign language learner himself, David has also taught English as a Second Language (ESL) both privately and in classrooms in Japan. A resume for each director can be found in the Appendix at Exhibit 17. 20. In the appendix, please provide the proposed charter school’s bylaws, pursuant to O.C.G.A. § 20-2-2065(b)(4). (All petitions must provide a copy of the by-laws in final form; no drafts.) Bylaws must reflect the charter school’s mission and non-profit status and should include: a. The method by which the board will be elected or appointed and removed, as well as the term of office for each member. At each annual meeting of the Board of Directors, the Directors shall select a slate of candidates for each vacancy to be presented to the Board and a candidate shall be selected for each vacancy by simple majority vote of the Board. Each candidate is then affirmed for election by a confirmation vote from parents and legal guardians then enrolled at EACS and all full-time employees of EACS. Should a candidate not be confirmed, the Board shall select another candidate to be presented for a confirmation vote in the same manner. Should three candidates

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not be confirmed, the Board shall select from the three prior candidates or shall select a fourth candidate to serve the term for the vacancy by simple majority vote. A Director may resign by submitting his or her resignation in writing to the Chair of the Board of Directors. A Director may be removed for cause at a meeting of Directors by an affirmative vote of two-thirds of the remaining Board of Directors. Directors being considered for removal shall receive at least two weeks’ notice of such proposed action and shall have the opportunity to address the Board regarding such action prior to any vote on such removal. If a Director becomes an impediment to EACS’s mission by failing to perform the Director’s duties, failing to perform the Director’s duties adequately, being disruptive in meetings of the Board of Directors or taking an action, whether or not in the Director’s official capacity, that is inconsistent with these Bylaws or the organizational mission of EACS, any Director may request a vote for removal of such Director and a vote shall be placed on the agenda for the next regularly-scheduled meeting of the Board of Directors. The Chair may, but is not required to, meet informally with the Director in question to counsel the Director about his or her performance before a removal vote is taken. Any vote for removal must be taken in person. No vote for removal of a Director may be taken by consent of the Directors, by proxy, or by telephone. Directors shall be elected for three year terms. Terms shall be staggered so that no more than 1/3 of the Board shall be up for election in any year, unless a vacancy(ies) needs to be filled. Director membership shall be limited to three consecutive three-year terms. Previous Directors shall be re-eligible for membership after a lapse of one year. b. The number of members to serve on the board after the charter school is authorized (the minimum required by DCSD is five), and identify any seats reserved for specific constituents. The Board of Directors shall consist of not less than five and not more than twenty natural persons over the age of 18. The Principal, chair of the parent organization, and teacher representatives as selected by the Board shall be ex officio directors. One seat shall be reserved as a seat for a co-Director of the Georgia State University Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research, as outlined in their letter of support. c. The responsibility and authority of the board for the policy and operations of the charter school. The Board of Directors shall have all powers and authority, as designated in the Charter, for the management of the business, property, and affairs of EACS, to do such lawful acts as it deems proper and appropriate to promote the objectives and purposes of EACS. The Board of Directors may, by general resolution, delegate to committees or to officers of EACSs such powers as it may see fit for specified periods of time. d. A list of committees of the governing board (which must include, at minimum, an executive, finance, and education/accountability committee). Executive Committee: Composed of the elected officers and volunteer standing committee chairs. The Executive Committee may act with the full power of the Board of Directors between meetings of the Board. All actions must be recorded and reported to the Board. All matters of

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policy must be referred to the Board for ratification. Annually evaluate in writing the performance of the principal. Development Committee: Raise funds through an Annual Capital Campaign, and other related efforts, to supplement the per-pupil funding received from the DeKalb County Board of Education. Ensure that all fundraising at school is vetted through the development committee. Curriculum and Instruction: Oversee the school’s progress toward meeting its academic goals. Facilities: Oversee and address issues relating to the maintenance and operations of the facility or facilities. Finance Committee: Review and recommend the annual budget for Board approval. Monitor budget compliance, all financial expenditures, and revenues and other financial issues throughout the year. Recommend financial policies to the Board. Work with the Business Operations Manager, Principal, and other staff to establish financial goals and policies. The Financial Committee Chair will, in collaboration with the Principal and Business Manager, prepare and present a report on current financial and operational performance at each Board meeting. The Treasurer shall be the chair of the Finance Committee. Grievance Committee: the Board of Directors shall establish a Grievance Committee comprised of both parents and teachers to make non-binding recommendations to the Board of Directors concerning the disposition of complaints. The Grievance Committee shall have four members who will serve one year terms, with one member designated as chairperson the other committee members. Committee members shall be appointed each year at the first Board of Directors meeting following the annual meeting. Members may serve no more than two consecutive terms on the committee. Nominating and Governance Committee: Develop the Board policies, procedures, and training. Establish hiring, grievance, transfer, evaluation, and other personnel procedures. Provide support for the Principal in the implementation of these policies. Conduct, and report to the Board on, an annual performance review of the Principals. Announce openings, accept nominations for, review candidates, and make recommendation(s) to the full Board candidates for open Board positions. Obtain school community input on nominations prior to selecting and recommending Board members for election by the Board. The Vice Chair shall be the chair of the Nominating and Governance Committee. e. The calendar for board meetings, providing for a minimum of ten meetings per year. The Board will hold an annual meeting for the election of Directors and Officers and such other business as may come before the meeting shall be held in April of each year. Written notice shall be given not less than 30 days nor more than 60 days of the time, place, and purposes of the meeting. The meeting shall be held at the principal location of EACS or such other place as shall be specified in the meeting notice. In addition to the Annual Meeting, Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be according to a calendar adopted at the annual meeting, except in the month of the Annual Meeting, and at such other times as the Board may, from time to time, determine. The Board must hold a minimum of ten meetings per year. Timely public notice of all such regular meetings shall be provided.

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f.

A list of the quorum and voting requirements for board meetings and committees.

A simple majority of the full number of Directors shall constitute a quorum of the Board for the transaction of business. When a quorum is present, a majority of the Directors present may take any action on behalf of the Board, except to the extent that a larger number is required by law, by the Charter, or by the Bylaws. Every act of a majority of the Directors present at a meeting duly held at which a quorum is present shall be regarded as the act of the Board of Directors. As described above, certain members of the Board will be ex officio and have no vote. Please find a copy of the bylaws at Exhibit 16. 21. A conflict of interest is generally defined as a situation in which someone has differing or competing professional, monetary or personal interests. Any potential conflicts of interest of the founding governing board members must be disclosed. Provide the complete and signed conflict of interest form for each proposed founding board member, located at the end of these Guidelines. This form must be included in the petition appendices and completed by each founding and/or governing board member. Please see the attached conflicts of interest forms completed by each Board member at Exhibit 19. V. CONTRACTS WITH EDUCATIONAL SERVICE PROVIDERS OR OTHER CHARTER PARTNERS 22. Does the charter school intend to contract, or has the school contracted, with an education service provider (ESP) or other charter partner, to provide management or consulting services? If so, please complete this section and include a signed, operationalized agreement submitted as an exhibit. No. a. Describe how the arrangement will be in the best educational and financial interests of the charter school. N/A b. Describe other education service providers or charter partners that were considered and the reasons this ESP or partner was selected above all others. How and why was EMO/CMO company chosen, selected? N/A c. Describe the history of the ESP or partner selected, including academic results, closures, non-renewals and separations. N/A d. Describe how the contract was negotiated. N/A e. Briefly describe the range of services the education service provider or partner will provide for the school. To what extent will the educational management company

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N/A f. N/A

participate in the management of the school? Please describe all educational and noneducational services to be provided by any educational management company or forprofit entity with which the charter school will contract. Describe how the governing board will monitor and assess the performance of the management organization.

g. What are the requirements to terminate the contractual relationship and how would terminating the relationship affect the school’s ability to continue its operations? N/A h. Describe the reporting and organizational structure of the school in regard to the governing board, school administration and educational management company in relation to the governance and management of the school. Clearly delineate which positions are employees of the [EMO/CMO] and which persons or positions are employees of the charter. Please see the organizational structure diagrams in the Appendix. Note that there will be no educational management company involved. i. N/A j. N/A

In the Appendix, provide the latest annual report for the educational management company, including audited financial statements, if available. In the Appendix, provide the educational management contract with all applicable signatures and dates of execution.

k. Is the EMO/CMO charging a fee for their services? If yes, this description should include the nature, duration, and cost of service commitments. N/A l. N/A

Please submit a list of all owners, directors and officers of the [EMO/CMO].

m. Please submit the name, address and telephone number of the legal representative and the accounting firm for the [EMO/CMO]. N/A n. In the appendix, provide references from previous schools managed by the [EMO/CMO], including academic success of students by grade and program measured by test scores and external financial audits for each school managed (both those currently opened and those that have closed) within the last three years. If the company has managed schools in the state of Georgia which have closed, the reasons for its closing should be offered. (If the company has a history of closures across the nation, please explain.) N/A o. A description of the [EMO/CMO]’s partnerships with any other charter schools, public schools, or private schools. If applicable, please provide a list of all schools managed or

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N/A

Serviced in the last five years (including those no longer in operation). Indicate the location and grade levels served of those schools.

p. Is the charter school leasing, lease-purchasing or engaging in any other property or financing relationships with the [EMO/CMO]? Is so, please provide the statement in the petition that lease, lease-purchase, or financing transactions will be separately documented and not a part of or incorporated into the [EMO/CMO]-charter school agreement. N/A 23. List any proposed business arrangements or partnerships with existing schools, educational programs, businesses, or nonprofit organizations (excluding those relationships discussed in previous section). a. Contact information for a representative of each business and/or partnership listed should be provided. We have partnered with Georgia State University’s Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research (CULTR). CULTR is a Title VI Language Resource Center of the U.S. Department of Education. A U.S. Department of Education Language Resource Center (“LRC”), CULTR is one of only 16 university-based centers in the country supported by federal grants under Title VI of the Higher Education Act. Together, these 16 LRCs make up a national network of resources to promote the teaching and learning of foreign languages by creating language learning and teaching materials, offering professional development opportunities for teachers and instructors, and conducting research on foreign language learning. Founded in 2014 and based at Georgia State University, CULTR is a partnership of the Departments of Modern and Classical Languages and the Department of Applied Linguistics/ESL in the College of Arts and Sciences and the Division of Learning Technologies in the College of Education, in collaboration with the Center for Instructional Innovation. CULTR endeavors to enhance the opportunities of urban and underrepresented students to achieve the language proficiency and cultural competence required for success in the modern global marketplace. Through a variety of initiatives that support research into world language teaching and learning, the development and dissemination of innovative language methodologies and technologies, and through the provision of professional support for language instructors, the mission of CULTR is to promote and improve access to language learning opportunities and global awareness for all learners, opening opportunities for urban students to explore and envision global careers in cultural diplomacy, national security, international business, public health, or the sciences. Dr. William Nichols, one of three Co-Directors of CULTR, has submitted a letter of support (see Exhibit 8), stating in part: “Given our purpose of enhancing opportunities for urban and under-‐represented students, CULTR recognizes the potential for a powerful, longstanding partnership with East Atlanta Charter School, which will serve a predominately minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged student population. Given its proximity to GSU and the fact that we can be involved from the very inception of the school,

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we are particularly well positioned to establish this important collaboration.” In addition to the relationship we have forged with CULTR, we have also developed relationships with other educational institutions, including the Atlanta International School, The Language Garden (a Spanish immersion preschool), the Georgia Bar Association, and several small and medium-size local businesses, including Nead Werx, the Locke Law Firm LLC, Project Locker, Red Tile Roof Studio, and WonderHealth, LLC. Each of these stands to enrich our students’ educational experience. b. Disclose any potential conflicts of interest within each arrangement or partnership. We have not identified any conflicts of interest with these partnerships. c. Include a copy of any actual or intended contract with each arrangement or partnership in the Appendix. Please see the letters of support in the Appendix at Exhibits 8 and 21. VI. FINANCIAL OBJECTIVES, PLANS, AND WAIVERS 24.

State the school’s Financial Goals and Measures. a. School financial performance objectives should reflect where the school envisions itself financially at the end of the charter term. b. Objectives should emphasize fiscal health and sustainability. c. Describe the school’s plans for fiscal management; and specify how the school will manage budgets and expenditures. d. Use the spreadsheets provided by GADOE, which list detailed budget information projecting revenues and expenditures for the first five years of the proposed charter term. If any sources of revenue appearing in the spreadsheets are anticipated to come from private sources, documentation of such revenues must be included along with the petition. Include a budget that complies with O.C.G.A § 20-2-171. Please find projected revenues and expenditures for the first five years of the proposed charter term in the Appendix. e. Identify the school’s Chief Financial Officer and describe how that person’s credentials comply with the Guidance for Georgia State Board of Education Rule 160-4-9-.04 for the purpose of developing and adhering to generally accepted accounting principles. The founding board will work with the school principal to recruit, retain, and develop a schoolsite business operations manager who will act as the organizational CFO upon hire. This person, at a minimum, will have credentials that comply with the guidance from the Georgia State Board of Education Rule 160-4-9-.04 and will begin his work in the planning year on a stipend-basis. Candidates with experience managing the finances of charter schools, in particular, will be given preference. Relationships such as those built with GSU and other support entities have already

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been formed to ensure the business/operations manager has the training and support necessary to successfully manage the school’s finances under the guidance of the school principal and board. Josh Bennett, founding treasurer and finance committee chair, will serve as the interim CFO in the planning year until the business operations manager is hired. Please find his resume in the Appendix at Exhibit 17. f.

Identify the representatives of the school who will be responsible for the financial management of the charter, and describe plans to procure and maintain during the entire length of the charter a Crime/Fidelity Bond covering all persons receiving or disbursing funds. The DCSD required bond amount is $1 million.

As described above, Josh Bennett will serve as the interim CFO in the planning year. Additionally, the Finance Committee will review and recommend the annual budget for Board approval; monitor budget compliance, all financial expenditures, and revenues and other financial issues throughout the year; recommend financial policies to the Board; and work with the Business Operations Manager, Principal, and other staff to establish financial goals and policies. East Atlanta Charter School will maintain a crime/fidelity bond, which covers all persons receiving or disbursing funds. This policy, which will be insured up to $1 million, will be maintained during the length of the charter term, and evidence of such coverage will be submitted annually to the DeKalb County School Board. 25. What specific actions will the school take to achieve the financial performance objectives? a. Describe the financial innovations that will be implemented during the proposed charter term. We plan to follow the budget outlined in Exhibit 22, supplemented by the results of fundraising and grants we secure. b. Provide a clear explanation of how the innovations will increase financial effectiveness. Our budget is designed to balance without any charitable contributions or grant funding. This has been achieved through designing an efficient and lean organizational structure. Over the five years of the initial charter, we are poised for aggressive growth through our partnership with GSU CULTR. c. Describe why the innovations are appropriate for this unique school. We have structured our budget and our school model to function without charitable donations, but through our community partnerships, we have the expertise necessary to execute effective research-based immersion language education. 26.

Fundraising or Other Sources of Income a. Please describe in detail the school’s plans for securing other sources of funding. This plan should demonstrate financial independence from the school district by using state

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and local funds and a feasible plan to supplement those funds with other funding sources on a yearly basis as required. Our Governing Board includes several members with deep experience in fundraising and grant writing. Our submitted budget does not rely on grant funding, but it is our intention to pursue grants. b. Describe any planned fundraising efforts and who will lead and coordinate these efforts. Because there is no guarantee that these funds will be awarded, you must describe how your school would remain solvent if you do not receive these funds. The Governing Board will include several people with deep experience in both fundraising and grant writing, including David Fuentes and Dr. Jonathan Lyon. One element of our partnership with GSU’s CULTR will be receiving their assistance in identifying and applying for appropriate grant funding. A representative sample of organizations that may award us grants are as follows: Scott B. & Annie P. Charitable Trust This organization gives on a national basis, with some emphasis on elementary education in Georgia. In 2013, this organization gave $188,750. The Boeing Company Global Corporate Citizenship This organization gives on an international basis in areas of company operations, including Georgia, with emphasis on early childhood and elementary education. In 2013, this organization gave $1,200,000. Jack and Anne Glenn Charitable Foundation Grant This organization gives primarily in Atlanta, Georgia, with emphasis in elementary education. In 2013, this organization gave $478,665. Regions Financial Corporation Contributions Program This organization gives in the 23-county metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia, with emphasis in elementary education. This organization offers curriculum development, employee volunteer services, general and operating support, and program development. The Olivia R. Gardner Foundation, Inc. This organization gives primarily in Florida and Georgia in the areas of education and human services. In 2013, this organization gave $168,000. Mills Bee Lane Memorial Foundation This organization gives primarily in Georgia and Charleston, South Carolina, with some emphasis in elementary education. In 2013, this organization gave $404,647. The Ray M. and Mary Elizabeth Lee Foundation, Inc.

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This organization limits their giving to the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia area, with some emphasis in the areas of children and elementary education. In 2013, this organization gave $365,600. The Howard & Marcia Owens Charitable Trust This organization gives primarily in Georgia and New York with some emphasis in the areas of community development and elementary education. In 2013, this organization gave $126,000. Piedmont Charitable Foundation, Inc. This organization gives primarily in Virginia and Georgia with some emphasis in elementary education. In 2013, this organization gave $214,500. Robert B. Woodruff Foundation, Inc. This organization limits their giving to Georgia, with an emphasis on the metropolitan Atlanta area, with some emphasis in elementary education. In 2013, this organization gave $155,816,887. Because our proposed budget is balanced without any grant funding, we expect EACS to remain solvent without grant funding. c. Independent private funding sources that have been secured must be evidenced through a letter of intent, commitment letters, and/or loan agreements from the funder may be included as an Appendix item. We have not yet sought to secure independent private funding sources. d. If established, provide evidence of your organization’s federal tax-exempt status in the Appendix. Our federal tax-exempt status is forthcoming. 27. Which of the specific actions in the financial plan require a waiver of state law, rule, or guidelines? a. Although you will be granted a broad flexibility waiver if you are granted a charter, please provide examples of a significant component of your financial plan for which you need a waiver – and the waivers that are required to allow the implementation of that component. Expenditure Funds – O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-167 and Minimum Direct Classroom Expenditures--O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-171 As a public charter school, EACS’s model is that of flexible and innovative use of per-pupil and philanthropic funding. EACS will have flexible groupings of students, individualized curricula, educational partners and philanthropic donors. EACS will need the ability to utilize resources in a manner to best serve its students. Contracts for Purchases— O.C.G.A. Section 20-2-500, 20-2-501, 20-2-503

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EACS seeks to waive requirements relating to purchases as it seeks to retain maximum flexibility to allow school leadership to make purchasing decisions in the best interest of the student body. Purchasing protocols ensure that vendor contracts are competitive and the best use of resources for the school. DJE-R(1) Purchasing EACS will develop its own policies related to purchasing and use of school funds and requires flexibility to ensure that all purchases are approved and for the best interest of students of EACS. DJC-R Payroll Procedures As a public charter school, EACS will employ its own staff and thus will not utilize the payroll procedures outlined by the county. O.C.G.A. § 20-2-140 through 20-2-149 Competencies and Core Curriculum. East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver for these sections to the extent it requires specific curricula, sequencing of curricula, or a method of delivering curriculum that is inconsistent with East Atlanta Charter School’s educational program. However, East Atlanta Charter School will incorporate all components of the Georgia Performance Standards and the Common Core curriculum in every year of our charter. Students will also participate in mandatory state assessments. This waiver will help East Atlanta Charter School achieve its performance goals by ensuring that the sequencing and delivery of East Atlanta Charter School’s Spanish language immersion curriculum are not hampered by any inconsistent regulations. This waiver is especially important for the first years of enrollment as East Atlanta Charter School invests in building the students’ Spanish language proficiency foundation. O.C.G.A. § 20-2-156 Program for limited-English-proficient students. East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver of this section only to the extent it requires specific curricula, sequencing of curricula, or a method of delivering curriculum that is inconsistent with East Atlanta Charter School’s language immersion model of providing services to ELL students. This waiver will help East Atlanta Charter School achieve its performance goals by not requiring redundancy in approved instructional delivery models used by East Atlanta Charter School. However, in educating all children including limited-English-proficient students, East Atlanta Charter School, as is stated throughout our charter, will adhere to State curriculum standards. O.C.G.A. § 20-2-1010 through 20-2-1015 State Board to prescribe textbooks. East Atlanta Charter School seeks a waiver from these sections to the extent that East Atlanta Charter School will use instructional materials in Spanish and it is unlikely that such textbooks will have been evaluated by the Georgia State Board of Education. This waiver will allow East Atlanta Charter School to achieve its mission by using instructional materials that help teachers provide instruction in line with state standards and the CCGPS curriculum, but that may not have been evaluated by the State Board as the instructional materials may be used in different countries and printed in Spanish.

VII.

STUDENT ADMISSIONS

28.

How will students be admitted to the charter school?

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a. What is the school’s attendance zone? Please describe or provide a map which indicates your targeted attendance zone. East Atlanta Charter School will be open to all students who live within the DeKalb County School District, with first priority given to those who live within the area served by McNair High School (the “McNair Cluster”), as this zone is defined by the DeKalb County School District in any given year. The school's two-tiered attendance district will give priority to children who live in the McNair Cluster for several reasons: Giving admission priority to children in the immediate area over those in other parts of the school district helps the school remain financially responsible, promotes racial and socioeconomic integration, and upholds our mission to develop a community school that serves the local community. An overwhelming majority of students currently attending any school in the McNair Cluster face financial hardship, as measured by Free & Reduced Lunch program participation of approximately 98%. Families who are socioeconomically disadvantaged may be particularly unlikely and unable to take advantage of distant school choice programs, such as the very successful charter schools located in the northern and northwestern parts of the school district. We do not want East Atlanta Charter School to exist geographically within easy reach of McNair Cluster families, while its popularity grows so much that most local children are excluded by the lottery from attending. We especially abhor the idea of becoming a school for a relatively wealthy and mobile population of students who are able to trek across the county to attend, while McNair Cluster children of more modest means are excluded from the closest high-performing school. By allocating all spaces first to local children, we maximize the chance of all McNair Cluster families to be able to take advantage of this school. With the imminent relocation of the DeKalb Elementary School of the Arts in 2016, the McNair Cluster faces an immediate future in which features no high-performing school. By increasing the chance of admission for McNair Cluster children, we will promote neighborhood stability; more local families will stay put, knowing that sending their child to EACS is a realistic possibility. As EACS grows and becomes a fixture of the community, we expect its existence to have a positive impact on the other McNair Cluster elementary schools, just as the Atlanta Public School District has seen in the communities surrounding the very successful Drew Charter School and Atlanta Neighborhood Charter School. Secondly, giving first priority to McNair Cluster students makes it feasible to provide bus transportation. We intend to provide free school bus service to all students who reside in the McNair Cluster more than 1.5 miles from the school. While we will admit students living outside the McNair Cluster as space allows, we will not be able to afford to transport a handful of children scattered across the county in Dunwoody, Lithonia, Stone Mountain, Tucker, and everywhere in between. It would be an irresponsible use of our limited funds to spend excessively on transit over an area stretching several hundred square miles. In comparison, servicing the relatively compact McNair Cluster will be much less expensive. Third, the families who live nearest to the school will be the most able and the most likely to participate fully in the life of the school. We believe that living in close proximity will not only foster a high attendance rate and reduce tardiness among our student body, it will also enable families and friends to have access to our school to attend special events, such as student theatrical presentations or academic competitions, or for parents and guardians to attend parent-teacher conferences or adult academic enrichment opportunities that we plan to offer once grant funding is in place (such as GED classes or introductory Spanish instruction). Proximity will also increase the ability of more EACS families to volunteer regularly in the school.

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Additionally, living nearby will greatly increase the ability of EACS students to participate in the optional summer and vacation programming that we intend to offer to promote our students’ maintenance of their academic skills and Spanish proficiency over the school's breaks. This summer and vacation programming will be particularly valuable to the success of students joining EACS in later grades who may enter with severe academic deficits and little to no prior exposure to the Spanish language. Finally, we intend to vertically integrate with McNair Middle School and McNair High School. Specifically, we intend to partner with both schools to ensure that they each have an advanced Spanish Language Arts program suitable for East Atlanta Charter School students who are highly proficient in Spanish. If EACS students were to disperse after fifth grade to fifteen different middle schools, it would be much less likely that any of them would land in schools that are prepared to continue developing their advanced Spanish skills. Such students would then risk a drop in their proficiency. Also, though our fifth graders will be fluent in Spanish, they will still be 11-year-old children. Just like their English reading and writing skills will still be developing and will still have vast potential for improvement, their Spanish skills will likewise greatly benefit from additional immersion education or other high-level Spanish instruction appropriate for their age and level of proficiency. In DCSD’s 2015-2016 Memorandum of Understanding about immersion education, it outlines future considerations for children who complete a K-5 immersion program, such as the three programs DCSD created in 2013 at Ashford Park Elementary (German); Evansdale Elementary (French); and Rockbridge Elementary (French). DCSD has committed to provide these immersion students with ongoing second language education at the middle school level. Specifically, it offers one content course in the target language, and a second course in advanced language study. At the high school level, these students will complete the appropriate Advanced Placement Examination(s) in ninth grade, and continue on to advanced language student through blended learning offered at colleges and universities. Some may elect to pursue study of a new foreign language. We expect DCSD to extend its support of immersion students to those who complete EACS’s academic program. Given the existence of Common Core Spanish Language Arts academic standards and affiliated curricula and materials, and given how common it is to offer Spanish classes to middle and high school students in DeKalb, it will be relatively easy to provide appropriate Spanish language education to our highly proficient students once they reach middle and high school. In addition to increasing their access to appropriate ongoing Spanish language learning, we believe that when the majority of EACS children move on together to one middle school, it will be beneficial for their social adjustment as they transition into adolescence. McNair Cluster children are at grave risk of dropping out of high school, and we believe that the interpersonal relationships that EACS students will develop with each other in elementary school can help sustain them through the challenging teenage years, keep them engaged in school, and promote their long-term success. In contrast, if EACS children were to scatter across the whole county after fifth grade, each one would have to start over in developing friendships and figuring out their place in an entirely new community of students. The prospect of EACS fifth graders matriculating as a group into McNair Middle School may also increase the likelihood among some parents who reside in the McNair Cluster to utilize the local public school option when they may otherwise have chosen a private school, a far-flung “school of choice” elsewhere in the school district, or even relocation. In particular, we expect the creation of East Atlanta Charter School to encourage middle class and racially diverse families to participate in the local public schools of the McNair Cluster. This impression has been developed over the course of conversations with dozens of local families who support the creation of East Atlanta Charter School.

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After the EACS students have completed their middle school years at McNair Middle School, McNair High School is the ideal secondary program for them. With its dual focus on college and career readiness, McNair High School prepares students for long-term success in life. It defines “college ready” as prepared for any postsecondary experience (certificate, license, or university degree), without need for any academic remediation. “Career ready” means prepared to earn a family-sustaining wage, with the academic and soft skills to qualify for and succeed in any chosen career. McNair’s interest-based programs are being developed to meet industry standards and prepare McNair graduates to join the 21st century workforce. At this point, McNair High School is exploring proposed pathways in a variety of fields expected to grow and produce jobs in the coming years, such as audio and video technology and film; hospitality, recreation, and tourism; law enforcement; and health support professionals. McNair students who pursue any of these proposed pathways would benefit enormously from the proficiency in Spanish that they would already have developed at East Atlanta Charter School as elementary students. Combining proficiency in Spanish with extensive career preparation and solid academics will produce high school graduates with an admirable slate of skills and limitless academic and professional opportunities. The EACS-McNair pipeline could become a success admired and imitated across the state. b. Please state the following enrollment priorities that apply, pursuant to O.C.G.A. § 20-22066(a)(1), in the rank order the school will use them. If the school will not utilize any enrollment priorities, please leave this section blank. i. A sibling of a student enrolled in the start-up charter school ii. A sibling of a student enrolled in another local school designated in the charter iii. A student whose parent or guardian is a member of the governing board of the charter school or is a full-time teacher, professional, or other employee at the charter school iv. Students matriculating from a local school designated in the charter East Atlanta Charter School will also utilize the following enrollment priorities, in the following order: 1. A sibling of a student enrolled in the start-up charter school. 2. A student whose parent or guardian is a member of the governing board of the charter school or is a full-time teacher, professional, or other employee at the charter school. Admitting siblings of current EACS students will heighten the family’s investment in their children’s experience at East Atlanta Charter School, which will promote our goal of student retention. Siblings will also have an increased opportunity to use Spanish outside of the classroom, compared to students who do not have much access to other Spanish speakers outside of school. Children of full-time employees or governing board members will also have priority enrollment, in order to heighten the appeal of working at EACS or serving on its governing board. It is a long-term priority to attract and retain excellent staff and to fill the governing board with highly competent, skilled professionals who are invested in the success of the school. c. Describe the rules and procedures that will govern admission and registration. Please include the school’s admissions policy for potential students that are equitable, nondiscriminatory, and will ensure that the student populations will reflect diversity. Please note that “enrollment priorities”, “admission” and “registration” are different concepts. To avoid confusion the GADOE recommends the following:

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i. ii. iii.

“enrollment priorities” describe those students granted priority pursuant to O.C.G.A. § 20-2-2066(a)(1); "admission" describes pre-lottery processes and forms; and "registration" describes post-lottery processes and forms after the student has been offered a seat at the school through enrollment priorities or the lottery process.

There are no prerequisites for admission to East Atlanta Charter School. All students who are eligible to attend DCSD schools are eligible to apply. Priority enrollment will be given to McNair Cluster students as described above, and if demand exceeds the school’s capacity, students will be admitted by random lottery (or on a first-come, first-served basis if the number of applicants by the lottery date is fewer than the number of available seats). No tuition will be charged. No enrollment information will be required until after students have been selected in the lottery. Please see the admissions application in the Appendix. EACS will admit students via lottery conducted in February at the close of the open enrollment period. We will randomly select from the pool of students who have submitted the application form. This period will open January 1 of each year and close at a pre-determined date in mid-February annually. When possible, the enrollment period will be aligned to other DCSD schools of choice to make enrollment calendars and requirements clear and consistent for parents throughout the district. Admitted students and their families will be invited to informational sessions and school visits to learn more about our unique whole-school Spanish-English dual language immersion program. We will encourage each parent or guardian to sign an optional statement of commitment to immersion education, in which they commit to send their child to EACS through the fifth grade; agree to participate in educational activities which will support the educational program; and commit to provide a home environment and opportunities beyond the school date that reinforce the language goals of the program. This parent commitment is aligned with DCSD’s 2015-2016 Memorandum of Understanding for immersion education (see Exhibit 2). d. Describe procedures for situations if student applications for admissions exceed

available space, including the following: i. The precise manner in which the lottery will be conducted and by whom; ii. Measures to ensure that the admissions process adheres to legal requirements; and the procedures for wait-listing students who are not included in the first round of lottery offers.

East Atlanta Charter School will enroll students as follows: Returning students and their siblings, children of full-time employees, and children of board members are pre-enrolled. The pre-enrollment period ends at the beginning of February. Following the pre-enrollment period, offers of admission will be made in the following order for each grade level: 1. Students residing in the area zoned for McNair High School; then 2. Students residing in DeKalb County School District. If there are more applicants than the number of spaces available for a grade level, spaces remaining in each class after the pre-enrollment period will be awarded on the basis of a public lottery. Each applicant will be assigned an ID number, and those ID numbers will be selected at random in a public lottery administered by the Secretary of the Board of Directors or the Board’s designee. Two waiting lists will be formed if the number of applicants exceeds the number of

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available spaces, one list for students residing in the area zoned for McNair High School and the second list for students residing in DeKalb County School District. Students who decline an offer of admission may remain on the waiting list in their present position for a period of 12 months from the date of the original offer of admission. They will be listed as “inactive” on the waiting list and it will be the responsibility of the parent or guardian of that student to inform the school, in writing, to return to “active” status. As additional openings arise, enrollment will continue from the active waiting list in the order of the applicant’s lottery numbers, beginning with the first list and, after exhausting that list, continuing to the second list. If at any point in the year the waiting list is depleted and the school determines it has enrollment openings, then a new one-month enrollment period will be declared. Siblings, students of fulltime employees, and students of governing board members will be placed at the front of the waiting list if a waiting list exists, except not before any other sibling, student of a full-time employee, or a student of a governing board member. All families must annually submit required enrollment documentation and proof of residency documentation. e. How will the charter school reach students representative of the racial and socioeconomic diversity in the school system? East Atlanta Charter School will foster racial and socioeconomic diversity by focusing intensively on recruiting throughout the McNair Cluster. We will visit preschool programs, set up booths at community events, and seek to send representatives to public community gatherings such as neighborhood association and church meetings. We plan to set up informational tables outside of popular destinations in the McNair Cluster, such as the Gresham Walmart or the Gresham Library, to maximize awareness of our school and answer questions on the spot. Please see Exhibit 23 for more information about the McNair Cluster of schools and its student population. We will also maintain a robust online presence, which has already begun with our website www.EastAtlantaCharterSchool.com, our Facebook page, and our email list. We will liaise with partners such as the Friends of South DeKalb Schools, the East Atlanta Community Association, and the South DeKalb Parent Network to inform and communicate with McNair Cluster families about the opportunity to attend East Atlanta Charter School Based on the high turnout at our public meetings during the pre-petition phase, we are confident that EACS is a model with broad appeal. Our meetings have attracted eclectic crowds, diverse in many senses. We believe that East Atlanta Charter School will offer all of its students the opportunity to learn alongside a diverse group of peers. For example, we expect the student body to be racially diverse, with large numbers of African American and white students, and to also include children of other racial backgrounds; to include children of a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds, hailing from a variety of family structures including one- and twoparent homes, kin or foster homes, and same-sex parent homes. We expect EACS parents to range widely in age from early 20s to the 50s, and we expect them to represent the gamut in educational attainment, from high school dropouts to Ph.D.s. During our efforts to raise public awareness of EACS, we have also heard from a number of families who are currently raising their children to speak Spanish, whether as the family’s heritage language, or through programs such as language-immersion daycare or preschool, including East Atlanta’s Language Garden Preschool. We will also strive to attract families from the small but growing Latino population of the McNair Cluster. Our dual language immersion model is equally suitable for English Language

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Learners as it is for Spanish Language Learners. Furthermore, it will be enormously valuable for our English-background students to learn from peers who are native speakers of Spanish. For Latino families, enrolling their children EACS will ensure that the youngest generation develops advanced Spanish literacy. EACS children will learn not only familiar Spanish appropriate for family and casual settings, but also professional, formal Spanish that will ultimately help them secure employment in professional settings that require Spanish-English bilingualism. Thus, even children who already speak Spanish fluently at home stand to benefit greatly from our Spanish program. The McNair Cluster student body in 2015 is not particularly diverse. At this time, the student body is close to 100% African American, and approximately 98% participate in the Free and Reduced Lunch program. We expect East Atlanta Charter School to have a majority of African American students. At the same time, based on the feedback we have received from the public thus far, and based on the demographics of the general population of the immediate area (not just of the children currently attending the public schools), we believe that there will also be a significant number of white and multiracial student at EACS. We believe that all students are enriched by the opportunity to learn alongside students of various races, and that there is no place for racially segregated schools in the 21st century. f.

How does the school plan to recruit students and maintain/increase enrollment? Please include an enrollment application in the appendix.

We will recruit students using the methods described above. Given our dual language immersion model, class sizes will not grow larger from year to year. Rather, we will focus on retaining our kindergartners all the way through fifth grade. We will admit new students into any spots vacated through attrition, but we will focus on starting each academic year with full classes of kindergarten and first grade students. Please find our enrollment application in the Appendix at Exhibit 24. g. Attach the charter school’s proposed annual calendar and a draft of the charter school’s daily school schedule. We intend to follow the academic calendar established by DCSD each year. Doing so will be the most helpful option for EACS families who may have younger and older students attending other DCSD schools. We will also follow DCSD’s weather-related closures. However, we do not intend to follow DCSD’s designation for “Half Student Days, Teacher Full Day.” Both students and teachers will have a normal full day on days that DCSD has designated as Half Student Days. (Exhibit 25.) Our daily school schedule is what is sometimes known in the immersion education field as the “roller coaster.” In order to divide their time evenly between Spanish and English, each class will rotate each day, around lunch time, to the other language. Since lunchtime is not at the exact midpoint of the day, and in order to keep their instructions time divided evenly between Spanish and English, each classroom will start one day in one language, followed by the afternoon in the other language, and then the following day, the order will switch. Thus, Classroom 1 would start Monday morning in Spanish with Señora Garcia. After lunch, they would go to Ms. Jones’s classroom and study in English for the rest of the day. On Tuesday, they would start out with Ms. Jones, later returning to Señora Garcia after lunch. While Classroom 1 is with one teacher, the partner teacher is teaching another cohort of the same grade level in Classroom 2. (Exhibit 26.)

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Compared to a simpler A Day/B Day model, the “roller coaster” has the benefit of exposing each child to Spanish every single school day. In the A Day/B Day model, each child routinely has a span of three days each week in which they may have no Spanish input (the weekend plus Friday or Monday). Rotating morning and afternoon also ensures that scheduling that affects the school day does not destroy the 50/50 balance. If the children of Classroom 1 go to music every Monday afternoon, half of the weeks, this would occur during their Spanish block of time. The other half of the time, it would occur during the English block. For children regularly taken from the general class for special education or gifted instruction, again, the “roller coaster” will ensure that they do not miss out disproportionately on one language over the other. East Atlanta Charter School’s daily schedule is also designed explicitly to allow teachers ample time to plan collaboratively. Each grade will have four classrooms, and each classroom will be assigned two teachers (one English, one Spanish). Thus, each teacher will have a partner teacher that shares responsibility for the same two classrooms of children. As these teachers switch places with each other each day, they will need to coordinate carefully to ensure continuity of instruction. Each teacher will be expected to communicate daily with his or her partner teacher regarding their classes and the week’s curriculum. Each child at EACS will study as their core academic subjects English language arts, Spanish language arts, math, science, and social studies. Based on the guidance of our expert bilingual education advisors, we have designated science as a Spanish-language subject and social studies as an English-language subject. Thus, each child will study science in Spanish every day, while with his or her Spanish teacher, and social studies in English every day, while with his or her English teacher. Thus, each teacher will teach either science or social studies twice per day, once to each classroom. This has several advantages. First, delivering the same lesson twice will free up planning time, because each teacher will only be responsible for three main subjects rather than four. Second, these particular subjects were selected to be delivered in one language only because of the dearth of Georgia performance standards aligned Spanish-language social studies curriculum. Most Spanish-language social studies curricula do not fit well with Georgia’s standards. Rather than have our teachers produce translations of Georgia social studies materials, EACS students will learn social studies in English. Unlike social studies, there is bountiful high-quality Spanish-language science material aligned with Georgia performance standards, so it will be possible to study science exclusively in Spanish and still learn every single component of the Georgia standards. While there would certainly be advantages to learning even more social studies in Spanish and even more science in English, it was decided to assign them each to only one language in acknowledgement of the time limits of a school day. Children would experience disjointed and lower quality instruction if they were to bounce between completely distinct social studies curricula (Washington crossing the Potomac on Monday, then the Bolivarian revolution on Tuesday, then back to the Revolutionary War on Wednesday…) Each day, all students will study both reading and math in Spanish and English. The teachers will coordinate to make sure there is continuity for their classes. Teachers will make sure that the math lessons in particular are complementary and not redundant, as the children work their way through the common core mathematics standards.

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VIII. FACILITIES 29.

Describe the school facility that the charter school proposes to use.

EACS has identified multiple options for our school location, some of which would meet our long term needs, and others which could meet our needs in the beginning if for some reason none of the others were available for our use by the beginning of the 2016-2017 school year. EACS is requesting the use of a DCSD building. To spend money paying rent to a private entity instead of on salaries and instructional expenses would be an imprudent use of funding when there are multiple very suitable options within the McNair Cluster. (See Exhibit 27.) Based on information provided to the public by the DeKalb County School District on its website, we have identified more than 4,000 available seats within local schools either in the McNair Cluster itself or in the Columbia Cluster immediately to the east. We have identified four buildings which are already vacant or which are scheduled to be vacant by 2016. We have also identified four other schools which are scheduled to remain occupied, but which each have so much spare capacity that they could potentially house EACS within their school for two or more years. DCSD projects enrollment in Super-Cluster 5, of which the McNair Cluster is a part, to continue declining through at least 2020. Meanwhile, new schools are being built here, increasing capacity. Thus, we expect that DCSD will be able to make available to us one of the eight schools we have identified, or another appropriate facility. Our first choice is the Terry Mill facility currently occupied by the DeKalb Elementary School of the Arts. This 614-seat school is located in the McNair Cluster. Of all of our options, this building is in the best condition, and its location and street access make it the best option for transportation. DCSD has announced that the facility will be declared surplus after June 2016, after which the DESA students will attend the new Comprehensive Arts Magnet School at the Avondale MS facility. Our second choice is the Sky Haven Elementary facility, which has been vacant since June 2011. This 659-seat school is located within the McNair Cluster. This building has substantial documented repair needs, but we believe that we could begin using the facility in August of 2016 and pay for repairs gradually through large-scale, ongoing fundraising. Meadowview ES is a 477-seat McNair Cluster elementary school slated to be declared surplus in June 2016. The student body will transfer to the new Gresham Park ES to be built at the current Clifton ES site. Given the need to build the new elementary school before the Meadowview students vacate the current facility, it appears that they may in fact remain in the Meadowview facility through the 2016-2017 school year. Meadowview ES currently has 85 open seats, which is not adequate for EACS even in the first year. However, once it is vacant, it could meet the needs of EACS for at least the first 4 years of operation. At full enrollment, EACS could reach 528 students. Thus, while Meadowview is not an ideal permanent facility for the program, it could work with the addition of portable classrooms in year 5. The Terry Mill, Sky Haven, and Meadowview facilities are slated to be empty in 2016 and would largely meet both our immediate and long-term facility needs. Additionally, we have identified 6 other local school facilities that may work, at least in the short term. Wadsworth Elementary is currently occupied by the Wadsworth Magnet program, which is scheduled to relocate to the Knollwood Elementary facility after June 2015. Wadsworth Elementary has a capacity of 666 students, and there are currently 422 seats available. We

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understand that the Wadsworth facility will be the temporary school for Rockbridge Elementary’s student body while Rockbridge ES is undergoing rebuilding. Thus, it appears likely that Wadworth will not be vacant until the second year of EACS operations. The Wadsworth ES facility is located east of the McNair Cluster in the neighboring Columbia Cluster. If we were assigned this facility as our permanent location, we would seek to align our attendance district to include both the McNair and Columbia Clusters as first priority for admission. This would complicate our goal to collaborate with the middle and high schools that EACS students would feed into, and it would substantially increase the cost of providing school busing, but it would still be acceptable. McNair MS is our zoned middle school. It has a capacity of 1461 students and current enrollment of 762. Based on DCSD's enrollment projections for Super-Cluster 5, we expect it to have approximately 817 empty seats in 2016. McNair MS is the most underutilized middle school facility in the district at 48%. It would not be ideal to house our elementary program within a middle school, and it would be an additional complication that McNair MS is slated to be replaced with a new building as part of SPLOST, but sharing space with McNair MS could be an adequate short or long-term option for EACS. McNair HS is our zoned high school. It has a capacity of 1524 and current enrollment of 723. Based on DCSD's enrollment projections for Super-Cluster 5, we expect it to have approximately 795 empty seats by 2016. McNair HS is the most underutilized high school facility in the district at 53%. It would not be ideal to house our elementary program within a high school, but sharing space with McNair HS could be an adequate short or long-term option for EACS. Toney ES is a 661-seat elementary school that currently has 235 empty seats. It is located east of the McNair Cluster in the neighboring Columbia Cluster. Based on DCSD's enrollment projections for Super-Cluster 5, we expect it to have approximately 240 empty seats in 2016. It has enough empty seats to potentially share space with EACS during our first 2 years of operations. Columbia ES is a 774-seat elementary school that currently has 177 empty seats. It is located east of the McNair Cluster in the neighboring Columbia Cluster. Based on DCSD's enrollment projections for Super-Cluster 5, we expect it to have approximately 181 empty seats in 2016. It has enough empty seats to potentially share space with EACS during our first 2 years of operations. a.

Is the facility new or existing? Describe the quantity and types of rooms (i.e. classrooms, administrative offices, program specific space (science labs, art workshops, etc.), media center, meeting space, and/or kitchen facility.)

Please see the Appendix for the most recent Official Capacity Verification report produced by DCSD for each school facility we have identified. b.

Will the facility require renovations? If so, describe the extent of the renovations and source of funding to pay for the renovations. (Building plans must be approved by the DeKalb County School’s Facilities department.) I.

Please include a narrative regarding how the renovations will comply with all applicable local zoning and building codes and timetable to achieve compliance. Include how anticipated completion date for each major phase of renovation.

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Given that we have not yet been assigned a facility, we have not planned for any specific renovations. That said, we are aware of the condition of each facility based on DCSD’s 2011 Facility Condition Assessments. II.

Any rehabilitation work necessary for this site to meet building codes applicable to schools must be completed before the start of the school year and must include the following:  The scope of the work to be completed and proposed funding mechanism to cover these costs;  The person(s) who will manage the project and their qualifications; and  A project timeline.

Again, because we have not yet been assigned a facility, we do not have a specific plan in place for rehabilitation work, but we agree to complete any work necessary to meet building codes applicable to schools prior to the beginning of the school year. We will define the scope of work and the funding mechanism; the person(s) who will manage the project and their qualifications; and a project timeline, promptly upon identification of the facility and approval of our charter petition. III.

If applicable, include written verification from the appropriate municipality that the zoning and land use regulations for the site will permit the operation of a public school on the premises.

Since the eight facilities we have identified all currently or recently operated as public schools, we are certain that each is properly zoned. c.

What is the location of the facility?

We hope to be located in the McNair Cluster in a facility that is adequate for our projected needs. Thus, our first choice is the Terry Mill facility at 797 Fayetteville Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30316. Our second choice is Sky Haven Elementary, located at 1372 Sky Haven Road SE, Atlanta Georgia 30316. I. N/A II.

N/A d.

If the charter intends to lease or contract with a church or other religious organization, please attach the questionnaire, entitled “Building Lease with Religious Organization Form,” regarding this arrangement. Provide documentation of ownership or a copy of the lease of the facility. If ownership documentation or a lease is unavailable, provide a timeline for obtaining such facilities or providing such documentation (this question does not apply to conversion charter schools).

How does this facility meet the required space needed for the proposed school? Please indicate if the identified site will accommodate the school through the initial charter term and at full capacity. If the school will not start at full capacity, describe how the school will accommodate growth over an initial five-year term of the school.

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Both the Terry Mill and Sky Haven facilities are large enough to accommodate East Atlanta Charter School even at its maximum size of 528 students in 24 classrooms across six grades. Terry Mill has 38 rooms and can hold 614 students. Sky Haven has 36 rooms and can hold 659 students. If necessary, since we will start with a student body of no more than 176 and then add one grade per year, we could begin operating in part of the school while closing off other sections for necessary repairs or just to minimize utility expenses. e.

If applicable, schools must submit a School Site Selection Form for Site and Facility Approval for a site or facility not owned by the DeKalb Board of Education. This also includes completion of a “Phase I Environmental Site Assessment.” (Place these items in the Appendix.)

N/A. We intend to be located in a facility owned by DCSD.

30. Does the charter school have an MOU for the facility pending charter and facility approval? No, but we have been working with the DeKalb County School District to become inform and seek to have an appropriate surplus facility released for charter school use. a.

The MOU should include the total proposed facility cost.

b.

The MOU should set forth any material terms that will be reflected in a lease, such as the lease term.

N/A

N/A 31.

Does the charter school have a Certificate of Occupancy (CO) for the proposed facility? a.

Please note that schools must obtain a CO no later than 45 days before the start of the charter term on July 1. Attach a copy of Certificate of Occupancy. Please provide a Certificate of Occupancy, or a timeline detailing the latest possible date by which the Certificate of Occupancy will be obtained prior to students occupying the proposed facility.

We will obtain a Certificate of Occupancy at least 45 days in advance of the first day that students will occupy the school in August of 2016. 32. Does the charter school have an emergency safety plan pursuant to O.C.G.A. § 20-2-1185 for the proposed facility? Please note that schools must submit an emergency safety plan no later than 45 days before the start of the charter term on July 1. a.

Provide the school’s emergency/safety plan in the Appendix.

East Atlanta Charter School will produce a safety plan in accordance with the guide in the Appendix. EACS’s safety plan will be submitted to the DeKalb County School District no later

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than 45 days before the start of the charter term on July 1. See our outline for the plan at Exhibit 28. b.

Describe how all local and state policies related to health and safety will be met.

East Atlanta Charter School will comply with the Uniform Building Code Inspection and the Standard Building Code, Standard Plumbing Code, Standard Mechanical Gas Code, Americans with Disabilities Act as Amended (ADAAA) access requirements and other applicable fire, health and structural safety requirements, local state, and federal laws. East Atlanta Charter School will meet all applicable codes for sanitation, fire, construction, stability, temperature, ventilation, and suitability of physical space. East Atlanta Charter School will maintain a certificate of occupancy from the required government agency. East Atlanta Charter School will grant access to local health and fire department officials for inspection of the premises or operations of the school for purposes of ensuring the health, safety, and welfare of students and employees pursuant to Georgia Statutes and National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code, N.F.P.A. 101. East Atlanta Charter School will seek the approval of the local board of education and the State Board of Education prior to occupancy for any future facilities, beyond those proposed in the petition, which will be used to educate students. IX. STUDENT DISCIPLINE 33. Please state whether or not the school intends to adopt the DeKalb County School District’s Student Code of Conduct as the school’s discipline policy. a. Provide the school’s student discipline policies and procedures, setting forth student due process procedures for all disciplinary action, not just for the most serious forms of discipline such as out-of-school suspension and expulsion, in a Code of Conduct, as an Appendix item. East Atlanta Charter School will adopt the DCSD Student Code of Conduct, and modify this document to meet the due process needs of the school. An electronic copy of the charter school’s Student Code of Conduct will be submitted to the Charter Office by August 1st of each school year. b. Provide a description of how the charter school will meet the federal due process requirements for students with disabilities, or students believed to have a disability, who are suspended or removed for disciplinary reasons. East Atlanta Charter School shall comply with federal due process procedures regarding student discipline and dismissal. Students who are not meeting academic, behavioral, or other expectations will be identified based on assessment data, in-class performance, and other observations or data. A classroom teacher will contact the parents or guardians to discuss the students’ performance and outline strategies that will be utilized in the classroom to support the student. Responses to interventions will be monitored, and if the interventions are unsuccessful, the Student Support Team process will be initiated. The SST is comprised of the principal, both classroom teachers, special education teachers, interventionists, and other staff as appropriate.

88

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

A psychologist or other licensed professional who will participate in the student’s evaluation may also participate in this initial meeting, as may the parents and student. The SST may institute curriculum modification, learning style assessment, positive behavioral supports, achievement evaluation, home-school communication, or study skill assistance. Requests for special education services may also be made through the SST. Prior to consideration for special education referral, non-special education options and interventions will be used, documented, described, and discussed at the special education placement meeting. The SST process is identification of needs, evaluation if necessary, drafting an educational plan, implementation of the plan, follow-up and support, and continuous monitoring and evaluation. If the interventions are unsuccessful or the SST determines that an evaluation should take place, the team will convene with the student’s parent or guardian. The special educational teacher will secure written permission for psychological and academic evaluations to determine if the child is eligible for special education services. If the student qualifies, an IEP will be constructed and services aligned to that IEP will begin immediately. Any student who is receiving these special education services or has been identified as a student with a disability under IDEA or a student who may qualify for services and whose acts are determined by the teacher, principal, or board to have violated any rules, regulations, or laws, shall be referred to an IEP committee to determine if the student’s conduct is manifestation of his or her disability. If a student with disabilities has an IEP that includes disciplinary guidelines, the student will be disciplined according to those guidelines as required by IDEA. Nothing in the EACS approach will be permitted to infringe upon any rights provided pursuant to IDEA, Section 504, or the ADA. c. If the school intends to require a uniform, the dress code policy should also be included. Please see the proposed uniform policy within the Family Handbook at Exhibit 29. X. OTHER INFORMATION 34. Describe whether transportation services will be provided and include a statement that the transportation program will comply with applicable law. If transportation services are not provided, explain how this will not discourage eligible students from attending the school. East Atlanta Charter School agrees to provide the system with transportation safety documentation, if any, as required by the GADOE no later than June 1 for the pending school year. East Atlanta Charter School’s transportation program will comply with applicable law and any vehicles or drivers used for transporting students will meet the same safety standards applicable to public schools in this State. 35. State whether the charter school will provide food services (including participation in the National School Lunch Program). a. If food services will be provided, please describe this program briefly.

89

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

East Atlanta Charter School will likely educate a very high percentage of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. Thus, it intends to participate in the National School Breakfast and Lunch Program. b. If food services will not be provided, please indicate your plans for providing for student lunches. This plan should include information on whether the food will be prepared onsite or off-site and the anticipated cost to students and other significant elements of the food service program should be provided. East Atlanta Charter School will submit an application to the GADOE and will be responsible for accurately counting meals and submitting financial reimbursement claims to the GADOE for meals meeting specified nutritional standards. We intend for food to be prepared on-site and to make it as affordable as possible to those children who do not qualify for Free or Reduced Lunch. However, we have not finalized plans as our ability to prepare food on-site depends on the kitchen facilities of the school facility where we will be located. 36.

Provide information on the school’s legal representation or counsel. a.

How will the proposed school ensure compliance with the requirements of law with respect to legal issues?

The Board of Directors will always have at least one member who will be a licensed attorney in Georgia. The lawyers on the Board of Directors will serve as general counsel to answer any legal questions that arise. Should EACS require representation beyond the scope of what the Board of Directors can provide, EACS shall retain legal counsel. The founding Board includes three attorneys licensed to practice in Georgia, who together have substantial experience in education law, real estate law, administrative law, immigration law, civil litigation, and criminal law, as well as significant experience working on behalf of socioeconomically disadvantaged and otherwise underrepresented clients. Please see the resumes of the Board members for further information. b.

Please confirm whether this organization or individual has reviewed the DCSD charter petitioner guidelines and petition document to be submitted.

Three of the Founding Directors who have drafted this charter petition are licensed attorneys in Georgia, and each has carefully reviewed both the Guidelines and the charter petition document that East Atlanta Charter School is submitting. 37. Describe the charter school’s insurance coverage, including the terms and conditions and coverage amounts thereof. Information on insurance coverage and amounts are required in the following areas: a. b. c. d. e. f.

General Liability Errors or Omissions Property/Lease Insurance Auto Liability Worker’s Compensation Theft

Copies of the school’s insurance policies should be included as an Appendix item. If insurance policies do not exist, please provide the following statement: “Copies of each

90

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

policy shall be provided to the DCSD Charter School Office prior to the opening of the school.” Please list the date by which evidence of insurance will be submitted. Pursuant to O.C.G.A. § 20-2-2065(b)(5), the DeKalb County Board of Education will be included as an additional insured, and EACS will hold harmless and indemnify DeKalb County School District, the board of education, its members, officers, and employees for every liability, claim, or demand upon EACS; and EACS agrees to defend and indemnify the DeKalb County Board of Education in any action arising in any way from EACS’s activities. Insurance coverage will include, at a minimum:  Workers compensation in compliance with State law;  Employer’s liability insurance to cover bodily injury by accident in the amount of $100,000 per occurrence;  Bodily injury by disease in the amount of $100,000 for each employee;  Automobile liability insurance in the following amount: o Comprehensive insurance in an amount not less than $1,000,000 for bodily injury and property damage; and o Specific extensions of comprehensive form coverage for all EACS-owned, hired, leased, and non-owned vehicles used in the operation of EACS;  Comprehensive general liability insurance in the following forms: o Comprehensive form; o Contractual insurance; o Personal injury; o Broad form property damage o Premise operations; and o Completed operations. This coverage shall be in an amount not less than $1,000,000 and shall cover the use of all equipment, hoists, and vehicles on the premises not covered by automobile liability. This policy coverage will be on an occurrence basis. Copies of each policy shall be provided to the DCSD Charter School Office prior to the opening of the school. Evidence of East Atlanta Charter School’s insurance coverage will be submitted to the DCSD Charter School Officer no later than June 15, 2016. See the Appendix for representative sample policies at Exhibit 30. 38. Additional information that may support the information presented in the narrative section of your petition and helps the reviewer to better assess the proposed charter school may be included in the appendices. DCSD may request additional attachments/appendices as needed. Pages in the appendices should be numbered, labeled, and included in the Table of Contents. Labeled tabs/ dividers should separate the appendices. Please attach only materials referenced in your petition, such as budget forms, certificates of incorporation, bylaws, education management company or other third party contracts, facilities, Letter of Intent and/or Memorandum Of Understanding, resumes, and signed conflict of interest forms. Examples of common attachments/appendices are listed below, but are not solely limited to these items. 39.

Letter of Assurances

The law requires your school provide assurances that it will do certain things and comply with certain laws. The DCSD Letter of Assurance Form enumerates these and other mandatory requirements. When you submit this form as part of your charter school application package,

91

East Atlanta Charter School Petition   

you are providing the legal assurance that your charter school understands and will do these things. This form must be signed by a duly authorized representative of the school. The Letter of Assurance Form is located at the end of this manual. The District reserves the right to add assurances, modify, or individualize this document for a petitioner, before or after the Board of Education’s approval.

92

East Atlanta Charter School Petition Appendix Table of Contents Tab Number

Document Name

Page Number

1

Georgia Department of Education Immersion Information

Appendix-001

2

DeKalb County School District Immersion Information

Appendix-010

3

Information about use of Spanish in the United States

Appendix-012

4

Letter of support from expert bilingual professor and author Dr. Rebecca Callahan, together with her article and her C.V.

Appendix-014

5

Summary of the research of the benefits of immersion language education

Appendix-029

6

Sample metropolitan Atlanta jobs that prefer or require Spanish proficiency

Appendix-053

7

Evidence of community support for East Atlanta Charter School: change.org petition results, including comments

Appendix-114

8

Letter of partnership from Georgia State University’s Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research (CULTR), together with information about CULTR and C.V.s of the three Directors.

Appendix-136

9

Spanish Language Arts Common Core standards

Appendix-153

10

Full Curriculum with Alignment to Georgia Performance Standards

Appendix-224

11

Curriculum-based measures

Appendix-285

12

Information about proposed instructional materials

Appendix-340

13

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Performance Descriptors for Language Learners

Appendix-363

14

Job descriptions

Appendix-381

15

Organizational charts

Appendix-394

16

Governing board bylaws and election of officers

Appendix-399

17

Resumes of founding board members

Appendix-414

18

Certification of Incorporation

Appendix-436

19

Board questionnaires/Conflict of Interest forms

Appendix-437

20

Code of Ethics

Appendix-452

21

Letters of Support for the petition from institutions and businesses: Atlanta International School The Language Garden The State Bar of Georgia Nead Werx Locke Law Firm LLC Project Locker Red Tile Roof Studio WonderHealth, LLC

Appendix-458

22

Monthly cash flow projections for first two years of operation (with revenue and expenditures), at full enrollment and at projected enrollment and start-up and five-year operating budgets

Appendix-466

23

Information about the McNair Cluster of schools

Appendix-467

24

Proposed enrollment application

Appendix-485

25

Proposed annual calendar (EACS will follow DCSD’s calendar)

Appendix-487

26

Proposed daily schedule

Appendix-488

27

Facilities plans

Appendix-494

28

Emergency safety plan outline

Appendix-516

29

Family handbook, including student dress code

Appendix-519

30

Insurance/indemnification information

Appendix-535

31

Eligible school checklist

Appendix-548

32

Signed letter of assurances

Appendix-549

Appendix-001

Appendix-002

Appendix-003

Appendix-004

Appendix-005

Title I Conference June 2014

2014 Georgia’s College and Career Ready Performance Index

Appendix-006

WĞƌĐĞŶƚŽĨƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƐĐŽƌŝŶŐĂƚDĞĞƚƐŽƌdžĐĞĞĚƐŝŶƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ;ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƉĂƌƚŝĐŝƉĂƚŝŽŶƌĂƚĞшϵϱйͿ

WĞƌĐĞŶƚŽĨƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƐĐŽƌŝŶŐĂƚDĞĞƚƐŽƌdžĐĞĞĚƐŝŶŵĂƚŚĞŵĂƚŝĐƐ;ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƉĂƌƚŝĐŝƉĂƚŝŽŶƌĂƚĞшϵϱйͿ

WĞƌĐĞŶƚŽĨƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƐĐŽƌŝŶŐĂƚDĞĞƚƐŽƌdžĐĞĞĚƐŝŶƐĐŝĞŶĐĞ;ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƉĂƌƚŝĐŝƉĂƚŝŽŶƌĂƚĞшϵϱйͿ

WĞƌĐĞŶƚŽĨƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƐĐŽƌŝŶŐĂƚDĞĞƚƐŽƌdžĐĞĞĚƐŝŶƐŽĐŝĂůƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ;ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƉĂƌƚŝĐŝƉĂƚŝŽŶƌĂƚĞшϵϱйͿ

2.

3.

4.

ϱ͘

Percent ŽĨ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐtŝƚŚŝƐĂďŝůŝƚŝĞƐƐĞƌǀĞĚŝŶŐĞŶĞƌĂůĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐŐƌĞĂƚĞƌƚŚĂŶϴϬйŽĨƚŚĞƐĐŚŽŽůday

Percent of students scoring Meets or Exceeds on the Grade Five Writing Assessment ;ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƉĂƌƚŝĐŝƉĂƚŝŽŶƌĂƚĞшϵϱйͿ

Percent of students in grade 3 achieving a Lexile measure equal to or greater ƚŚĂŶϲϱϬ

7.

8.

9.

PREDICTOR FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION

Georgia Department of Education

Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

Ɖƌŝůϭ͕ϮϬϭϰͻWĂŐĞϱ

All Rights Reserved

14. Percent of CRCT assessments scoring at the Exceeds level ;>͕ƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ͕ŵĂƚŚĞŵĂƚŝĐƐ͕ƐĐŝĞŶĐĞ͕ƐŽĐŝĂůƐƚƵĚŝĞƐͿ

13. WĞƌĐĞŶƚŽĨƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŝŶ'ƌĂĚĞϱƉĂƐƐŝŶŐĂƚůĞĂƐƚϱĐŽƵƌƐĞƐŝŶĐŽƌĞĐŽŶƚĞŶƚĂƌĞĂƐ;>͕ƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ͕ŵĂƚŚĞŵĂƚŝĐƐ͕ƐĐŝĞŶĐĞ͕ƐŽĐŝĂů ƐƚƵĚŝĞƐͿĂŶĚƐĐŽƌŝŶŐĂƚDĞĞƚƐŽƌdžĐĞĞĚƐŽŶĂůůZd

12. ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƚƚĞŶĚĂŶĐĞZĂƚĞ;йͿ

11. Percent of students in grades 1-ϱĐŽŵƉůĞƚŝŶŐƚŚĞŝĚĞŶƚŝĨŝĞĚŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨŐƌĂĚĞƐƉĞĐŝĨŝĐĐĂƌĞĞƌĂǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐůĞƐƐŽŶƐĂůŝŐŶĞĚƚŽ Georgia’s 17 Career Clusters

10. Percent ŽĨƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŝŶŐƌĂĚĞϱ achieving a Lexile measure equal to or greater ƚŚĂŶϴϱϬ

Percent of English Learners with positive movement from one Performance Band to a higher Performance Band as measured by the ACCESS for ELLs

6.

POST ELEMENTARY SCHOOL READINESS

WĞƌĐĞŶƚŽĨƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƐĐŽƌŝŶŐĂƚDĞĞƚƐŽƌdžĐĞĞĚƐŝŶ>;ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƉĂƌƚŝĐŝƉĂƚŝŽŶƌĂƚĞшϵϱйͿ

CONTENT MASTERY

2014 College and Career Ready Performance Index, Elementary School, Grades K - ϱ

1.

Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent “Making Education Work for All of Georgia’s Students”

Appendix-007

Georgia Department of Education

Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

School’s average score on the Georgia Leader Effectiveness Measurement Ɖƌŝůϭ͕ϮϬϭϰͻWĂŐĞϲ

School’s average score on the Georgia Teacher Effectiveness Measurement

To be included after statewide implementation:

All Rights Reserved

1. Percent of students in grades 3 – 5 earning a passing score in above grade level core courses (ELA, reading, mathematics, science, social studies) and scoring at Meets or Exceeds on all CRCT 2. Percent of students earning a passing score in world language courses or earning a passing score in fine arts courses 3. School has earned a Georgia Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Program Certification 4. Percent of fifth grade students with a complete career portfolio by end of grade 5 (moves to face of CCRPI in 2016-2017) 5. Percent of teachers utilizing the Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems (SLDS) 6.. School or LEA-defined innovative practice accompanied by data supporting improved student achievement: examples include but are not limited to Charter System, Georgia College and Career Academy, Race to the TOP, Striving Reader initiative, dual language immersion program, Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) and/or Mathematics Design Collaborative (MDC), Response to Intervention (RTI), Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS), local instructional initiatives, etc. Practice must be reported via the CCRPI Data Collection application. 7. School or LEA-defined interventions or practices designed to facilitate a personalized climate in the school: examples include but are not limited to Teachers as Advisors program; mentoring program; Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS); service-learning program; peer mediation; conflict mediation.

In addition to the fourteen (14) items within the College and Career Ready Performance Index,, elementary schools may earn additional points for these supplemental indicators.

Exceeding the Bar Indicators

Appendix-008

Paula Swartzberg, Accountability Specialist 404-463-1539 / [email protected]

Nancy Haight, Accountability Specialist 404-463-1166 / [email protected]

Michelle Christensen, Accountability Specialist 404-463-1175 / [email protected]

Cowen Harter, Director, Accountability 404-463-1168 / [email protected]

http://www.gadoe.org/Curriculum-Instruction-and-Assessment/Accountability/Pages/default.aspx

Melissa Fincher, Associate Superintendent for Assessment and Accountability

Dr. Martha Reichrath, Deputy State School Superintendent for Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment/Accountability

Dr. Mike Buck, Chief Academic Officer

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Appendix-009

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DeKalb County School District 2015-2016 Memorandum of Understanding District Commitment On February 13, 2013, three DeKalb School District schools were awarded a grant from the Georgia Department of Education to initiate an elementary immersion program. Beginning 2014-2015, these immersion programs will expand. A new Kindergarten immersion class will be added at Ashford Park (German), Evansdale (French), and Rockbridge (French). Students who are in the 2013-2014 Kindergarten class will move to the First Grade immersion class. The program option is available by lottery to incoming Kindergarten students only. General Description and Program Goals Guardians may enter upcoming Kindergarten students into the lottery if they are presently in the school attendance area. A random lottery will be held on March 3, 2014. Any student whose number is not chosen for the immersion class will be placed on a waiting list. Students may enter the program at the Kindergarten grade only. Research indicates that students need significant exposure to a second language to promote high levels of proficiency and achievement. DeKalb County School District, following the guidelines of the Georgia Department of Education, will implement an instructional model in which students spend half of their school day in the target language and the other half-day in English. The goals of the DeKalb School District immersion programs are to: • Improve literacy skills; • Increase academic achievement in all content areas; • Increase achievement in reading and mathematics significantly; • Instill cultural competence; prepare students to be sensitive and skilled in working with others across cultures; • Prepare students to be collaborators; and • Prepare students to enter the global workforce. Parent Commitment The district and school’s ability to support immersion in grades K-5 depends on a multi-year commitment by parents. Parents will be asked to: • Make a six year commitment to the programs, grades K through 5; • Participate in educational activities which will support the educational program; and • Provide a home environment and opportunities beyond the school day that reinforce the language goals of the program. Future Considerations • In grades 7-9, one content course will be taught in the target language, and a second course in advanced language study will be made available. • Students in the 9th grade will enroll in the Advanced Placement language coursework and complete the AP exam. • In grades 10-12, students may select to continue advanced language study through blended learning offered at colleges and universities or may begin study of a third language.

Appendix-010

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Appendix-011



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What is the future of Spanish in the United States? %<0$5.+8*2/23(= +773:::3(:5(6($5&+25*67$))0$5.+8*2/23(= $1'$1$*21=$/(=%$55(5$ +773:::3(:5(6($5&+25*$87+25$*21=$/(=%$55(5$

(http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/language/data/acs/Ortman_Shin_ASA2011_paper.pdf ) With more than 37

million speakers, Spanish is by far the most spoken non-English language (http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/acs-22.pdf) in the U.S. today among people ages 5 and older. It is also one KWWSZZZSHZUHVHDUFKRUJIDFWWDQNZKDWLVWKHIXWXUHRIVSDQLVKLQWKHXQLWHGVWDWHV

Appendix-012





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of the fastest-growing, with the number of speakers up 233% since 1980, when there were 11 million Spanish speakers. (The number of Vietnamese speakers grew faster, up 599% over the same period). As Spanish use has grown, driven primarily by Hispanic immigration and population growth, it has become a part of many aspects of life in the U.S. For example, Spanish is spoken by more non-Hispanics (../../../../../facttank/2013/08/13/spanish-is-the-most-spoken-non-english-language-in-u-s-homes-even-among-non-hispanics/) in U.S.

homes than any other non-English language and Spanish language television networks frequently beat their English counterparts (../../../../../fact-tank/2013/07/29/what-univisions-milestone-says-about-u-s-demographics/) in television ratings. But what’s the future of Spanish? According to a 2011 paper (http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/language/data/acs/Ortman_Shin_ASA2011_paper.pdf) by U.S. Census Bureau

Demographers Jennifer Ortman and Hyon B. Shin, the number of Spanish speakers is projected to rise through 2020 to anywhere between 39 million and 43 million, depending on the assumption one makes about immigration. Most of these Spanish speakers will be Hispanic, with Ortman and Shin projecting between 37.5 million and 41 million Hispanic Spanish speakers by 2020. Ortman and Shin provide two other projections, both of which highlight the changing demographics of the nation’s Hispanic population and the rising importance of U.S. births rather than the arrival of new immigrants (http://www.pewhispanic.org/2011/07/14/the-mexican-american-boom-brbirths-overtake-immigration) to Hispanic

population growth. Today, three-fourths of all Hispanics ages 5 and older speak Spanish. However, that share is projected to fall to about two-thirds in 2020. The share of Hispanics that speak Spanish reached 78% in the 2000s. As the share of Hispanics who speak Spanish falls, the share that speaks only English at home is expected to rise. About a third (34%) of Hispanics will speak only English at home by 2020, up from 25% in 2010, according to Ortman and Shin.

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Appendix-013



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__________________________________________________________________________ 1 University Station Stop, D5700 Austin, Texas 78712-1293• (512) 471-8347 • FAX (512) 471-8460

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Appendix-015

Appendix-016

Appendix-017

Appendix-018

Rebecca M. Callahan Assistant Professor Department of Curriculum and Instruction Faculty Affiliate, Population Research Center University of Texas, Austin callahan@prc.utexas.edu Phone: 512-471-8347 Fax: 512-471-4886 Education 2003 2001 1993 1992

Ph.D. in Education, University of California, Davis Language and Literacy: Second Language Acquisition M.A. in Education, University of California, Davis B.C.C. Bilingual Teaching Certification, University of California, San Diego B.A. in Anthropology, University of California, San Diego 1990-1991: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador

Academic Employment 2009-present Assistant Professor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction University of Texas, Austin Faculty Affiliate, Population Research Center 2006-2009 Assistant Professor, Department of Language and Literacy Education University of Georgia Faculty Affiliate, Department of Linguistics 2004-2006 Post-Doctoral Fellow, American Educational Research Association- Institute for Educational Sciences University of Texas, Austin Population Research Center 2003-2004 Post-Doctoral Fellow, American Educational Research Association- Institute for Educational Sciences University of California, Santa Barbara Linguistic Minority Research Institute Books Callahan, R.M., & Muller, C. (Forthcoming). Coming of Political Age: American Schools and the Civic Development of Immigrant Youth. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, NY. Peer-Reviewed Articles Callahan, R.M. & Obenchain, K.M. (Forthcoming). Bridging worlds in the social studies classroom: High school teachers’ practices and Latino immigrant youths’ civic and political development. Sociological Studies of Children and Youth, vol. 16, pp. xx-xx.

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Callahan, R.M. & Obenchain, K.M. (2012.) Finding a civic voice: Latino immigrant youths’ experiences in high school social studies. The High School Journal, 96 (1), 20-32. Shifrer, D., Muller, C. & Callahan, R.M. (2011). Disproportionality and learning disabilities: Parsing apart race, socioeconomic status, and language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(3), 246-257 Callahan, R.M., Wilkinson, L., & Muller, C. (2010). Academic achievement and course taking in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement among language minority students. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 32(1), 84-117. Callahan, R.M., Muller, C., & Schiller, K.S. (2010). Preparing students for political participation: Schools and civic responsibility in an era of accountability. American Journal of Education 116(4), 525-556. Shifrer, D., & Callahan, R.M. (2010). Technology and communications coursework: Facilitating the progression of students with learning disabilities through high school science and math coursework. Journal of Special Education Technology, 25(3) 65-77. Callahan, R.M., Wilkinson, L., Muller, C., & Frisco, M. (2009). ESL placement and schools: Effects on immigrant achievement. Educational Policy, 23(2), 355-384. Riegle-Crumb, C., & Callahan, R.M. (2009). Exploring the academic benefits of friendship ties for Latino boys and girls. Social Science Quarterly, 90(3), 611-631. Callahan, R.M., Schiller, K.S., & Muller, C. (2008). Preparing for citizenship: Immigrant high school students’ curriculum and socialization. Theory and Research in Social Education 36 (2), 6-31. Callahan, R.M. (2008). Latino college-going: Adolescent boys’ language use and girls’ social integration. Bilingual Research Journal 31(1-2), 175-200. Callahan, R.M., Wilkinson, L., & Muller, C. (2008). School context and the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin adolescents’ achievement. Social Science Quarterly 89 (1), 177198. Callahan, R.M. (2006). The intersection of accountability and language: Can reading intervention replace English language development? Bilingual Research Journal 30 (1), 1-21. Callahan, R.M. (2005). Tracking and high school English learners: Limiting opportunity to learn. American Educational Research Journal 42 (2), 305-328. Gándara, P., Rumberger, R., Maxwell-Jolly, J. & Callahan, R. (2003). English Learners in California schools: Unequal resources, unequal outcomes. Education Policy Analysis Archives 11(36).

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Book Chapters *indicates peer-reviewed *Callahan, R.M., & Muller, C. (Forthcoming). English as a Second Language (ESL). In J. Ainsworth, & J.G. Golson (Eds.), Sociology of Education, pp. xx-xx. Thousand Oaks, CA :Sage Publications. Callahan, R.M. (In Press). The academic achievement of immigrant adolescents: Exploration of school factors from sociological and educational perspectives. In Educational Achievement: Teaching Strategies, Psychological Factors and Economic Impact, pp. xx-xx. New York: Nova Science Publishers. *Callahan, R., & Shifrer, D. (2012). High school ESL placement: Practice, policy and effects on achievement. In Y. Kanno & L. Harklau (Eds.), Linguistic Minority Students go to College: Preparation, Access, and Persistence, pp. 19-37. New York: Routledge. Valdez, V.E. & Callahan, R.M. (2010). Who’s learning languages in today’s schools? In D. Lapp & D. Fisher (Eds.) Handbook on Research on Teaching the English Language Arts, Third Edition, pp. 3-9. New York, NY: Routledge. *Shifrer, D., Muller, C. & Callahan, R.M. (2010). “Disproportionality: A sociological perspective of the identification of students with a learning disability. In S. Barnartt & B. Altman (Eds.) Research in Social Science and Disabilities, Vol. 5, pp. 279-308. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Callahan, R.M. & Colomer, S.E. (2009). Bilingual Education. In Carr, D., Crosnoe, R., Hughes, M.E., and Pienta, A.M. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human Development, Vol.1. (pp.47-50). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA. Callahan, R.M. & Gándara, P.C. (2004). Nobody’s agenda: Improving English Language Learners’ access to higher education. In M. Sadowski (Ed.) Immigrant and second language students: Lessons from research and best practice, (pp.107-127). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Book Reviews Callahan, R.M. (2007) Review of Educating English Language Learners: A synthesis of research evidence. Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (Eds.) Linguistics and Education 18(1), 90-92. Reports and Other Publications Dabach, D.B., & Callahan, R.M. (2011). Rights versus reality: The gap between civil rights and English Learners’ high school educational opportunities. Teachers College Record, Commentary (16558): October 7, 2011. http://www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?contentid=16558

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Muller, C., Pearson, J., Riegle-Crumb, C., Requejo, J.H., Frank, K.A., Schiller, K.S., Raley, R.K., Langenkamp, A.G., Crissey, S., Mueller, A.S., Callahan, R.M., Wilkinson, L. & Field, S. (2007). National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: Wave III Education Data. Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Rumberger, R.W., Callahan, R.M., & Gándara, P.C. (2003). Has Proposition 227 Reduced the English Learner Achievement Gap? UC-LMRI Newsletter, 13 (1) http://lmri.ucsb.edu/publications/newsletters/v13n1.pdf Manuscripts under Review Shifrer, D., Callahan, R.M., & Muller, C. (Revised & Resubmitted). Equity or marginalization? The high school course-taking of students labeled with a learning disability Callahan, R.M. & Shifrer, D. (Revised & Resubmitted). English learners’ secondary course taking: Equitable academic access? Callahan, R.M. & Humphries, M. (Revised & Resubmitted). High school math teachers’ pedagogical practices and English learners’ math achievement. Callahan, R.M. (Under Review). The English learner dropout dilemma: Multiple risks, innovative resolutions Grants under Review 2012

Sending Messages about STEM: How Schools Cultivate or Deter the Interests and Ambitions of Adolescent Girls from Diverse Backgrounds: National Science Foundation, REESE Directorate PI: Riegle-Crumb, C.; Co-Investigator Callahan, R.M.; Co-Investigator Muller, C.

Fellowships and Grants 2010-2013

The dynamic nature of classroom quality in the pre-K-3rd grade years. Foundation for Child Development. PI: Crosnoe, R.; Co-Investigator, Callahan, R.M.

2009-2011

NSF RDE-FRI Collaborative Research Students with learning disabilities: STEM pathways in the social context PI: Callahan, R.M., National Science Foundation, Research in Disabilities in Education (RDE) Focused Research Initiative (FRI). NSF # 0965444 ($107,595)

2009-2010

Math teachers’ pedagogical practices: Effects on linguistic minority students’ STEM preparation and participation PI: Callahan, R.M., AERA Research Grants Program ($34,546)

Callahan

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2008-2010

New citizens in a new century: Immigrant students, schools and teachers. Russell Sage Foundation Presidential Authority Award PI: Callahan, R.M. ($20,463)

2008-2010

Paving the way to higher education: Primary language use and academic preparation. University of Georgia Research Foundation Junior Faculty Research Grant (JR-004): PI: Callahan, R.M. ($5,943)

2006-2009

The role of language and education in the civic integration of adolescent immigrants during the transition to adulthood (RSF 88-06-12) Russell Sage Foundation. PI: Muller, C.; Co-Investigator: Callahan, R.M. ($150,000)

2005-2006

Language, school context and Hispanic student achievement and integration in Texas. Texas Higher Education Opportunities Program sponsored by the Ford and Spencer Foundations. PI: Callahan, R.M. ($21,000)

2003-2006

American Educational Research Association- Institute of Educational Sciences Post-Doctoral Fellowship. PI: Callahan, R.M. (Approx: $175,000)

2003-2004

University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute Post-Doctoral Fellowship ($40,000 offered, not accepted)

2002-2003

University of California All Campus Consortium on Research for Diversity (UC ACCORD) Dissertation Fellowship ($20,000)

Honors and Awards 2011

Early Career Award Bilingual Education Special Interest Group (SIG) American Educational Research Association

2007

Reviewer Award, Review of Educational Research, AERA Invited Speaker Sessions (Also cross-listed under selected conference presentations)

2011

Language Equity and Educational Policy (LEEP) Working Group. Adolescent English Learners’ high school course taking: Equitable access under Lau? Stanford University: Menlo Park, CA.

Courses Taught † Indicates course developed new *Indicates course substantially revised Languages and Literacies* (ALD 329) University of Texas, Austin, College of Education, Department of Curriculum & Instruction.

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Language Policy in Education† (EDC 385G) University of Texas, Austin, College of Education, Department of Curriculum & Instruction. Immigration Theory in Education† (EDC 385G) University of Texas, Austin, College of Education, Department of Curriculum & Instruction. Educational Linguistics/ Language and Education† (EDC 371/ALD 330) University of Texas, Austin, College of Education, Department of Curriculum & Instruction. Evaluation in Language Education* (EDC 385G) University of Texas, Austin, College of Education, Department of Curriculum & Instruction Research Practicum in Language Education* (ELAN 7655) University of Georgia, College of Education, Department of Language and Literacy Education Immigration Theory † (ELAN 8045) University of Georgia, College of Education, Department of Language and Literacy Education Research Methods in Language Education* (ELAN 7070) University of Georgia, College of Education, Department of Language and Literacy Education Assessment in the ESOL Classroom† (ELAN 7502) University of Georgia, College of Education, Department of Language and Literacy Education First and Second Language Acquisition and Development* (ELAN 5730) University of Georgia, College of Education, Department of Language and Literacy Education Second Language Acquisition (ALD 325) UT Austin, College of Education, Department of Curriculum and Instruction MA Thesis Advisor (completed): Kiristin Thompson, MA 2012; Regina Smith, MA 2012; Daniel Moon, MA 2011; At University of Georgia (2003-2006): FangJu Lin; Steven Mayerhoefer; Bett Chandler; C.J. Wilder; Bethany Hagen; Kristie Bateman. PhD Thesis Committee Member (completed): B. King; A. Lynch; T. Kao; D.Waldvogel; L. Wilkinson; Additional Educational Employment 2002-2003 1999-2002

Callahan

English Learner Program Consultant Grant Joint Union High School District: Sacramento, California Bilingual Coordinator/ Resource Specialist

Curriculum Vitae Appendix-024

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1993-1999 1995-1997

Woodland Joint Unified School District: Woodland, California Bilingual Teacher: Grades Kindergarten through Second Jamul-Dulzura Union School District: Jamul, California Project PREPA (Title VII) ELD Science Curriculum Development San Diego County Office of Education: San Diego, California

Additional International Education 1990-1991 1994 1998

Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador: Quito, Ecuador Center for International Studies: Mérida, Mexico California State University at Sacramento: Burgos, Spain

Selected Conference Presentations 2012

Stigma of a Label: The Social, Socio-Psychological and Educational Experiences of High School Students Identified with a Learning Disability. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference: Vancouver, BC.

2011

Invited speaker Language Equity and Educational Policy (LEEP) Working Group. Adolescent English Learners’ high school course taking: Equitable access under Lau? Stanford University: Menlo Park, CA. (Cross listed in Honors & Awards)

2010

1. Latino immigrant youth's civic development: High school social science teachers' classroom strategies, 2. Disproportionality: The socio-demographic correlates of being identified with a Learning disability. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference: Denver, CO.

2010

The high school course-taking of students identified with learning disabilities. National Science Foundation Joint Annual Meeting (NSF JAM), Washington, D.C.

2009

Latino immigrant youth's civic engagement and development. CLASE First Triennial Conference: Center for Latino Achievement and Success in Education. Athens, GA.

2009

ESL placement and language minority adolescents’ college preparation: Educational policy into practice. Invited Sessions: May 1, Educational Policy and Evaluation Center Annual Conference: University of Georgia; May 15, Texas Center for Educational Policy, UT Austin: Austin, TX.

2009

The effects of ESL placement on language minority adolescents’ post secondary preparation. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference: San Diego, CA.

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2009

Language Minority Adolescents Preparation for College: Language and Educational Policy under the Lau Decision (1974). American Association of Applied Linguistics Annual Conference: Denver, CO.

2008

Immigrant language minority students’ social processes and voting during young adulthood. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference: New York, NY.

2007

Predicting college-going among Latino linguistic minority adolescents: Gender, language use and social integration. University of California, Linguistic Minority Research Institute Annual Conference: Phoenix, AZ.

2007

Latino linguistic minority adolescents' high school social integration and subsequent involvement in higher education. American Association of Applied Linguistics Annual Conference: Irvine, CA.

2007

1.) Latino linguistic minority adolescents' high school social integration and subsequent involvement in higher education. 2.) The effect of high school ESL placement on immigrants’ post secondary preparation. 3.) Immigrant linguistic minority youths’ academic preparation during high school. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference: Chicago, IL.

2007

Language use and college going: Post-secondary choice among Latino linguistic minority males. Department of Sociology, Invited Colloquium Series, University of Georgia (February): Athens, GA.

2007

ESL placement and immigrant achievement: The role of school context. Sociology of Education Association Annual Conference: Asilomar, CA.

2006

The effect of high school ESL placement on immigrants’ post secondary preparation. University of California, Linguistic Minority Research Institute Annual Conference: Irvine, CA.

2006

Friendship networks, social capital and Latino immigrant students’ academic achievement with Dr. C. Riegle-Crumb. Sociology of Education Association: Asilomar, CA.

2005

1. Language and literacy: Academic opportunities and high school English Learners. 2. Language policy in California and the impact on teacher education and working conditions with Dr. P. Gándara. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference: Montréal, Canada.

2005

English language proficiency and reading development in linguistic minority children with Dr. R. Rumberger. University of California, Linguistic Minority Research Institute Biliteracy Forum: Santa Barbara, CA.

Callahan

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2004

Long-term English learners and recent immigrants: Qualitatively different responses to a reading intervention program with Dr. R. Figueroa. University of California, Linguistic Minority Research Institute Annual Conference: Santa Barbara, CA.

2004

Opportunity to learn in a California high school: English Learners and track placement. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference : San Diego, CA.

2004

NAEP: Addressing the ‘achievement gap’ post-Proposition 227. California Bilingual Coordinators Network: San Francisco, CA.

2003

English language proficiency and track placement: Variable effects on academic achievement. Fourth International Symposium on Bilingualism: Tempe AZ

2003

Tracking and high school English learners: Opportunity to learn University of California, Linguistic Minority Research Institute Annual Conference: San Diego, CA.

2002

High school English learners: Master scheduling, placement, evaluation and program access. English Learner Assessment and Accountability Institute: Santa Barbara, CA.

2002

California’s new English Language Development Exam: A high stakes assessment. Council of Chief State School Officers Conference: Palm Desert, CA.

2001

Academic writing development and secondary school English learners. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Annual Conference: St. Louis, MO.

2000

ELD Science curriculum: A cognitive approach via Project PREPA. California Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Annual Conference: Sacramento, CA.

Service: Committees and Leadership 2011-2013

Committee on Fellowships and Other Awards : Department of Curriculum & Instruction 2012-2014 UT Austin University-wide Student Life and Activities Committee, UT Faculty Council 2011-present Member ELL Assessment Focus Group Committee Texas Education Association (TEA) 2009- present Internal Review Board, Bilingual Research Journal 2009-present Editorial Board; TABE Journal Texas Association of Bilingual Education 2008-2010 Advisory Council Member: NSF grant Pathways to STEM Degrees for Latina/o Students PI: Alicia Dowd, Estela Bensimon; University of Southern California 2007-2009 Board member: Sociology of Education Association

Callahan

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2004-present Peer Reviewer: American Educational Research Journal, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, International Migration, Review of Educational Research, Sociology of Education, Journal of Experimental Education 2005-present Proposal Reviewer: American Educational Research Association Conference, Sociology of Education Association Annual Conference 2004-2005 Conference Registrar: Sociology of Education Association 2003-2004 California English Language Development Test Technical Advisory Group 2002-2004 UC LMRI Representative: California Bilingual Coordinators Network 2001-2003 Policy Representative: Graduate Student Government UC Davis 1999-2002 Bilingual Teacher Representative: Woodland High School and School District English Learner Advisory Committees (ELAC) 1993-1999 Bilingual Teacher Representative: Jamul-Dulzura Union School District (JDUSD) English Learner Advisory Committee 1994-1998 Bilingual Representative: School Site Council, (JDUSD) 1997-1999 Chapter President: Jamul Primary School Teachers Association 1994-1999 Member: Jamul-Dulzura Union School District Teachers Association 1997-1999 Language Arts Improvement Project: English Language Development Representative, Jamul-Dulzura Union School District 1994-1996 School Presentation and Visitations Team: Jamul-Dulzura Union School District 1997-1999 English Language Development Cadre Train the Trainers Program: San Diego County Office of Education 1995 Cognitive Coaching Institute: San Diego County Office of Education 1994-1999 Development and implementation of a primary language development and academic enrichment program for Spanish-dominant Kindergarten students: (JDUSD)

Callahan

Curriculum Vitae Appendix-028

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Appendix-029

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Appendix-030

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Appendix-031

recycled paper

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

A AMERICAN COUNCIL ON THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

REFERENCES FOR COGNITIVE QUESTION THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT EARLY LANGUAGE LEARNING IMPROVES COGNITIVE ABILITIES. Foster, K. M., & Reeves, C. K. (1989). Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) improves cognitive skills. FLES News, 2(3), 4. This study looks at the effects of an elementary school foreign language program on basic skills by looking at the relationship between months of elementary foreign language instruction in French and scores on instruments designed to measure cognitive and metacognitive processes. The study included 67 sixth-grade students who were divided into four groups that differed by lengths of time in the foreign language program. There was a control group of 25 students who had no French instruction and three groups of students who had participated in the program for different lengths of time (6.5 months, 15.5 months, and 24.5 months). The students who did receive foreign language instruction had received 30 minutes of French instruction daily after 30 minutes of basal reading in English. The control group received an additional 30 minutes of reading instruction in place of foreign language instruction. The results of the analysis showed that the groups who received foreign language instruction scored significantly higher in three areas (evaluation on the Ross test, total score of all cognitive functions on Ross test, and total score on Butterfly and Moths test) than the control group. In particular, the students who had received foreign language instruction scored higher on tasks involving evaluation which is the highest cognitive skill according to Bloom's taxonomy. The linear trend analysis showed that the students who had studied French the longest performed the best. Landry, R. G. (1973). The enhancement of figural creativity through second language learning at the elementary school level. Foreign Language Annals, 7(1), 111-115. from Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database. The main hypothesis of this study is that the experience of learning a second language at the elementary school level is positively correlated to divergent thinking in figural tasks. This study is concerned with flexibility in thinking through experience with a foreign language. Comparisons are made between second language learners and single language learners. The second language learners score significantly higher than do the monolingual students. Second language learning appears, therefore, not only to provide children with the ability to depart from the traditional approaches to a problem, but http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

Appendix-032

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

also to supply them with possible rich resources for new and different ideas. Bamford, K. W., & Mizokawa, D. T. (1991). Additive-bilingual (immersion) education: Cognitive and language development. Language Learning, 41(3), 413-429. from ERIC database. Examination of a second grade additive-bilingual (Spanish-immersion) classroom, compared to a monolingual classroom for nonverbal problem-solving and native-language development, found significant differences in problem solving in favor of the bilingual class and no significant differences in nativelanguage development. Barik, H. C., & Swain, M. (1976). A longitudinal study of bilingual and cognitive development. International Journal of Psychology, 11(4), 251-263. from PsycINFO database. Presents findings of a study of IQ data collected over a 5-yr period (kindergarten to Grade 4) on pupils in a French immersion program (anglophone pupils receiving all instruction in French except English language arts) and pupils in the regular English program. Although year-by-year results may fail to show IQ differences between the 2 groups, repeated measures analysis indicates that the immersion group had a higher IQ measure over the 5-yr period. Supportive of those studies is a further analysis on the data of immersion students classified as "high" vs "low" French achievers. High achievers obtained significantly higher IQ measures and subtest scores than low achievers, even when scores were adjusted for initial IQ and age differences. F Samuels, D. D., & Griffore, R. J. (1979). The Plattsburgh french language immersion program: Its influence on intelligence and self-esteem. Language Learning, 29(1), 45-52. from Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database. This study examined the effects of a year's attendance in a French Language Immersion Program (FLIP) on children's verbal & performance sections of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) & self-esteem, measured by the Purdue Self Concept Scale (PSCS). Eighteen 6-year-olds attended the program, while 13 6-year-olds constituted a control group which attended a regular English program. Analyses of data showed that differences between the FLIP & English control groups at the end of the school year were not significant for Verbal IQ or PSCS. Significant differences were found between groups on overall Performance IQ, Picture Arrangement, & Object Assembly. The increments in Performance IQ in the FLIP group are consistent with previously reported data suggesting that bilinguals have greater cognitive flexibility than monolinguals.

FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING BY INVESTIGATING THESE RESOURCES. http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

Appendix-033

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

Met, M. (1991). Elementary school foreign languages: What research can and cannot tell us. In E. S. Silber (Ed.), Critical issues in foreign language instruction (pp. 63-79). New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. Examined are some issues in elementary school foreign-language instruction, including concerns about when to begin such instruction, which language(s) to teach, learning methods, & measures of competence among children. The cognitive, academic, & attitudinal benefits of early language learning are discussed, along with factors that may affect the beginning grade level (resources, etc). In general it is asserted that the earlier the language is introduced, the more rapidly children stand to reap the benefits. FLES & FLEX instruction programs are considered as models, & content-based instruction is cited as most effectively transmitting the communicative & semantic nature of a foreign language to children. It is further suggested that both immersion & FLES learning programs may provide the best vehicles for producing research data on the effectiveness of primary school foreign-language study. 39 References. M. Chamberlain Stewart, J. H. (2005). Foreign language study in elementary schools: Benefits and implications for achievement in reading and math. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(1), 11-16. from PsycINFO database. Educators and policy makers in many countries have been expressing concern about how to improve students' achievement in reading and math. This article explores and proposes a solution: introduce or increase foreign language study in the elementary schools. Research has shown that foreign language study in the early elementary years improves cognitive abilities, positively influences achievement in other disciplines, and results in higher achievement test scores in reading and math. Successful foreign language programs for elementary schools include immersion, FLES, and FLEX programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract) Weatherford, H. J. (1986). Personal benefits of foreign language study. ERIC digest. U.S.; District of Columbia: There is an increasing awareness of the usefulness of foreign language training in a number of seemingly diverse areas. Foreign language students develop not only technical skills related to language use but also tangible advantages in the job market because of their increased communication skills. Mastery of languages also enhances the enjoyment of travel abroad and reduces frustration and isolation during travel in other countries. Increased international business opportunities have made meaningful communication and understanding between cultures more valuable, and the individual's ability to understand and empathize across cultural lines is increased with language study. In addition, research suggests that foreign language study enhances both cognitive development and academic achievement. While it is certain that people familiar with more than one language and culture can communicate more effectively with people of other countries and cultures, it is also possible that through learning another language and culture, people become more effective problem-solvers, closer to achieving solutions to pressing social problems because of an increased awareness of a wider set of options. (MSE) http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

Appendix-034

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

THERE IS EVIDENCE BILINGUALISM CORRELATES WITH INCREASED COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND ABILITIES. Ben-Zeev, S. (1977). The influence of bilingualism on cognitive strategy and cognitive development. Child Development, 48(3), 1009-1018. from PsycINFO database. Hypothesized that mutual interference between a bilingual child's 2 languages forces the child to develop particular coping strategies which in some ways accelerate cognitive development. The sample consisted of 96 5-8 yr olds: 2 groups of Hebrew-English bilinguals, one group tested in the US and the other group tested in Israel; and 2 groups of monolinguals, with those tested in the US speaking only English and those tested in Israelspeaking only Hebrew. In all groups parent occupation and education level were similarly high. In spite of lower vocabulary level, bilinguals showed more advanced processing of verbal material, more discriminating perceptual distinctions, more propensity to search for structure in perceptual situations, and more capacity to reorganize their perceptions in response to feedback. Ben-Zeev, S. (1977). The effect of bilingualism in children from Spanish-English low economic neighborhoods on cognitive development and cognitive strategy. Working papers on bilingualism, no. 14. Bilingual Education Project. A previous study found that middle-class Hebrew-English bilingual children were characterized by distinctive perceptual strategies and more advanced processing in certain verbal tasks, as compared to similar monolinguals. The present study tested whether similar strategies and response patterns will appear when the children involved are from different language groups and from relatively disadvantaged inner-city neighborhoods. The results showed that Spanish-English bilingual children manifest similar strategies to those found in the previous study (distinctive perceptual strategies and more advanced processing in certain verbal tasks), although with some attenuation. The strategies apply to nonverbal as well as verbal material. These results appeared in spite of deficiencies in vocabulary and syntax usage for the Spanish-English bilinguals relative to their control group of similar ethnic and social background. Duncan, S. E., & De AvilaEdward A. (1979). Bilingualism and cognition: Some recent findings. NABE: The Journal for the National Association for Bilingual Education, 4(1), 15-50. from ERIC database. Hispanic children in grades 1 and 3 were tested to examine the relationship between degree of bilingualism in English and Spanish, intellectual development level, and performance on two tests of cognitive-perceptual functioning or field dependence /independence. A positive, significant relationship was found between relative language proficiency and cognitive perceptual performance. Fardeau, O. (1993). Franco-italian bilingualism in early childhood and cognitive development. [Bilinguisme precoce franco-italien et developpement cognitif] Il http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

Forneri, 7(2), 83-99. from Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database. Investigated is the relationship between bilingualism in children and cognitive development. French-Italian bilingual children (aged 7-11) were categorized into four groups: (1) equally fluent in both languages, acquired at home; (2) equally fluent in both languages, acquired scholastically; (3) dominant in French; & (4) dominant in Italian. A control group of monolingual Italian children is identified for comparison with the results. A series of cognitive tests was administered to the students and to the control group. It is concluded that bilingualism in early childhood exerts a positive effect on the formation of cognitive processes in children. Ginsburg, H. J., & McCoy, I.H. (1981). An empirical rationale for foreign languages in elementary schools. Modern Language Journal, 65(1), 36-42. from ERIC database. Presents case promoting foreign languages in elementary schools using study conducted to explore relationships between bilingual and cognitive abilities of Mexican American children. Favors additive over subtractive bilingualism. Hakuta, K. (1985). Cognitive development in bilingual instruction. U.S.; Virginia: Theory and research on bilingualism and its relationship to cognitive development have provided mixed results, especially in relation to the value of United States bilingual education programs. Little of the existing research on bilingualism is generalizable to U.S. minority language groups. However, one study of children in a bilingual program designed to see if intellectual abilities are related to the student's degree of bilingualism rather than to compare bilingual and monolingual children found that a positive relation exists between bilingualism and various abilities, such as the ability to think abstractly about language and to think nonverbally. In addition, the correlation between the students' abilities in the two languages developed in the bilingual education program became stronger in the course of the program, supporting the idea of the interdependence of the languages of the bilingual. Liedtke, W. W., & Nelson, L. D. (1968). Concept formation and bilingualism. AlbertaJournal of Educational Research, 14(4), 225-232. from PsycINFO database. Two samples of Grade 1 pupils, 50 monolingual and 50 bilingual were tested on a specially constructed Concepts of Linear Measurement Test based on Piaget's test items. The bilingual sample proved to be significantly superior to the monolingual sample on the concept formation test. Ricciardelli, L. A. (1993). An investigation of the cognitive development of ItalianEnglish bilinguals and Italian monolinguals from Rome. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 14(4), 345-346. from Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database. The cognitive development of Italian-English bilingual & Italian monolingual children (aged 5-6) was studied based on measures of metalinguistic awareness, creativity, nonverbal abilities, & reading achievement. Following proficiency testing in both languages, students were assigned to groups of high & low Italian proficiency & high & low English proficiency, producing six groups http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

for comparison. Results of comparison of performance on the measures of cognitive development indicated that students who demonstrated high proficiency in both English & Italian achieved higher scores on the creativity, metalinguistic awareness, & reading achievement tests. Rodriguez, Y. G. (. (1992). The effects of bilingualism on cognitive development. (EdD, ProQuest Information & Learning/Temply University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (4-A), 1104. It was the primary purpose of this study to investigate the effects of bilingualism on the cognitive development and linguistic performance of children at various ages living in the same cultural environment. It also studied the relationship between formal operational thought and a prerequisite cognitive style as typified by field independence/field dependence for both bilingual and monolingual subjects. The bilingual subjects were tested for both language dominance and language proficiency. To investigate the interrelationships between bilingualism and cognitive function, it was necessary to include both verbal and non-verbal tests of cognition. No significant differences in performance could be attributed to lingualism, grade, or age with the exception of language proficiency correlated with cognitive level on analytical reasoning. The childrens' overall cognitive level indicated some justification for the theoretical relationship between verbal and non-verbal measures of abstract thinking. The bilingual children used higher order rules more frequently than the monolingual children. The evidence seems to suggest that bilingualism may scaffold concept formation and general mental flexibility.

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN BILINGUALISM AND THE OFFSET OF AGE-RELATED COGNITIVE LOSSES. Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., Klein, R., & Viswanathan, M. (2004). Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the simon task. Psychology and Aging, 19(2), 290-303. from PsycINFO database. Previous work has shown that bilingualism is associated with more effective controlled processing in children; the assumption is that the constant management of 2 competing languages enhances executive functions (E. Bialystok, 2001). The present research attempted to determine whether this bilingual advantage persists for adults and whether bilingualism attenuates the negative effects of aging on cognitive control in older adults. Three studies are reported that compared the performance of monolingual and bilingual middleaged and older adults on the Simon task. Bilingualism was associated with smaller Simon effect costs for both age groups; bilingual participants also responded more rapidly to conditions that placed greater demands on working memory. In all cases the bilingual advantage was greater for older participants. It appears, therefore, that controlled processing is carried out more effectively by bilinguals and that bilingualism helps to offset age-related losses in certain executive processes.

http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN BILINGUALISM AND ATTENTIONAL CONTROL ON COGNITIVE TASKS. Bialystok, E. (1999). Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind. Child Development, 70(3), 636-644. from PsycINFO database. Investigates whether the bilingual advantage in control (selective attention) can be found in a nonverbal task, the dimensional change card sort, used by P. D. Zelazo and D. Frye (e.g., 1997) to assess Cognitive Complexity and Control (CCC). The author contends this problem contains misleading information characteristic of high-control tasks but minimal demands for analysis. 60 preschool children, half of whom were bilingual, were divided into a group of younger (mean age 4.2 yrs) and older (mean age 5.4 yrs) children. All the children were given a test of English proficiency (PPVT-R; L. M. Dunn and L. M. Dunn, 1981) and working memory (Visually-Cued Recall Task) to assure comparability of the groups and then administered the dimensional change card sort task and the moving word task. The bilingual children were more advanced than the monolinguals in the solving of experimental problems requiring high levels of control. It is concluded that these results demonstrate the role of attentional control in both these tasks.

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN BILINGUALISM AND INTELLIGENCE. Peal, E., & Lambert, W. E. (1962). The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs, 76(27, Whole No. 546), 23. from PsycINFO database. This study utilizing a group of monolingual and a group of bilingual 10-year old children obtained from 6 Montreal French schools were given verbal and nonverbal intelligence tests as well as measures of attitudes to the English and French communities. It is interesting to note that this study contrary to others found that bilinguals performed significantly better than their monolingual controls both on the verbal and the nonverbal intelligence tests. Factor analysis supported the hypothesis that the structures of intellect for the 2 groups differed with the bilingual group possessing a more diversified set of mental abilities. Attitude studies also appear to give the bilinguals a more favorable attitude, than their monolingual comparable peers, toward the English-Canadians and less toward the French-Canadians.

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN BILINGUALISM AND METALINGUISTIC SKILLS. Bialystok, E. (1988). Levels of bilingualism and levels of linguistic awareness. Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 560-567. from PsycINFO database. A framework for relating degree of bilingualism to aspects of linguistic awareness is presented in which metalinguistic tasks are described in terms of http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

their demands for analysis of knowledge or control of processing. Two studies are reported in which children differing in their level of bilingualism were given metalinguistic problems to solve that made demands on either analysis or control. The hypotheses were that all bilingual children would perform better than monolingual children on all metalinguistic tasks requiring high levels of control of processing and that fully bilingual children would perform better than partially bilingual children on tasks requiring high levels of analysis of knowledge. The results were largely consistent with these predictions. Galambos, S. J., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (1990). The effects of learning two languages on levels of metalinguistic awareness. Cognition, 34(1), 1-56. from PsycINFO database. Observed the development of metalinguistic awareness and tested the bilingual hypothesis, by comparing metalinguistic skills in 32 Spanish-speaking and 32 English-speaking monolinguals and in 32 Spanish-English bilinguals aged 4 yrs 5 mo to 8 yrs. The Spanish and English metalinguistic tests each contained 15 different ungrammatical constructions and 15 grammatically correct "fillers." For each item, the children were asked in the appropriate language to note whether the construction was correct or incorrect, to correct the errors they noted, and to explain why those errors were wrong. Data suggest that the experience of learning 2 languages hastens the development of certain metalinguistic skills in young children but does not alter the course of that development. Mohanty, A. K. (1992). Bilingualism and cognitive development of kond tribal children: Studies on metalinguistic hypothesis. Pharmacopsychoecologia.Special Issue: Environmental Toxicology and Social Ecology, 5(1-2), 57-66. from PsycINFO database. Bilinguals' superiority over unilinguals on cognitive, linguistic, and academic achievement measures has been explained in terms of a metalinguistic hypothesis that suggests that use of 2 or more languages endows the language users with special awareness of objective properties of language and enables them to analyze linguistic input more effectively. A series of studies compared unilingual and balanced bilingual Kond children to investigate the metalinguistic hypothesis. These studies show that the bilinguals outperform the unilinguals on a number of cognitive, linguistic, and metalinguistic tasks, even when the differences in intelligence are controlled. However, a study with unschooled bilingual and unilingual children showed no significant differences in metalinguistic skills. The metalinguistic hypothesis of bilinguals' superiority in cognition may need to be reexamined in the context of the effect of schooling on metalinguistic processes. Pattnaik, K., & Mohanty, A. K. (1984). Relationship between metalinguistics and cognitive development of bilingual and unilingual tribal children. Psycho-Lingua, 14(1), 63-70. from PsycINFO database. Investigated the relationship between metalinguistic and cognitive ability of 120 bilingual and unilingual children who were 6, 8, and 10 yrs of age. Metalinguistic http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

ability was determined from students’ abilities to perceive rhymes in language, judge the appropriateness of corrections of others' speech, define words, substitute symbols, understand arbitrary language, and create words. Cognitive abilities were measured with Piagetian conservation tasks and the Progressive Matrices Test. Results suggest that bilingualism enhances the metalinguistic ability of children but does not improve their cognitive abilities because bilinguals are capable of switching from one linguistic code to the other. It is therefore contended that metalinguistic abilities constitute a set of abilities independent from cognitive abilities and that the better performance of bilinguals is due to their ability to reflect on language regardless of their cognitive development.

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN BILINGUALISM AND MEMORY SKILLS. Kormi-Nouri, R., Moniri, S., & Nilsson, L. (2003). Episodic and semantic memory in bilingual and monolingual children. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44(1), 47-54. from PsycINFO database. Although bilinguality has been reported to confer advantages upon children with respect to various cognitive abilities, much less is known about the relation between memory and bilinguality. In this study, 60 (30 girls and 30 boys) bilingual and 60 (30 girls and 30 boys) monolingual children in three age groups (ages 7.9-9.4, 9.7-11.4 and 11.7-13.3 yrs) were compared on episodic memory and semantic memory tasks. Episodic memory was assessed using subjectperformed tasks (with real or imaginary objects) and verbal tasks, with retrieval by both free recall and cued recall. Semantic memory was assessed by word fluency tests. Positive effects of bilingualism were found on both episodic memory and semantic memory at all age levels. These findings suggest that bilingual children integrate and/or organize the information of two languages and so bilingualism creates advantages in terms of cognitive abilities (including memory).

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN BILINGUALISM AND PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY. Stephens, Mary Ann Advisor: Esquivel, Giselle B. (1997). Bilingualism, creativity, and social problem-solving. (PhD, Fordham University). The present study investigated the effects of bilingualism on the creativity and social problem-solving skills of 84 Hispanic children from Spanish-speaking homes. The subjects were students from a small city school district in the New York metropolitan area. Only students demonstrating high levels of proficiency (60% or higher on the Language Assessment Battery) were considered to be proficient in the language being assessed. Students who demonstrated proficiency in both Spanish and English were considered 'bilingual' for the purposes of the study. Those meeting the criterion in only one language were considered to be 'monolingual.' The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking was http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

administered as the measure of creativity, and the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale was used to measure social problem-solving abilities. The Ravens Progressive Matrices were used to measure general cognitive ability. General cognitive ability was used as a covariate in the statistical analyses. The results indicated that the bilingual children outperformed their monolingual counterparts in the area of social problem solving, but not in the area of creativity. The positive relationship seen between bilingualism and social problem solving further strengthens the research in the area of the positive advantages of bilingualism.

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN BILINGUALISM AND IMPROVED VERBAL AND SPATIAL ABILITIES. DIAZ, R. M. (1982). THE IMPACT OF SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF VERBAL AND SPATIAL ABILITIES. (PhD, Yale University). The present study investigated the development of verbal and spatial abilities over time within a group of Spanish(L1)-English(L2) bilingual children currently attending Kindergarten and First-grade bilingual education programs. The study was designed in response to methodological gaps in current research on bilinguals' cognitive development; in particular, the study examined the cognitive effects of bilingualism on children who are just beginning to learn a second language and proposed a measure of degree of bilingualism that effectively controls for basic ability in the dominant language. The results firmly supported the claim that bilingualism fosters the development of verbal and spatial abilities. The relationship between degree of bilingualism and cognitive abilities was particularly strong for children of low second-language proficiency. This pattern of results questioned the validity of Cummins' threshold hypothesis and suggested a new, alternative threshold hypothesis. The new (Diaz) threshold hypothesis states that variability in second-language proficiency would be related to variability in cognitive measures only before a certain threshold of proficiency in the second language is attained. Two different sets of statistical analyses gave support to a cause-effect model where degree of bilingualism is the causal factor affecting cognitive abilities. An experimental study examined the construct of cognitive flexibility and provided some support for the claim that the nonverbal advantages observed in bilingual children could be explained by their use of verbal mediation in the processing of nonverbal tasks.

FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF BILINGUALISM BY INVESTIGATING THESE REVIEWS OF THE LITERATURE. Bialystok, E. (. (2005). Consequences of bilingualism for cognitive development. New York, NY, US: Oxford UniversityPress. (From the chapter) Research addressing the possible cognitive consequences http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

of bilingualism for children's development has found mixed results when seeking effects in domains such as language ability and intelligence. The approach in the research reported in this chapter is to investigate the effect that bilingualism might have on specific cognitive processes rather than domains of skill development. Three cognitive domains are examined: concepts of quantity, task switching and concept formation, and theory of mind. The common finding in these disparate domains is that bilingual children are more advanced than monolinguals in solving problems requiring the inhibition of misleading information. The conclusion is that bilingualism accelerates the development of a general cognitive function concerned with attention and inhibition, and that facilitating effects of bilingualism are found on tasks and processes in which this function is most required. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) Cummins, J. (1993). Bilingualism and second language learning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 51-70. from Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database. The past five years have witnessed an increase in interest in bilingualism & second-language learning among researchers & policy makers. Growing cultural & linguistic diversity, cross-cultural contact, & the increasing recognition of the linguistic rights of indigenous & cultural minorities have fostered this interest. Recent advances in research & theory concerning these issues are addressed. Four topics are given specific attention: language shift in early childhood, cognitive & academic consequences of bilingualism & secondlanguage learning, bilingualism & second-language learning during the school years, & theoretical approaches to the development of bilingualism & secondlanguage learning. An annotated bibliography is also provided. Diaz, R. M. (., & Klinger, C. (1991). Towards an explanatory model of the interaction between bilingualism and cognitive development. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Most of the chapters in this volume were originally presented in the invited symposium "language acquisition and implications for processing in bilingual children" at the meeting of the society for research in child development, 1987. (pp. 167-192). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press. (From the chapter) proposes an explanatory model of the relation between bilingualism and cognitive abilities that specifies the role of language awareness in the development of non-linguistic cognitive skills it is our belief that any successful explanation of the interaction between bilingualism and cognitive development must fulfill two basic requirements: first, the model should be formulated, developed, and tested within a solid theoretical framework regarding the relation between language and thought in development; second, the model should be constrained by the available data / in other words, the model should be developed in order to explain the reliable findings to date on bilingual cognitive development in order to fulfill our second requirement for the development of an explanatory model, we review the literature in search of findings that must be explained / discuss six different sets of findings regarding the relation between bilingualism and cognitive development cognitive advantages / metalinguistic abilities / additive and substractive situations / timing of positive effects / bilingual private speech Vygotsky's theory of thought and http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/references-cognitive#cognitive_development

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References for Cognitive Question | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

language (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) Hakuta, K. (1986). Cognitive development of bilingual children No. ER3). U.S.; Connecticut: The idea that bilingualism causes cognitive damage to children is no longer held by researchers, but it lingers in popular belief. It is based on the assumption that language is central to cognitive development, which is not held by all theorists. Another theoretical issue is whether the mind is a limited-capacity container or can accommodate two languages with ease. Social concerns arising from cases of poor acculturation have also influenced research on bilingualism. More recent research has compared the performance of "real" bilingual children, those with roughly equal language skills, with that of monolingual children and found the former group to have superior performance, especially in metalinguistic ability. There is now data suggesting that even language minority students in bilingual education programs who are in the process of learning English can benefit from some of the advantages of bilingualism. These studies contradict the argument that bilingualism in itself might cause cognitive confusion in the child, and support the idea that bilingualism can lead to higher levels of metalinguistic awareness and cognitive ability. In general, they point to the benefits to children of all language backgrounds of learning and maintaining two languages. (MSE)

Thanks to Amanda Kibler and Sandy Philipose, Graduate Research Assistants of Guadalupe Valdés at Stanford University, for assisting in the compilation of these studies. This information is not designed to provide a comprehensive review of the research studies available but has been compiled to highlight the benefits of language learning.

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Appendix-043

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Studies Supporting Increased Academic Achievement | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

A AMERICAN COUNCIL ON THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

STUDIES SUPPORTING INCREASED ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT LANGUAGE LEARNING CORRELATES WITH HIGHER ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT ON STANDARDIZED TEST MEASURES. Armstrong, P. W., & Rogers, J. D. (1997). Basic skills revisited: The effects of foreign language instruction on reading, math, and language arts. Learning Languages, 2(3), 20-31. Third-grade students from were randomly assigned to receive 30-minute Spanish lessons three times a week for one semester. These lessons focused on oral-aural skills and were conducted entirely in Spanish. Students in the Spanish classes scored significantly higher than the group that did not receive Spanish instruction in math and language on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). There was no significant difference in reading scores. Cade, J. M. (1997). The foreign language immersion program in the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools, 1986-1996 [Abstract]. Dissertation Abstracts International -A 58(10), 3838. This study describes the planning, development, implementation, and assessment of the foreign language magnet plan in schools in the Kansas City, Missouri Public School District. The program outcomes appeared to support the contentions found in research that, over time, second language learners (1) have improved test scores; (2) are able to think divergently; (3) achieve in their first language; and (4) attract and maintain parent involvement. Carr, C.G. (1994). The effect of middle school foreign language study on verbal achievement as measured by three subtests of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills [Abstract]. Dissertation Abstracts International -A 55(07), 1856. This study looked at the effects of foreign language study on the verbal achievement of middle school students as measured by three subtests of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills. The students were compared with students who did not have language study but were enrolled in the Challenge Reading program. The study concluded that performance in reading comprehension, language mechanics, and language expression was significantly higher in favor of the experimental group (foreign language study) when such variables as academic aptitude and level of performance in the treatment were statistically controlled. Johnson, C. E., Flores, J. S., & Eillson, F. P. (1963). The effect of foreign language instruction on basic learning in elementary schools: A second report. The Modern http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/studies-supporting#immersion

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Studies Supporting Increased Academic Achievement | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

Language Journal, 47(1), 8-11. This study looked at the effects of 20 minutes of daily Spanish instruction on academic achievement. Students were given the Iowa Every-Pupil Test of Basic Skills in September of students’ fourth and fifth grade years. Students receiving Spanish instruction scored higher than the control group in language skills, work study skills, and arithmetic, but the difference was not statistically significant. Likewise, the control group scored higher than the experimental group in reading vocabulary and reading comprehension, but differences were not significant. The author concludes that foreign language instruction does not hinder academic achievement. Johnson, C. E., Ellison, F. P., & Flores, J. S. (1961). The effect of foreign language instruction on basic learning in elementary schools. The Modern Language Journal, 45(5), 200-202. In this pilot study, two third-grade classrooms were used to compare the effects of foreign language instruction on basic skills. One classroom received Spanish instruction for 25 minutes per day for the spring semester, while the other class followed the regular curriculum with no foreign language instruction. Analysis of the results showed the groups receiving language instruction had higher mean scores than the control group in arithmetic and English grammar, although their scores were slightly lower than the control group in English punctuation, comprehension, and vocabulary. Haak, L. A., & Leino, W. B. (1963). The teaching of Spanish in the elementary schools and the effects on achievement in other selected subject areas., 100. from ERIC database. Classes from six schools were used with the experimental groups devoting 15 minutes per day to Spanish instruction over a three-year period. The Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the Stanford Social Studies test served as measurements. The conclusions drawn were (1) deletion of time from arithmetic, language and social studies had no detrimental effect upon measured achievement in subject areas from which the time was taken; (2) measured intelligence is positively correlated with measured achievement in the learning of Spanish. Lopato, E. W. (1963). FLES and academic achievement. The French Review, 36(5), 499-507. 114 third-grade students from four classrooms participated in this study. Students were “equated” for grade placement, age, intelligence, and socio-economic status, and teachers were “equated” for fluency in French. These experimental groups received daily 15-minute French lessons from their classroom teachers, who were both described as “fluent” in French. The French instruction was aural-oral and did not include reading or writing in the target language. The Stanford Achievement Test was given as a pre-test at the beginning of the school year, and an alternate form of the test was given at the end of the school year. At one of the school sites, the experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group on the average arithmetic scores, but not on average reading, spelling, or language. At the other school site, students receiving foreign language instruction scored significantly higher on the average arithmetic and spelling sections, but not the average reading or language sections of the test. Rafferty, E. A. (1986). Second language study and basic skills in Louisiana. U.S.; Louisiana, from ERIC database. http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/studies-supporting#immersion

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Studies Supporting Increased Academic Achievement | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

A statewide study in Louisiana revealed that third, fourth, and fifth graders who participated in 30-minute elementary school foreign language programs in the public schools showed significantly higher scores on the 1985 Basic Skills Language Arts Test than did a similar group that did not study a foreign language. Further, by fifth grade, the math scores of language students were also higher than those of students not studying a foreign language. Both groups were matched for race, sex, and grade level, and the academic levels of students in both groups were estimated by their previous Basic Skills Test results and statistically equated. The results of the analysis suggest that foreign language study in the lower grades helps students acquire English language arts skills and, by extension, math skills. Sheridan, R. (1976). Augmenting reading skills through language learning transfer. FLES Latin program evaluation reports, 1973-74, 1974-75, 1975-76. From ERID database. A project was begun in 1973 in the Indianapolis Public School system based on the hypothesis that English language skills and the control of syntactic structures can be measurably improved through participation in a specially designed Latin FLES program stressing the importance of Latin root words. Goals of the project were to assess whether or not the study of Latin and classical civilization will: (1) expand the verbal functioning of sixth grade children in English, and (2) broaden their cultural horizons and stimulate an interest in humanities. The project was directed towards approximately 400 sixth graders in six schools, all studying Latin and classical civilization in a program coordinated with their regular classes. They received a thirty-minute lesson each day 5 days per week taught by a Latin specialist. The present program evaluation report shows overall gains in word knowledge, reading, language, spelling, math computation, math concepts, math problem solving, and social studies after the first year, and gains in spelling, reading, and math concepts following the second and third years of the program, as seen from results on subtests of the Metropolitan Achievement Test. Thomas, W. P., Collier, V. P., & Abbott, M. (1993). Academic achievement through Japanese, Spanish, or French: The first two years of partial immersion. Modern Language Journal, 77(2), 170-179. from PsycINFO database. Compared the academic performance of 719 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd graders in a foreign language partial immersion program with that of 1,320 students in the same grades and with similar demographics, but not in an immersion program. Students were tested to determine performance in mathematics and English language arts, and oral proficiency in the target language (Japanese, Spanish, or French) was examined for immersion students. Immersion students scored at least as well, and to some extent better than, nonimmersion students. There was no evidence that the immersion experience hampered academic and cognitive development. In target language proficiency, immersion students made steady progress toward oral proficiency in the target language, reaching the upper end of the midlevel proficiency range by the end of the 2nd yr. Barik, H. C., & Swain, M. (1978). Evaluation of a French immersion program: The Ottawastudy through grade five. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 10(3), 192-201. from PsycINFO database. Assessed a Canadian French immersion program in which English-speaking pupils attending English schools are taught partially or completely in French. The program involved nearly 33% of the children who entered the Ottawa public school system in kindergarten. http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/studies-supporting#immersion

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Studies Supporting Increased Academic Achievement | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

Two groups were matched according to socioeconomic status characteristics and were generally from a middle to upper-middle-class background. Sstudents were administered several measures including the Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test and Canadian Tests of Basic Skills. Only Grade 5 students were given the Metropolitan Science Test only. French immersion pupils were given a set of achievement tests in French and tests of reading comprehension in French. Results indicate that immersion group students were in general on the same level with or ahead of the regular English in most academic areas considered (e.g., work-study skills and mathematics) and were performing satisfactorily in French. Genesee, F., & Lambert, W. E. (1983). Trilingual education for majority-language children. Child Development, 54(1), 105-114. from PsycINFO database. Examined the effectiveness of double-immersion (DI) programs in which English-speaking children receive curriculum instruction in 2 second languages (Hebrew and French) before or along with 1st-language instruction. French second-language proficiency of Grade 5 DI students was as good as that of comparable students in single-immersion programs in French only and better than that of non-immersion students with conventional French-as-asecond-language instruction. None of the DI groups showed deficits in 1st-language development or academic achievement. It is concluded that DI, especially if begun early, can be an effective means for English-speaking children to acquire functional proficiency in 2 non-native languages and that instruction in the 1st language in the beginning of the program has no long-term benefits to first-language development but may slow down second-language learning. Turnbull, M., Hart, D., & Lapkin, S. (2003). Grade 6 French immersion students' performance on large-scale reading, writing, and mathematics tests: Building explanations. AlbertaJournal of Educational Research, 49(1), 6-23. from PsycINFO database. We analyzed data from Ontario's provincial testing program to ascertain if the reading, writing, and mathematics skills of grade 6 immersion students were comparable to those of regular English program students. The analysis confirms the results of earlier program evaluations that any lags in immersion students' achievement in reading, writing, and math disappear by grade 6. We offer two explanations to account for this result. The lag explanation holds that taking reading, writing, and math in French until the end of grade 3 creates a lag in achievement until English is introduced into the curriculum, after which immersion students catch up to regular students' performance. The selection explanation suggests that immersion test performance improves by grade 6 relative to regular English program counterparts because the composition of the grade 6 cohort is more select than that of earlier cohorts.

LANGUAGE LEARNING IS BENEFICIAL TO BOTH MONOLINGUAL ENGLISH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN BILINGUAL AND TWO-WAY IMMERSION PROGRAMS. Cohen, A. D. (1974). The Culver CitySpanish immersion program: The first two years. The Modern Language Journal, 58(3), 95-103. from Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database. http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/studies-supporting#immersion

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Studies Supporting Increased Academic Achievement | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

A report on the Culver City Spanish Immersion Program designed for the bilingual education of English speaking students learning Spanish showed definite patterns emerging following the second year of the program. The English speaking students were acquiring competence in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish, while maintaining English language proficiency. These students are also performing on the same level as their English speaking age group who were not in bilingual programs in content subjects such as mathematics. Pagan, C. R. (2005). English learners' academic achievement in a two-way versus a structured English immersion program [Abstract]. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 66 (5), 1603-A-1604-A. (Available from UMI, Ann Arbor, MI. Order No. DA3175715.) This study examines the academic achievement scores of English learners in a two-way immersion (TWI) program and a Structured English Immersion program in two California elementary schools. In addition, this study compares the English and Spanish academic performance of English learners with the achievement levels of English-dominant students in the same TWI program. A total of 194 students were followed over a three-year period beginning with the 1999-2000 school year and ending in 2001-2002. Assessment scores from the Stanford 9 (reading and mathematics) and the Spanish Assessment for Basic Education (SABE) (reading and mathematics) were collected and analyzed. The findings support work by other researchers who have reported that teaching English learners in their home language does not impede the acquisition of English. Similarly, English-dominant students in a TWIprogram, by the end of their first and third year of this study, were achieving at-or-above grade level in both English and Spanish.

LANGUAGE LEARNING IS BENEFICIAL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS’ READING ABILITIES. D'Angiulli, A., Siegel, L. S., & Serra, E. (2001). The development of reading in English and Italian in bilingual children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22(4), 479-507. from PsycINFO database. This study analyzes the reading abilities of 81 English-speaking Canadian-born children (ages 9-13) who had been exposed to Italian at home, where both languages were spoken by their middle-class parents. The children attended an Italian heritage language class every day for 35 minutes, starting in the first grade. English and Italian monolingual comparison groups of students were used, which matched students on age. English monolingual students were comparable to bilingual students in that they lived in same geographical area, were taught using similar methods, and had comparable socioeconomic status. The Italian monolingual students from northern Italywere similar to the bilingual group in socioeconomic status and family background. A series of word reading, pseudoword reading, spelling, working memory, and oral cloze tasks were administered in each language. Findings indicate significant similar levels of performance in both languages, with correlations between English and Italian word reading, pseudoword reading, and spelling. In comparing 9-10 year-old bilinguals to English monolinguals on tasks in English, the bilingual skilled readers scored higher on word-reading and spelling tasks than the monolingual skilled readers, although no differences were found on psuedoword reading tasks, working memory, or oral cloze tasks. http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/studies-supporting#immersion

Appendix-048

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Studies Supporting Increased Academic Achievement | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

Diaz, J. O. P. (1982). The effects of a dual language reading program on the reading ability of Puerto Rican students. Reading Psychology, 3(3), 233-238. from ERIC database. This study revealed that Puerto Rican students recently arrived in the United States who participated in a bilingual reading program in Spanish and English performed significantly better than did similar students who did not participate in the program. District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, D.C. (1971). A study of the effect of Latin instruction on English reading skills of sixth grade students in the public schools of the district of Columbia, school year, 1970-71., 18. from ERIC database. This study examines the effect of language study on the English reading skills of sixth-grade school children. Achievement in reading skills of a control group of students receiving no foreign language instruction was compared with that in the Latin instruction group. Differences in scores of pretests and posttests of the more than 1100 students in three categories of reading achievement--vocabulary, comprehension, and total reading skills-were used as the data in determining average achievement in each group. Results of the study indicate that there is a significant difference between reading achievement scores of sixth-grade students receiving foreign language instruction and students with no foreign language instruction. Garfinkel, A., & Tabor, K. E. (1991). Elementary school foreign languages and English reading achievement: A new view of the relationship. Foreign Language Annals, 24(5), 375382. from Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database. In a four-year study of the relationship between the length of elementary foreign-language education & English reading achievement, 672 students from a Midwestern elementary school were administered reading tests after they had received two or four years of foreignlanguage instruction - up to grade six. The sample represented varying intelligence levels. Results indicated that students of average intelligence profited most from the two extra years of instruction in terms of English reading skills.

THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT LANGUAGE LEARNERS TRANSFER SKILLS FROM ONE LANGUAGE TO ANOTHER. Cunningham, T. H., & Graham, C. R. (2000). Increasing native English vocabulary recognition through Spanish immersion: Cognate transfer from foreign to first language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 37-49. from PsycINFO database. Effects of Spanish immersion on children's native English vocabulary were studied. Matched on grade, sex, and verbal scores on a 4th-grade Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT), 30 5th- and 6th-grade immersion students and 30 English monolinguals did 60 consecutive Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) items. The CAT and conventionally scored PPVT revealed comparable verbal ability between groups, but on 60 consecutive PPVT items, immersion did better than control because of cognates. On SECT, immersion significantly outperformed students in the control group. Findings support the idea that Spanish immersion has English-language benefits and that positive transfer (cross linguistic influence) occurs from Spanish as a foreign language to native English receptive vocabulary.

http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/studies-supporting#immersion

Appendix-049

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Studies Supporting Increased Academic Achievement | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

Hoffenberg, R. M., et al. (1971). Evaluation of the elementary school (FLES) Latin program 1970-71.R7202, Report: R-7202. 53. This study analyzes the effect of one year of daily Latin instruction (15- to 20-minute lessons) on academic achievement, as measured by the vocabulary section of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Thirty four fifth- and sixth-grade experimental subjects were matched with an equal number of control group subjects on measures of Iowa test score (from the previous year), grade level, and neighborhood. The authors note, however, that the neighborhood matching only provided a "rough control over socioeconomic factors." Results indicated that fifth-grade students in the experimental group were functioning on grade level (sixth month of fifth grade) on the English vocabulary measure while the control group scored one year below grade level. The authors concluded that Latin instruction was effective in building English vocabulary of experimental group students. Masciantonio, R. (1977). Tangible benefits of the study of Latin: A review of research. Foreign Language Annals, 10(375), 382. From ERIC database. This article examines the linguistic benefits of Latin in light of recent research which seems to document the relevance of Latin in building English vocabulary and reading skills. Evidence is cited from eight educational projects in which an experimental group of students taking Latin, and a control group not taking Latin, were pretested, posttested, and compared with regard to English verbal skills. In each case, the Latin students showed significant gains over the control group. Other studies supporting these findings are cited, as well as projects presently being conducted. These studies yield important pedagogical implications: (1) educational administrators and curriculum specialists should consider the significance of Latin in improving language skills; (2) the language profession should assume the responsibility of disseminating information about this research; and (3) responsible educators should combat the tendency to ignore research data for budgetary or other reasons.

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND INCREASED LINGUISTIC AWARENESS. Demont, E. (2001). Contribution of early 2nd-language learning to the development of linguistic awareness and learning to read/Contribution de l'apprentissage précoce d'une deuxième langue au développment de la conscience lingustique et à l'apprentissage de la lecture. International Journal of Psychology, 36(4), 274-285. from PsycINFO database This study aimed to validate the effects of second language learning on children's linguistic awareness. More particularly, it examined whether bilingual background improves the ability to manipulate morpho-syntactic structure. The study postulated that children who received a precocious learning of 2 languages (French-German) may develop enhanced awareness and control of syntactic structure since they need an appropriate syntactic repertoire in each language. In return, these children will gain access to the written language with more ease. The results showed an advantage for the children who attended bilingual classes since kindergarten: they were better at grammatical judgment and correction tasks and word recognition. http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/studies-supporting#immersion

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Studies Supporting Increased Academic Achievement | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND STUDENTS’ ABILITY TO HYPOTHESIZE IN SCIENCE. Kessler, C., & Quinn, M. E. (1980). Positive effects of bilingualism on Science problemsolving abilities. In J. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown Universityround table on languages and linguistics (pp. 295-308). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, from Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database. Examined are the consequences of bilingualism on children's ability to formulate scientific hypotheses or solutions to science problems & interactions of this ability with aspects of linguistic competence. Experimental group treatment consisted of 12 science inquiry film sessions & 6 discussion sessions, all taught by the same teacher in English. The quality of scientific hypotheses and the complexity of the language used to express them were found to be significantly higher for both experimental groups than for the control groups. However, the bilingual children, given the same instruction by the same teacher in formulating scientific hypotheses, consistently outperformed monolingual children both in the quality of hypotheses generated and in the syntactic complexity of the written language. One implication is that a well-organized bilingual program where children develop in two linguistic perspectives can make the positive interactions of cognitive functioning & language development more fully operative.

LANGUAGE LEARNING CAN BENEFIT ALL STUDENTS. Holobow, N. E., Genesee, F., Lambert, W. E., & Gastright, J. (1987). Effectiveness of partial French immersion for children from different social class and ethnic backgrounds. Applied Psycholinguistics, 8(2), 137-151. from PsycINFO database. Evaluated a program of partial (half-day) French immersion in kindergarten. The English and French language development of 122 native English-speaking children from both working and middle class backgrounds was assessed. Results indicate that the 73 experimental students progressed just as well in English as 70 matched controls who followed a conventional all-English program. It was also found that socioeconomically underprivileged students (both Black and White) benefited from an immersion-type introduction to a foreign language as much as students from middle class homes did. Degree of progress in French was not linked with social class background, even though this background factor clearly affected performance on the English language tests.

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN YOUNG CHILDREN’S SECOND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRINT AWARENESS. Bialystok, E. (1997). Effects of bilingualism and biliteracy on children's emerging concepts of print. Developmental Psychology, 33(3), 429-440. from PsycINFO database. http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/studies-supporting#immersion

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Studies Supporting Increased Academic Achievement | American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages

Three groups of 4- and 5-year-old children were examined for their concepts of how print refers to language. All of the children could identify printed letters and their sounds but not read alone. The groups studied were monolingual speakers of English, bilingual speakers of French and English, and bilingual speakers of Chinese (Mandarin) and English. Bilingual children were equally proficient in both languages and were familiar with print and storybooks in both languages. The tasks assessed children's understanding of the general correspondence between print and language in which the printed form represents a word and the specific correspondence between a constituent of print and one of language that determines representation in a given writing system. The general correspondence relation applies to all writing systems, but the specific correspondence relation changes for different kinds of writing systems. Bilingual children understood better than monolingual children the general symbolic representation of print. The older Chinese-English bilingual children also showed advanced understanding of the specific correspondence relations in English print.

HERITAGE LEARNERS WHO USE THEIR LANGUAGE SKILLS TO INTERPRET AND TRANSLATE FOR FAMILY MEMBERS EXPERIENCE HIGHER ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND GREATER SELF-EFFICACY. Buriel, R., Perez, W., De Ment, T. L., Chavez, D. V., & Moran, V. R. (1998). The relationship of language brokering to academic performance, biculturalism, and self-efficacy among Latino adolescents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20(3), 283-297. from PsycINFO database. Children who interpret for their immigrant parents are referred to as language brokers. The present study examined the relationship of language brokering to academic performance, biculturalism, academic self-efficacy, and social self efficacy. The many adultlike experiences of children who broker on a regular basis suggest that their cognitive and socioemotional development may be accelerated relative to children of immigrant families who broker infrequently or not at all. 122 Latino adolescents from immigrant families were participants in the study. Results showed that, as expected, language brokering was positively related to biculturalism, and in turn, both of these variables were positively related to academic performance. In addition, the strongest predictor of academic performance was academic self-efficacy. Results also indicated that, to some degree, language brokering is a gendered activity, with females reporting more brokering than males.

THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN LANGUAGE STUDY AND HIGHER SCORES ON THE SAT AND ACT TESTS. Cooper, T. C. (1987). Foreign language study and SAT-verbal scores. Modern Language Journal, 71(4), 381-387. from ERIC database. Comparison of verbal Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and California Achievement Test (CAT) scores of high school students who had or had not taken at least one year of foreign language study supported the conclusion that length of foreign language study was positively related to high SAT verbal scores. http://www.actfl.org/advocacy/discover-languages/advocacy/discover-languages/what-the-research-shows/studies-supporting#immersion

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5/1/2015

Branch Manager Job in Atlanta 30303, Georgia US

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Job Summary Comp an y Georgia United Credit Union Lo cation Atlanta, GA 30303 Ind us tries Banking J ob T ype Full Time Employee Ye ars of Experien ce 5+ to 7 Years Educ ation L evel Bachelor's Degree Career L ev el Manager (Manager/Supervisor of Staff) Con tact I n fo rm ation http://home.eease.adp.com/recruit/?id=12110571 Georgia United Credit Union Atlanta, GA 30303

Branch Manager About the Job

SHARED STRENGTH Georgia United Credit Union is a full service financial institution with assets of nearly $1 billion. As an organization that is committed to service, our vision is to become the financial institution and employer of choice by consistently exceeding our member and employee expectations. We are looking for enthusiastic team players with great attitudes to enhance our service to our members! Currently we are seeking a Branch Manager in the Whitehall branch (Downtown Atlanta - 400 Whitehall St SE). Responsibilities: Direct and administer branch sales, service, goals, budgets, operations and financial performance. Ensure that services are delivered professionally and efficiently and that member requests and problems are resolved promptly. Foster and develop profitable business relationships within the community to increase the overall branch performance and productivity by attending membership drives and spending time out of the branch visiting current member groups. Evaluate employees and monitor training to ensure that employees provide effective member service and financial counseling. Conduct regular meetings with branch employees to inform and train in areas needing improvement and changes in procedure. Ensure that established procedures and guidelines are followed. Cross-sell products and services to promote and assist members while suggesting financial service solutions. Project and maintain the Credit Union’s professional reputation. Promote and establish strong, positive, and productive working relationships at all levels within the organization. Qualifications: Minimum of 5+ years in financial and loan management experience preferably with a Credit Union or banking institution Bachelor’s degree preferred http://jobview.monster.com/Branch-Manager-Job-Atlanta-GA-US-144176811.aspx?mescoid=&jobPosition=1

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Br anch Manager Job in Atlanta 30303, Geor gia US

Strong interpersonal skills with a professional member service attitude Be able to multi-task and function in a fast-paced member service center environment Be a self-starter with excellent leadership, organizational, and communication skills Must have strong computer proficiency with knowledge of Microsoft Office, including Excel and Outlook Bilingual (English/Spanish) plus Bilingual (English/Spanish) a plus We offer competitive compensation and a multiple-option benefit package including health, vision, dental, basic and optional life, short and long-term disability, paid time off, annual time off, service day, Traditional and Roth 401(k) plans and company matching, flexible spending account, AFLAC and tuition assistance. All applications for employment must be submitted using Georgia United’s online careers website. Only candidates meeting the minimum qualifications and requirements will be considered for career opportunities. To apply, please visit the following link: http://home.eease.adp.com/recruit/?id=12110571 Georgia United Credit Union is proud to be an Equal Opportunity Employer.

http://jobview.m onster.com /Branch-Manager- Job-Atlanta- GA- US-144176811.aspx?m escoid= &jobPosition= 1

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Georgia 30316 Georgia 30308 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30033 NewYork 10956Ͳ2406 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30032 Georgia 30030 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30135 Georgia 30309 Georgia 30316 Michigan 48067 Georgia 30345 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30328 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30317 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30032 Georgia 30309 Georgia 30030 Georgia 30033 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30032 Missouri 63131 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30309 Georgia 30310 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30079 Georgia 30030 Georgia 30030 Georgia 30032 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30306 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Alabama 35553 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30318

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Atlanta Atlanta Palmetto Atlanta Snellville Atlanta Conyers Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Decatur NewYork Roswell Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta

Appendix-116

Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia NewYork Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia

30340 30316 30268 30316 30078 30316 30012 30316 30316 30022 30317 30316 30032 30312 30317 30317 30316 30316 30316 30316 30032 30308 30316 30316 30338 30312 30316 30324 30316 30316 30316 30316 30030 30316 30316 30032 10019 30075 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316

LaurenKing TimDelaney FernandoBrown AlexisCohen TrevinSandlin RunakoGodfrey ZacharyCohen Kerrygibson GinaTharayil LindseyCohen olgaHayden RichardIsabu HeatherAbbottͲLyon MariaNelson JulieMartin syedaahmed PhilipLawrence Rosannedorfman AmyParry TheophilusStanford BarbaraExley MimiMcCain CarrieManuel KaraRozell MaxStapleton HeatherDeBardeleben MarkBarwick KatherineDenman MatthewWelker LaTeechaDavis NashaSanders SusanBerkowitz LizJohnson JessicaFreeman KamilahMiller TracieJustus ChristyDeen JenniferJestel JenniferParker AnaRawson AdelaideFederici AmyHollibaugh JamieVanHaltern VanceExley MaryLindseyLewis LaurenFrutiger AnnaBlackstock

Naples Greenville Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Frederic Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Flovilla Roswell Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Tucker Atlanta Atlanta StoneMountain Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Tucker Atlanta

Appendix-117

Florida 34114 SouthCaro 29605 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30032 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30328 Wisconsin 54837Ͳ8918 Georgia 30341 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30216 30075 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30033 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30084 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30083 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30316 Georgia 30033 Georgia 30084 Georgia 30316

LindseyBlackstock TiffanyCastillo BethanyBaeuerlin JaneseColeman Sheryndapatrick AyindeLuqman BrettBradshaw MichelleKubiak BrianJohnson SueWortzel TerraGant JenniferJohnson LaurenRials staciaoberweis WendyRamsaur MarioRials EmilyJones CarolMadrigal JayeLiptak JoshuaHarper MichelleHume JaneBerglund catherineStengel MartinShelton StevenAlston ErinDonohueͲKoehler JamesParks LucyFreas SamuelJones AylaWolk BradEller LauraCampbell ErinHarwood JonathanLyon IonaWynterParks AliciaCase NoraSpencer JaclynWilliams JonathanWishon JenniferHicks JenniCreed DanielTriandiflou EliseNussbaumer CindyGonzalez Evanpierce MilesLogan ChrisMurphy

Atlanta Atlanta AvondaleEstates Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta OldHickory

Appendix-118

Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Tennessee

30316 30316 30002 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30327 30316 30033 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30030 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30306 30316 37138

Natashaharrington JasonMoss CoriMoss KarisMurphy RachelSpurrier NateDorn GregRose AshleyTrumbull ArthurMillsIV StephanieLogan GraceSewell AndrewCarlsen KristinPotchynok ChristinaRogers MichaelDorn MarcTakacs JohnBayles JamesShelly MichelleBannon CarolDorn Drchadking LaurenPetzke HallieFisher MarybethBellinger MeredithFrancis HernanTalero NancyTalero KristalHolmes TaraBushmiaer melanieLevine NatalieFernandez ErikHuber JeremyPoore CraigFogel KatiePlazyk RebekahWallace RachaelHarris AdamShipp DustinGoossens zacharygoossens ChrisWarfield AlainaLevant KellyMonical JosephCrowther AmySink PepinOwenby JanineRandall

Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta OldHickory Grovetown Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Marietta Evans Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Dahlonega JohnsonCity LosAngeles Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta StoneMountain Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta ATLANTA Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Cumming Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta atlanta Decatur Atlanta

Appendix-119

Georgia Georgia Georgia Tennessee Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Tennessee California Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia

30316 30316 30316 37138 30813 30316 30316 30032 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30062 30809 30316 30316 30326 30316 30533 37615 90028 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30088 30316 30316 30319 30317 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30041 30316 30316 30316 30315 30032 3033

HeatherHearn AlfredaMayes LauraRoberts RobinRafloHurtado MollyRose JuliaBasin LorcaMontgomery Lynettehill AmandaPedrosa adedayolawal Angelabryant KatieTakacs SineadQuinn MeredithEverett CynthiaCahalen RobinDowͲWashington allenjohnson HelenFranks RebeccaMerchant AbbieGulson amyplatter KaraGraul SusieAntell KathleenDay MandiTidwell DianaWrennRapp DawnHall AyoAlaran TimothyPflieger JulieCampbell jessIabrown RobynHorton MomoRuthsatz ChristianChotro JacquelineFrasca RynneESmith Angieboggs NoelleBaldwin TroyShirbroun KateJones DejiAlaran DanielLarsen BeckyJarrell EricaShirbroun KatieTaylor CeavonSmith ClaireWebber

Atlanta Atlanta AvondaleEstates Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Anniston Atlanta Tucker Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Stafford Atlanta Atlanta Douglasville Decatur Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Medway Gurnee Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta

Appendix-120

Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Alabama Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Texas Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Massachus Illinois Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia

30316 30316 30002 30317 30316 30317 36207 30312 30084 30316 30307 30316 30316 30309 30317 30316 30340 30316 30032 30316 30316 77477 30316 30316 30134 30032 30032 30316 30316 30307 30316 30316 30316 30316 2053 60031 30316 30316 30316 30032 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316

AmandaHall TimTheall KarynLaterza JanelleWilde KatieCarroll TreyGlover CindyLaterza StephanieSpivey BryanVanVranken CatherineOuellette MirandaGarrison JacobGarrison sheilaquinn HeidiLarson Jenniejuechter JulieJohnson ErinSmullen DeborahDirector ShantaH KevinPolite Erinbrandenburg JamieRussell JenniferJacobs Josenavarro Brittneyyoung ShareeClarke Patrickdyer JenniferThompson Morganoates PavanNavarro MichaelSchoenfeld AngelineBurks Alisoncamacho RobinVanVranken KerynSchneider Lesliepetosa RusselWhite NathalieBlanchard Jamesshook KelstonWilliams AshleyKurzweil SheilaBurau MerrylHoilman ElizabethIvey RyanCarter KristinDelea AmySery

Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Seattle Loganville Atlanta PeachtreeCity Tucker Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Tyrone Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta PleasantView Atlanta Atlanta Buford Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Decatur

Appendix-121

Georgia Georgia Georgia Washingto Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Tennessee Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia

30316 30316 30316 98116 30052 30316 30269 30084 30308 30316 30316 30316 30290 30316 30310 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30305 30316 37146 30316 30316 30519 30317 30308 30316 30030 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30033

MichaelJaccino DeniseMoreno rosannebartlett RobynSusemihl MaryFraser WendellCarter AnnKirk HelenRobinson ShawBrown courtneywalsh DarrenRogers BrittanyThompson MitchBrown stephaniepolom JoanneCrowther LaurieCrowther JonBlanchard Sarahgleason ReidDavid JenniferHigginsͲBrooks VonettaStocks IrisHernandez CharlesClarke JohnEllis MarkPeoples DanielPolom SarahBrooks kevinKusinski folakeAlaran ElizabethSmith ErinDreiling JustinGriswold JasonQuigley Ambergeoghagan AlyciaLinke BrandiShelton ValenciaHollingshed BrittanyGriswold sharonHoffmann ElizabethGrubic DanBush danielhaugland BetsyHarvey LauraHarper ChristiMotlagh LauraAleshire KarisaGilmer

Atlanta Decatur Loganville Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Loganville Atlanta Atlanta Laurenceharbor Howell Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Lawrenceville Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Norcross StoneMountain Riverdale Atlanta Buford Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta

Appendix-122

Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia NewJersey NewJersey Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia

30316 30032 30052 30316 30032 30316 30032 30316 30316 30342 30316 30052 30316 30316 8879 7731 30316 30307 30316 30326 30316 30043 30316 30316 30316 30316 30338 30316 30316 30317 30316 30316 30316 30316 30092 30083 30296 30317 30518 30316 30315 30312 30316 30316 30306 30315 30316

ChrisGilmer SuheilGuzman AnnieRimbey LindseyMunro WilliamMount ChrissieKallio MikeJarrell AshleyLester LisaBaird PeterLester JeanneLynch AnneLusk LateefahCato MarkLynch terijones DanielLaterza DallasCato MarilynCottrell annaelmore GenevieveLeavitt LeslieEason CharlesCato KathleenHill JamieHill NicoleBarrett SherryMartin DanielleSaxon BeverleyWatson EthelWalker SamaraThompson DawneEdge StephanieBorer TerryJones ChiquitaBataille ChristelleMartinͲHoster CandaceMeeks MigdaliaGarcia KendraRoundtree SeanKiley DevinYoung TonyJohnson ScottLandrigan ScottRouillier CorinneKlemenc AshleyGilbert AlexandraWarner lindseyburke

Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Sunnyvale Atlanta AvondaleEstates Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Fayetteville Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Sarasota Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta StoneMountain Atlanta StoneMountain Atlanta Atlanta Fayetteville Atlanta Atlanta Fairburn Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Oxford Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Athens Atlanta ATLANTA Atlanta

Appendix-123

Georgia Georgia Georgia California Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Florida Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Alabama Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia

30316 30316 30317 94087 30307 30002 30312 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30214 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 34241 30316 30316 30316 30316 30325 30083 30316 30083 30327 30316 30214 30316 30316 30213 30315 30316 30316 36203 30316 30316 30316 30605 30316 30316 30316

MaryannVelasco WilliamHill BrandyBland MatthewJames DanielCox BlairSetnor EmmiBraselton ToddFuller CordMcLean EdMcMillan MattStewart DanielDorfman CurtisBuice TiffanyCarter Sommovigomayu HeatherFox LeslieSantiago ShaunBillingslea AshleyDavis NicoleFederici AdamCooper patcohen JeremyGreenup NicoleJe SheaStanback JessOlivier PaulOlivier NicholasIngkatanuwat dianneproctor JohnKimball KatͲIvanMorblue ashleymclean BrandonHayes TereseDavis TinaWilliams JohnWierwille BrandonByrd RachelOoms Kyledixon LeahMcClellan DonnaWilliamon StephanieHansen StephenCamp AlisonJames FredlyBataille JulieNewcome TelleenGegner

Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Barcelona ࢔ࢺࣛࣥࢱ Marietta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta NewYork NewYork carefree Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Clarkston Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Stockbridge Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta

Appendix-124

Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia NewYork NewYork Arizona Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia

30316 30316 30316 30338 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 8003 30340 30066 30316 30316 30316 11207 11207 85377 30316 30316 30032 30317 30317 30316 30309 30316 30316 30316 30307 30021 30316 30033 30316 30316 30281 30316 30316 30030 30307 30338 30316 30316 30316

JenniferMoore LaurenBellamy DavidSpake JenniferCampbell KennishaDavis MelissaMcConnell ericCarpenter SusanMcKay Candicecampbell ClaudiaStrange KellyGarrison RobertDeBardeleben GregGegner ShannonYasseri NanSegler WilliamCampbell LeslieCato LaKeishaMiller LeonardoMartinez LonnaSpencer AnnieJackson MarnieCurk GarryCarter JessicaKyle AllisonScott DavidHaller CharlayneScarlett AshleyWarren MotoeHaller CraigCampbell MelissaHabel MarkDeLong GeoffHuitt JasonCecil TinaLauney AnthonyNastri JenniferBiggers Reneejolissaint LizaDuPont JeniScialabba CatyNation FrancinaSanders MollyScialabba SusanPatrickͲPowell christineolaes RachaelGriffin LaurenRoszak

Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Ellenwood Ellenwood Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Atlanta Sarasota

Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Florida

EastPoint Conyers Atlanta Atlanta Loganville Atlanta Atlanta Decatur Atlanta

Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia

Atlanta Ellenwood Decatur Atlanta Tucker Decatur Mableton Decatur Atlanta Decatur

Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia

Atlanta Marietta Atlanta Charlotte Atlanta Atlanta Frierson Atlanta

Georgia Georgia Georgia NorthCaro Georgia Georgia Louisiana Georgia

Appendix-125

30307 30316 30316 30294 30294 30345 30316 30316 30316 30315 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 30316 34241 30316 30344 30013 30316 30316 30052 30316 30316 30032 30316 30316 30316 30294 30030 30309 30084 30033 30126 30032 30316 30033 30317 30316 30068 30317 28270 30317 30341 71027 30319

JenniferCalhoun JohnCearley ErinGrass KatieCalhoun JosephScialabba Amandaeady SarahMiller VishalParmar kimgarbow KyleMonroeͲSpencer

Statesboro Decatur Atlanta Statesboro Atlanta Atlanta Brooklyn Decatur Atlanta StoneMountain

Appendix-126

Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia NewYork Georgia Georgia Georgia

30458 30030 30316 30458 30316 30316 11216 30032 30307 30087

Comments Name

Location

Date

Comment

Mijha Godfrey

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

It's important to me to have a local elementary school where my child can learn to be fluent in a second language and be challenged to excel. Unfortunately the schools in our area are struggling and parents tend to move away when their children become school age. This migration is destabilizing for our neighborhoods and our families. Parents in south DeKalb County need more quality public education choices.

Loren Locke

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I want my children to attend an excellent, diverse, local public school, such as East Atlanta Charter School proposes to be. If approved, this charter school will be a phenomenal resource for families who may otherwise move away to access better public schools or struggle to pay for private school.

Jenna Novic

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I live in this area and the schools are dismal. We need change as north dekalb residents annex into their own cities, they take part of our education budget with them. We need change!

Torrence Williams

Union City, GA

2015-04-03

I want better schools

Mark Freeman

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I see a huge need for a better school system in Atlanta.

Hillary King

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I want my children to have a safe and educational experience which I'm not seeing at our current public schools. If we are unable to find such a school for our kids in the next few years we will be forced to homeschool both children.

Amy Daugherty

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

Our current school options are not acceptable for my family.

Veronic Miley

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I'm signing because I own a home in East Atlanta and I care about the community. especially the people that live there and as it is part of the city that is very important that we have really good schools.

FABIENNE LAUTURE

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I am signing because I want all children in my community to have access to a great school.

Jessica Haggberg

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

The current school available are not except able

David Beall

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

Kids need great schools

Grier Kellett

Decatur, GA

2015-04-03

I will not send my child to my zoned school. I want a wonderful school for my child. He deserves no less than the best.

Amanda Tommie

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I'm signing because my family is growing by 2 little ones! I want a good school for them in 5 years and my district has rating of 2-3!

Miranda Woods

Woodstock, GA

2015-04-03

I have personally seen the need for a school such as this in East Atlanta. My family recently made the tough decision to leave East Atlanta due to the lack of school options in the area.

Kevin Granetto

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

My child needs a good public school option

Gabriel Wardell

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I want the schools in our district to improve.

Travis Hill

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

My 22 month old son is currently enrolled in a Spanish immersion day care program. We would love to have a nearby option to continue this type of curriculum. In addition, the immersion type of curriculum is not really available within DeKalb county schools and the few charter programs are extremely difficult to get into.

Appendix-127

Name

Location

Date

Comment

Trin intra

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I signed because I love my home, neighbors, and community in south DeKalb and I don't want to move for a better school. I want my child, and all children, to have a better educational experience than what we are zoned for. I want a local school that is diverse (socioeconomically and racially) with a strong parentteacher-community partnership and an excellent curriculum that the EACS is proposing. East Atlanta was voted 3rd best neighborhood in the US. Let's keep the momentum going and make EACS the best school in the area.

April Payton

Avondale Estates, GA

2015-04-03

We need more awesome schools in Dekalb County!

Terra giemza

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

i feel strongly about this!

christan vick

atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

we NEED this school on this side of town, our kids need it, our neighbors need it. Please approve this charter so that good families will stop having to move out of south dekalb to go to better schools and new families will want to move in!

Sarah Nixon

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I have a 17 month old daughter and live in the Gresham Park/East Atlanta area. I have already begun focusing on and researching an elementary school for her attend. The one I am zoned for, McNair Learning Academy, seems out of the question as far as sending her there.

Jason Williams

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

The unincorporated area of DeKalb County in the East Atlanta area needs a decent public school option. I don't want to move for a better school.

heather saunders

Royal Oak, MI

2015-04-03

I'm signing because I want my nephew to have a fantastic district and neighborhood to grow up in.

Sheila Baldwin

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I am concerned that our children are not getting the best we have to offer. As a tax payer I fully support charter school and vote accordingly.

Kari Mesnickow

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

The students of this area deserve a better school.

Sarah adle

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

i live in unicorporated DeKalb east Atlanta and feel that we are forced to move in the coming year before our daughter starts kindergarten in fall 2016

Conley Perry

Hull, GA

2015-04-03

I want better education options for our child.

Robyn Chapman

Decatur, GA

2015-04-03

This area needs a strong public school.

travis dorn

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I live in incorporated Dekalb County, and I have two boys for whom this school would be a godsend.

Felicia Trezza

Decatur, GA

2015-04-03

I'm signing because we live in that area and I think it is exactly what we need!

Erin Stubbs

Decatur, GA

2015-04-03

my niece would attend this school

Carina Gerry

Decatur, GA

2015-04-03

I live here and have a small child.

susan wood

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

We may move when our son is ready for school because we're not thrilled with current choices for schools.

Margaret Mason Tate

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I'm signing because I believe the area my son will group in needs better options.

Kari Nesbitt

Decatur, GA

2015-04-03

I would like better options for my child to go to school

stephanie Dorfman

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I want quality public education options for my family.

Casey Cochran

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

We need better school options in East Atlanta / Dekalb County!!!

laurel snyder

ATLANTA, GA

2015-04-03

As a resident of the target district for 6 years, who moved away for schools, but

Singletary

still owns property in the area, I'd love to see a stronger focus on education. Nicole Kilcoin

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I'm signing because I want better schools for our young children.

rosewani crowther

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

My kids live in Dekalb county and the options for a good education in our area are limited.

Appendix-128

Name

Location

Date

Comment

Joshua Dyer

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

Sooner than I realize, my daughter will be old enough to go to school, and I want her to have a rich and diverse education.

JoAnn Bates

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-03

I live in unincorp. Dekalb with no options for a decent school for my 2 yo girl.

Julie Krummes

Decatur, GA

2015-04-03

Need kindergarten in 2016

Sara Corbett

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-04

We need better schools!

Andrew Cashen

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-04

Because I want better education options for my children in DeKalb Co.

Megan O'Toole

Decatur, GA

2015-04-04

. YES! It's about time!

Barbara Williams

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-04

This is much needed and will receive great support for this growing East Atlanta area. My children live in this neighborhood and welcome this for my grandchldren.

Danielle Nordlund

New York, NY

2015-04-04

I'm building a house in EAV and want to send my child here.

Patrick Taylor

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-04

I live in the area and am about to have a child and want he to have education opportunities in this area.

Catherine Sibuma

Decatur, GA

2015-04-04

East Atlanta is an amazing, diverse, and active community that deserves to have it's children educated in the best possible way.

kim fowlkes

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-04

It's needed on this side of town.

Andria Terry

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-05

I'm interested in better school options for my community.

Josh Bennett

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-06

I do not want to have to move from Dekalb county just so my child has an opportunity to go to a good school. I like where my family lives, but if there is not a good school to go to then we would need to pick up and leave our neighborhood.

Holly Beach

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-06

need schools

Tim Delaney

Greenville, SC

2015-04-06

My grandchildren are there.

Whitney Delaney

Lynchburg, VA

2015-04-06

For my niece and nephew who live in the area!

Runako Godfrey

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

South DeKalb deserves a high-quality immersion school.

Zachary Cohen

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

I'm signing because East Atlanta is a changing population, with more and more young parents wanting to send their kids to public schools, but are forced to send to private schools due to poor school performance. please help East Atlanta to continue to grow and use the new influx of new families to better the school system!

Kerry gibson

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

my daughter needs a great school in east Atlanta.

Olga Danskaya

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

I have a baby who would be able to attend a good school here in the city. Otherwise we will have to move to the suburbs for our child to go to school.

Richard Isabu

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

My children's future

Heather Abbott-Lyon

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

I have young kids and want better options for there elementary school.

Maria Nelson

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

All children deserve a good education :)

Amy Parry

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

I have a 1 year old and a 2.5 year old. We would love to have this Charter school in our neighborhood so our children can attend a quality school with parental involvement and so that our neighborhood will attract more families to move here.

Theophilus Stanford

Flovilla, GA

2015-04-07

Anything for a better education for our children

Barbara Exley

Roswell, GA

2015-04-07

My son & his family live in this area and desire to stay as their small children become school age. This charter school will educate future leaders not just for Dejskb but for an ever increasing multi-cultural world

Appendix-129

Name

Location

Date

Comment

Mark barwick

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

We need better schools in our area to keep good people from moving away and to attract more quality people to our neighborhood.

Matthew Welker

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

I want the best education possible for my future children and the members of my community.

Nasha Sanders

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

My son will be eligible to go to this school in 2017. I would love for him to attend a charter school in my area.

Kamilah Miller

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

I am a resident of East Atlanta with a child entering Kindergarten in 2016 and one entering in 2018. I would like to support quality education in my community.

Jennifer Parker

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

I would like my son to go to school in a Spanish immersion enviroment

Adelaide Federici

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

Both of my children attend (attended) a dual immersion preschool and I think it is so important for children today to be at least bilingual.

Anna Blackstock

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-07

Every child deserves a good, local, tuition-free school option, and there currently isn't one. A charter school would be good for everyone in the area and would keep some families with school-age children, including mine, from moving to another school district.

Janese Coleman

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

I live in East Atlanta and we desperately need a school like this. Every year many residents leave to move north when their children turn school-age b/c the schools in this area are not good.

Sherynda patrick

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

I'd love for my daughter to be able to attend a Charter school.

Ayinde Luqman

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

I'm interested in sending my son here.

Brett Bradshaw

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

I will have bilingual children one day and I would much prefer sending them to a neighborhood public school with spanish immersion than a private school!

Katie Gant

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

because we deserve BETTER options for school other than lacking public schools we are zoned for.

Jennifer Johnson

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

My future children if we stay in the area - we will most likely move due to the lack of quality schools in the neighborhood.

Wendy Ramsaur

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

This is the area of the city I'd like to live in - but the schools aren't quite what I'm looking for. Charter schools could change that

Mario Rials

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

There should be no such thing as a "bad" school in any neighborhood. Here's a great opportunity to begin to correct our educational shortcomings, to invest in our neighborhood, our children and Americas future.

Erin Donohue-Koehler

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

I live in East Atlanta, and just had my first child. We are very excited about the prospect of having more public school options for her.

James Parks

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

I have a school aged child.

Lucy Freas

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

EAV doesn't have any good schools and we need one.

Ayla Wolk

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

I want an option like this for my children!

Laura Campbell

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-08

I believe in multilingual education and would like more options for my children closer to where we live.

Alicia Case

Charlotte, NC

2015-04-08

I want my son to have the same access to quality education that I did.

Jaclyn Williams

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-09

I need a quality school for my children.

Elise Nussbaumer

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-09

I have 2 small kids that would greatly benefit from a charter school in East Atlanta.

evan pierce

charlotte, NC

2015-04-09

My daughter is now 3 and needs better education options in Atlanta.

Chris Murphy

Old Hickory, TN

2015-04-09

I have two nephews that can benefit from better education in East Atlanta.

Appendix-130

Name

Location

Date

Comment

Natasha harrington

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-09

I went to a Dual-language Charter school when I was younger but I had a very long commute away from my district. This is a great opportunity for children & they should have the chance to be served in the East Atlanta area. This is a very valuable program that like mine, will teach children to be creative, independent thinkers with strong writing & critical thinking skills.

Rachel Spurrier

Grovetown, GA

2015-04-09

This school would greatly benefit my nephews!

Arthur Mills IV

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-10

Increasing school choice options for parents is a win for our community, and solid education options for children in SW DeKalb is an increasing priority.

Christina Rogers

Marietta, GA

2015-04-11

This is the type of school that I want to send my children to.

Michael Dorn

Evans, GA

2015-04-11

grandkids

Marc Takacs

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-11

That area is in need of creative, solid educational choices and the success of other dual language schools is an easy model to follow.

John Bayles

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-11

I want my future children to have a suitable alternative to DeKalb County public schools or City of Atlanta public schools

Carol Dorn

Dahlonega, GA

2015-04-12

I want my grandchildren to have the same experience of a charter school that my children had

Hernan Talero

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-12

Signing because i have two 3 year old girls and searching for Spanish immersion school.

Nancy Talero

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-12

Our daughters are currently in a Spanish immersion preschool in East Atlanta where we live. We would love to send them to a dual language charter in the area for K-5.

Kristal Holmes

Stone Mountain, GA

2015-04-12

South DeKalb needs more options and better schools for our children. If something does not change soon, I will be forced to move to ensure that my child receives a quality education.

Natalie Fernandez

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-13

I need to be sure that my children are able to get the best possible education while remaining in Dekalb county

Rebekah Wallace

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-13

I'm worried about my daughter's educational opportunities! A charter school on our area would be awesome!

Kelly Monical

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-14

I live in East Atlanta and am concerned with the current quality of education here.

Joseph Crowther

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-14

I have a child in Dekalb and I want better education options.

Molly Rose

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-15

We would love to support a charter school in our neighborhood. We've been residents of East Atlanta since 2003, and we've just added a child to our family this year. Our wonderfully diverse area needs a school as unique and special as its residents. We have a lot to share and are eager to learn.

Lorca Montgomery

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-16

I would love to see better educational opportunities in the East Atlanta area.

Katie Takacs

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-17

It will help strengthen the East Atlanta community by providing a great school in unincorporated Dekalb

Sinead Quinn

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-17

We desperately need this for our Unincorporated DeKaln neighbors. This will only help strengthen the whole East Atlanta Village community.

allen johnson

atlanta, GA

2015-04-17

I left the neighborhood 7 years ago because there was no viable school for my kids. This is BADLY needed.

Helen Franks

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-17

Skyhaven Elementary would be a perfect place for this school.

Abbie Gulson

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-17

Quality choice in education is vital for our future.

Mandi Tidwell

Hiram, GA

2015-04-17

My son is 21 and the best school he ever went to was a charter.

Christian Chotro

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

we are expecting twins and they will want to go to a great school!

Appendix-131

Name

Location

Date

Comment

Angie boggs

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

I have children

Troy Shirbroun

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

We need better schools for our neighborhood before we have any other family's move.

Erica Shirbroun

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

Our community desperately needs this! For the sake of our children and continuous improvement, this MUST happen!

Karyn Laterza

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

I live in East Atlanta and think this is exactly what our community needs!

Trey Glover

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

We need better schools in unincorporated Dekalb county!

Erin Smullen

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

The quality is schools in this area of DeKalb are deplorable. This charter offers a much needed quality education option that children deserve.

Erin Brandenburg

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

It affects whether or not we move.

Jamie Russell

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

I support more charter school options for underserved Atlanta neighborhoods.

Jennifer Jacobs

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

Our daughter deserves more and better choices about where she will go to school in a couple years, and I believe this could be exactly what we've been looking for.

Angeline Burks

Buford, GA

2015-04-18

Friend lives in area

Alison camacho

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-18

Bilingualism is incredibly important to our family

Leslie Petosa

Decatur, GA

2015-04-19

better schools are much needed!!

Merryl Hoilman

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-19

Many of our neighbors with children have had to sell their homes and move due to there not being decent schools in the area. Neither of them have wanted to leave East Atlanta, but felt they had no choice. I don't want this to continue being the reason we lose good neighbors.

Ryan Carter

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-19

We want our child to get a good education with other students who's parents desire the same.

Mary Fraser

Decatur, GA

2015-04-19

It is time for the under-served children of South Dekalb to have access to a vibrant, diverse, academically-challenging school alternative in their community.

Wendell Carter

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-19

I'm signing because parents and kids in this area deserve better!

Shaw Brown

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-19

I would like my kids to have the best education possible

Darren Rogers

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-19

I'm signing because there are currently no good options in south Dekalb for high achieving students. My family is planning to move to a new area, but East Atlanta gives us hope for Dekalb county residents of East Atlanta!

stephanie polom

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-19

We need good schools in this part of atlanta so families will continue to move in and stay and improve the area instead of moving before there children are of school age.

Sarah gleason

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-20

therebis a need for another public education option in that area.

Reid Davis

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-20

East Atlanta needs more educational choices.

Vonetta Stocks

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-20

It affects my child. There are no decent schools in the area.

Iris Hernandez

Lawrenceville, GA

2015-04-20

This change will positively impact my community and has the potential to improve crime rates and the future of our kids

Sarah Brooks

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-20

im signing bc I had to move my family from East Atlanta for better schools.

kevin Kusinski

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-20

To make education better in my community

Amber Geoghagan

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-20

Our neighborhood needs a good school. Lack of quality education is the reason many people more out of our neighborhoods.

Brandi Shelton

Stone Mountain, GA

2015-04-20

I care about education.

Appendix-132

Name

Location

Date

Comment

Valencia Hollingshed

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-20

Charger schools are needed in this area

Sharon Hoffmann

sugar hill, GA

2015-04-20

My granddaughter and grandson will be going to school in East Atlanta and they need better options than what they have.

Dan Bush

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-20

We need this

Karisa Gilmer

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

We need this!

William Mount

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

I'm signing this because I believe the best use of our tax dollars is educating the next generation. It would transform East Atlanta into a better neighborhood

Ashley Lester

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

need bettter school options for my child

Anne Cottrell

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

I'm signing because I am desperate for a quality education option for my daughter. She will be in Kindergarden in 2016. My husband and I have been so concerned about our current option that we've considered moving and homeschooling. I would love to be an active participant in the East Atlanta Charter School. Please give our neighborhood a chance to grow the education options in Dekalb County!

Lateefah Cato

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

I would like better schools for my son to attend without moving to another area

teri jones

Fayetteville, GA

2015-04-21

Teri Jones

Dallas Cato

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

I believe in the Charter School system. Having one for East Atlanta children will go a very long ways toward improving our community overall.

Marilyn Cottrell

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

We desparately need a new, innovative, cheerful school where children are taught with creativity and great empathy and kindness.

Genevieve Leavitt

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

We love living here and don't want to move to send our daughter to school.

Leslie Eason

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

Our kids deserve it.

Charles Cato

Sarasota, FL

2015-04-21

My grandson lives in East Atlanta and this would be a fabulous opportunity. His father, my son, is trilingual in Spanish, Portuguese and English and being bilingual gave him tremendous opportunities. This is important.

Kathleen Hill

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

I love living in EAV and want to raise my kids here!!

Nicole Barrett

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

I would like for my daughter to attend a highly-rated school in the county, that's charter

Danielle Saxon

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

South Dekalb needs better education options for elementary and middle school children

Beverley Watson

Stone Mountain, GA

2015-04-21

For my grandson Khauri who will become eligible at that time for public school. Dekalb County needs to have better options/choices for children. They need to enhance their skills for this global economy and ever changing technological world we live in. They need to be properly prepared

Samara Thompson

Stone Mountain, GA

2015-04-21

I have a 3 year old son who will be starting school soon.

Dawne Edge

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-21

Two of our grandchildren in East Atlanta Village would like to continue their bilingual education in this community. The school would also attract more young families to move in and be a benefit to Dekalb.

Christelle Martin-Hoster

Marietta, GA

2015-04-22

Quality schools for all zip codes should not be optional

lindsey burke

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-23

I'm signing because the schools I am zoned for I would never send my children to.

William Hill

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-23

need a charter school in this neighborhood

Cord McLean

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-23

We need more options for schools near the great neighborhood of EAV.

Leslie Santiago

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-23

Because our public schools are awful, and if we don't have better schools, the neighborhood will never thrive, because families keep moving away.

Appendix-133

Name

Location

Date

Comment

Nicole Federici

New York, NY

2015-04-23

I want my nephew to be able to learn Spanish

Adam Cooper

New York, NY

2015-04-23

I want my nephew to have access to this level of education.

pat cohen

carefree, AZ

2015-04-23

I believe that young childrens' brains pick up languages so easily and remember longer as well. We are a global community in the USA now, and having a second and third language should be considered almost necessary for our futures.

Paul Olivier

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-23

I believe this school would be an excellent addition to our neighborhood. Crucial to the advancement of the area.

dianne proctor

atlanta, GA

2015-04-23

It's the right thing to do. thanks.

Terese Davis

Los Angeles, CA

2015-04-23

I believe this is such an important thing to have available for our children and because I desperately want my children to continue their Spanish education beyond preschool.

Kyle dixon

Stockbridge, GA

2015-04-23

I'm signing, because if this were to happen, I would be able to move back to the city.

Stephen Camp

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-23

I'm moving to East Atlanta and have school-aged children, and believe this is needed in a growing and beloved community.

Alison James

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-24

There needs to be more options for people to send their children to good schools.

Julie Newcome

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-24

My kids all went to charter schools and I have seen first-hand what an amazing impact a group of engaged parents can have on the community. Charter schools can start that engagement in a truly meaningful way, giving children a safe and motivated environment in which to learn.

Telleen Gegner

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-24

I'm a new EAV resident and this would be great for the neighborhood!

David Spake

atlanta, GA

2015-04-24

I support more public education options on the city where they could have tremendous impact on the futures of the children

Kennisha Davis

Ellenwood, GA

2015-04-24

I'm signing because I believe in offering a global education to the children of South Dekalb county.

Melissa McConnell

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-24

We had to move away from the East Atlanta area due to the limited options of schools for our children. We wanted better education for them. If the EACS was an option for us, we probably wouldn't have moved away from the area.

Claudia Strange

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-27

I'm signing because our children deserve a chance at an excellent education regardless of where their parents live.

William Campbell

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-28

Because I want more bilingual public school options that support the diverse community I live in.

Annie Jackson

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-29

We just bought a house in Grant Park because there was not an acceptable school for us to send our 2 children to. I am so excited for our community to have more options if you live in unincorporated Dekalb! We have been waiting for this for a long time!

Garry Carter

Loganville, GA

2015-04-29

Parent choice is important for families to stay invilved in the education of their children.

Jessica Kyle

Atlanta, GA

2015-04-30

I want better education options in our area. Also, I strongly believe in bilingual and multilingual education.

Anthony Nastri

Decatur, GA

2015-05-06

I believe in the power of a great school to transform lives and transform communities.

Appendix-134

Name

Location

Date

Comment

Jeni Scialabba

Atlanta, GA

2015-05-07

I live in unincorporated Dekalb County, EAV. My son is 4 and I am holding him back next year because we could not get him into a good school in a reasonable driving distance from our home. We are zoned into a corner over here in East Atlanta!!! We willto move if options don't improve by 2016.

Lauren Roszak

Atlanta, GA

2015-05-07

Investing in better schools ITP will keep working Atlantans living in the city versus moving OTP, and continuing to better our urban neighborhoods

Jen Calhoun

Statesboro, GA

2015-05-07

My nephew is affected by the poor school choices in the neighborhood.

Katie Calhoun

Statesboro, GA

2015-05-08

My cousin needs a good school to attend!

Joseph Scialabba

Atlanta, GA

2015-05-08

We need this school. There are loads of new families in the area. And all of us feel the need to move when they reach 5

Amanda eady

Atlanta, GA

2015-05-08

Would love to have our daughter in a charter school

Sarah Miller

Brooklyn, NY

2015-05-11

I am supported my friend who lives in East Atlanta who has a child she would like to send to this school!

Appendix-135

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Appendix-136

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Appendix-137

                   

            

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Appendix-138

Appendix-139

Through a variety of initiatives that support research into world language teaching and learning, the development and dissemination of innovative language methodologies and technologies, and through the provision of professional support for language instructors, the mission of CULTR is to promote and improve access to language learning opportunities and global awareness for all learners, opening opportunities for urban students to explore and envision global careers in cultural diplomacy, national security, international business, public health or the sciences.

The Title VI Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research at Georgia State University endeavors to enhance the opportunities of urban and underrepresented students to achieve the language proficiency and cultural competence required for success in the modern global marketplace.

The Mission of CULTR

Dr. Mary Shoffner (LTD)

Dr. Sara Wiegle (AL/ESL)

Dr. William Nichols (MCL)

Jackie Slaton

Phone: 404-413-5683 Fax: 404-413-5982 Email: cultr@gsu.edu www.cultr.gsu.edu www.facebook.com/cultr.lrc.gsu @cultrlrcgsu

Georgia State University CULTR PO Box 3974 Atlanta, GA 30302-3974

Coordinator:

Associate Director: Patricia Nolde (MCL)

Co-Directors:

Center for Instructional Innovation.

the College of Education, in collaboration with the

Sciences and the Division of Learning Technologies in

of Applied Linguistics/ESL in the College of Arts and

Modern and Classical Languages and the Department

CULTR is a partnership of the Departments of

State University.

the US Department of Education, located at Georgia

Research is a Title VI Language Resource Center of

The Center for Urban Language Teaching and

ment of targeted workshops.

methods. xResearch into retention of language teachers and develop-

xCreation and dissemination of innovative learning tools and

xAdvocating for language opportunities for ALL learners.

xProfessional development opportunities for teachers.

Located in the heart of Atlanta, a global center of international business and culture, CULTR is a National Language Resource Center focused on

The Title VI Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research at Georgia State University was established in October 2014 to enhance the opportunities of urban and under-represented students to achieve the language proficiency and cultural competence required for success in the modern global marketplace, whether they seek careers in diplomacy, national security, international business, public health or the sciences.

CENTER FOR URBAN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH

CULTR

Appendix-140

In order to engage with policymakers and other stakeholders on language-related issues, CULTR will host an annual Global Languages Leadership Meeting. Invited attendees will include school leaders, legislators, government agencies and business and NGOs with international initiatives and concerns. These participants will meet together in order to discuss, advocate and promote language proficiency throughout the continuum of learning.

CULTR is particularly well positioned to establish a wide spectrum of collaborations across education, business, and government that advocate a common goal to make language learning more accessible to all populations of learners.

Advocating for Language Education Policy

Students will have the opportunity to meet with leaders in international commerce, social services, NGOs and governmental agencies with international and global connections and learn how even local opportunities are globally engaged.

Resources for language study, including informational and motivational activities, and discovery stations, will highlight opportunities and professions with language expertise.

Participation in the Global Marketplace begins at the local level. Starting in Year 2, CULTR will host an exploratory language conference and resource fair for urban 9-12th grade students in order to highlight the importance of foreign languages in their future. Students will have the opportunity to explore linguistic and international diversity present in our urban communities.

Expanding Student Awareness of Global Opportunities

“These students, many already underrepresented, are further marginalized and barred from participation in the opportunities presented by globalization.”

These students, many already underrepresented, are further marginalized and barred from participation in the opportunities presented by globalization.

While education offers individual opportunities alongside wider social benefits, access to education has become increasingly unequal, diverging along social class and, consequently racial, ethnic and gender lines. Schools in urban areas are frequently under-resourced and accountability concerns in areas such as reading and math sometimes lead to reductions in offerings of courses not deemed “essential,” including foreign languages.

In the forward to the 2012 report on U.S. Education Reform and National Security from the Council on Foreign Relations, the authors assert a critical need for children who are prepared for a globalized world through a variety of skills, most importantly the acquisition of foreign languages.

Why a National Urban LRC?

Beginning in July 2015, CULTR will host our three-day workshops for K-16 language teachers each summer. Workshop topics will include technology for language teaching, assessment in the language classroom, and teaching heritage language students.

Supporting Language Teachers through Summer Workshops

These weeklong summer workshops will establish the base of a multi-layered mentoring and enrichment program to reduce burnout and attrition in language teachers. Online synchronous mentoring, webinars and special interest groups will be hosted throughout the year to reach teachers in all geographic locations.

In Year 1, CULTR will host a roundtable meeting of researchers who focus on instructor burnout and self-exiting from the profession in order to identify strategies for effective language teacher support and retention, motivation, and coping strategies. This meeting will develop strategies and set agendas that will be incorporated into the Summer Retention Workshops for FL Teachers.

A Language Teacher Retention Institute will be established to research and address the issues that lead to language teacher attrition and support teacher retention.

The National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future reports that almost a third of America’s teachers leave the field sometime during their first 3 years of teaching and almost half leave after five years. A critical need exists to stem the tide of trained teachers who are leaving language education, a field already experiencing teacher shortages.

Addressing K-12 Language Teacher Retention

 

     #  !# CULTR is a National Foreign Language Resource Center, federally funded through the U.S. Department of Education

 Workshop #1: Technology and Foreign Language Teaching (July 6-8, 2015) & $$'#   

Mastering technology and successfully implementing it in the classroom is one of the most pressing challenges facing language teachers today. In this workshop, you will develop practical technology skills while increasing your confidence in using them more effectively in your classroom. Each day will focus on a different technology (computer, A/V, mobile devices), helping you to gain confidence in creating engagement using multiple forms of technology. You will also have the chance to practice and receive feedback from a specialist in language teaching and multimedia.  Workshop #2: Enhancing your language instruction: SLA basics for teachers (July 9-11, 2015) $  % # !"

Understanding insights from the field of Second Language Acquisition can help language teachers not only improve their craft, but also help them develop strategies to reach even the most difficult students. In this workshop, you will have the chance to develop skills in fostering and assessing student language production, all the while integrating intercultural understanding. A wide variety of tools and techniques will be explored through demonstration, in-class activities, and group discussions. Whether you are a beginning teacher or a classroom veteran, you will leave this workshop with new ideas, materials, and resources that will enhance your instruction.  Workshop #3: Assessment in the Language Classroom (July 13-15, 2015) $  # !"

Learning how to assess students effectively is an essential skill for language teachers. Well-designed tests and other forms of assessment can help teachers improve their instruction and better meet student needs. They can also build student confidence and support their learning. In this workshop, you will have the chance to develop an understanding of issues in designing assessment tools, learn how to align assessments with curricular goals and performance standards, and learn how to involve students in the assessment process. In addition, you will have the chance to create your own assessment tasks that meet your needs.  Workshop #4: Teaching Heritage Language Learners: Needs and Networks (July 16-18, 2015) $ #  !"

Although Heritage Language Learners (HLLs) can vary widely across languages and contexts, they can consistently benefit from approaches that foster self-directed learning and community involvement. In this workshop, you will have the chance to develop an understanding and ability to implement different approaches that can help develop these learners’ strategies and skills. This workshop will also focus on establishing a professional network among HL educators in order to support teacher development and the sharing of resources.                Cost: $150 for the first workshop, $100 for each additional workshop. A $5.00 fee will apply for those paying online. Deadline to register for classes: June 12, 2015. *Cost includes free continental breakfast and lunch*  '  !*+,(&  $  !$$  ) & ! "%(( & & (&     "$!%     

Appendix-141

Appendix-142

Appendix-143

Appendix-144

Appendix-145

Appendix-146

Appendix-147

  

       

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Appendix-148

William Nichols Page 1

WILLIAM J. NICHOLS, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Spanish Department of Modern and Classical Languages Curriculum Vitae (Updated on 10/25/14)

Georgia State University Department of Modern & Classical Languages P.O. Box 3970 Atlanta, GA 30302-3970

1900 Neely Ave. East Point, GA 30344

[o] 404.413.6390 [f] 404.413.5982 e-mail: wnichols@gsu.edu

[h] 404.762.8409 [c] 404.808.2907

GRADUATE EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE Graduate Education Ph.D. M.A. B.A.

Michigan State University University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame, Magna Cum Laude

1999 Spanish 1993 Spanish 1992 Anthropology/Spanish

Professional Experience Co-Director, CULTR Georgia State University 2014-present Interim Chair, MCL Georgia State University 2013-2014 Center for Instructional Innovation--Assoc. Dir. for Graduate Student Mentoring Georgia State University 2012-2013 Director of Graduate Studies, MCL Georgia State University 2010-2013 Associate Professor of Spanish Georgia State University 2010-present Assistant Professor of Spanish Georgia State University 2004-2010 Assistant Professor of Spanish Texas A&M International University 1999-2004 Sponsored External Awards • •

Department of Education Title VI Language Resource Center Grant to establish CULTR (Center for Urban Language Teaching and Research), $800,000. (Awarded, 2014-18, PI) Department of Education Title VI Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Languages Grant, $200,000. (Not Awarded, Co-PI)

Appendix-149

William Nichols Page 2

Foreign Academic Experience • Alcalá, Spain; January-June 1996; representative of Michigan State University’s Graduate Student Exchange Program at the Universidad de Alcalá de Henares • Mexico: August 1989-June 1990; Foreign Study through Notre Dame at the Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City Research and Teaching Interests • • •

Twentieth and Twenty-first Century Spanish Peninsular Literature, History and Culture Film Studies,Urban Studies, Popular Culture and Detective Fiction Comparative and TransatlanticApproaches to Hispanic Literature and Culture

SCHOLARLY PRACTICE Publications: Books Toward a Cultural Archive of La Movida: Back to the Future, eds. William Nichols and H. Rosi Song. Madison and Teaneck, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson UP, 2014. • Transatlantic Mysteries: Crime, Culture and Capital in the ‘Noir’ Novels of Paco Ignacio Taibo II and Manuel Vázquez Montalbán. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell UP, 2011. • Construction and Consumption in Spain: Culture and Tourbanism from Torremolinos to Benidorm (in progress)



Chapters in Books •











“Geography of Capital: Torremolinos, Modernity and the Art of Consumption in Spanish Film.” Toward a Multicultural Configuration of Spain: Local Cities, Global Spaces. Eds. Ana Corbalán and Ellen Mayock. Teaneck, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 2014. “El precio del progreso: El capitalismo americano y la cultura corporativa en el cine español,” Ventanas sobre el Atlántico: España y los EE.UU. durante el postfranquismo (1975-2005). Eds. Jordi Marí and Carlos Ardavín Trabanco. Publicaciones de la Universitat de València, 2011: 117-30. “Selling Out Spain: Screening capital and culture in Airbag (1997) and Smoking Room (2002),” In Contemporary Spanish Cinema and Genre, eds. Vicente Rodríguez Ortega and Jay Beck. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2008. 133-53. “A la sombra de la Torre Mapfre: Leyendo la Barcelona del fin del milenio en El hombre de mi vida.” Manuel Vázquez Montalbán: El compromiso con la memoria. Ed. José F. Colmeiro. London: Támesis, 2007. 185-196. “La narración oral, la escritura, y ‘los lieux de mémoire’ en El lápiz del carpintero de Manuel Rivas.” Lugares de memoria de la Guerra Civil y el franquismo: Representaciones literarias y visuales. Ed. Ulrich Winter. Madrid and Frankfurt: Iberoamericana and Verveut, 2006. 155-76. “The Medium is the Monster: Metadiscourse and the Horrors of post-11 M Spain in the [REC] Trilogy” (forthcoming)

Journal Articles Appendix-150

William Nichols Page 3



• •





“From Counter-culture to National Heritage: La Movida in the Museum and the Institutionalization of Irreverence.” Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 13, (2009): 113-126. “Enigmas y Aporías: Leyendo las pistas en La muerte del Decano (1992),” Tabla Redonda: Anuario de Estudios Torrentinos. 5 (2007): 53-66. “Savoring the Past: Collective Amnesia, Consumer Culture and Gastronomic Memory in Vázquez Montalbán’s Carvalho Series,” The Journal for the Study of Food and Society (JSFS), 6.2 (Winter 2003): 57-63. “Nostalgia, novela negra y la recuperación del pasado en Paco Ignacio Taibo II,” Revista de Literatura Mexicana Contemporánea, Trans. Lluvia Gómez and Richard Ford, Año VI, No. 13, pp. 96-103. 2001. “El cuestionamiento ontológico de Invitación a la muerte de Xavier Villaurrutia.” Tropos, vol. 21, Spring 1995, 27-35.

Introductions •



“Introducción: Hacia una definición de negra,” for “Crimen, Cadáveres, y Cultura: Siguiendo las pistas de la novela negra,” a special issue of the Revista Iberoamericana LXXVI.231 (AprilJune 2010): 295-303. “Introduction: “El futuro ya estuvo aquí.” Co-written with H. Rosi Song, Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 13 (2009): 105-11.

Conference Proceedings • “Memoria versus Amnesia: Preservación del pasado en el ciclo de Carvalho de Vázquez Montalbán,” Fronteras finiseculares en la literatura del mundo hispánico (XVI Simposio Internacional de Literatura). Vicente Granados Palomares, Ed., 239-44, Educación Nacional de Educación a Distancia, 2000. • “Private Eyes, Postmodernism and the PRI: Truth and the Legacy of 1968 in Paco Ignacio Taibo II.” Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Symposium on Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Literature, Language and Culture, 1999, 77-82. Encyclopedia Entries • •

“Spain” in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore vol. 3, William M. Clements and Thomas A. Green, eds. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press, 2006. 177-89. “Paco Ignacio Taibo II: Founder of the Mexican ‘Neo-policíaco’ Novel” in Latin American Detective Fiction Writers: A Bio-Biobliographical Sourcebook. Westport Connecticut & London: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2004. 179-86.

Interviews • • •

“Siguiendo las pistas de la novela negra con Mempo Giardinelli.” Revista Iberoamericana LXXVI.231 (April-June 2010): 495-503. “Sifting through the Ashes: An Interview with Rafael Chirbes.” Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies, 12 (2008): 219-35. “A Quemarropa con Manuel Vázquez Montalbán y Paco Ignacio Taibo II.” Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies, 2.1 (1998) 197-231. Appendix-151

William Nichols Page 4

Volumes Edited • •

“Crimen, Cadáveres, y Cultura: Siguiendo las pistas de la novela negra,”special issue of the Revista Iberoamericana LXXVI.231 (April-June 2010). “Beyond Madrid: Revisiting the Cultural Archives of La Movida,” co-edited special section for the Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 13 (2009).

Book Reviews •





• •

Merino, Eloy and Song, H. Rosi. Traces of Contamination: Unearthing the Francoist Legacy in Contemporary Spanish Discourse. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell UP, 2005. Review in Symposium 62.1 (2008): 56-58. Moreiras Menor, Cristina. Cultura Herida: Literatura y cine en la España democrática. Madrid: Ediciones Libertarias, 2002. Review in Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos. 29.2 (2005): 443-46 Folkart, Jessica A. Angles on Otherness in Post-Franco Spain: The Fiction of Cristina Fernández Cubas. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell UP, 2002. Review in Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 7 (2003): 25-26. Encarnación, Omar. Democracy without Justice in Spain: The Politics of Forgetting. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2014. Review in Human Rights Quarterly. (In progress) Brenneis, Sara J. Genre Fusion: A New Approach to History, Fiction, and Memory in Contemporary Spain. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2014. Review in Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos. (In progress)

Translations •

Calveiro, Pilar. “Torture's New Methods and Meanings.”In On Torture. ed.Tom Hilde. Trans. William Nichols and Tom Hilde. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 2008. 115-32.

Ongoing Research • • • •

“Francos, Pesetas, and Pepes: Forgotten History and Spanish Emigration in Film” (article) “The Ethical Eye: Documentary Aesthetic, Historical Recuperation and the Female Subject in El tren de la memoria (2005)” (article) “Memories of Development: Questioning the Narrative of Spain’s Transición in the Novels of Rafael Chirbes” (article) “Mourning and Monuments: Narratives of Silence in the Memorials of New York and Madrid” (article)

Invited Presentations •



“Blurred Borders: Transnational Themes in Recent Spanish and Latin American Film,” Latin American Media: Distortions and Resistance, Center for Latin American and Latino Studies Symposium, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA April 1, 2009. “From el Caudillo to el Calentito: Images of the Transición in Recent Spanish Film.” Constitutional Spain: Democracy and Culture, 1978-2008, University of California-Santa Barbara, February 27, 2009. Appendix-152

COMMON CORE

STATE STANDARDS English/Spanish Language Version

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Appendix-153

Table of Contents Foreword Prólogo ..................................................................................................................................... i Introduction Introducción ............................................................................................................................. ii Linguistic Augmentation Adaptación Lingüística .............................................................................................................. ii The Accent La Acentuación ........................................................................................................................ iii Leadership and Opportunity Liderazgo y Oportunidad .......................................................................................................... iii Acknowledgements Agradacimientos ...................................................................................................................... iv Peer Review Validación Profesional ...............................................................................................................v College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards Estándares para la Preparación Universitaria y Profesional ...................................................... 1 Reading Standards for Literature Estándares de Lectura para la Literatura .................................................................................. 2 Reading Standards for Informational Text Estándares de Lectura para Texto Informativo .......................................................................... 5 Reading Standards: Foundational Skills Estándares de Lectura: Destrezas Fundamentales ................................................................... 7 Writing Standards Estándares de Escritura y Redacción ..................................................................................... 11 Speaking and Listening Standards Estándares de Audición y Expresión Oral ............................................................................... 14 Language Standards Estándares de Lenguaje ......................................................................................................... 17 Language Progressive Skills, by Grade Progessión de destrezes de lenguaje por grado..................................................................... 21 Range, Quality, and Compleixity of Student Reading Nivel del lectura y de complejidad de texto ............................................................................ 22 Appendix-154

Prólogo

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ÊÛ>œÀÊ`iÊi˜}Õ>iÊÃiÊ`Õ«ˆV>ÊVÕ>˜`œÊÃiÊVœ˜œVi˜Ê`œÃÊ ˆ`ˆœ“>ðʏÊv>VˆˆÌ>Àʏ>Ê>`µÕˆÃˆVˆ˜ÊÞÊ`iÃ>ÀÀœœÊ`iÊië>šœ]ʏœÃÊ «>`ÀiÃÊÞʓ>iÃÌÀœÃÊiÃÌ?˜ÊœvÀiVˆi˜`œÊ>ʏœÃʘˆšœÃÊÞʍÛi˜iÃʓ?ÃÊÞÊ “iœÀiÃʈ˜ÃÌÀՓi˜ÌœÃÊ«>À>ÊVœ˜Ãi}ՈÀÊiÊj݈̜ʈ˜ÌiiVÌÕ>]ÊÜVˆ>ÊÞÊ iVœ˜“ˆVœÊi˜Ê>Êۈ`>°Ê Ê

vÊ-«>˜ˆÃ…ʈÃÊ̅iʅœ“iʏ>˜}Õ>}i]Ê̜ʎ˜œÜʈÌÊÜiÊ“i>˜ÃÊ œ˜iÊÀiViˆÛiÃʘœÌʜ˜ÞÊ̅iÊÀˆV…˜iÃÃʜvÊv>“ˆÞʅiÀˆÌ>}i]ÊLÕÌÊ>ÃœÊ ̅iʅˆÃ̜ÀˆVʏi}>VÞʅi`ÊLÞÊ̅>Ìʏ>˜}Õ>}i°ÊÊ

-ˆÊiÊië>šœÊiÃÊiÊˆ`ˆœ“>Ê`iÊ…œ}>À]ʏi}>ÀÊ>ÊVœ˜œViÀœÊLˆi˜Ê È}˜ˆwV>À?Ê«œ`iÀÊÀiVˆLˆÀʏ>ÊÀˆµÕiâ>ʘœÊ܏œÊ`iʏ>ʅiÀi˜Vˆ>Êv>“ˆˆ>À]Ê Ãˆ˜œÊÌ>“Lˆj˜ÊiÊi}>`œÊ…ˆÃ̝ÀˆVœÊµÕiÊÀi«ÀiÃi˜Ì>ÊiÃ>ʏi˜}Õ>°

/…iÊVÀi>̈œ˜ÊœvÊ̅iÃiÊÃÌ>˜`>À`Ãʅ>ÃÊLii˜Ê̅iÊÀiÃՏÌʜvÊ Ì…iÊ>À`՜ÕÃÊܜÀŽÊœvÊ>Ê}Ài>ÌʘՓLiÀʜvÊi`ÕV>̜ÀÃ]Ê܅œÊÜˆÌ…Ê Àˆ}œÀÊ>˜`Êi˜Ì…ÕÈ>ÓÊ}>ÛiÊ̅iÊLiÃÌʜvÊ̅i“ÃiÛiÃÊ̜ÊÀi>V…Ê>Ê Vœ˜Ãi˜ÃÕÃʜvÊ«i`>}œ}ˆV>Ê˜œÀ“ÃÊ>˜`ʜLiV̈ÛiðÊ

>Êi>LœÀ>Vˆ˜Ê`iÊiÃÌiÊVœ˜Õ˜ÌœÊ`iÊiÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃʅ>ÊÈ`œÊiÊ ÀiÃՏÌ>`œÊ`iÊ>À`՜ÊÌÀ>L>œÊ`iÊ՘Ê}À>˜Ê˜Ö“iÀœÊ`iÊi`ÕV>`œÀiÃ]Ê µÕiÊVœ˜ÊÀˆ}œÀÊÞÊi˜ÌÕÈ>ӜʫÕÈiÀœ˜ÊœÊ“iœÀÊ`iÊÉÊi˜ÊiÃÌ>ʏ>LœÀÊ «>À>ʏi}>ÀÊ>Ê՘ÊVœ˜Ãi˜ÃœÊ`iʘœÀ“>ÃÊÞʜLïۜÃÊ«i`>}}ˆVœÃ°

œ˜}À>ÌՏ>̈œ˜ÃÊ>˜`piÌÊÕÃÊLi}ˆ˜t

˜…œÀ>LÕi˜>ÊÞÊuÛ>“œÃÊ>Êi“«iâ>Àt

Alma Flor Ada y F. Isabel Campoy i

Appendix-155

Introduction

Introducción

-Ì>˜`>À`ÇL>Ãi`ʈ˜ÃÌÀÕV̈œ˜ÊˆÃÊ>ÌÊ̅iÊvœÀivÀœ˜ÌʜvÊ i`ÕV>̈œ˜ÊÀivœÀ“ÊLiV>ÕÃiʈÌÊ«ÀiÃi˜ÌÃÊ>ÊvÀ>“iܜÀŽÊ̜Êi˜ÃÕÀiÊ Ì…>ÌÊ>ÊÃÌÕ`i˜ÌÃÊ>ÀiÊÊi˜}>}i`ʈ˜ÊÀˆ}œÀœÕÃÊVÕÀÀˆVՏ>Ê>˜`Ê «Ài«>Ài`Ê̜ÊVœ˜ÌÀˆLÕÌiÊ«œÃˆÌˆÛiÞÊ̜Ê>˜Êˆ˜VÀi>Ș}ÞÊVœ“«iÝÊ ÜœÀ`°ÊÃÊÜiÊ«Ài«>ÀiÊ̜ÊLՈ`ÊV>«>VˆÌÞʈ˜Êˆ“«i“i˜Ìˆ˜}Ê̅iÊ ˜iÜÊ œ““œ˜Ê œÀiÊ-Ì>˜`>À`ÃÊ­

--®]Ê«>Ài˜ÌÃ]ÊÌi>V…iÀÃ]Ê «Àˆ˜Vˆ«>ÃÊ>˜`Êi`ÕV>̜ÀÃʅ>Ûiʈ`i˜Ìˆwi`Ê̅iʘii`ÊvœÀÊ̅iÊ ÌÀ>˜Ã>̈œ˜Ê>˜`ʏˆ˜}ՈÃ̈VÊ>Õ}“i˜Ì>̈œ˜ÊœvÊ̅iÊ œ““œ˜Ê œÀiÊ

˜}ˆÃ…Ê>˜}Õ>}iÊÀÌÊ>˜`ʈÌiÀ>VÞʈ˜ÊˆÃ̜Àއ-œVˆ>Ê-ÌÕ`ˆiÃ]Ê -Vˆi˜ViÊ>˜`Ê/iV…˜ˆV>Ê-ÕLiVÌÃÊ-Ì>˜`>À`ÃÊ-Ì>˜`>À`à ­ œ““œ˜Ê œÀiÊ ÉˆÌiÀ>Vޮʈ˜ÌœÊ-«>˜ˆÃ…°Ê

>ʈ˜ÃÌÀÕVVˆ˜ÊL>Ã>`>Êi˜Ê՘ÊÈÃÌi“>ÊiÃÌ>˜`>Àˆâ>`œÊiÃÌ?Ê>ʏ>Ê Û>˜}Õ>À`ˆ>Ê`iʏ>ÊÀivœÀ“>Êi`ÕV>̈Û>]ÊÞ>ʵÕiÊ«ÀiÃi˜Ì>Ê՘ʓ>ÀVœÊ«>À>Ê >Ãi}ÕÀ>ÀʵÕiÊ̜`œÃʏœÃÊiÃÌÕ`ˆ>˜ÌiÃÊiÃÌj˜ÊiÝ«ÕiÃ̜ÃÊ>Ê«Àœ}À>“>ÃÊ `iÊiÃÌÕ`ˆœÃÊÀˆ}ÕÀœÃœÃÊÞÊ«Ài«>À>`œÃÊ>ÊVœ˜ÌÀˆLՈÀÊ«œÃˆÌˆÛ>“i˜ÌiÊ>Ê Õ˜Ê“Õ˜`œÊV>`>ÊÛiâʓ?ÃÊVœ“«iœ°ÊÊ`ˆÃ«œ˜iÀ˜œÃÊ>Ê`iÃ>ÀÀœ>ÀÊ ˜ÕiÃÌÀ>ÊV>«>Vˆ`>`Ê`iÊ>«ˆV>ÀʏœÃʘÕiۜÃÊiÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃÊiÃÌ>Ì>iÃÊ Vœ“Õ˜iÃʏœÃÊ«>`ÀiÃ]ʓ>iÃÌÀœÃ]Ê`ˆÀiV̜ÀiÃÊÞÊi`ÕV>`œÀiÃʅ>˜Ê ˆ`i˜ÌˆwV>`œÊ>ʘiViÈ`>`Ê`iÊÌÀ>`ÕVˆÀÊÞÊÃÕ«i“i˜Ì>Àʏˆ˜}؉Ã̈V>“i˜ÌiÊ >Êië>šœ]ʏœÃÊ ÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃÊiÃÌ>Ì>iÃÊVœ“Õ˜iÃÊ«>À>ʏ>ÃÊ>ÀÌiÃÊ`iÊ i˜}Õ>iÊÞÊ«>À>ʏ>ʏiV̜‡iÃVÀˆÌÕÀ>Êi˜Ê…ˆÃ̜Àˆ>ÊÞÊiÃÌÕ`ˆœÃÊÜVˆ>iÃ]Ê Vˆi˜Vˆ>ÃÊÞʓ>ÌiÀˆ>ÃÊÌjV˜ˆV>ÃÊ­ ÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃÊiÃÌ>Ì>iÃÊVœ“Õ˜iÃÊ`iÊ iV̜‡iÃVÀˆÌÕÀ>Êi˜Êië>šœ®°Ê

/…ˆÃÊÌÀ>˜Ã>Ìi`Ê>˜`ʏˆ˜}ՈÃ̈V>ÞÊ>Õ}“i˜Ìi`ÊÛiÀȜ˜Ê iÃÌ>LˆÃ…iÃÊ>Ê}Ո`iÊvœÀÊiµÕˆÌ>LiÊ>ÃÃiÃÓi˜ÌÊ>˜`ÊVÕÀÀˆVÕÕ“Ê `iÛiœ«“i˜Ì]ÊÀiÃՏ̈˜}ʈ˜Ê…ˆ}…ʏiÛiÃʜvÊLˆˆÌiÀ>VÞ°

ÃÌ>ÊÛiÀȝ˜ÊÌÀ>`ÕVˆ`>ÊÞÊ>Փi˜Ì>`>ʏˆ˜}؉Ã̈V>“i˜ÌiÊ>Êië>šœÊ iÃʈ“«œÀÌ>˜ÌiÊ«œÀµÕiÊiÃÌ>LiViÊ՘>Ê}Չ>Ê«>À>ʏ>ÊiÛ>Õ>Vˆ˜Ê iµÕˆÌ>̈Û>]ÊiÊ`iÃ>ÀÀœœÊ`iʏœÃÊ«>˜iÃÊ`iÊiÃÌÕ`ˆœÃÊÞʏ>ʈ˜ÃÌÀÕVVˆ˜Ê µÕiÊ«Àœ“ÕiÛiÊ>ÌœÃʘˆÛiiÃÊ`iÊV>«>Vˆ`>`ÊÌ>˜ÌœÊi˜Êˆ˜}jÃÊVœ“œÊi˜Ê ië>šœ°Ê

Linguistic Augmentation

Adaptación lingüística

ÛiÀÞÊivvœÀÌʅ>ÃÊLii˜Ê“>`iÊ̜ʓ>ˆ˜Ì>ˆ˜Ê>Ê«>À>i]Ê>ˆ}˜i`]Ê >˜`ÊiµÕˆÌ>LiÊ>ÀV…ˆÌiVÌÕÀiÊLiÌÜii˜Ê̅iÊ-«>˜ˆÃ…ÊÌÀ>˜Ã>̈œ˜Ê >˜`ʏˆ˜}ՈÃ̈VÊ>Õ}“i˜Ì>̈œ˜ÊœvÊ̅iÊ œ““œ˜Ê œÀiÊ ÉˆÌiÀ>VÞÊ -Ì>˜`>À`ðÊ/…iÊ-«>˜ˆÃ…ʏˆ˜}ՈÃ̈VÊ>Õ}“i˜Ì>̈œ˜ÃÊ>˜`Ê-«>˜ˆÃ…Ê >˜}Õ>}i‡Ã«iVˆwVÊiÝ>“«iÃÊ>Àiʓ>ÀŽi`ʈ˜ÊLÕiÊvœ˜Ì°Ê

-iʅ>ʅiV…œÊ՘Ê}À>˜ÊiÃvÕiÀâœÊi˜Ê“>˜Ìi˜iÀÊ՘>Ê>ÀµÕˆÌiVÌÕÀ>Ê «>À>i>]Ê>ˆ˜i>`>ÊÞÊiµÕˆÌ>̈Û>Êi˜ÌÀiʏœÃÊ ÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃÊiÃÌ>Ì>iÃÊ Vœ“Õ˜iÃÊ«>À>ʏ>ÃÊ>ÀÌiÃÊ`iʏi˜}Õ>iÊÞʏiV̜‡iÃVÀˆÌÕÀ>Êi˜Êˆ˜}jÃÊÞʏœÃÊ `iÊië>šœ°Ê ÃÌ>ÊÌÀ>`ÕVVˆ˜Êˆ˜VÕÞiʏœÃÊÃÕ«i“i˜ÌœÃʏˆ˜}؉Ã̈VœÃÊ iëiV‰wVœÃÊ>Êië>šœ°Ê>ÃÊ>`>«Ì>Vˆœ˜iÃʏˆ˜}؉Ã̈V>ÃÊÞʏœÃÊii“«œÃÊ iëiV‰wVœÃÊ«>À>ÊiÊië>šœÊ>«>ÀiVi˜Ê“>ÀV>`œÃÊi˜ÊiÌÀ>Ê>âՏ°Ê

/…iÊ«ÕÀ«œÃiʜvÊ̅iʏˆ˜}ՈÃ̈VÊ>Õ}“i˜Ì>̈œ˜ÊˆÃÊ̜Ê>``ÀiÃÃÊ «œˆ˜ÌÃʜvʏi>À˜ˆ˜}]ÊΈÃÊ>˜`ÊVœ˜Vi«ÌÃÊ̅>ÌÊ>ÀiÊëiVˆwVÊ ÌœÊ-«>˜ˆÃ…ʏ>˜}Õ>}iÊ>˜`ʏˆÌiÀ>VÞ]Ê>ÃÊÜiÊ>ÃÊÌÀ>˜ÃviÀ>LiÊ >˜}Õ>}iʏi>À˜ˆ˜}ÃÊLiÌÜii˜Ê ˜}ˆÃ…Ê>˜`Ê-«>˜ˆÃ…Ê>ÃÊ«ÀœÛˆ`i`Ê ˆ˜Êi`ÕV>̈œ˜>ÊÃiÌ̈˜}ÃÊ܅iÀiÊÃÌÕ`i˜ÌÃÊ>Àiʈ˜ÃÌÀÕVÌi`ʈ˜ÊLœÌ…Ê >˜}Õ>}ið

Ê«Àœ«ÃˆÌœÊ`iʏœÃÊÃÕ«i“i˜ÌœÃÊÞʏ>ÃÊ>`>«Ì>Vˆœ˜iÃʏˆ˜}؉Ã̈V>ÃÊ iÃʅ>ViÀÊvÀi˜ÌiÊ>ʏœÃʫ՘̜ÃÊ`iÊ>«Ài˜`ˆâ>i]ʏ>Ãʅ>Lˆˆ`>`iÃÊÞÊ œÃÊVœ˜Vi«ÌœÃʵÕiÊܘÊiëiV‰wVœÃÊ>ʏ>ʏi˜}Õ>Êië>šœ>ÊÞÊÃÕÊ >v>Lïâ>Vˆ˜°Ê>ÃÊ>`>«Ì>Vˆœ˜iÃʏˆ˜}؉Ã̈V>ÃÊÌ>“Lˆj˜ÊÃiš>>˜Ê>ÃÊ ?Ài>ÃÊ`iÊÌÀ>˜ÃviÀi˜Vˆ>Ê`iÊ`iÃÌÀiâ>ÃÊi˜ÌÀiÊiÊˆ˜}jÃÊÞÊiÊië>šœÊ «>À>ʏœÃÊ«Àœ}À>“>ÃÊ`œ˜`iÊÃiÊ«ÀœÛiiʈ˜ÃÌÀÕVVˆ˜Ê>ÊiÃÌÕ`ˆ>˜ÌiÃÊi˜Ê >“LœÃʈ`ˆœ“>ð

/…iʏˆ˜}ՈÃ̈VÊ>Õ}“i˜Ì>̈œ˜ÊˆÃÊL>Ãi`ʜ˜Ê̅iÊVœ˜Ûi˜Ìˆœ˜ÃÊvœÀÊ œÀ>Ê>˜`ÊÜÀˆÌÌi˜Ê-«>˜ˆÃ…ÊvÀœ“Ê̅iÊ,i>ÊV>`i“ˆ>Ê`iʏ>Êi˜}Õ>Ê

ë>šœ>Ê­, ®Ê«Àœ“Տ}>Ìi`ʈ˜ÊÓä£ä°Ê/…iʈ˜Ìi˜ÌʈÃÊ̜ʫÀœ“œÌiÊ Ì…iÊÃ>“iÊiÝ«iVÌ>̈œ˜ÃÊ>˜`ʏiÛiÊœvÊÀˆ}œÀÊvœÀÊ-«>˜ˆÃ…ÊÕÃ>}iÊ>ÃÊ i`ÕV>̜ÀÃÊiÝ«iVÌÊvœÀÊ ˜}ˆÃ…ÊÕÃ>}iÊ̅ÀœÕ}…ʵÕ>ˆÌÞÊVÕÀÀˆVÕÕ“Ê >˜`ʈ˜ÃÌÀÕV̈œ˜°ÊÊ

ÊÃÕ«i“i˜ÌœÊˆ˜}؉Ã̈VœÊÃiÊL>Ã>Êi˜Ê>ÃʘœÀ“>ÃÊÞÊÀi}>ÃÊ«>À>Ê iÊÕÜÊ`iÊië>šœÊœÀ>ÊÞÊiÃVÀˆÌœÊ`iʏ>Ê,i>ÊV>`i“ˆ>Ê`iʏ>Êi˜}Õ>Ê

ë>šœ>Ê­, ®]Ê«Àœ“Տ}>`>Êi˜ÊÓä£ä°Ê>ʈ˜Ìi˜Vˆ˜ÊiÃÊiÊ«Àœ“œÛiÀÊ >ÃʓˆÃ“>ÃÊiÝ«iVÌ>̈Û>ÃÊÞʘˆÛiÊ`iÊÀˆ}œÀÊi˜ÊiÊÕÜÊ`iÊië>šœÊ µÕiʏœÃÊi`ÕV>`œÀiÃÊiëiÀ>˜Êi˜ÊiÊÕÜÊ`iÊˆ˜}jÃÊ>ÊÌÀ>ÛjÃÊ`iʏœÃÊ iÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃ]ʏœÃÊ«>˜iÃÊ`iÊiÃÌÕ`ˆœÊÞÊ՘>Ê«i`>}œ}‰>Ê`iÊ>Ì>ÊV>ˆ`>`°Ê

/…iʏˆ˜}ՈÃ̈VÊ>Õ}“i˜Ì>̈œ˜Ê>ÃœÊ«ÀœÛˆ`iÃÊ>ÊÃÌÀÕVÌÕÀiÊ>˜`Ê Ã«iVˆwVÊ`iÌ>ˆÊvœÀÊ̅iÊ`iÛiœ«“i˜Ìʜvʈ˜ÃÌÀÕV̈œ˜>Ê“>ÌiÀˆ>ÃÊ Ì…>ÌÊ>``ÀiÃÃÊ̅iÊëiVˆwVÊvi>ÌÕÀiÃʜvÊ-«>˜ˆÃ…ʈ˜ÊÃÕ««œÀÌʜvÊ ÃÌÕ`i˜ÌýÊ>V>`i“ˆVʏ>˜}Õ>}iʏi>À˜ˆ˜}ʜ˜Ê«>ÀÊÜˆÌ…Ê ˜}ˆÃ…ʈ˜Ê `Õ>Ê>˜}Õ>}iÊ«Àœ}À>“ðÊÊÊÊ

ÊÃÕ«i“i˜ÌœÊˆ˜}؉Ã̈VœÊÌ>“Lˆj˜Ê«Àœ«œÀVˆœ˜>ʏ>ÊiÃÌÀÕVÌÕÀ>ÊÞÊ œÃÊ`iÌ>iÃÊiëiV‰wVœÃʘiViÃ>ÀˆœÃÊ«>À>ÊiÊ`iÃ>ÀÀœœÊ`iʓ>ÌiÀˆ>iÃÊ i`ÕV>̈ۜÃʵÕiÊVœÀÀi뜘`i˜Ê>ʏ>ÃÊV>À>VÌiÀ‰Ã̈V>ÃÊiëiV‰wV>ÃÊ `iÊˆ`ˆœ“>Êië>šœ°Ê ÃÌ>ÊiÃÌÀÕVÌÕÀ>ÊÌ>“Lˆj˜Ê>LœÀ`>ÊiÊ>«œÞœÊ`iÊ i˜}Õ>iÊ>V>`j“ˆVœÊ˜iViÃ>ÀˆœÊ«>À>ʏœÃÊiÃÌÕ`ˆ>˜ÌiÃʵÕiÊ>«Ài˜`i˜ÊiÊ ië>šœÊVœ˜Õ˜Ì>“i˜ÌiÊVœ˜ÊiÊˆ˜}jÃÊi˜ÊœÃÊ«Àœ}À>“>ÃÊLˆˆ˜}ØiÃÊœÊ `iÊ`œLiʈ˜“iÀȝ˜°

ii

Appendix-156

The Accent Mark

La Acentuación

ÊÃi«>À>ÌiÊVÕÃÌiÀÊ܈̅ˆ˜Ê̅iʜ՘`>̈œ˜>Ê-ŽˆÃʈ˜Ê }À>`iÃʇxÊÜ>ÃÊ>``i`Ê̜Ê>««Àœ«Àˆ>ÌiÞÊ>``ÀiÃÃʈ˜ÃÌÀÕV̈œ˜Ê

-iʅ>Ê>š>`ˆ`œÊ՘>ÊÃiVVˆ˜Êi˜ÊœÃÊiÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃÊÀi>Vˆœ˜>`œÃÊ Vœ˜Ê>Êi˜Ãiš>˜â>Ê`iÊ>Vi˜ÌœÊ`i˜ÌÀœÊ`iÊ}ÀÕ«œÊ`iÊ`iÃÌÀiâ>ÃÊ

œvÊ̅iÊ-«>˜ˆÃ…Ê>VVi˜Ìʓ>ÀŽ°Ê

v՘`>“i˜Ì>iÃÊ`iÊŽˆ˜`iÀ}>ÀÌi˜Ê>ÊµÕˆ˜ÌœÊ}À>`œ°ÊÊ

The œ““œ˜Ê œÀiÊ>˜}Õ>}iÊÀÌÃɈÌiÀ>VÞÊÃÌ>˜`>À`ÃÊ ˆ˜Ê-«>˜ˆÃ… ­ œ““œ˜Ê œÀiÊ-ɈÌiÀ>VޮʫÀiÃi˜ÌÊ>˜Ê ˆ˜Ìi}À>Ìi`Ê>««Àœ>V…Ê̜Ê̅iÊ>VVi˜Ìʓ>ÀŽÊ̅ÀœÕ}…œÕÌÊ̅iÊ vœÕ˜`>̈œ˜>ÊΈÃÊÃÌÀ>˜`ÃʜvÊ*Àˆ˜ÌÊ œ˜Vi«ÌÃ]Ê*…œ˜œœ}ˆV>Ê Ü>Ài˜iÃÃ]Ê*…œ˜ˆVÃ]Ê7œÀ`Ê,iVœ}˜ˆÌˆœ˜Ê>˜`ʏ>˜}Õ>}iÊ Vœ˜Ûi˜Ìˆœ˜Ã°ÊÊ

œÃÊ ÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃÊiÃÌ>Ì>iÃÊVœ“Õ˜iÃÊi˜Êië>šœÊiÝ«œ˜i˜ÊÕ˜Ê “j̜`œÊˆ˜Ìi}À>`œÊ«>À>ʏ>Êi˜Ãiš>˜â>Ê`iʏœÃÊ>Vi˜ÌœÃʵÕiÊÃiÊ i˜>â>Ê>ÊÌÀ>ÛjÃÊ`iʏœÃÊVœ˜Vi«ÌœÃÊ`iʏœÊˆ“«ÀiÜ]ʏ>ÊVœ˜Vˆi˜Vˆ>Ê vœ˜œ}ˆV>]ʏ>Êvœ˜j̈V>]ÊiÊÀiVœ˜œVˆ“ˆi˜ÌœÊ`iÊ«>>LÀ>Ã]ÊÞÊ`iʏ>ÃÊ ˜œÀ“>̈Û>ÃÊ`iÊˆ`ˆœ“>Êië>šœ°

TheÊ œ““œ˜Ê œÀiÊɈÌiÀ>VÞÊÃÌ>˜`>À`Ãʈ˜Ê-«>˜ˆÃ…]Ê vœœÜÊ>ÊÜi‡>À̈VՏ>Ìi`ÊÃVœ«iÊ>˜`ÊÃiµÕi˜Vi]ʈ˜ÊÃÌi«ÊÜˆÌ…Ê ÀiÃi>ÀV…Ê̜Êi˜ÃÕÀiʓ>ÃÌiÀÞʜvÊÕÃ>}iʜvÊ̅iÊ>VVi˜Ìʓ>ÀŽÊˆ˜Ê -«>˜ˆÃ…°ÊÊÊ

˜ÊL>ÃiÊ>ʏ>Ãʈ˜ÛiÃ̈}>Vˆœ˜iÃÊ«i`>}}ˆV>Ã]ʏœÃÊ ÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃÊ iÃÌ>Ì>ÃÊVœ“Õ˜iÃÊi˜Êië>šœÊ«ÀiÃi˜Ì>˜Ê՘>ÊÃiVÕi˜Vˆ>Ê`iÊ ˆ˜ÃÌÀÕVVˆ˜Ê>À̈VՏ>`>ÊÞÊ`iÃ>ÀÀœ>`>Ê«>À>ʏ>Êi˜Ãiš>˜â>Ê`iÊ >Vi˜ÌœÊµÕiÊÈ}ÕiÊ՘>Ê«Àœ}Àiȝ˜ÊiۜṎÛ>ʅ>Vˆ>ÊiÊ`œ“ˆ˜ˆœÊ`iÊ ÕÜÊ`iÊ>Vi˜ÌœÊi˜Êië>šœ°

Leadership and Opportunity

Liderazgo y Oportunidad

/…iÊÌÀ>˜Ã>̈œ˜Ê>˜`ʏˆ˜}ՈÃ̈VÊ>Õ}“i˜Ì>̈œ˜ÊœvÊ̅iÊ

œ““œ˜Ê œÀiÊ-Ì>˜`>À`Ãʈ˜Ê-«>˜ˆÃ…Ê>vvœÀ`ÃÊÕÃÊ̅iÊ œ««œÀÌ՘ˆÌÞÊ̜ÊÀi‡Vœ˜Vi«ÌÕ>ˆâiÊV>ÃÃÀœœ“Ê«À>V̈ViÃÊLÞÊ >VŽ˜œÜi`}ˆ˜}Ê̅iÊÜ>ÞÃÊ̅>ÌÊÃÌÕ`i˜ÌÃÊ>Õ̅i˜ÌˆV>ÞÊÕÃiÊ >Ê«Àˆ“>ÀÞÊ>˜`ÊÃiVœ˜`ʏ>˜}Õ>}iÊ̜ʜÀ}>˜ˆâiʅˆ}…iÀʓi˜Ì>Ê «ÀœViÃÃiÃ]ʓi`ˆ>ÌiÊVœ}˜ˆÌˆœ˜]Ê>˜`Ê`iÛiœ«Ê>Õ̜˜œ“ÞÊ>ÃÊ Ì…iÞÊLiVœ“iÊ«ÀœwVˆi˜ÌÞÊLˆˆÌiÀ>Ìi°

>ÊÌÀ>`ÕVVˆ˜ÊÞÊiÊÃÕ«i“i˜ÌœÊˆ˜}؉Ã̈VœÊ`iʏœÃÊ ÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃÊ iÃÌ>Ì>iÃÊVœ“Õ˜iÃÊi˜Ê ë>šœ]ʘœÃÊ`>˜Ê>ʜ«œÀÌ՘ˆ`>`Ê`iÊ ÀiVœ˜Vi«ÌÕ>ˆâ>Àʏ>ÃÊ«À?V̈V>ÃÊ`iÊi˜Ãiš>˜â>Êi˜ÊiÊÃ>˜Ê`iÊ V>ÃiÊ>ÊÀiVœ˜œViÀʏ>ʓ>˜iÀ>Êi˜ÊµÕiʏœÃÊiÃÌÕ`ˆ>˜ÌiÃÊṎˆâ>˜Ê ՘ʫÀˆ“iÀÊÞÊÃi}՘`œÊˆ`ˆœ“>Ê>ÕÌj˜ÌˆV>“i˜ÌiÊ«>À>ʜÀ}>˜ˆâ>ÀÊ Vœ“«iœÃÊ«ÀœViÜÃʓi˜Ì>iÃ]ʓi`ˆ>Àʏ>ÊVœ}˜ˆVˆ˜ÊÞÊ`iÃ>ÀÀœ>ÀÊ >Ê>Õ̜˜œ“‰>ÊÞÊV>«>Vˆ`>`ÊVœ“«iÌi˜ÌiÊi˜Êˆ˜}jÃÊÞÊië>šœ°

Ê/…iÊ-«>˜ˆÃ…ÊÌÀ>˜Ã>̈œ˜ÊœvÊ̅iÊ œ““œ˜Ê œÀiÊ-Ì>ÌiÊ -Ì>˜`>À`ÃÊvœÀÊ>˜}Õ>}iÊÀÌÃ]ÊʈÌiÀ>VÞʈ˜ÊˆÃ̜ÀÞÉÊ-œVˆ>Ê -ÌÕ`ˆiÃ]Ê-Vˆi˜ViÊ>˜`Ê/iV…˜ˆV>Ê-ÕLiVÌÃ]Ê>ÃœÊÊ«ÀiÃi˜ÌÊ>Ê ˜iÜʜ««œÀÌ՘ˆÌÞÊvœÀÊ̅iʏi>`iÀň«ÊœvÊÃÌÕ`i˜ÌÃ]Ê«>Ài˜ÌÃ]Ê Ìi>V…iÀÃ]Ê>˜`ÊÃV…œœÊ>`“ˆ˜ˆÃÌÀ>̜ÀÃÊ̜ÊÀiVœ}˜ˆâiÊ̅iʏˆ˜ŽÊ LiÌÜii˜ÊVœ}˜ˆÌˆÛiÊ`iÛiœ«“i˜ÌÊ>˜`ʏ>˜}Õ>}i]Ê>˜`Êi“LÀ>ViÊ Ì…iÊÀi뜘ÈLˆˆÌÞÊvœÀÊ̅iÊVœ˜Ìˆ˜ÕœÕÃʈ“«ÀœÛi“i˜ÌʜvʜÕÀÊ i`ÕV>̈œ˜>ÊÃÞÃÌi“°

œÃÊ ÃÌ?˜`>ÀiÃÊiÃÌ>Ì>iÃÊVœ“Õ˜iÃÊ«>À>ʏ>ÃÊ>ÀÌiÃÊ`iÊi˜}Õ>iÊ i˜Êië>šœÊÞÊ«>À>ʏ>ʏiV̜‡iÃVÀˆÌÕÀ>Êi˜Ê…ˆÃ̜Àˆ>ÊÞÊiÃÌÕ`ˆœÃÊ ÃœVˆ>iÃ]ÊVˆi˜Vˆ>ÃÊÞʓ>ÌiÀˆ>ÃÊÌjV˜ˆV>Ã]ÊÌ>“Lˆj˜ÊÀi«ÀiÃi˜Ì>˜Ê ՘>ʘÕiÛ>ʜ«œÀÌ՘ˆ`>`Ê«>À>ÊiÊˆ`iÀ>â}œÊ`iÊiÃÌÕ`ˆ>˜ÌiÃ]Ê «>`ÀiÃ]ʓ>iÃÌÀœÃÊÞÊ>`“ˆ˜ˆÃÌÀ>`œÀiÃÊiÃVœ>ÀiðÊ*œÀʏœÊÌ>˜Ìœ]Ê iÃÌ>ÊVœ“Õ˜ˆ`>`Êi˜Ê«i˜œÊÀiVœ˜œViÊiÊi˜>ViÊi˜ÌÀiÊiÊ`iÃ>ÀÀœœÊ Vœ}˜œÃVˆÌˆÛœÊÞÊiÊi˜}Õ>i]ÊÞÊÃiÊÀi뜘Ã>Lˆˆâ>Ê>Ê“iœÀ>“ˆi˜ÌœÊ Vœ˜Ìˆ˜ÕœÊ`iʘÕiÃÌÀœÊÈÃÌi“>Ê`iÊi`ÕV>Vˆ˜°

iii

Appendix-157

Acknowledgements

Agradecimientos

œ““ˆÌÌi`Ê̜ʫÀœÛˆ`ˆ˜}ʏi>`iÀň«]Ê>ÃÈÃÌ>˜ViÊ>˜`Ê ÀiÜÕÀViÃÊÜÊ̅>ÌÊiÛiÀÞÊÃÌÕ`i˜Ìʅ>ÃÊ>VViÃÃÊ̜Ê>˜Ê i`ÕV>̈œ˜Ê̅>ÌʓiiÌÃÊܜÀ`ÊV>ÃÃÊÃÌ>˜`>À`Ã]Ê̅iÊ œÕ˜VˆÊ œvÊ …ˆivÊ-Ì>ÌiÊ-V…œœÊ"vwViÀÃ]Ê̅iÊ >ˆvœÀ˜ˆ>Ê i«>À̓i˜ÌÊ of Education and the San Diego County Office of

`ÕV>̈œ˜ÊÀiVœ}˜ˆâiÊ>˜`ÊiÝÌi˜`Ê̅iˆÀÊ>««ÀiVˆ>̈œ˜Ê̜Ê>Ê ܅œÊVœ˜ÌÀˆLÕÌi`Ê̜Ê̅ˆÃÊvœÀ“ˆ`>LiÊi˜`i>ۜÀ°

œ“«Àœ“ï`œÃÊ>ʜvÀiViÀʏˆ`iÀ>â}œ]Ê>ÞÕ`>ÊÞÊÀiVÕÀÜÃÊ«>À>Ê µÕiÊV>`>ÊiÃÌÕ`ˆ>˜ÌiÊÌi˜}>Ê>VViÜÊ>Ê՘>Êi`ÕV>Vˆ˜ÊµÕiÊ VՓ«>ÊVœ˜Ê>Ì>ÃʘœÀ“>ÃÊ>ʘˆÛiÊ“Õ˜`ˆ>]ÊiÊ œ˜VˆˆœÊ`iÊ iviÃÊ ÃÌ>Ì>iÃÊ`iÊ`“ˆ˜ˆÃÌÀ>`œÀiÃÊ ÃVœ>ÀiÃ]ÊiÊ i«>ÀÌ>“i˜ÌœÊ `iÊ `ÕV>Vˆ˜Ê`iÊ >ˆvœÀ˜ˆ>ÊÞʏ>ÃÊ"wVˆ˜>ÃÊ`iÊ `ÕV>Vˆ˜Ê`iÊ

œ˜`>`œÊ`iÊ->˜Ê ˆi}œ]ÊiÝ̈i˜`i˜ÊÃÕÊ>}À>`iVˆ“ˆi˜ÌœÊ>Ê̜`œÃÊ >µÕiœÃʵÕiʅ>˜ÊVœ˜ÌÀˆLՈ`œÊ>ÊiÃÌ>ÊvœÀ“ˆ`>Liʏ>LœÀ°

Advisory Committee

Comité asesor

>ÀÀˆiÊi>̅Ê*…ˆˆ«Ã]Ê œÕ˜VˆÊœvÊ …ˆivÊ-Ì>ÌiÊ-V…œœÊ"vwViÀà À°Ê“>ʏœÀÊ`>]Ê1˜ˆÛiÀÈÌÞʜvÊ->˜ÊÀ>˜VˆÃVœ À°Ê°ÊÃ>LiÊ >“«œÞ]Ê/À>˜ÃvœÀ“>̈ÛiÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜Ê˜Ã̈ÌÕÌi À°Ê/œ“Ê`>“Ã]Ê >ˆvœÀ˜ˆ>Ê i«>À̓i˜ÌʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜

ˆvvÊ,Õ`˜ˆVŽ]Ê >ˆvœÀ˜ˆ>Ê i«>À̓i˜ÌʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜ ˆˆ>˜Ê*jÀiâ]Ê >ˆvœÀ˜ˆ>Ê i«>À̓i˜ÌʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜ À°Ê6iÀ˜ˆV>Ê}Ո>]Ê ÕÌÌiÊ œÕ˜ÌÞÊ"vwViʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜ ˜ˆV>Ê >Û>]Ê->˜Ê ˆi}œÊ œÕ˜ÌÞÊ"vwViʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜ -ˆÛˆ>Ê œÀÌ>‡ ÕµÕiÊ`iÊ,iÞiÃ]Ê->˜Ê ˆi}œÊ œÕ˜ÌÞÊ"vwViʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜

Editors

Editores

À°Ê“>ʏœÀÊ`>]Ê1˜ˆÛiÀÈÌÞʜvÊ->˜ÊÀ>˜VˆÃVœ À°Ê°ÊÃ>LiÊ >“«œÞ]Ê/À>˜ÃvœÀ“>̈ÛiÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜Ê˜Ã̈ÌÕÌi *‰>Ê >Ã̈i>]Ê-Ì>˜vœÀ`Ê1˜ˆÛiÀÈÌÞ -ˆÛˆ>Ê œÀÌ>‡ ÕµÕiÊ`iÊ,iÞiÃ]Ê->˜Ê ˆi}œÊ œÕ˜ÌÞÊ"vwViʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜ ˆVˆ>Ê`iÊÀi}œÀˆœ]ÊV>`i“ˆ>Ê œÀÌi>“iÀˆV>˜>Ê`iʏ>ʏi˜}Õ>Êië>šœ> âi>Ê>VœLœ]Ê >œ˜Ê6>iÞÊ-V…œœÊ ˆÃÌÀˆVÌ /iÀiÃ>ʏ>ÜiÀ]Ê/iÀiÃ>ʏ>ÜiÀÊ*ÕLˆÃ…ˆ˜}Ê-œṎœ˜Ã ˆˆ>˜Ê*jÀiâ]Ê >ˆvœÀ˜ˆ>Ê i«>À̓i˜ÌʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜

Linguistic Augmentation

Adaptación lingüística

->˜`À>Ê i>]Ê->˜Ê ˆi}œÊ œÕ˜ÌÞÊ"vwViʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜ -ˆÛˆ>Ê œÀÌ>‡ ÕµÕiÊ`iÊ,iÞiÃ]Ê- Ê œÕ˜ÌÞÊ"vwViʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜ ˆÊiÀ«iÀÊœÀ>]Ê->˜Ê ˆi}œÊ-Ì>ÌiÊ1˜ˆÛiÀÈÌÞ

Translators

Traductores

/iÀiÃ>ÊL>ÀÀ>]Ê œ˜ÃՏÌ>˜ÌÊ

District Level Review

Revisión por maestros

““>Ê->˜V…iâ]Ê ÝiVṎÛiÊ ˆÀiV̜À Õ>Ê>˜}Õ>}iÊ>˜`Ê ˆˆ˜}Õ>Ê/i>V…iÀÊ >`Ài]Ê …Տ>Ê6ˆÃÌ>Ê i“i˜Ì>ÀÞÊ-V…œœÊ ˆÃÌÀˆVÌ

Graphic Design

Diseño Gráfico

>ÌÞÊiiÀÃ]Ê->˜Ê ˆi}œÊ œÕ˜ÌÞÊ"vwViʜvÊ `ÕV>̈œ˜

iv

Appendix-158

Peer Review

Validación Profesional

ÊëiVˆ>Ê˜œÌiʜvÊ̅>˜ŽÃÊ̜Ê̅iÊ«>Ài˜ÌÃ]ÊÌi>V…iÀÃ]Ê >`“ˆ˜ˆÃÌÀ>̜ÀÃ]Ê>˜`ÊVœ““Õ˜ˆÌÞʓi“LiÀÃÊ܅œÊ ÃiÀÛi`Ê>ÃÊ«iiÀÊÀiۈiÜiÀÃ\

1˜>ʘœÌ>ÊiëiVˆ>Ê`iÊ>}À>`iVˆ“ˆi˜ÌœÊ>ʏœÃÊ«>`ÀiÃ]Ê “>iÃÌÀœÃ]Ê>`“ˆ˜ˆÃÌÀ>`œÀiÃ]ÊÞʓˆi“LÀœÃÊ`iʏ>ÊVœ“Õ˜ˆ`>`Ê µÕiʏiÛ>Àœ˜Ê>ÊV>LœÊ>ÊÛ>ˆ`>Vˆ˜Ê«ÀœviȜ˜>\

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Appendix-159

COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR STANDARDS

ESTÁNDARES PARA LA PREPARACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA Y PROFESIONAL

One of the most critical features to understand about the K-12 horizontal progression, is that they begin and backward map from the College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards.

Una de las características más importantes de los Estándares Estatales es la progresión horizontal, que comienza con el objetivo de lograr las destrezas y capacidades que los estudiantes requieren para entrar en las universidades y estar listos para carreras profesionales.

Standards for college and career readiness DUHIXQGDPHQWDOJRDOVWKDWGH¿QHZKDW students should understand and be able to do to enter universities or embark on careers.

Los estándares para la preparación universitaria y SURIHVLRQDOVRQREMHWLYRVIXQGDPHQWDOHVTXHGH¿QHQ lo que los estudiantes deben de comprender y ser capaces de hacer para entrar a las universidades o emprender en carreras profesionales.

The next four pages outline the Anchor standards for Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking and Language in Spanish.

Las próximas cuatro páginas describen los estándares para la preparación universitaria y profesional en las áreas de lectura, escritura, comprensión auditiva y expresión oral y lenguaje en español.

A link to view the English Anchor standard is provided.

Cada página incluye un enlace a los estándares para la preparación universitaria en inglés.

ACRÓNIMOS CORRESPONDIENTES A CADA SECCIÓN RL RI RF W SL L RH

READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE READING STANDARDS FOR INFORMATIONAL TEXT READING STANDARDS FOR FOUNDATIONAL LITERACY SKILLS WRITING SPEAKING AND LISTENING STANDARDS LANGUAGE STANDARDS READING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES READING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN SCIENCE AND RST TECHNICAL SUBJECTS WRITING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL SCIENCE, WHST SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS

LL LI LF E AE L LH LCT EHCT

LECTURA PARA LITERATURA LECTURA PARA TEXTO INFORMATIVO LECTURA PARA DESTREZAS FUNDAMENTALES ESCRITURA Y REDACCIÓN AUDICIÓN Y EXPRESIÓN ORAL LENGUAJE LECTO-ESCRITURA EN HISTORIA Y ESTUDIOS SOCIALES LECTO-ESCRITURA EN CIENCIAS Y MATERIAS TÉCNICAS ESCRITURA EN HISTORIA/ESTUDIOS SOCIALES, CIENCIAS Y MATERIAS TÉCNICAS

1

Appendix-160

KINDERGARTEN READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE

KINDERGARTEN ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA PARA LA LITERATURA

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes tengan acceso a una amplia variedad de textos y actividades académicas. El rigor también se enfatiza al requerir que los estudiantes lean textos cada vez más complejos en cada grado. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. Ideas clave y detalles

Key Ideas and Details 1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text

1. Con sugerencias y apoyo, hacen y contestan preguntas sobre los detalles clave de un texto.

2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

2. Con sugerencias y apoyo, recuentan cuentos que les son familiares, incluyendo los detalles clave.

3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

3. Con sugerencias y apoyo, identifican personajes, escenarios y acontecimientos importantes en un cuento

Craft and Structure

Composición y estructura

4. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.

4. Hacen y contestan preguntas sobre palabras desconocidas en un texto.

5. Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems.

5. Reconocen los tipos más comunes de textos (por ejemplo: cuentos, poemas, textos de fantasía y realismo).

6. With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story.

6. Con sugerencias y apoyo, nombran al autor e ilustrador de un cuento y definen el papel que desempeña cada uno en el relato del cuento.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Integración de conocimientos e ideas

7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).

7. Con sugerencias y apoyo, describen la relación entre las ilustraciones y el cuento en donde aparecen (por ejemplo: qué momento de un cuento representa la ilustración).

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Appendix-161

8. (Not applicable to literature)

8. (No es aplicable a la literatura).

9. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

9. Con sugerencias y apoyo, comparan y contrastan las aventuras y experiencias de los personajes en cuentos que les son familiares.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

Nivel de lectura y de complejidad del texto 10. Participan activamente en trabajos de lectura en grupo, con propósito y comprensión.

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Appendix-162

KINDERGARTEN READING STANDARDS FOR INFORMATIONAL TEXT

KINDERGARTEN ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA PARA TEXTO INFORMATIVO

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes tengan acceso a una amplia variedad de textos y actividades académicas. El rigor también se enfatiza al requerir que los estudiantes lean textos cada vez más complejos en cada grado. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. Ideas clave y detalles

Key Ideas and Details 1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

1. Con sugerencias y apoyo, hacen y contestan preguntas sobre los detalles clave de un texto.

2. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

2. Con sugerencias y apoyo, identifican el tema principal y recuentan los detalles clave de un texto.

3. With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

3. Con sugerencias y apoyo, describen la relación entre dos personas, acontecimientos, ideas o elementos de información en un texto. Composición y estructura

Craft and Structure 4. With prompting and support, ask and answer question about unknown words in a text.

4. Con sugerencias y apoyo, hacen y contestan preguntas sobre palabras desconocidas en un texto.

5. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.

5. Identifican la portada, contraportada y la página del título de un libro.

6. Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.

6. Nombran al autor e ilustrador de un texto y definen el papel de cada uno en la presentación de ideas o información en un texto. Integración de conocimientos e ideas

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts).

7. Con sugerencias y apoyo, describen la relación entre las ilustraciones y el texto en el cual aparecen (por ejemplo: qué persona, lugar, cosa o idea en el texto representa una ilustración).

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Appendix-163

8. With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

8. Con sugerencias y apoyo, identifican las razones que el autor ofrece para apoyar puntos en un texto.

9. With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures)

9. Con sugerencias y apoyo, identifican las semejanzas y diferencias básicas entre dos textos sobre el mismo tema (por ejemplo: en las ilustraciones, descripciones o procedimientos).

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

Nivel de lectura y de complejidad del texto 10. Participan activamente en trabajos de lectura en grupo, con propósito y comprensión.

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Appendix-164

KINDERGARTEN READING STANDARDS: FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

KINDERGARTEN ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA: DESTREZAS FUNDAMENTALES

These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

Estos estándares van dirigidos a ayudar a los estudiantes a fomentar la comprensión y el conocimiento de los conceptos de lo impreso, el principio alfabético y otras normativas básicas del sistema de la escritura en español. Estas destrezas fundamentales no son un fin en sí mismas, sino que son un componente necesario e importante de un programa de lectura eficaz y completo diseñado para desarrollar lectores competentes que tengan la capacidad de comprender textos de diversos tipos y disciplinas. La instrucción deberá ser diferenciada: los buenos lectores necesitarán menos práctica con estos conceptos que los lectores con dificultades. Lo principal es enseñar a los estudiantes lo que necesitan aprender y no lo que ya saben — discernir cuándo determinados niños o determinadas actividades necesitan más o menos atención. Los suplementos lingüísticos al idioma español, se han marcado con letra azul. Se ha añadido una sección para la enseñanza del acento que se relaciona y se enlaza a través de conceptos de lo impreso, la fonética, el reconocimiento de palabras y la ortografía.

Note: In kindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow:

Nota: Se espera que los estudiantes de kindergarten demuestren un incremento en conocimiento y capacidad en las siguientes destrezas fundamentales. Conceptos de lo impreso

Print Concepts

1. Demuestran comprensión de la organización y características básicas de los materiales impresos.

1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.

a. Siguen las palabras de izquierda a derecha, de arriba hacia abajo y página por página.

b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.

b. Reconocen que el lenguaje oral (palabras habladas) se representa en el lenguaje escrito mediante secuencias específicas de letras.

c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.

c. Entienden que las palabras se separan por espacios en blanco en los materiales impresos.

d. Recognize and name all upper and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

d. Reconocen y nombran todas las letras mayúsculas y minúsculas del alfabeto.

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Appendix-165

Acentuación e. Reconocen que el acento escrito (acento ortográfico) es una marca, que se llama tilde, colocada sobre una vocal. Phonological Awareness

Conciencia fonológica

2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

2. Demuestran comprensión de las palabras habladas, las sílabas y los sonidos (fonemas).

a. Recognize and produce rhyming words.

a. Reconocen y producen palabras que riman.

b. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.

b. Cuentan, pronuncian, combinan y segmentan en sílabas las palabras habladas.

c. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.

c. Combinan y segmentan los sonidos (fonemas) consonánticos y vocálicos de una sílaba.

d. Isolate and pronounce the intial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phonemes (consonent-vowelconsonent, or CVC) words.* (This does not include CVC’s ending with /l/. /r/, or /x/.)

d. Separan y pronuncian los sonidos iniciales, medios y finales (fonemas) en palabras monosilábicas de tres fonemas* (consonante-vocal-consonante, o CVC). Incluyen palabras que terminan con /l/ y /r/ (ejemplo: sal, sol, mar, por).

e. Add or substitute indivdual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.

e. Añanden o sustituyen sonidos individuales (fonemas) en palabras simples de una sílabas para formar nuevas palabras de una o dos sílabas. (ejemplo: sal-sol; por-par; tan-pan; sal-sala; par-para; mal-malo). f. Combinan dos sílabas para formar palabras bisílabas que les son familiares: ma + no = mano; ma + ma = mamá; ma + pa = mapa; sa + po = sapo; so + pa = sopa. Acentuación g. Separan y cuentan oralmente las sílabas de una palabra. h. En palabras multisilábicas señalan la sílaba sobre la cual recae el énfasis de la voz (acento tónico).

* Las palabras, sílabas o fonemas escritos /en barras / consulte su pronunciación o la fonología. Por lo tanto, / CVC / es una palabra con tres fonemas sin importar el número de letras en el deletreo de la palabra.

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Appendix-166

Fonética y reconocimiento de palabras

Phonics and Word Recognition

3. Conocen y aplican la fonética y las destrezas de análisis de palabras a nivel de grado, en la decodificación de palabras.

3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words both in isolation and in text. a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of oneto-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sound for each consonant.

a. Demuestran el conocimiento básico de la correspondencia entre letra y sonido (de una en una) al producir el sonido principal o los sonidos más frecuentes que representa cada consonante.

b. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.*

b. Asocian los sonidos (fonemas) con la ortografía común (grafemas) para las cinco vocales incluyendo el uso de la ye (y) como equivalente de la vocal i.*

c. Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).

c. Leen a simple vista palabras comunes de uso frecuente (ejemplo: el, la, veo, un, una, mi, es).

d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

d. Distinguen entre palabras de ortografía similar mediante la identificación de los sonidos de las letras que son diferentes (con/ son; niño/niña; masa/mesa). e. Reconocen las dos sílabas CV que forman palabras de alta frecuencia en el lenguaje cotidiano; ma-má; pa-pá; ca-sa; si-lla; me-sa; ca-ma; ga-to. Acentuación f. Identifican las letras que representan a las vocales (Aa, Ee, Ii, Oo, Uu, incluyendo el uso de la ye (y) como equivalente a la i). g. Reconocen el uso del acento ortográfico para distinguir la pronunciación entre palabras que se escriben iguales (papa-papá, paso-pasó). h. Reconocen que el acento escrito (acento ortográfico) es una marca sobre una vocal que indica la pronunciación de la palabra de acuerdo con la sílaba que recibe el énfasis al pronunciar la palabra.

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Fluency

Fluidez

4. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

4. Leen textos para lectores principiantes, con propósito y comprensión.

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KINDERGARTEN ESTÁNDARES DE ESCRITURA Y REDACCIÓN

KINDERGARTEN WRITING STANDARDS The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados del K-5, proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar, y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Cada año los estudiantes deben demostrar en su escritura y redacción un aumento en sofisticación de todos los aspectos del uso del lenguaje, desde el vocabulario y la sintaxis, hasta el desarrollo y la organización de ideas. Deben abordar temas y utilizar fuentes cada vez más complejas. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. Las expectativas de desarrollo en la habilidad de escribir y de redactar de los estudiantes se reflejan tanto en los estándares como en la colección de muestras de redacción anotadas en el Apéndice C. Tipos de textos y sus propósitos

Text Types and Purposes 1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is . . .).

1. Usan una combinación de dibujo, dictado y escritura para redactar propuestas de opinión en las que le dicen a un lector cuál es el tema o el nombre del libro sobre el que están escribiendo y expresan su opinión o preferencia sobre el tema o el libro (por ejemplo: Mi libro favorito es . . .).

2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

2. Usan una combinación de dibujo, dictado y escritura para redactar textos informativos y explicativos en los cuales dicen sobre qué están escribiendo y ofrecen algo de información acerca del tema.

3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

3. Usan una combinación de dibujo, dictado y escritura para narrar un acontecimiento único o varios acontecimientos vagamente enlazados. Hablan de dichos acontecimientos en el orden en que ocurrieron y proporcionan una reacción a lo sucedido.

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Production and Distribution of Writing 4.

Producción y redacción de la escritura 4. (Se inicia en el 3er grado)

(Begins in grade 3)

5. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

5. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, responden a las preguntas y sugerencias de sus compañeros y añaden detalles para mejorar la escritura según sea necesario.

6. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

6. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, exploran una variedad de herramientas digitales para producir y publicar escritos, incluso en colaboración con sus compañeros. Investigación para la formación y presentación de conocimientos

Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).

7. Participan en proyectos compartidos de investigación y escritura (por ejemplo: exploran una serie de libros de un autor favorito y expresan su opinión sobre ellos).

8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

8. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, recuerdan información de experiencias o recopilan información de diversas fuentes que se les ofrece para contestar una pregunta.

9. (Begins in grade 4)

9. (Se inicia en el 4to grado).

Range of Writing 10. (Begins in grade 3)

Nivel de escritura y redacción 10. (Se inicia en el 3er grado)

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KINDERGARTEN SPEAKING AND LISTENING STANDARDS

KINDERGARTEN ESTÁNDARES DE AUDICIÓN Y EXPRESIÓN ORAL

The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s gradespecific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados K-5, proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores.

Comprehension and Collaboration

Comprensión y colaboración

1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

1. Participan en conversaciones colaborativas con diversos compañeros y adultos en grupos pequeños y grandes sobre temas y textos apropiados al kindergarten.

a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).

a. Siguen las reglas acordadas para participar en conversaciones (por ejemplo: escuchar a los demás y esperar su turno para hablar sobre los temas y textos que se están tratando).

b. Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.

b. Continúan una conversación a través de múltiples intercambios.

2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.

2. Confirman la comprensión de un texto leído en voz alta o la información presentada oralmente o a través de otros medios de comunicación, al hacer y contestar preguntas sobre detalles clave y solicitar aclaraciones si algo no se entiende.

3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.

3. Hacen y contestan preguntas con el fin de solicitar ayuda, obtener información o aclarar algo que no se entiende.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4

Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.

Presentación de conocimientos y de ideas 4. Describen a personas, lugares, cosas y acontecimientos que les son familiares y, con sugerencias y apoyo, ofrecen detalles adicionales.

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5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.

5. Añaden dibujos y otros medios visuales a las descripciones según deseen para ofrecer detalles adicionales.

6. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

6. Hablan en forma audible y expresan sus pensamientos, sentimientos e ideas con claridad. (Ver los estándares 1-3 de lenguaje para expectativas adicionales).

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KINDERGARTEN LANGUAGE STANDARDS

KINDERGARTEN ESTÁNDARES DE LENGUAJE Los siguientes estándares para los grados del K-5, ofrecen un enfoque para la enseñanza de cada año y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado a otro cumplan con los estándares específicos de cada grado y retengan o desarrollen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. A partir del tercer grado, se marcan con un asterisco (*) las destrezas y conocimientos que son particularmente susceptibles de requerir atención constante en los grados superiores, al aplicarlos de manera mas sofisticada a la expresión oral y escrita. Ver la tabla en la página 20 en la que aparece una lista completa, y el Apéndice A, en donde se muestran ejemplos del incremento en la sofisticaión del desrraollo de estas destrezas.

The following standards for grades K-5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). See the table on page 20 for a complete list and Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication.

Normas y convenciones del español

Conventions of Standard English 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

1. Demuestran dominio de las normativas de la gramática del español y su uso al escribir y al hablar.

a. Print many upper-and lowercase letters.

a. Escriben con letra de molde la mayoría de las letras mayúsculas y minúsculas.

b. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.

b. Usan sustantivos y verbos que se utilizan con frecuencia incluyendo los verbos ser y estar, empleando la concordancia correcta.

c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).

c. Forman el plural de sustantivos regulares al añadir /s/ o /es/ (ejemplo: perro, perros; mantel, manteles; rey, reyes).

d. Understand and use question words (interrrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).

d. Comprenden y utilizan las palabras que denotan interrogación (ejemplo: quién, qué, dónde, cuándo, cómo y por qué).

e. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, off, for, of, by, with).

e. Emplean las preposiciones de uso frecuente (ejemplo: con, en, de, por, para).

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f. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

f. Producen y elaboran oraciones completas en actividades compartidas de lenguaje. g. Utilizan los artículos determinados e indeterminados notando la concordancia de género y número con el sustantivo (ejemplo: el perro, los libros, la mesa, las sillas, un niño, unos niños, una niña, unas niñas).

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

2. Demuestran al escribir dominio de las normativas del español para el uso de las letras mayúsculas, signos de puntuación y ortografía.

a. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.

a. Emplean la mayúscula en la primera letra de una palabra al inicio de una oración.

b. Recognize and name end punctuation.

b. Reconocen y nombran la puntuación final.

c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).

c. Escriben una letra correspondiente para la mayoría de los sonidos consonánticos y vocálicos.

d. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

d. Deletrean fonéticamente palabras sencillas, usando el conocimiento de la relación entre fonemas y grafemas. Acentuación e. Reconocen el acento escrito (acento ortográfico) en palabras sencillas y ya conocidas (mamá, papá, José).

Knowledge of Language 3. (Begins in grade 2) Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.

a. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).

Conocimiento del lenguaje 3. (Se inicia en el 2do grado) Adquisición y uso de vocabulario 4. Determinan o aclaran el significado de palabras y frases desconocidas y de palabras de significados múltiples, en base a la lectura y el contenido académico de kindergarten. a. Identifican y aplican correctamente nuevos significados relacionados a palabras ya conocidas (ejemplo: saber que el zapatero es la persona que vende o arregla zapatos).

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b. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, ful, -less) as a clue to the meaing of an unknown word. 5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

b. Usan las inflexiones y los afijos de uso más frecuente (ejemplo: re- bi-, -ita -ito, -ota –ote) como clave para el significado de una palabra desconocida. 5. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, exploran las relaciones y matices en los significados de las palabras.

a. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the catagories represent.

a. Clasifican objetos comunes en categorías (ejemplo: formas, alimentos) para obtener un sentido de los conceptos que representan las categorías.

b. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).

b. Demuestran comprensión de los verbos y los adjetivos de uso más frecuente, al relacionarlos con sus opuestos (antónimos) (ejemplo: salirentrar; perder-ganar; alto-bajo; grande-pequeño).

c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).

c. Identifican las conexiones en la vida real entre las palabras y sus usos (ejemplo: el describir actividades divertidas en la escuela o en el parque que son coloridos).

d. Distinugish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.

d. Distinguen los matices de significado entre verbos que describen la misma acción general (ejemplo: gatear, caminar, marchar, correr) actuando sus significados.

6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.

6. Usan las palabras y las frases que han aprendido a través de conversaciones, al leer y al escuchar cuando se les lee, o al responder a los textos.

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GRADE ONE READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE

PRIMER GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA PARA LA LITERATURA

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes tengan acceso a una amplia variedad de textos y actividades académicas. El rigor también se enfatiza al requerir que los estudiantes lean textos cada vez más complejos en cada grado. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores.

Key Ideas and Details

Ideas clave y detalles

1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

1. Hacen y contestan preguntas sobre los detalles clave de un texto.

2. Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.

2. Recuentan cuentos, incluyendo los detalles clave, y demuestran comprensión del mensaje principal o lección.

3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

3. Describen personajes, ambientes y acontecimientos importantes en un cuento, usando detalles clave.

Craft and Structure

Composición y estructura

4. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.

4. Identifican palabras y frases en cuentos o poemas que sugieren sentimientos o apelan a los sentidos.

5. Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.

5. Explican las diferencias principales entre libros de cuentos y libros que ofrecen información, usando una amplia variedad de lectura en diferentes tipos de texto.

6. Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

6. Identifican al narrador del cuento en varios momentos del texto.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Integración de conocimientos e ideas

7. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.

7. Usan las ilustraciones y detalles de un cuento para describir a los personajes, ambientes o acontecimientos.

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8. (Not applicable to literature.)

8. (No es aplicable a la literatura).

9. Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

9. Comparan y contrastan las aventuras y experiencias de los personajes en los cuentos.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

Nivel de lectura y de complejidad del texto

10. With prompting and support, read and prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.

10. Con sugerencias y apoyo, leen prosa y poesía de complejidad apropiada para el primer grado. complejidad apropiada para el primer grado.

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GRADE ONE READING STANDARDS FOR INFORMATIONAL TEXT

PRIMER GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA PARA TEXTO INFORMATIVO

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes tengan acceso a una amplia variedad de textos y actividades académicas. El rigor también se enfatiza al requerir que los estudiantes lean textos cada vez más complejos en cada grado. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores.

Key Ideas and Details

Ideas clave y detalles

1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

1. Hacen y contestan preguntas sobre los detalles clave en un texto.

2. Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

2. Identifican el tema principal y recuentan los detalles clave de un texto.

3. Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

3. Describen la relación entre dos personas, acontecimientos, ideas, o elementos de información en un texto.

Craft and Structure

Composición y estructura

4. Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.

4. Hacen y contestan preguntas para determinar o aclarar el significado de palabras y frases en un texto.

5. Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text.

5. Conocen y usan varias características de texto (por ejemplo: encabezados, tablas de contenido, glosarios, menús electrónicos, iconos), para localizar los datos clave o información en un texto.

6. Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.

6. Distinguen entre la información proporcionada por imágenes u otras ilustraciones y la información contenida en las palabras de un texto.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Integración de conocimientos e ideas

7. Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.

7. Usan las ilustraciones y los detalles en un texto para describir las ideas clave.

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8. Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

8. Identifican las razones que un autor ofrece para apoyar los puntos en un texto.

9. Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

9. Identifican las semejanzas y diferencias básicas entre dos textos sobre el mismo tema (por ejemplo: en las ilustraciones, descripciones o procedimientos).

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

Nivel de lectura y de complejidad del texto

10. With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1.

10. Con sugerencias y apoyo, leen textos informativos de complejidad apropiada para el primer grado.

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GRADE ONE READING STANDARDS: FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

PRIMER GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA: DESTREZAS FUNDAMENTALES

These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

Estos estándares van dirigidos a ayudar a los estudiantes a fomentar la comprensión y el conocimiento de los conceptos de lo impreso, el principio alfabético y otras normativas básicas del sistema de la escritura en español. Estas destrezas fundamentales no son un fin en sí mismas, sino que son un componente necesario e importante de un programa de lectura eficaz y completo diseñado para desarrollar lectores competentes que tengan la capacidad de comprender textos de diversos tipos y disciplinas. La instrucción deberá ser diferenciada: los buenos lectores necesitarán menos práctica con estos conceptos que los lectores con dificultades. Lo principal es enseñar a los estudiantes lo que necesitan aprender y no lo que ya saben—discernir cuándo determinados niños o determinadas actividades necesitan más o menos atención. Los suplementos lingüísticos al idioma español, se han marcado con letra azul. Se ha añadido una sección para la enseñanza del acento que se relaciona y se enlaza a través de conceptos de lo impreso, la fonética, el reconocimiento de palabras y la ortografía.

Print Concepts

Conceptos de lo impreso

1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.

1. Demuestran comprensión de la organización y características básicas de los materiales impresos.

a. Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).

a. Reconocen las características de una oración, por ejemplo: uso de mayúsculas en la primera palabra, puntuación final, uso de los signos de interrogación (¿?), exclamación (¡!), y guión largo para abrir y cerrar un diálogo. Acentuación b. Reconocen que el acento escrito (acento ortográfico) es una marca que se llama tilde colocada sobre una vocal y que indica dónde recae el énfasis de la palabra. c. Reconocen que el acento escrito indica a veces un significado distinto en palabras que se escriben con las mismas letras (si, sí; te, té; tu, tú); en ese caso se llama acento diacrítico.

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Phonological Awareness

Conciencia fonológica

2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

2. Demuestran comprensión de las palabras pronunciadas oralmente, las sílabas y los sonidos (fonemas).

a. Distinguish long from short vowels sounds in a spoken single-syllable words.

a. Distinguen los sonidos (fonemas) de las vocales en palabras.

b. Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.

b. Forman oralmente palabras de una sílaba al combinar sonidos (fonemas), incluyendo combinaciones de consonantes (las, mar, sal).

c. Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes), in spoken single-syllable words.

c. Separan y pronuncian fonemas tales como la vocal inicial y media y los sonidos finales en palabras pronunciadas oralmente de una sola sílaba (monosilábicas).

d. Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of indivudal sounds (phonemens).

d. Dividen palabras monosilábicas en secuencia completa por sus sonidos individuales (fonemas). e. Dividen palabras bisílabas CVCV en las sílabas que las componen: me-sa, ca-ma, ca-sa, pe-ro, ga-to. Acentuación f. Distinguen oralmente los sonidos de las vocales en una sola sílaba que forman un diptongo (auto, lluvia, agua, aire, ciudad). g. Reconocen que una sílaba puede consistir de una sola vocal (a-mo; mí-o; dí-a; vi-ví-a; a-brí-a; o-jo; u-ña; e-so).

Phonics and Word Recognition

Fonética y reconocimiento de palabras

3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words both in isolation and in text.

3. Conocen y aplican la fonética y las destrezas de análisis de palabras al nivel de grado, en la decodificación de palabras.

a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.

a. Conocen la correlación grafo-fónica para los tres dígrafos consonánticos: ch, ll, rr (chile, lluvia, perro).

b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

b. Distinguen entre las sílabas abiertas (terminadas en vocal) y las sílabas cerradas (terminadas en consonante). Grade One / Primer Grado | 8

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c. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.

c. Distinguen entre las vocales fuertes (a,e,o) y las vocales débiles (i,u) que se juntan en una sílaba para formar diptongo.

d. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.

d. Usan el conocimiento de que toda sílaba debe de tener por lo menos el sonido de una vocal para determinar el número de sílabas en una palabra escrita (ejemplo: sílabas con una sola vocal, diptongos o triptongos).

e. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.

e. Decodifican palabras de dos y tres sílabas siguiendo patrones básicos al dividir las palabras en sílabas.

f.

f. Leen palabras con inflexiones al final (género -o/-a; número –os/-as, aumentativos –ote y diminutivos -ito).

Read words with inflectional endings.

g. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

g. Reconocen y leen a nivel de grado, palabras de ortografía complejas (b-v; c-s-z-x; c-k-qu; g-j; y-ll; r-rr; m-n). h. Reconocen combinaciones consonánticas (consonante + l; consonante + r ) en palabras ya conocidas que contienen letras líquidas (blanco, planta, grande, tronco, traspaso, claro, trabajo, otra, cuatro). Acentuación i. Distinguen entre las vocales y las consonantes y reconocen que sólo las vocales llevan acento escrito. j. Reconocen que el acento escrito (acento ortográfico) es una marca colocada sobre una vocal que indica cuál es la sílaba de mayor énfasis de la palabra y que sigue las reglas ortográficas.

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Fluency

Fluidez

4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

4. Leen con suficiente precisión y fluidez para apoyar la comprensión.

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

a. Leen textos a nivel de grado, con propósito y comprensión.

b. Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

b. Leen oralmente textos a nivel de grado con precisión, ritmo adecuado y expresión en lecturas sucesivas.

c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

c. Usan el contexto para confirmar o autocorregir el reconocimiento de las palabras y la comprensión, releyendo cuando sea necesario.

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PRIMER GRADO5 ESTÁNDARES DE ESCRITURA Y REDACCIÓN

GRADE ONE WRITING STANDARDS The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados del K-5, proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar, y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Cada año los estudiantes deben demostrar en su escritura y redacción un aumento en sofisticación de todos los aspectos del uso del lenguaje, desde el vocabulario y la sintaxis, hasta el desarrollo y la organización de ideas. Deben abordar temas y utilizar fuentes cada vez más complejas. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. Las expectativas de desarrollo en la habilidad de escribir y de redactar de los estudiantes se reflejan tanto en los estándares como en la colección de muestras de redacción anotadas en el Apéndice C.

Text Types and Purposes

Tipos de textos y sus propósitos

1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.

1. Escriben propuestas de opinión en las cuales presentan el tema o título del libro sobre el cual están escribiendo, expresan su opinión, ofrecen la razón para esa opinión y cierto sentido de conclusión.

2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

2. Escriben textos informativos y explicativos en los cuales identifican un tema, ofrecen algunos datos sobre dicho tema y proveen cierto sentido de conclusión.

3. Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

3. Escriben narraciones en las cuales recuentan dos o más acontecimientos en secuencia adecuada, incluyen algunos detalles relacionados con lo que sucedió, usan palabras que describen el tiempo para señalar el orden de los acontecimientos y ofrecen cierto sentido de conclusión.

Production and Distribution of Writing

Producción y redacción de la escritura

4. (Begins in grade 3)

4. (Se inicia en el 3er grado).

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5. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

5. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, se enfocan en un tema, responden a las preguntas y sugerencias de sus compañeros y añaden detalles para mejorar el escrito según sea necesario.

6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

6. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, usan una variedad de herramientas digitales para producir y publicar escritos, incluso en colaboración con sus compañeros.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

Investigación para la formación y presentación de conocimientos

7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).

7. Participan en proyectos compartidos de investigación y escritura (por ejemplo: exploran una serie de libros sobre “cómo funciona” o “cómo se hace algo”, sobre un tema determinado y los usan para escribir una secuencia de instrucciones).

8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

8. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, recuerdan información de experiencias o recopilan información de diversas fuentes que se les ofrece para contestar una pregunta.

9. (Begins in grade 4)

9. (Se inicia en el 4to grado).

Range of Writing

Nivel de escritura y redacción

10. (Begins in grade 3)

10. (Se inicia en el 3er grado).

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GRADE ONE SPEAKING AND LISTENING STANDARDS

PRIMER GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE AUDICIÓN Y EXPRESIÓN ORAL

The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s gradespecific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados K-5, proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores.

Comprehension and Collaboration

Comprensión y colaboración

1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

1. Participan en conversaciones colaborativas con diversos compañeros y adultos en grupos pequeños y grandes sobre temas y textos apropiados al primer grado.

a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

a. Siguen las reglas acordadas para participar en conversaciones (por ejemplo: escuchar a los demás con atención, hablar uno a la vez sobre los temas y textos que se están tratando).

b. Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.

b. Toman en cuenta lo que los demás dicen en conversaciones, respondiendo a los comentarios que otros hacen a través de múltiples intercambios.

c. Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.

c. Hacen preguntas para aclarar cualquier confusión sobre los temas y los textos que se están tratando.

2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

2. Hacen y contestan preguntas sobre los detalles clave en un texto leído en voz alta, o información presentada oralmente o a través de otros medios de comunicación.

3. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

3. Hacen y contestan preguntas sobre lo que dice quien habla a fin de obtener información adicional o aclarar algo que no se entiende.

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Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

Presentación de conocimientos y de ideas

4. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.

4. Describen a personas, lugares, cosas y acontecimientos con detalles relevantes, expresando sus ideas y sentimientos con claridad.

5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

5. Añaden dibujos u otros medios visuales a las descripciones cuando es adecuado, para aclarar ideas, pensamientos y sentimientos.

6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.

6. Forman oraciones completas cuando es adecuado según la tarea y situación.

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GRADE ONE LANGUAGE STANDARDS

PRIMER GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LENGUAJE

The following standards for grades K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). See the table on page 21 for a complete list and Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados del K-5, ofrecen un enfoque para la enseñanza de cada año y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado a otro cumplan con los estándares específicos de cada grado y retengan o desarrollen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. A partir del tercer grado, se marcan con un asterisco (*) las destrezas y conocimientos que son particularmente susceptibles de requerir atención constante en los grados superiores, al aplicarlos de manera mas sofisticada a la expresión oral y escrita. Ver la tabla en la página 21 en la que aparece una lista completa, y el Apéndice A, en donde se muestran ejemplos del incremento en la sofisticaión del desrraollo de estas destrezas.

Conventions of Standard English

Normas y convenciones del español

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

1. Demuestran dominio de las normativas de la gramática del español y su uso al escribir y al hablar. a. Escriben con letra de molde todas las letras mayúsculas y minúsculas.

a. Print all upper- and lowercase letters. b. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.

b. Usan sustantivos comunes y propios.

c. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).

c. Usan el sustantivo en su forma singular o plural empleando la concordancia correcta entre sustantivo y verbo en oraciones básicas (ejemplo: el niño brinca; los niños brincan).

d. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).

d. Usan pronombres personales, pronombres posesivos e indefinidos (yo, me, mi, mío, alguien). Reconocen el uso formal e informal entre tú/usted.

e. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).

e. Usan verbos regulares para comunicar la noción del tiempo pasado, presente y futuro (ejemplo: Ayer caminé a casa. Hoy camino a casa. Mañana caminaré a casa).

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f. Use frequently occurring adjectives.

f. Usan adjetivos que se utilizan con frecuencia notando concordancia de género y número con el sustantivo.

g. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).

g. Usan conjunciones que se utilizan con frecuencia (ejemplo: y, pero, o, así que, porque).

h. Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).

h. Usan determinativos tales como los artículos o pronombres demostrativos, reconociendo la concordancia de género y número (ejemplo: los libros, esos libros; las niñas, aquellas niñas).

i. Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).

i. Usan correctamente las preposiciones que se utilizan con frecuencia (ejemplo: sin, según, desde, hasta, hacia).

j. Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.

j. Producen y elaboran oraciones declarativas, interrogativas, imperativas y exclamativas, simples y compuestas al responder a sugerencias o pautas.

k. Leen palabras compuestas (abrelatas, anteojos, sacapuntas) y separan las dos palabras que las componen. l. Reconocen y explican la formación de las dos contracciones del español: al = a + el, del = de + el. 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

2. Demuestran al escribir dominio de las normativas del español para el uso de las letras mayúsculas, signos de puntuación y ortografía.

a. Capitalize dates and names of people.

a. Emplean la mayúscula al escribir nombres de personas, lugares, nombres de días festivos (Navidad, Año Nuevo, etc.) y eventos importantes (Cinco de Mayo).

b. Use end punctuation for sentences.

b. Usan la puntuación correcta para empezar y/o finalizar las oraciones, incluyendo el uso correcto de los signos de interrogación ¿?; y de exclamación ¡!.

c. Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.

c. Reconocen la función de la coma para enumerar y separar palabras en una serie.

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d. Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

d. Usan ortografía convencional para palabras con patrones ortográficos comunes y para palabras de ortografía compleja de uso frecuente.

e. Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

e. Deletrean fonéticamente palabras desconocidas, usando la fonética, el reconocimiento de palabras y las normativas de la ortografía. Acentuación f. Reconocen el acento escrito en palabras sencillas y ya conocidas (mamá, papá, José).

Knowledge of Language

Conocimiento del lenguaje

3. (Begins in grade 2)

3. (Se inicia en el 2do grado).

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

Adquisición y uso de vocabulario

4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

4. Determinan o aclaran el significado de palabras y frases desconocidas y de palabras y frases con significados múltiples, en base a la lectura y el contenido académico de primer grado, eligiendo con flexibilidad entre una serie de estrategias.

a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

a. Usan el contexto de la oración para entender el significado de una palabra o frase.

b. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.

b. Usan los afijos de uso frecuente para entender el significado de una palabra.

c. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).

c. Identifican la raíz de las palabras de uso frecuente (por ejemplo: mirar) y sus formas de inflexión (ejemplo: miradas, miró, mirando).

5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

5. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, demuestran comprensión de las relaciones entre las palabras y sus matices de significado.

a. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.

a. Ordenan las palabras en categorías (ejemplo: colores, ropa) para obtener un sentido de los conceptos que representan las categorías.

b. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).

b. Definen las palabras por categoría y por uno o más atributos clave (ejemplo: un pato es un ave que nada; un tigre es un felino grande con rayas).

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c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).

c. Identifican las conexiones en la vida real entre las palabras y sus usos (ejemplo: nombran lugares acogedores en el hogar).

d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.

d. Distinguen los matices de significado entre verbos que son sinónimos pero que difieren en connotación (ejemplo: mirar, ver, ojear, observar, contemplar) y adjetivos que difieren en intensidad (ejemplo: grande, gigantesco) al definirlos o elegirlos, o mediante la actuación de sus significados.

6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., I named my hamster Nibblet because she nibbles too much because she likes that).

6. Usan las palabras y las frases que han aprendido a través de conversaciones, al leer y al escuchar cuando se les lee, al responder a los textos, incluyendo el uso de conjunciones de uso frecuente, para indicar las relaciones entre ideas (ejemplo: Le he puesto el nombre Mordisco a mi hámster porque le gusta mucho mordisquear).

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GRADE TWO READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE

SEGUNDO GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA PARA LA LITERATURA

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes tengan acceso a una amplia variedad de textos y actividades académicas. El rigor también se enfatiza al requerir que los estudiantes lean textos cada vez más complejos en cada grado. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores.

Ideas and details

Ideas clave y detalles

1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

1. Hacen y contestan preguntas tales como: quién, qué, dónde, cuándo, por qué y cómo, para demostrar la comprensión de los detalles clave de un texto.

2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.

2. Recuentan cuentos, incluyendo fábulas y cuentos populares de diversas culturas, e identifican el mensaje principal, lección o moraleja.

3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

3. Describen cómo los personajes de un cuento reaccionan a los acontecimientos y retos más importantes.

Craft and Structure

Composición y estructura

4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song. (See grade 2 Language standards 4-6 for additional expectations.) CA

4. Describen cómo las palabras y frases (por ejemplo: ritmo, aliteración, rimas, frases repetidas) proveen ritmo y significado en un cuento, poema o canción. (Ver los estándares 4-6 de lenguaje del segundo grado para expectativas adicionales.) CA

5. Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.

5. Describen la estructura general de un cuento, incluyendo la descripción de cómo el principio introduce el tema y el final concluye la acción.

6. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

6. Reconocen las diferencias en los puntos de vista de los personajes, incluyendo el hablar en una voz diferente para cada personaje al leer el diálogo en voz alta.

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 3

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Appendix-192

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Integración de conocimientos e ideas

7. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.

7. Usan la información obtenida de las ilustraciones y de las palabras en un material impreso o texto digital, para demostrar la comprensión de los personajes, escenario o trama.

8. (Not applicable to literature.)

8. (No es aplicable a la literatura).

9. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.

9. Comparan y contrastan dos o más versiones del mismo cuento (por ejemplo: cuentos de Cenicienta) por diferentes autores o de diferentes culturas.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

Nivel de lectura y de complejidad del texto

10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

10. Al final del año escolar, leen y comprenden la literatura de forma competente, incluyendo cuentos y poesía, en el nivel superior de los niveles de complejidad del texto para los grados 2–3, con enseñanza guiada según sea necesario.

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 4

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Appendix-193

GRADE TWO READING STANDARDS FOR INFORMATIONAL TEXT

SEGUNDO GRADO ESTÁNDARES PARA LA LECTURA DE TEXTO INFORMATIVO

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes tengan acceso a una amplia variedad de textos y actividades académicas. El rigor también se enfatiza al requerir que los estudiantes lean textos cada vez más complejos en cada grado. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. Ideas clave y detalles

Ideas and details 1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

1. Hacen y contestan preguntas tales como: quién, qué, dónde, cuándo, por qué y cómo, para demostrar la comprensión de los detalles clave en un texto.

2. Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.

2. Identifican el tema principal de un texto de varios párrafos, así como el enfoque de párrafos específicos en el texto.

3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.

3. Describen la relación entre una serie de acontecimientos históricos, ideas o conceptos científicos, o pasos en los procedimientos técnicos en un texto.

Craft and Structure

Composición y estructura

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area. (See grade 2 Language standards 4-6 for additional expectations.) CA

4. Determinan en un texto el significado de palabras y frases pertinentes a un tema o material de segundo grado. (Ver los estándares 4-6 de lenguaje del segundo grado para expectativas adicionales.) CA

5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

5. Conocen y usan varias características de un texto (por ejemplo: leyendas, pie de foto, letras destacadas, subtítulos, glosarios, índices, menús electrónicos, iconos) para localizar de manera eficiente datos clave o información en un texto.

6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

6. Identifican el propósito principal de un texto, incluyendo lo que el autor quiere contestar, explicar o describir.

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 5

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Appendix-194

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Integración de conocimientos e ideas

7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.

7. Explican cómo las imágenes específicas (por ejemplo: un diagrama que muestra cómo funciona una máquina) contribuyen a aclarar un texto.

8. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.

8. Describen cómo las razones apoyan los puntos específicos que el autor hace en un texto.

9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

9. Comparan y contrastan los puntos más importantes que se presentan en dos textos sobre el mismo tema.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

Nivel de lectura y de complejidad del texto

10. By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

10. Al final del año escolar, leen y comprenden textos informativos en forma competente, incluyendo textos de historia/estudios sociales, ciencias y textos técnicos, en el nivel superior de los niveles de complejidad del texto para los grados 2–3, con enseñanza guiada según sea necesario.

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 6

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Appendix-195

GRADE TWO READING STANDARDS: FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

SEGUNDO GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA: DESTREZAS FUNDAMENTALES

These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

Estos estándares van dirigidos a ayudar a los estudiantes a fomentar la comprensión y el conocimiento de los conceptos de lo impreso, el principio alfabético y otras normativas básicas del sistema de la escritura en español. Estas destrezas fundamentales no son un fin en sí mismas, sino que son un componente necesario e importante de un programa de lectura eficaz y completo diseñado para desarrollar lectores competentes que tengan la capacidad de comprender textos de diversos tipos y disciplinas. La instrucción deberá ser diferenciada: los buenos lectores necesitarán menos práctica con estos conceptos que los lectores con dificultades. Lo principal es enseñar a los estudiantes lo que necesitan aprender y no lo que ya saben—discernir cuándo determinados niños o determinadas actividades necesitan más o menos atención. Los suplementos lingüísticos al idioma español, se han marcado con letra azul. Se ha añadido una sección para la enseñanza del acento que se relaciona y se enlaza a través de conceptos de lo impreso, la fonética, el reconocimiento de palabras y la ortografía.

Phonics and Word Recognition

Fonética y reconocimiento de palabras

3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words both in isolation and in text. CA

3. Conocen y aplican la fonética y las destrezas de análisis de palabras a nivel de grado, en la decodificación de palabras, tanto en forma aislada como en un texto. CA

a. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.

a. Distinguen los sonidos de las vocales y de los diptongos al leer palabras de una sílaba de ortografía regular (dio, pie, bien).

b. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams

b. Distinguen los sonidos de las vocales en los triptongos al leer palabras ya conocidas (buey, Paraguay, Uruguay) fijándose en el uso de la ye (y) como vocal.

c. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.

c. Decodifican palabras multisilábicas.

d. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.

d. Decodifican palabras con prefijos y sufijos de uso frecuente.

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 7

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Appendix-196

e. Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.

e. Identifican palabras que contienen el mismo fonema pero distinto grafema (b-v; c-s-z-x; c-k-qu; g-j; y-ll; r-rr).

f. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregulary spelled words.

f. Reconocen y leen al nivel de grado palabras con ortografía relativamente compleja con h, que es siempre muda, excepto en el dígrafo ch, o con las sílabas que, qui; gue, gui. Acentuación g. Identifican la última, penúltima y antepenúltima sílaba en palabras multisilábicas y reconocen en cuál sílaba cae el acento tónico. h. Clasifican palabras de acuerdo con su acento tónico en categorías de aguda, grave y esdrújula para aplicar las reglas ortográficas del uso del acento escrito. i. Reconocen y usan acento escrito para indicar que hay hiato y no diptongo, en palabras conocidas (María, baúl, maíz).

Fluency

Fluidez

4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

4. Leen con suficiente precisión y fluidez para apoyar la comprensión.

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

a. Leen textos a nivel adecuado con propósito y comprensión.

b. Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

b. Leen oralmente textos a nivel de grado con precisión, ritmo adecuado y expresión en lecturas sucesivas.

c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

c. Usan el contexto para confirmar o autocorregir el reconocimiento de las palabras y la comprensión, releyendo cuando sea necesario.

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 8

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Appendix-197

SEGUNDO GRADO5 ESTÁNDARES DE ESCRITURA Y REDACCIÓN

GRADE TWO WRITING STANDARDS The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados del K-5, proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar, y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Cada año los estudiantes deben demostrar en su escritura y redacción un aumento en sofisticación de todos los aspectos del uso del lenguaje, desde el vocabulario y la sintaxis, hasta el desarrollo y la organización de ideas. Deben abordar temas y utilizar fuentes cada vez más complejas. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. Las expectativas de desarrollo en la habilidad de escribir y de redactar de los estudiantes se reflejan tanto en los estándares como en la colección de muestras de redacción anotadas en el Apéndice C.

Text Types and Purposes

Tipos de textos y sus propósitos

1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.

1. Escriben propuestas de opinión en las cuales presentan el tema o libro sobre el cual están escribiendo, expresan su opinión, ofrecen las razones para esa opinión, usan palabras de enlace (por ejemplo: porque, y, también) para conectar la opinión y las razones y proporcionan una declaración o sección final.

2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.

2. Escriben textos informativos y explicativos en los cuales presentan un tema, usan datos y definiciones para desarrollar los puntos y proporcionan una declaración o sección final.

3. Write narratives in which they recount a wellelaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

3. Escriben narraciones en las cuales recuentan un acontecimiento bien elaborado o una secuencia corta de acontecimientos, incluyen detalles para describir las acciones, pensamientos y sentimientos, usan palabras que describen el tiempo para señalar el orden de los acontecimientos y ofrecen un sentido de conclusión.

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 10

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Appendix-198

Production and Distribution of Writing

Producción y redacción de la escritura

4. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) CA

4. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, hacen escritos en los cuales el desarrollo y organización son adecuados a la tarea y el propósito. (Las expectativas específicas del nivel de grado para los tipos de escritura, se definen en los estándares 1-3 antes mencionados.) CA

5. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

5. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos y compañeros, se enfocan en un tema y mejoran el escrito según sea necesario al revisar y al corregir.

6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

6. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, usan una variedad de herramientas digitales para producir y publicar escritos, incluso en colaboración con sus compañeros.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

Investigación para la formación y presentación de conocimientos

7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).

7. Participan en proyectos compartidos de investigación y escritura (por ejemplo: leen una serie de libros sobre un mismo tema para escribir un informe; anotan observaciones de ciencias).

8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

8. Recuerdan información de experiencias o recopilan información de diversas fuentes que se les ofrece para contestar una pregunta.

9. (Begins in grade 4)

9. (Se inicia en el 4to grado).

Range of Writing

Nivel de escritura y redacción

10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. CA

10. Escriben habitualmente durante periodos prolongados (tiempo para investigación, reflexión y revisión) y periodos cortos (una sola sesión o uno o dos días), para una serie de tareas específicas a una disciplina, propósito y audiencia. CA

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 11

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Appendix-199

GRADE TWO SPEAKING AND LISTENING STANDARDS

SEGUNDO GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE AUDICIÓN Y EXPRESIÓN ORAL

The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s gradespecific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados K-5, proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. Comprensión y colaboración

Comprehension and Collaboration 1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

1. Participan en conversaciones colaborativas con diversos compañeros y adultos en grupos pequeños y grandes sobre temas y textos apropiados al segundo grado.

a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

a. Siguen las reglas acordadas para participar en conversaciones (por ejemplo: tomar la palabra de una manera respetuosa, escuchar a los demás con atención, hablar uno a la vez sobre los temas y textos que se están tratando).

b. Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.

b. Toman en cuenta lo que los demás dicen en conversaciones, mediante el enlace de sus comentarios a las observaciones de los demás.

c. Ask for futher clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.

c. Solicitan aclaración y una explicación más detallada, cuando es necesario, sobre los temas y los textos que se están tratando.

2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

2. Recuentan o describen las ideas clave y los detalles de un texto leído en voz alta, o de información presentada oralmente o a través de otros medios de comunicación.

a. Give and follow three-and four-step oral directions. CA 3. Ask and answer questions about what a speakers says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.

a. Dan y siguen instrucciones orales de tres y cuatro pasos. CA 3. Hacen y contestan preguntas sobre lo que dice quien habla a fin de aclarar la comprensión, obtener información adicional o profundizar en la comprensión del tema o asunto.

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 13

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Appendix-200

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

Presentación de conocimientos y de ideas

4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.

4. Cuentan un cuento o relatan una experiencia con hechos apropiados y detalles descriptivos relevantes, hablando en forma audible y en oraciones coherentes.

a. Plan and deliver a narrative presentation that: recounts a well- elaborated event, includes details, reflects a logical sequence, and provides a conclusion. CA

a. Preparan y realizan una presentación narrativa que: relata un acontecimiento bien elaborado, incluye detalles, refleja una secuencia lógica y ofrece una conclusión. CA

5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

5. Hacen grabaciones de audio de cuentos o poemas; añaden dibujos u otros efectos visuales a los cuentos o relatan experiencias cuando es adecuado, para aclarar ideas, pensamientos y sentimientos.

6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See Language standards 1-3 for additional expectations.)

6. Escriben oraciones completas cuando es adecuado a la tarea y situación, a fin de proporcionar detalles solicitados o aclaraciones. (Ver los estándares 1-3 de lenguaje para expectativas adicionales).

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 14

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Appendix-201

SECOND GRADE LANGUAGE STANDARDS

SEGUNDO GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LENGUAJE

The following standards for grades K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). See the table on page 20 for a complete list and Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados del K-5, ofrecen un enfoque para la enseñanza de cada año y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado a otro cumplan con los estándares específicos de cada grado y retengan o desarrollen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. A partir del tercer grado, se marcan con un asterisco (*) las destrezas y conocimientos que son particularmente susceptibles de requerir atención constante en los grados superiores, al aplicarlos de manera mas sofisticada a la expresión oral y escrita. Ver la tabla en la página 20 en la que aparece una lista completa, y el Apéndice A, en donde se muestran ejemplos del incremento en la sofisticaión del desrraollo de estas destrezas.

Conventions of Standard English

Normas y convenciones del español

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

1. Demuestran dominio de las normativas de la gramática del español y su uso al escribir y al hablar.

a. Use collective nouns (e.g., group).

a. Usan sustantivos colectivos (ejemplo: la gente, el grupo).

b. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).

b. Usan sustantivos comunes que forman el plural en forma irregular cambiando z por c o el acento escrito u ortográfico (ejemplo: luz-luces; lápiz-lápices; pezpeces; corazón-corazones; joven-jóvenes).

c. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).

c. Usan los pronombres reflexivos (ejemplo: Me lavo las manos. Nos cansamos mucho. Se sienten contentos hoy).

d. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).

d. Forman y usan el tiempo pasado de los verbos irregulares que se utilizan con frecuencia (ejemplo: decir-dijo, hacer-hizo, poner-puso, saber-supimos).

e. Use adjectives and averbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.

e. Usan adjetivos y adverbios y eligen entre ellos dependiendo de lo que se va a modificar. (ejemplo: rápido, rápidamente, lento, lentamente).

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Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 16

Appendix-202

f. Produce, expand and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie, The action movie was watched by the little boy).

f. Producen, elaboran y reorganizan oraciones completas, simples y compuestas (ejemplo: El niño vio la película. El niño pequeño vio la película. La película que vio el niño pequeño fue interesante.).

g. Create readable documents with legible print. CA

g. Escriben documentos claros con letra legible. CA

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

2. Demuestran al escribir dominio de las normativas del español para el uso de las letras mayúsculas, signos de puntuación y ortografía.

a. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.

a. Emplean la mayúscula al escribir nombres propios, días festivos, marcas de productos, nombres geográficos y sólo en la primera letra de títulos de libros, películas, obras teatrales, etc.

b. Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.

b. Usan dos puntos y aparte en el saludo de una carta; y una coma en la despedida de una carta escrita en español. Reconocen que se usa una coma en el saludo y la despedida de una carta en inglés.

c. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.

c. Usan las contracciones del y al correctamente y reconocen la preposición “de” para señalar posesión.

d. Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage J badge; boy J boil).

d. Generalizan los patrones ortográficos al escribir y forman y usan sustantivos que en plural sufren cambios ortográficos (feliz J felices; carácter J caracteres).

e. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

e. Consultan materiales de referencia, incluyendo diccionarios básicos, según sea necesario para revisar y corregir la ortografía o consultar traducciones. f. Utilizan el guión corto para separar las sílabas de una palabra (ma-ri-po-sa); para indicar nivel, gama o intervalos (enero-marzo; de 1:00 p. m. - 3:00 p. m.) y el guión largo para introducir un diálogo.

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 17

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Acentuación g. Categorizan palabras de acuerdo con su acento tónico (agudas, graves y esdrújulas) y emplean el acento escrito (acento ortográfico) en palabras ya conocida Knowledge of Language

Conocimiento del lenguaje

3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

3. Usan el conocimiento del lenguaje y sus normativas al escribir, hablar, leer o escuchar.

a. Comparan el uso formal e informal del español.

a. Compare formal and informal uses of English.

Adquisición y uso de vocabulario

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

4. Determinan y aclaran el significado de palabras y frases desconocidas y de palabras de significados múltiples en base a la lectura y el contenido académico de segundo grado, eligiendo con flexibilidad entre una serie de estrategias.

4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

a. Usan el contexto de la oración para entender el significado de una palabra o frase.

b. Determine the meaining of the new word formed when a know prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/ retell).

b. Determinan el significado de una nueva palabra formada cuando un prefijo conocido se le añade a una palabra conocida (ejemplo: feliz-infeliz, contar-recontar).

c. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, addtional).

c. Usan una palabra de raíz conocida como clave para entender el significado de una palabra desconocida con la misma raíz (ejemplo: adición, adicional).

d. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly, bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).

d. Usan el conocimiento del significado de palabras simples para predecir el significado de palabras compuestas (ejemplo: pasar, pasatiempo; sacar, sacapuntas, bien, bienvenidos).

e. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in all content areas. CA

e. Usan glosarios y diccionarios básicos, tanto impresos como digitales, para determinar o aclarar el significado de palabras y frases en todos los componentes académicos. CA

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 18

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Appendix-204

5. Demuestran comprensión de relación entre las palabras y sus matices de significado.

5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings. a. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).

a. Identifican las conexiones en la vida real entre las palabras y su uso (ejemplo: describen alimentos que son picantes o jugosos).

b. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl). and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).

b. Distinguen los matices de significado entre verbos estrechamente relacionados (ejemplo: tirar, aventar, lanzar) y adjetivos estrechamente relacionados (ejemplo: delgado, esbelto, flaco).

6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

6. Usan las palabras y las frases que han aprendido a través de conversaciones, al leer y al escuchar cuando se les lee, o al responder a los textos, incluyendo el uso de adjetivos y adverbios para describir (ejemplo: Cuando otros niños están contentos yo también me siento contento).

Grade Two / Segundo Grado | 19

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Appendix-205

GRADE FIVE READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE

QUINTO GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA PARA LA LITERATURA

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes tengan acceso a una amplia variedad de textos y actividades académicas. El rigor también se enfatiza al requerir que los estudiantes lean textos cada vez más complejos en cada grado. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores.

Key Ideas and Details

Ideas clave y detalles

1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

1. Citan correctamente un texto al explicar lo que dice explícitamente y al hacer inferencias del mismo.

2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

2. Determinan el tema de un cuento, obra de teatro o poema utilizando los detalles en el texto, incluyendo cómo los personajes en un cuento u obra de teatro reaccionan a retos o cómo la voz del poeta reflexiona sobre un tema; hacen un resumen del texto.

3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

3. Comparan y contrastan dos o más personajes, escenarios o acontecimientos en un cuento u obra de teatro, basándose en detalles específicos del texto (ejemplo: cómo interactúan los personajes).

Craft and Structure

Composición y estructura

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. (See grade 5 Language standards 4-6 for additional expectations.) CA

4. Determinan el significado de palabras y frases que se utilizan en un texto, incluyendo el lenguaje figurado, como metáforas y símiles. (Ver estándares 4-6 de Lenguaje del quinto grado para expectativas adicionales.) CA

5. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

5. Explican cómo una serie de capítulos, escenas o estrofas se acoplan entre sí para ofrecer la estructura general de un cuento, obra de teatro o poema en particular.

6. Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

6. Describen cómo el punto de vista de un narrador o locutor influye en la forma de describir los acontecimientos. Grade Five / Quinto Grado | 3

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Appendix-206

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Integración de conocimientos y de ideas

7. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).

7. Analizan cómo los elementos visuales y de medios múltiples contribuyen al significado, tono o belleza de un texto (ejemplo: novela gráfica, presentación en medios múltiples de ficción, cuento popular, mito, poema).

8. (Not applicable to literature.)

8. (No es aplicable a la literatura).

9. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

9. Comparan y contrastan cuentos del mismo género (ejemplo: cuentos de misterio y aventura) al abordar temas y textos similares.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

Nivel de lectura y de complejidad del texto

10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

10. Al final del año escolar, leen y comprenden la literatura de forma independiente y competente, incluyendo cuentos, obras de teatro y poemas, en el nivel superior de la banda de complejidad del texto para los grados 4–5.

Grade Five / Quinto Grado | 4

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Appendix-207

GRADE FIVE READING STANDARDS FOR INFORMATIONAL TEXT

QUINTO GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA PARA TEXTO INFORMATIVO

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes tengan acceso a una amplia variedad de textos y actividades académicas. El rigor también se enfatiza al requerir que los estudiantes lean textos cada vez más complejos en cada grado. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores.

Key Ideas and Details

Ideas clave y detalles

1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

1. Citan correctamente un texto, al explicar lo que dice explícitamente y al hacer inferencias del mismo.

2. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

2. Determinan dos o más ideas principales de un texto y explican la forma en que los detalles clave apoyan dichas ideas; hacen un resumen del texto.

3. Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

3. Explican la relación o interacción existente entre dos o más personas, acontecimientos, ideas o conceptos en un texto histórico, científico o técnico, basándose en la información específica del texto.

Craft and Structure

Composición y estructura

4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. (See grade 5 Language standards 4-6 for additional expectations.) CA

4. Determinan en un texto el significado de palabras y frases de contexto académico general y de dominio específico pertinentes a los temas o materias de quinto grado. (Ver estándares 4-6 de Lenguaje del quinto grado para expectativas adicionales.) CA

5. Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.

5. Comparan y contrastan la estructura general (ejemplo: cronología, comparación, causa/efecto, problema/solución) de acontecimientos, ideas, conceptos o información en dos o más textos.

6. Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

6. Analizan múltiples versiones del mismo acontecimiento o tema, señalando similitudes y diferencias importantes en el punto de vista que representan. Grade Five / Quinto Grado | 5

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Appendix-208

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Integración de conocimientos e ideas

7. Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

7. Obtienen información de múltiples materiales impresos o fuentes digitales, demostrando su capacidad para localizar rápidamente la respuesta a una pregunta o para resolver eficientemente un problema.

8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).

8. Explican cómo el autor utiliza razones y evidencias para apoyar determinados puntos en un texto, identificando qué razones y evidencias corresponden a cada punto.

9. Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

9. Integran la información de varios textos sobre el mismo tema, a fin de escribir o hablar con conocimiento sobre dicho tema.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

Nivel de lectura y de complejidad del texto

10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

10. Al final del año escolar, leen y comprenden textos informativos de forma independiente y competente, incluyendo textos de historia/estudios sociales, ciencias y textos técnicos, en el nivel superior de la banda de complejidad del texto para los grados 4–5.

Grade Five / Quinto Grado | 6

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Appendix-209

GRADE FIVE READING STANDARDS: FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

QUINTO GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LECTURA: DESTREZAS FUNDAMENTALES

These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

Estos estándares van dirigidos a ayudar a los estudiantes a fomentar la comprensión y el conocimiento de los conceptos de lo impreso, el principio alfabético y otras normativas básicas del sistema de la escritura en español. Estas destrezas fundamentales no son un fin en sí mismas, sino que son un componente necesario e importante de un programa de lectura eficaz y completo diseñado para desarrollar lectores competentes que tengan la capacidad de comprender textos de diversos tipos y disciplinas. La instrucción deberá ser diferenciada: los buenos lectores necesitarán menos práctica con estos conceptos que los lectores con dificultades. Lo principal es enseñar a los estudiantes lo que necesitan aprender y no lo que ya saben — discernir cuándo determinados niños o determinadas actividades necesitan más o menos atención. Los suplementos lingüísticos al idioma español, se han marcado con letra azul. Se ha añadido una sección para la enseñanza del acento que se relaciona y se enlaza a través de conceptos de lo impreso, la fonética, el reconocimiento de palabras y la ortografía.

Phonics and Word Recognition

Fonética y reconocimiento de palabras

3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

3. Conocen y aplican la fonética y las destrezas de análisis de palabras a nivel de grado, en la decodificación de palabras.

a. Use combined knowledge of all letter sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

a. Usan el conocimiento combinado de todas las correlaciones entre fonemas y grafemas, patrones de división en sílabas, fijándose en el acento escrito según la morfología (ejemplo: raíces y afijos), para leer con precisión palabras multisilábicas desconocidas, en contexto y fuera de contexto. b. Escriben correctamente las palabras con enclíticos (verbo + pronombre o artículo o ambos). (Ejemplo: cántamela, lávamelo, consíguemela).

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Appendix-210

Acentuación c. Usan correctamente el acento escrito de acuerdo con el acento tónico en palabras al nivel de grado aplicando un análisis sistemático: 1. Cuentan el número de sílabas. 2. Nombran la sílaba que lleva el énfasis (última, penúltima, antepenúltima). 3. Categorizan la palabra según su acento tónico (aguda, grave, esdrújula, sobreesdrújula). 4. Determinan el sonido o la letra en que termina la palabra (vocal, consonante, /n/ o /s/). 5. Escriben el acento ortográfico si es necesario. 6. Justifican la acentuación de palabras de acuerdo a las reglas ortográficas. d. Reconocen cuando una vocal fuerte (a, e, o) y una vocal débil (i, u) o dos vocales débiles forman hiato y no diptongo. Ponen correctamente el acento escrito sobre la vocal en la que cae el acento tónico de acuerdo con su significado en contexto (hacia/hacía, sabia /sabía, rio/río). Fluency

Fluidez

4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

4. Leen con suficiente precisión y fluidez para apoyar la comprensión.

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

a. Leen textos a nivel de grado con propósito y comprensión.

b. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

b. Leen oralmente prosa y poesía a nivel de grado con precisión, ritmo adecuado y expresión en lecturas progresivas.

c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

c. Usan el contexto para confirmar o autocorregir el reconocimiento de las palabras y la comprensión, releyendo cuando sea necesario.

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Appendix-211

QUINTO GRADO5 ESTÁNDARES DE ESCRITURA Y REDACCIÓN

GRADE FIVE WRITING STANDARDS The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Text Types and Purposes

Los siguientes estándares para los grados del K-5, proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar, y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Cada año los estudiantes deben demostrar en su escritura y redacción un aumento en sofisticación de todos los aspectos del uso del lenguaje, desde el vocabulario y la sintaxis, hasta el desarrollo y la organización de ideas. Deben abordar temas y utilizar fuentes cada vez más complejas. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. Las expectativas de desarrollo en la habilidad de escribir y de redactar de los estudiantes se reflejan tanto en los estándares como en la colección de muestras de redacción anotadas en el Apéndice C. Tipos de textos y sus propósitos

1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

1. Escriben propuestas de opinión sobre temas o textos, en las que apoyan su punto de vista con razones e información.

a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.

a. Presentan un tema o texto con claridad, expresan su opinión y elaboran una estructura organizativa en la cual las ideas se agrupan de forma lógica para apoyar el propósito del escritor.

b. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.

b. Proveen razones ordenadas de forma lógica que se apoyen con hechos y detalles.

c. Link opinion and reasons using words phrases, and clauses (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).

c. Conectan la opinión y sus razones utilizando palabras, frases y cláusulas (ejemplo: a fin de, asimismo).

d. Provide a concluding statement or section realted to the opinion presented.

d. Proveen una declaración final o conclusión que confirma la opinión presentada.

2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

2. Escriben textos informativos y explicativos para examinar un tema y transmitir ideas e información con claridad.

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Appendix-212

a. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

a. Presentan un tema con claridad, proveen una observación general de enfoque y agrupan de forma lógica la información relacionada al tema; incluyen formato (ejemplo: encabezados), ilustraciones y medios múltiples cuando sean útiles para ayudar a la comprensión.

b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

b. Desarrollan el tema con hechos, definiciones, detalles concretos, citas u otra información y ejemplos relacionados con el tema.

c. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).

c. Enlazan las ideas dentro y a través de las categorías de información, usando palabras, frases y cláusulas (ejemplo: por el contrario, especialmente).

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

d. Usan un lenguaje preciso y un vocabulario de dominio específico para informar sobre el tema o explicarlo.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

e. Proveen una declaración final o conclusión que confirma la información o explicación presentada.

3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

3. Escriben narraciones que presentan experiencias o acontecimientos reales o imaginarios, utilizando una técnica eficaz, detalles descriptivos y una secuencia clara de los acontecimientos.

a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narragtor and/ or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.

a. Orientan al lector al establecer una situación y presentar al narrador y/o a los personajes; organizan una secuencia de acontecimientos que se desarrolla de forma natural.

b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.

b. Usan técnicas de narración, como el diálogo, las descripciones y el ritmo, para presentar las experiencias y acontecimientos o para mostrar la reacción de los personajes ante diversas situaciones.

c. Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.

c. Usan una variedad de palabras, frases y cláusulas de transición para manejar la secuencia de los acontecimientos.

Grade Five / Quinto Grado | 11

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Appendix-213

d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.

d. Usan palabras y frases concretas y detalles sensoriales para comunicar con precisión las experiencias y acontecimientos.

e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

e. Ofrecen una conclusión derivada de las experiencias o acontecimientos narrados.

Production and Distribution of Writing

Producción y redacción de la escritura

4. Produce clear and coherent writing (including multiple-paragraph texts) in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) CA

4. Redactan textos claros y coherentes (incluyendo textos de varios párrafos) en los cuales el desarrollo y la organización son adecuados a la tarea, el propósito y la audiencia. (Las expectativas específicas del nivel de grado para los tipos de escritura se definen en los estándares 1-3 antes mencionados). CA

5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 5.)

5. Con la orientación y lo apoyo de compañeros y adultos, desarrollan y mejoran el escrito según sea necesario mediante la planificación, revisión, corrección, rehaciendo la redacción o intentando un nuevo enfoque. (La corrección debe demostrar el dominio de los estándares del Lenguaje 1–3, del quinto grado).

6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

6. Con la orientación y el apoyo de adultos, usan la tecnología, incluyendo internet, para crear y publicar textos escritos, así como para interactuar y colaborar con los demás; demuestran dominio suficiente de las habilidades de mecanografía para escribir un mínimo de dos páginas en una sola sesión.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

Investigación para la formación y presentación de conocimientos

7. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic

7. Llevan a cabo proyectos de investigación cortos que utilizan varias fuentes de información, para ampliar sus conocimientos a través del estudio de diferentes aspectos de un tema.

8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.

8.

Recuerdan información relevante de experiencias o recopilan información importante de materiales impresos y fuentes digitales; hacen resúmenes o parafrasean la información en notas y trabajos terminados y ofrecen una lista de las fuentes de información.

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9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

9. Encuentran pruebas o argumentos en textos literarios e informativos que apoyen el análisis y la reflexión e investigación.

a. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”).

a. Aplican los estándares de lectura de quinto grado en la literatura (ejemplo: comparan y contrastan dos o más personajes, escenarios o acontecimientos de un cuento o en una obra de teatro, basándose en detalles específicos del texto [ejemplo: cómo interactúan los personajes]).

b. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”).

b. Aplican los estándares de lectura de quinto grado en textos informativos (ejemplo: explican cómo el autor utiliza las razones, pruebas y argumentos para apoyar determinados puntos en un texto, identificando las razones, pruebas y argumentos que corresponden a cada punto).

Range of Writing

Nivel de escritura y redacción

10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

10. Escriben habitualmente durante períodos prolongados (tiempo para la investigación, reflexión y revisión) y períodos cortos (una sola sesión o uno o dos días) para una serie de tareas.

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GRADE FIVE SPEAKING AND LISTENING STANDARDS

QUINTO GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE AUDICIÓN Y EXPRESIÓN ORAL

The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s gradespecific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados K-5, proveen un enfoque para la enseñanza correspondiente a cada año escolar y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado escolar a otro cumplan con los estándares correspondientes a cada grado y que mantengan o perfeccionen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores.

Comprehension and Collaboration

Comprensión y colaboración

1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

1. Participan eficazmente en una serie de conversaciones colaborativas (en pares, en grupos y dirigidas por el maestro) con diversos compañeros sobre temas y textos de quinto grado, elaborando sobre las ideas de los demás y expresando las propias con claridad.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

a. Vienen preparados a las conversaciones, después de haber leído o estudiado el material necesario; se basan explícitamente en esa preparación y cualquier otra información conocida sobre el tema para explorar las ideas que se discuten.

b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.

b. Siguen las reglas acordadas para participar en las conversaciones y llevar a cabo las funciones asignadas.

c. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.

c. Plantean y contestan preguntas específicas al hacer comentarios que contribuyen a la conversación y expanden los comentarios de los demás.

d. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

d. Revisan las ideas clave expresadas y hacen conclusiones tomando en cuenta la información y el conocimiento obtenido de las conversaciones previas.

2. Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

2. Resumen un texto leído en voz alta o información presentada en diversos medios de comunicación y formatos visuales, cuantitativos y orales.

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3. Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

3. Resumen los puntos que ofrece un hablante y explican cómo cada afirmación se sustenta con razones y evidencia.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

Presentación de conocimientos y de ideas

4. Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

4. Hacen un informe sobre un tema o texto o presentan una opinión, ordenando la secuencia de ideas de forma lógica y usando hechos apropiados y detalles descriptivos relevantes para apoyar las ideas o temas principales, hablando con claridad a un ritmo comprensible.

a. Plan and deliver an opinion speech that: states an opinion, logically sequences evidence to support the speaker’s position, uses transition words to effectively link opinions and evidence (e.g., consequently and therefore), and provides a concluding statement related to the speaker’s position. CA b. Memorize and recite a poem or section of a speech or historical document using rate, expression, and gestures appropriate to the selection. CA

a. Preparan y realizan un discurso de opinión que: declara una opinión, ordena la secuencia de la evidencia de forma lógica para apoyar la opinión del orador, usa palabras de transición para enlazar eficazmente las opiniones y la evidencia (ejemplo: en consecuencia y por lo tanto), y ofrece una declaración de conclusión relacionada con la opinión del orador. CA b. Memorizan y recitan un poema o sección de un discurso o documento histórico, usando ritmo, expresión y gestos adecuados a la selección. CA

5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

5. Incluyen componentes de medios múltiples (ejemplo: gráficas, sonido) y efectos visuales en las presentaciones cuando es adecuado para mejorar el desarrollo de las ideas o temas principales.

6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 5 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

6. Adaptan el discurso a una variedad de contextos y tareas, usando el español formal cuando es adecuado a la tarea y situación. (Ver los estándares 1 y 3 de lenguaje del quinto grado para expectativas específicas).

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GRADE FIVE LANGUAGE STANDARDS

QUINTO GRADO ESTÁNDARES DE LENGUAJE

The following standards for grades K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). See the table on page 29 for a complete list and Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication.

Los siguientes estándares para los grados del K-5, ofrecen un enfoque para la enseñanza de cada año y contribuyen a que los estudiantes adquieran el dominio adecuado de una serie de destrezas y aplicaciones. Se espera que los estudiantes que avanzan de un grado a otro cumplan con los estándares específicos de cada grado y retengan o desarrollen cada vez más las destrezas y los conocimientos adquiridos en los grados anteriores. A partir del tercer grado, se marcan con un asterisco (*) las destrezas y conocimientos que son particularmente susceptibles de requerir atención constante en los grados superiores, al aplicarlos de manera mas sofisticada a la expresión oral y escrita. Ver la tabla en la página 29 en la que aparece una lista completa, y el Apéndice A, en donde se muestran ejemplos del incremento en la sofisticaión del desrraollo de estas destrezas.

Conventions of Standard English

Normas y convenciones del español

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

1. Demuestran dominio de las normativas de la gramática del español y su uso al escribirlo o hablarlo.

a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.

a. Explican la función de las conjunciones, preposiciones e interjecciones en general, y su función en oraciones particulares.

b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.

b. Forman y usan los tiempos perfectos o verbos compuestos con haber y el participio pasado (ejemplo: Yo había caminado; Yo he caminado; Yo habré caminado).

c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.

c. Usan el tiempo de los verbos para expresar distintos momentos, secuencias, estados y condiciones, incluyendo el contraste entre los usos del pretérito y copretérito o imperfecto para expresar acción en el pasado (ejemplo: Yo iba todos los días. Yo fui ayer).

d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.*

d. Reconocen y corrigen cambios inapropiados en el tiempo de los verbos.* (Ejemplo: falta de concordancia entre sujeto y verbo; uso incorrecto de pretérito vs. copretérito; falta de uso del subjuntivo). Grade Five / Quinto Grado | 18

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e. Use correlative conjunctions, (e.g., either/ or, neither/nor).

e. Usan las conjunciones correlativas con la forma correcta de negación (ejemplo: Ni esto, ni aquello). f. Reconocen y aplican correctamente la concordancia entre el sujeto, el verbo y el complemento indirecto (ejemplo: A mí me gustas tú; Tú me gustas a mí). g. Distinguen y explican el uso de formas paralelas (ser/estar; por/para; tú/usted) según el contexto y significado de la oración. h. Identifican y emplean toda clase de conjunciones, tales como: concesivas (aunque, por más que, a pesar de que), condicionales (en caso de, siempre que) y finales (de modo que, a fin de que, con el objeto de). i. Identifican y explican el uso de “a” personal con los complementos directos nombrando personas o mascotas (ejemplo: Recuerdo a mi abuela. Juan ve a Carlos. ¿Ve Juan a Carlos? Baño a mi perro). j. Reconocen cuando el pronombre en función de sujeto se integra al verbo (ejemplo: yo hablo = hablo) y cuando se usa el pronombre para enfatizar o aclarar (ejemplo: Él fue el culpable). k. Reconocen y usan correctamente los verbos irregulares en sus tiempos y modos, como futuro (haber = habré, habrá); gerundio (sentir = sintiendo); participio pasado (haber = hecho), pretérito (andar = anduvo). l. Emplean correctamente el pronombre “se” y el singular o plural del verbo para expresar la voz pasiva (ejemplo: Se vende chocolate. Se venden libros).

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.*

2. Demuestran, al escribir, dominio de normativas del español para el uso de las letras mayúsculas, signos de puntuación y ortografía. a. Usan la puntuación correcta para separar elementos en una serie.*

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b. Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.

b. Usan una coma para separar un elemento de introducción del resto de la oración.

c. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).

c. Usan una coma para dar entrada a las palabras sí y no (ejemplo: Sí, gracias) para separar una cláusula final interrogativa del resto de la oración (ejemplo: Es verdad, ¿no?), y para indicar una expresión directa (ejemplo: ¿Eres tú, Esteban?).

d. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate title of works.

d. Usan la letra cursiva o bastardilla para indicar los títulos de las obras.

e. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

e. Escriben con ortografía correcta palabras adecuadas al nivel de grado, incluyendo el uso del acento escrito, basados en la pronunciación y el acento diacrítico consultando materiales de referencia según sea necesario. f. Escriben sin mayúscula los adjetivos gentilicios (ejemplo: estadounidense, oaxaqueño, costarricense). g. Escriben correctamente palabras que contienen una relación entre fonemas y grafemas múltiples (b-v; c-s-z-x; c-k-qu; g-j; y-ll, r-rr) y letras mudas (H/h; u en las sílabas gue, gui, que, qui) en palabras a nivel de grado. Acentuación h. Reconocen y explican el cambio del acento ortográfico en palabras inflexionadas (joven/ jóvenes; francés/franceses; unión/uniones) i. Usan el acento ortográfico correctamente en palabras enclíticas (verbo + pronombre o artículo o ambos; por ejemplo: cántamela, lávamelo, consíguemela).

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Knowledge of Language

Conocimiento del lenguaje

3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

3. Usan el conocimiento del lenguaje y sus normativas al escribir, hablar, leer o escuchar.

a. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listerner interest, and style.

a. Amplían, combinan y reducen las oraciones para mejorar el significado, despertar el interés del lector/oyente y adaptar el estilo.

b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in Stories, dramas, or poems.

b. Comparan y contrastan las variedades del español (ejemplo: dialectos, registros) que se usan en los cuentos, obras de teatro o poemas.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

Adquisición y uso de vocabulario

4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

4. Determinan o aclaran el significado de palabras o frases desconocidas y de significados múltiples basándose en lecturas de contenido académico de quinto grado, eligiendo con flexibilidad entre una serie de estrategias.

a. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

a. Usan el contexto (ejemplo: relaciones entre causa/ efecto y comparaciones en un texto) como clave para entender el significado de una palabra o frase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).

b. Usan afijos y raíces comunes del griego y del latín, adecuados al nivel de grado, como claves para entender el significado de palabras (ejemplo: fotografía, fotosíntesis).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases and to identify alternate word choices in all content areas. CA

c. Consultan materiales de referencia (ejemplo: diccionarios, glosarios, tesauros o diccionarios de sinónimos), tanto impresos como digitales, para determinar o aclarar el significado preciso de palabras y frases clave y para identificar opciones alternativas de palabras en todas las materias académicas. Usan materiales de referencia para consultar traducciones. CA

5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. a. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.

5. Demuestran comprensión del lenguaje figurado, de las relaciones entre las palabras y de los matices de significado. a. Interpretan el lenguaje figurativo, incluyendo símiles y metáforas, en contexto.

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b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.

b. Reconocen y explican el significado de expresiones idiomáticas comunes, adagios, dichos, modismos y proverbios.

c. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.

c. Usan la relación entre determinadas palabras (ejemplo: sinónimos, antónimos, homógrafos) para comprender mejor el significado de cada una de ellas.

6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).

6. Aprenden y utilizan con precisión palabras y frases de contexto académico general y de dominio específico, adecuadas al nivel de grado, incluyendo las que señalan contraste, expansión y otras relaciones lógicas (ejemplo: sin embargo, aunque, no obstante, de manera similar, además, así mismo).

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©San Diego County Office of Education December 2012 6401 Linda Vista Road, San Diego, CA 92111 nxn°Ó™Ó°ÎxääÊÊÊUÊÊÊÜÜÜ°Ã`Vœi°˜iÌ Board of Education >ÀŽÊ °Ê˜`iÀܘÊÊUÊÊ-ÕÃ>˜Ê>À̏iÞÊÊUÊÊ-…>Àœ˜Ê °Êœ˜iÃÊÊUÊÊÞ˜Ê iޏœ˜ÊÊUÊÊ°ÊÀi}}Ê,œLˆ˜Ãœ˜ San Diego County Superintendent of Schools ,>˜`œ«…Ê °Ê7>À`]Ê `° ° Learning and Leadership Services Division Debbie Beldock, Assistant Superintendent English Learner and Support Services Monica Nava, Senior Director Bilingual Services Antonio Mora, Director

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Appendix-224

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Grade 5.................................................................................................................................................................................. 56

Grade 4.................................................................................................................................................................................. 44

Grade 3.................................................................................................................................................................................. 34

Grade 2.................................................................................................................................................................................. 25

Grade 1.................................................................................................................................................................................. 16

Kindergarten ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Pre-Kindergarten..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Curriculum Map ................................................................................................................ ...................................................... 3

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

Table of Contents:

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5

GRADE

P-5 Mathematics Curriculum

New York State Common Core

1

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

The critical instructional areas for the grade, as described in the Common Core Learning Standards 1 (CCLS) The Key Areas of Focus 2 for the grade band (Note that this information is not available for Pre-Kindergarten.) The Required Fluencies3 for the grade (Note that this information is not available for Pre-Kindergarten.) The CCLS Major Emphasis Clusters 4 for the grade (Note that this information is not available for Pre-Kindergarten.)

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

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EngageNY: http://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/common_core_standards/pdfdocs/nysp12cclsmath.pdf Achievethecore: http://www.achievethecore.org/downloads/E0702_Description_of_the_Common_Core_Shifts.pdf 3 EngageNY: http://engageny.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/CCSSFluencies.pdf 4 EngageNY: http://engageny.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/nys-math-emphases-k-8.pdf 5 NYSED: http://www.p12.nysed.gov/assessment/ei/2013/draft-math-ccls-13.pdf

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

The Alignment Chart for each grade lists the CCLS that are addressed in each module of the grade. Throughout the alignment charts, when a cluster is included without a footnote, it is taught in its entirety; there are also times when footnotes are relevant to particular standards within a cluster. All standards for each grade have been carefully included in the module sequence. Some standards are deliberately included in more than one module, so that a strong foundation can be built over time. Note that for Grade 3 through Grade 5, the standards identified on the Pre-Post Standards 5 document as those which should be taught after the state test in April, have been intentionally aligned with the final modules of those grades.

The Rationale for Module Sequence portion of each grade level provides a brief description of the instructional focus of each module for that grade and explains the developmental sequence of the mathematics.

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

The curriculum map is a chart that shows, at a glance, the sequence of modules comprising each grade of the entire elementary curriculum. The map also indicates the approximate number of instructional days designated for each module of each grade. The date approximations are based on an academic calendar beginning on 9/6/12 and ending on 6/26/13 with a testing date approximately mid-late April. Details that elaborate on the curriculum map are found in the grade-level descriptions. Each grade-level description begins with a list of the five to seven modules that comprise the instruction of that grade. That introductory component is followed by three sections: the Summary of Year, the Rationale for Module Sequence, and the Alignment Chart with the grade-level standards. The Summary of Year portion of each grade level includes four pieces of information:

This document provides an overview of the academic year for Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 5, beginning with a curriculum map and followed by detailed grade-level descriptions.

Introduction

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Numbers to 10 Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Shapes Comparison of Length, Weight, Capacity, and Numbers to 10 Number Pairs, Addition and Subtraction to 10 Numbers 10–20 and Counting to 100 Analyzing, Comparing, and Composing Shapes

K.OA.5

Required Fluency:

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A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

In Module 2, Students learn to identify and describe squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders and spheres. During this module students also practice their fluency with numbers to 10.

Number Stairs

Counting and Cardinality x Know number names and count sequence. x Count to tell the number of objects. x Compare numbers. Operations and Algebraic Thinking x Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. Number and Operations in Base Ten x Work with numbers 11-19 to gain foundations for place value.

CCLS Major Emphasis Clusters

Like Pre-Kindergarten, in Module 1, Kindergarten starts out with solidifying the meaning of numbers to 10 with a focus on embedded numbers and relationships to 5 using fingers, cubes, drawings, 5 groups and the Rekenrek. Students then investigate patterns of “1 more” and “1 less” using models such as the number stairs (see picture). Because fluency with addition and subtraction within 5 is a Kindergarten goal, addition within 5 is begun in Module 1 as another representation of the decomposition of numbers.

Rationale for Module Sequence in Kindergarten

Add and subtract within 5.

Addition and subtraction—concepts, skills, and problem solving

Key Areas of Focus for K-2:

Kindergarten mathematics is about (1) representing, relating, and operating on whole numbers, initially with sets of objects; and (2) describing shapes and space. More learning time in Kindergarten should be devoted to number than to other topics.

Summary of Year

Module 1: Module 2: Module 3: Module 4: Module 5: Module 6:

Sequence of Kindergarten Modules Aligned with the Standards

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A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Module 6 rounds out the year with an exploration of shapes. Students build shapes from components, analyze and compare them, and discover that they can be composed of smaller shapes, just as larger numbers are composed of smaller numbers.

After Module 5, after students have a meaningful experience of addition and subtraction within 10 in Module 4, they progress to exploration of numbers 10-20. They apply their skill with and understanding of numbers within 10 to teen numbers, which are decomposed as “10 ones and some ones.” For example, “12 is 2 more than 10.” The number 10 is special; it is the anchor that will eventually become the “ten” unit in the place value system in Grade 1.

In Module 4, number comparison leads to a further study of embedded numbers (e.g., “3 is less than 7” leads to, “3 and 4 make 7,” and 3 + 4 = 7,). “1 more, 2 more, 3 more” lead into addition (+1, +2, +3). Students now represent stories with blocks, drawings, and equations.

In Module 3, students begin to experiment with comparison of length, weight and capacity. Students first learn to identify the attribute being compared, moving away from non-specific language such as “bigger” to “longer than,” “heavier than,” or “more than.” Comparison begins with developing the meaning of the word “than” in the context of “taller than,” “shorter than,” “heavier than,” “longer than,” etc. The terms “more” and “less” become increasingly abstract later in Kindergarten. “7 is 2 more than 5” is more abstract than “Jim is taller than John.”

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Appendix-229

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

b.

c.

Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.

When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.

a.

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

K.OA.3

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13

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. 16

K.CC.5

K.CC.4

Count to tell the number of objects.15

K.CC.3

Know number names and the count sequence.14

When a cluster is referred to in this chart without a footnote, the cluster is taught in its entirety. In this module, standards work is limited to within 10. 14 The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module 5. 15 K.CC.4d is addressed in Module 6. 16 The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module 4.

12

(43 days)

Module 1: Numbers to 10 13

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Kindergarten Modules 12 Number of Instructional Days

Alignment Chart

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Appendix-230

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count. (Limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.)

Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count. (Limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.)

Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, “flat”) or three-dimensional (“solid”).

K.G.3

Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/“corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).

K.CC.7

K.CC.6

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals. Describe and compare measurable attributes.

Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies. (Include groups with up to ten objects.)

Compare numbers.

K.G.4

Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes. 17

Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.

Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.

K.G.2

K.G.1

Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).

K.MD.3

Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category.

The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module 6.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

17

(38 days)

Module 3: Comparison of Length, Weight, Capacity, and Numbers to 10

(12 days)

Module 2: Two-Dimensional and ThreeDimensional Shapes

K.MD.3

Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category.

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Kindergarten Modules 12 Number of Instructional Days

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Appendix-231

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1). For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings and record the answer with a drawing or equation. Fluently add and subtract within 5.

K.OA.2 K.OA.3

K.OA.4 K.OA.5

Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1). Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

K.CC.2 K.CC.3

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

K.CC.1

Know number names and the count sequence.

Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. (Drawings need not show details, but should show the mathematics in the problem.)

K.OA.1

Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.

Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.

K.MD.2

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

(30 days)

Module 5: Numbers 10–20 and Counting to 100

(47 days)

Module 4: Number Pairs, Addition and Subtraction to 10

Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.

K.MD.1

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Appendix-232

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

c.

Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (such as 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two three, four, five, six, seven, eight or nine ones.

d.

Develop understanding of ordinal numbers (first through tenth) to describe the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers.

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities: connect counting to cardinality.

K.G.4

Analyze and compare two and three dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations,

Analyze, compare, create and compose shapes.

K.CC.4

Count to tell the number of things.19

K.NBT.1

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

K.CC.4d is addressed in Module 6. Ordinality is introduced in the context of constructing and manipulating shapes. The balance of this cluster is addressed in Modules 1 and 5.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

19

18

(10 days)

Module 6: Analyzing, Comparing, and Composing Shapes

Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

b.

Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.

When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.

a.

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

Work with numbers 11-19 to gain foundations for place value.

K.CC.5

K.CC.4

Count to tell the number of objects.18

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Kindergarten Modules 12 Number of Instructional Days

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Appendix-233

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?

K.G.6

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

K.G.5

using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/“corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).

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Appendix-234

Sums and Differences to 10 Introduction to Place Value Through Addition and Subtraction Within 20 Ordering and Comparing Length Measurements as Numbers Place Value, Comparison, Addition and Subtraction to 40 Identifying, Composing, and Partitioning Shapes Place Value, Comparison, Addition and Subtraction to 100

1.OA.6

Required Fluency:

Operations and Algebraic Thinking x Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. x Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. x Add and subtract within 20. x Work with addition and subtraction equations. Number and Operations in Base Ten x Extend the counting sequence. x Understand place value. x Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. Measurement and Data x Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

In Grade 1, work with numbers to 10 continues to be a major stepping-stone in learning the place value system. In Module 1, students work to further understand the meaning of addition and subtraction begun in Kindergarten, largely within the context of the Grade 1 word problem types. They begin intentionally and energetically building fluency with addition and subtraction facts—a major gateway to later grades.

Rationale for Module Sequence in Grade 1

Add and subtract within 10.

Addition and subtraction—concepts, skills, and problem solving

Key Areas of Focus for K-2:

First Grade mathematics is about (1) developing understanding of addition, subtraction, and strategies for addion and subtraction within 20; (2) developing understanding of whole number relationships and place value, including grouping in tens and ones; (3) developing understanding of linear measurement and measuring lengths as iterating length units; and (4) reasoning about attributes of, and composing and decomposing geometric shapes.

Summary of Year

Module 1: Module 2: Module 3: Module 4: Module 5: Module 6:

CCLS Major Emphasis Clusters

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Sequence of Grade 1 Modules Aligned with the Standards

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Appendix-235

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Although Module 6 focuses on “adding and subtracting within 100,” the learning goal differs from the “within 40” module. Here, the new level of complexity is to build off the place value understanding and mental math strategies that were introduced in earlier modules. Students explore by using simple examples and the familiar units of 10 made out of linking cubes, bundles, and drawings. Students also count to 120 and represent any number within that range with a numeral.

In Module 5, students think about attributes of shapes and practice composing and decomposing geometric shapes. They also practice work with addition and subtraction within 40 during daily fluency activities (from Module 4). Thus, this module provides important “internalization time” for students between two intense number-based modules. The module placement also gives more spatially-oriented students the opportunity to build their confidence before they return to arithmetic.

Module 4 returns to understanding place value. Addition and subtraction within 40 rest on firmly establishing a “ten” as a unit that can be counted, first introduced at the close of Module 2. Students begin to see a problem like 23 + 6 as an opportunity separate the “2 tens” in 23 and concentrate on the familiar addition problem 3 + 6. Adding 8 + 5 is related to solving 28 + 5; complete a unit of ten and add 3 more.

Module 3, which focuses on measuring and comparing lengths indirectly and by iterating length units, gives students a few weeks to practice and internalize “making a 10” during daily fluency activities.

Adding Across a Ten

8 + 5 = 8 + (2 + 3) = (8 + 2) + 3 = 10 + 3 = 13

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

In Module 2, students add and subtract within 20. Work begins by modeling “adding and subtracting across ten” in word problems and with equations. Solutions involving decomposition and composition like that shown to the right for 8 + 5 reinforce the need to “make 10.” In Module 1, students loosely grouped 10 objects to make a ten. They now transition to conceptualizing that ten as a single unit (using 10 linking cubes stuck together, for example). This is the next major stepping-stone in understanding place value, learning to group “10 ones” as a single unit: 1 ten. Learning to “complete a unit” empowers students in later grades to understand “renaming” in the addition algorithm, to add 298 and 35 mentally (i.e., 298 + 2 + 33), and to add measurements like 4 m, 80 cm, and 50 cm (i.e., 4 m + 80 cm + 20 cm + 30 cm = 4 m + 1 m + 30 cm = 5 m 30 cm).

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Appendix-236

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Glossary, Table 1.)

Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.

Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.) Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.)

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

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21

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

1.OA.6

Work with addition and subtraction equations.

Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).

1.OA.5

Add and subtract within 20.

1.OA.4

1.OA.3

Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

1.OA.1

Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.22

When a cluster is referred to in this chart without a footnote, the cluster is taught in its entirety. In this module, work is limited to within 10. 22 1.OA.2 is addressed in Module 2.

20

(45 days)

Module 1: Sums and Differences to 10 21

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Grade 1 Modules20 Number of Instructional Days

Alignment Chart

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18

Appendix-237

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Glossary, Table 1.)

Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.

1.OA.4

1.OA.6

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a

Add and subtract within 20.27

Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.) Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.)

1.OA.3

Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

1.OA.2

1.OA.1

Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.

Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = ? - 3, 6 + 6 = ?.

1.OA.8

The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module 1.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

27

(35 days)

Module 2: Introduction to Place Value Through Addition and Subtraction Within 20

Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.

1.OA.7

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Grade 1 Modules20 Number of Instructional Days

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Appendix-238

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Glossary, Table 1.)

Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.

1.MD.2

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.

1.MD.1

Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.

1.OA.1

Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.29

b. The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

a. 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones – called a “ten.”

Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:

Focus in this module is on numbers to 20. The balance of this cluster is addressed in Modules 4 and 6. The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module 2.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

29

28

(15 days)

Module 3: Ordering and Comparing Length Measurements as Numbers

1.NBT.2

Understand place value. 28

number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Grade 1 Modules20 Number of Instructional Days

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20

Appendix-239

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Glossary, Table 1.) Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.

Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

c. The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).

a. 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones – called a “ten.”

Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.33

1.NBT.3

1.NBT.2

Understand place value. 32

1.NBT.1

Extend the counting sequence. 31

1.OA.1

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31

Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.30

The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module 2. Focus on numbers to 40. 32 Focus on numbers to 40. 33 Focus on numbers to 40.

30

(35 days)

Module 4: Place Value, Comparison, Addition and Subtraction to 40

1.MD.4

Represent and interpret data.

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21

Appendix-240

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

1.NBT.6

Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. Recognize and identify coins, their names, and their value.

Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. (Students do not need to learn formal names such as “right rectangular prism.) Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the

1.G.2

1.G.3

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus nondefining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes.

1.G.1

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

1.MD.3

Tell and write time and money. 34

Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.

1.NBT.5

Focus on time. Coins are addressed in Module 6.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

34

(15 days)

Module 5: Identifying, Composing, and Partitioning Shapes

Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a twodigit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.

1.NBT.4

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Appendix-241

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

c. The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).

a. 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones – called a “ten.”

Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:

Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count: explain the reasoning used. Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value,

1.NBT.5 1.NBT.6

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a twodigit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.

1.NBT.4

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.

1.NBT.3

1.NBT.2

Understand place value.

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

(35 days)

Extend the counting sequence. Module 6: Place Value, Comparison, 1.NBT.1 Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and Addition and Subtraction to 100 represent a number of objects with a written numeral.

words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares.

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Appendix-242

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Focus on money.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. Recognize and identify coins, their names, and their value.

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35

1.MD.3

Tell and write time and money. 35

properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

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24

Appendix-243

Sums and Differences to 20 Addition and Subtraction of Length Units Place Value, Counting, and Comparison of Numbers to 1000 Addition and Subtraction Within 200 with Word Problems to 100 Addition and Subtraction Within 1000 with Word Problems to 100 Foundations of Multiplication and Division Problem Solving with Length, Money, and Data Time, Shapes, and Fractions as Equal Parts of Shapes

2.OA.2 2.NBT.5

Required Fluency:

Operations and Algebraic Thinking x Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. x Add and subtract within 20. x Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication. Number and Operations in Base Ten x Understand place value. x Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. Measurement and Data x Measure and estimate lengths in standard units. x Relate addition and subtraction to length.

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A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

From Grade 1, students have fluency of addition and subtraction within 10 and extensive experience working with numbers to 100. Module 1 of Grade 2 establishes a motivating, differentiated fluency program in the first few weeks that will provide each student with enough practice to achieve mastery of the new required fluencies (i.e., adding and subtracting within 20 and within 100) by the end of the year. Students learn to represent and solve word problems using addition and subtraction: a practice that will also continue throughout the year.

Rationale for Module Sequence in Grade 2

Add and subtract within 20. Add and subtract within 100.

Addition and subtraction—concepts, skills, and problem solving

Key Areas of Focus for K-2:

Second Grade mathematics is about (1) extending understanding of base-ten notation; (2) building fluency with addition and subtraction; (3) using standard units of measure; and (4) describing and analyzing shapes.

Summary of Year

Module 1: Module 2: Module 3: Module 4: Module 5: Module 6: Module 7: Module 8:

CCLS Major Emphasis Clusters

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Sequence of Grade 2 Modules Aligned with the Standards

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Non-Proportional Model for Place Value

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Module 5 builds upon the work of Module 4. Students again use place value strategies, manipulatives, and math drawings to extend their conceptual understanding of the addition and subtraction algorithms to numbers within 1000. They maintain addition and subtraction fluency within 100

In Module 4, students apply their work with place value units to add and subtract within 200 moving from concrete to pictorial to abstract. This work deepens their understanding of base-ten, place value, and the properties of operations. It also challenges them to apply their knowledge to one-step and two-step word problems. During this module, students also continue to develop one of the required fluencies of the grade: addition and subtraction within 100.

Proportional Model for Place Value

All arithmetic algorithms are manipulations of place value units: ones, tens, hundreds, etc. In Module 3, students extend their understanding of baseten notation and apply their understanding of place value to count and compare numbers to 1000. In Grade 2 the place value units move from a proportional model to a non-proportional number disk model (see picture). The place value table with number disks can be used through Grade 5 for modeling very large numbers and decimals, thus providing students greater facility with and understanding of mental math and algorithms.

In Module 2, students learn to measure and estimate using standard units for length and solve measurement word problems involving addition and subtraction of length. A major objective is for students to use measurement tools with the understanding that linear measure involves an iteration of units and that the smaller a unit, the more iterations are necessary to cover a given length. Students work exclusively with metric units, i.e. centimeters and meters, in this module to support upcoming work with place value concepts in Module 3. Units also play a central role in the addition and subtraction algorithms of Modules 4 and 5. An underlying goal for this module is for students to learn the meaning of a “unit” in a different context, that of length. This understanding serves as the foundation of arithmetic, measurement, and geometry in elementary school.

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

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A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Students finish Grade 2 by describing and analyzing shapes in terms of their sides and angles. In Module 8, students investigate, describe, and reason about the composition and decomposition of shapes to form other shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two- and three-dimensional shapes, students develop a foundation for understanding area, volume, congruence, similarity, and symmetry in later grades.

Module 7 provides another opportunity for students to practice their algorithms and problem-solving skills with perhaps the most well-known, interesting units of all: dollars, dimes, and pennies. Measuring and estimating length is revisited in this module in the context of units from both the customary system (e.g., inches and feet) and the metric system (e.g., centimeters and meters). As they study money and length, students represent data given by measurement and money data using picture graphs, bar graphs, and line plots.

In Module 6, students extend their understanding of a unit to build the foundation for multiplication and division wherein any number, not just powers of ten, can be a unit. Making equal groups of “four apples each” establishes the unit “four apples” (or just four) that can then be counted: 1 four, 2 fours, 3 fours, etc. Relating the new unit to the one used to create it lays the foundation for multiplication: 3 groups of 4 apples equal 12 apples (or 3 fours is 12).

through daily application work to solve one- and two-step word problems of all types. A key component of Modules 4 and 5 is that students use place value reasoning to explain why their addition and subtraction strategies work.

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Appendix-246

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Glossary, Table 1.) Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies. (See standard 1.OA.6 for a list of mental strategies.) By end of grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers. Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length

2.MD.3 2.MD.4

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

2.MD.2

2.MD.1

Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.40

2.NBT.5

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.39

2.OA.2

Add and subtract within 20. 38

2.OA.1

Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.37

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

When a cluster is referred to in this chart without a footnote, the cluster is taught in its entirety. In this module, word problems focus primarily on result unknown and change unknown situations. 38 From this point forward, fluency practice with addition and subtraction to 20 is part of the students’ ongoing experience. 39 The balance of this cluster is addressed in Modules 4 and 5. 40 Focus is on metric measurement in preparation for place value in Module 3. Customary measurement is addressed in Module 7.

36

(12 days)

Module 2: Addition and Subtraction of Length Units

(10 days)

Module 1: Sums and Differences to 20

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Grade 2 Modules36 Number of Instructional Days

Alignment Chart

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Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

2.NBT.3 2.NBT.4

2.OA.1

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with

Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.

Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s 42, 10s, and 100s.

b. The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones).

a. 100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens – called a “hundred.”

Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases:

2.NBT.2

2.NBT.1

Understand place value.

Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.

2.MD.6

Use analog clock to provide a context for skip-counting by 5s.

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Module 4: Addition and Subtraction Within 200 with Word Problems to 100

(25 days)

Module 3: Place Value, Counting, and Comparison of Numbers to 1000

Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

2.MD.5

Relate addition and subtraction to length.

difference in terms of a standard length unit.

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Grade 2 Modules36 Number of Instructional Days

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Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds. Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100-900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100-900. Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations. (Explanations may be supported by drawings or objects.)

2.NBT.6 2.NBT.7

2.NBT.8 2.NBT.9

Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100-900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given

2.NBT.8

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds.

2.NBT.7

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.45

Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

2.NBT.5

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.44

unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Glossary, Table 1.)

In this module, work is limited to within 200. This work is extended to numbers within 1000 in the next module. The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module 4.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

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44

(24 days)

Module 5: Addition and Subtraction Within 1000 with Word Problems to 100

(35 days)

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Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.

2.OA.4

Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same size squares and count to find the total number of them.

Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit.

2.MD.3 2.MD.4

2.MD.5

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given

Relate addition and subtraction to length.

Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen.

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

2.MD.2

2.MD.1

Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.

2.G.2

Reason with shapes and their attributes. 47

Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s: write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.

2.OA.3

Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.

Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations. (Explanations may be supported by drawings or objects.)

2.G.2 is taught before G.1 and G.3 because the array model is so important to the foundation for multiplication.

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(30 days)

Module 7: Problem Solving with Length, Money, and Data

(24 days)

Module 6: Foundations of Multiplication and Division

2.NBT.9

number 100-900.

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Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.

Tell time and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m.

2.G.1

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Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces. (Sizes are compared directly or visually, not compared by measuring.) Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

2.MD.7

Work with time and money.50

2.MD.10 Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems (See Glossary, Table 1.) using information presented in a bar graph.

2.MD.9

Represent and interpret data.

2.MD.8

Focus on money. Time is addressed in Module 8. Focus on time. Money is addressed in Module 7.

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49

(20 days)

Module 8: Time, Shapes, and Fractions as Equal Parts of Shapes

Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.

Work with time and money.49

2.MD.6

in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problems.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape.

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

2.G.3

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Appendix-252 3.OA.7 3.NBT.2

Required Fluency:

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The first module builds upon the foundation of multiplicative thinking with units started in Grade 2. First, students concentrate on the meaning of multiplication and division and begin developing fluency for learning products involving factors of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 (see key areas of focus and

Rationale for Module Sequence in Grade 3

Multiply and divide within 100. Add and subtract within 1000.

Multiplication and division of whole numbers and fractions—concepts, skills, and problem solving

Key Areas of Focus for 3-5:

Third Grade mathematics is about (1) developing understanding of multiplication and division and strategies for multiplication and division within 100; (2) developing understanding of fractions, especially unit fractions (fractions with numerator 1); (3) developing understanding of the structure of rectangular arrays and of area; and (4) describing and analyzing two-dimensional shapes.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking x Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division. x Understand the properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division. x Multiply and divide within 100. x Solve problems involving the four operations and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic. Number and Operations – Fractions x Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. Measurement and Data x Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects. x Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.

Properties of Multiplication and Division and Solving Problems with Units of 2–5 and 10 Place Value and Problem Solving with Units of Measure Multiplication and Division with Units of 0, 1, 6–9, and Multiples of 10 Multiplication and Area Fractions as Numbers on the Number Line Collecting and Displaying Data Geometry and Measurement Word Problems

Summary of Year

Module 1: Module 2: Module 3: Module 4: Module 5: Module 6: Module 7:

CCLS Major Emphasis Clusters

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Sequence of Grade 3 Modules Aligned with the Standards

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

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Module 4 Progression from Rectangular Array to Area Model

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

Module 1 and Module 3

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Students learn the remaining multiplication and division facts in Module 3 as they continue to develop their understanding of multiplication and division strategies within 100 and use those strategies to solve two-step word problems. The “2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 facts” module (Module 1) and the “0, 1, 6, 7, 8, 9 and multiples of 10 facts” module (Module 3) both provide important, sustained time for work in understanding the structure of rectangular arrays to prepare students for area in Module 4. This work is necessary because students initially find it difficult to distinguish the different units in a grid (the third array in the picture below), count them and recognize that the count is related to multiplication. Tiling also supports a correct interpretation of the grid. Modules 1 and 3 slowly build up to the area model (the fourth model in the picture below) using rectangular arrays in the context of learning multiplication and division:

Module 2 focuses on measurement of time and metric weight and capacity. In exploratory lessons, students decompose a kilogram into 100 gram, 10 gram and 1 gram weights and decompose a liter into analogous amounts of milliliters. Metric measurement thereby develops the concept of mixed units, e.g. 3 kilograms 400 grams is clearly related to 3 thousands, 4 hundreds. Students then apply their new understanding of number to place value, comparison and rounding, composing larger units when adding, decomposing into smaller units when subtracting. Students also draw proportional tape diagrams to solve word problems (e.g., “If this tape represents 62 kg, then a tape representing 35 kg needs to be slightly longer than half the 62 kg bar…”). Drawing the relative sizes of the lengths involved in the model prepares students to locate fractions on a number line in Module 5 (where they learn to locate points on the number line relative to each other and relative to the whole unit). Module 2 also provides students with internalization time for learning the 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 facts as part of their fluency activities.

required fluency above). The restricted set of facts keeps learning manageable, and also provides enough examples to do one- and two-step word problems and to start measurement problems involving weight, capacity and time in the second module.

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3.OA.2

3.OA.1

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of

Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 x 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 x 7.

Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.53

When a cluster is referred to in this chart without a footnote, the cluster is taught in its entirety. In this module, work is limited to factors of 2–5 and 10 and the corresponding dividends.

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52

(25 days)

Module 1: Properties of Multiplication and Division and Solving Problems with Units of 2–5 and 10

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Grade 3 Modules52 Number of Instructional Days

Alignment Chart

The year rounds out with plenty of time to solve two-step word problems involving the four operations, and to improve fluency for concepts and skills initiated earlier in the year. In Module 7, students also describe, analyze, and compare properties of two-dimensional shapes. By now, students have done enough work with both linear and area measurement models to understand that there is no relationship in general between the area of a figure and perimeter, which is one of the concepts taught in the last module.

In Module 6, students leave the world of exact measurements behind. By applying their knowledge of fractions from Module 5, they estimate lengths to the nearest halves and fourths of an inch and record that information in bar graphs and line plots. This module also prepares students for the multiplicative comparison problems of Grade 4 by asking students “how many more” and “how many less” questions about scaled bar graphs.

One goal of Module 5 is for students to transition from thinking of fractions as area or parts of a figure to points on a number line. To make that jump, students think of fractions as being constructed out of unit fractions: “1 fourth” is the length of a segment on the number line such that the length of four concatenated fourth segments on the line equals 1 (the whole). Once the unit “1 fourth” has been established, counting them is as easy as counting whole numbers: 1 fourth, 2 fourths, 3 fourths, 4 fourths, 5 fourths, etc. Students also compare fractions, find equivalent fractions in special cases, and solve problems that involve fractions.

By Module 4, students are ready to investigate area. They measure the area of a shape by finding the total number of same-size units of area, e.g. tiles, required to cover the shape without gaps or overlaps. When that shape is a rectangle with whole number side lengths, it is easy to partition the rectangle into squares with equal areas (as in the third stage of the illustration above).

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Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8.

3.OA.6

Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.57

3.OA.7

Multiply and divide within 100.56

Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.) Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.) 55

3.OA.5

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In this module, work is limited to factors of 2–5 and 10 and the corresponding dividends. The Associative property is addressed in Module 3. 56 In this module, work is limited to factors of 2–5 and 10 and the corresponding dividends. 57 In this module, problem solving is limited to multiplication and division, and limited to factors of 2–5 and 10 and the corresponding dividends. 3.OA.9 is addressed in Module 3.

54

Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 x ? = 48, 5 = _ ÷ 3, 6 x 6 = ?

3.OA.4

Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.54

Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Glossary, Table 2.)

3.OA.3

objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8.

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Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.

Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). (Excludes compound units such as cm3 and finding the geometric volume of a container.) Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. (Excludes multiplicative comparison problems, i.e., problems involving notions of “times as much”; see Glossary, Table 2.)

3.MD.2

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Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.

3.MD.1

Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.

3.NBT.2

3.NBT.1

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. (A range of algorithms may be used.)58

Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. (This standard is limited to problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers; students should know how to perform operations in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order, i.e., Order of Operations.)

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

3.NBT.3 is taught in Module 3.

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(25 days)

Module 2: Place Value and Problem Solving with Units of Measure

3.OA.8

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Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 x ? = 48, 5 =___÷ 3, 6 x 6 = ?

Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Glossary, Table 2.)

Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.) Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.) Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

3.OA.8

Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. (This standard is limited to problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers; students should know how to perform operations in the conventional order when there are no

Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.61

3.OA.7

Multiply and divide within 100.60

3.OA.5

Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.

3.OA.4

3.OA.3

Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.59

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The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module 1. From this point forward, fluency practice with multiplication and division facts is part of the students’ on-going experience. 61 After being fully taught in Module 3, this standard (as well as 3.OA.3) continues being practiced throughout the remainder of the school year.

59

(25 days)

Module 3: Multiplication and Division with Units of 0, 1, 6–9, and Multiples of 10

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Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.

Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side

c.

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Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.

b.

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.

a.

Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

3.MD.7

A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.

b.

Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).

A square with side length 1 unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area.

a.

Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement.

3.MD.6

3.MD.5

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.

3.NBT.3

The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module 2.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

62

(20 days)

Module 4: Multiplication and Area

Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. (A range of algorithms may be used.) 62

3.OA.9

parentheses to specify a particular order, i.e., Order of Operations.)

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3.NF.3

Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.

b.

Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at

b. c.

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Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.

a.

Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.

Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.

Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.

3.NF.2 a.

Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.

3.NF.1

Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8.)

Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into nonoverlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

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(35 days)

Module 5: Fractions as Numbers on the Number Line

d.

lengths a and b + c is the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.

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Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area and describe the area of each part as ¼ of the area of the shape.

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units – whole numbers, halves, or quarters.

3.MD.4

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units – whole numbers, halves, or quarters.

Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear

3.MD.4

Represent and interpret data. 65

Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two- step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.

3.MD.3

Represent and interpret data.

3.G.2

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3.G.1 is taught in Module 7. The seemingly eclectic set of standards in Module 7 allows for a new level of word problems, including perimeter and measurement word problems. 65 3.MD.3 is taught in Module 6.

63

(40 days)

Module 7: Geometry and Measurement Word Problems 64

(10 days)

Module 6: Collecting and Displaying Data

Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

Reason with shapes and their attributes. 63

d.

the same point of a number line diagram.

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories.

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

3.G.1

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

3.MD.8

and area measures.

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Appendix-262

Place Value, Rounding, and Algorithms for Addition and Subtraction Unit Conversions and Problem Solving with Metric Measurement Multi-Digit Multiplication and Division Angle Measure and Plane Figures Fraction Equivalence, Ordering, and Operations Decimal Fractions Exploring Multiplication

4.NBT.4

Required Fluency:

Operations and Algebraic Thinking x Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. Number and Operations in Base Ten x Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers. x Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. Number and Operations – Fractions x Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. x Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. x Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

In Grade 4, students extend their work with whole numbers. They begin with large numbers using familiar units (tens and hundreds) and develop their understanding of thousands by building knowledge of the pattern of times ten in the base ten system on the place value chart (4.NBT.1). In

Rationale for Module Sequence in Grade 4

Add and subtract within 1,000,000.

Multiplication and division of whole numbers and fractions—concepts, skills, and problem solving

Key Areas of Focus for 3-5:

Fourth grade mathematics is about (1) developing understanding and fluency with multi-digit multiplication, and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends; (2) developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers; and (3) understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry.

Summary of Year

Module 1: Module 2: Module 3: Module 4: Module 5: Module 6: Module 7:

CCLS Major Emphasis Clusters

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Sequence of Grade 4 Modules Aligned with the Standards

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Appendix-263

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

= 10 tens = 100 ones = 100 centimeters

= 1,000 ones = 1,000 meters = 1,000 grams = 1,000 milliliters

1 hundred 1 hundred 1 meter

1 thousand 1 kilometer 1 kilogram 1 liter

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A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Module 4 focuses as much on solving unknown angle problems using letters and equations as it does on building, drawing, and analyzing twodimensional shapes in geometry. Students have already used letters and equations to solve word problems in earlier grades. They continue to do so in Grade 4, and now they also learn to solve unknown angle problems: work that challenges students to build and solve equations to find unknown

In Module 3, measurements provide the concrete foundation behind the distributive property in the multiplication algorithm: 4 × (1 m 2 cm) can be made physical using ribbon, where it is easy to see the 4 copies of 1 m and the 4 copies of 2 cm. Likewise, 4 × (1 ten 2 ones) = 4 tens 8 ones. Students then turn to the place value table with number disks to develop efficient procedures for multiplying and dividing one-digit whole numbers and use the table with number disks to understand and explain why the procedures work. Students also solve word problems throughout the module where they select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate, mentally calculate, or use the procedures they are learning to compute products and quotients.

Students work with metric measurement in the context of the addition and subtraction algorithms, mental math, place value, and word problems. Customary units are used as a context for fractions in Module 5.

= 10 ones

1 ten

The algorithms continue to play a part in Module 2 as students relate place value to metric units. This module helps students draw similarities between:

Grades 2 and 3 students focused on developing the concept of composing and decomposing place value units within the addition and subtraction algorithms. Now, in Grade 4, those (de)compositions and are seen through the lens of multiplicative comparison, e.g. 1 thousand is 10 times as much as 1 hundred. They next apply their broadened understanding of patterns on the place value chart to compare, round, add and subtract. The module culminates with solving multi-step word problems involving addition and subtraction modeled with tape diagrams that focus on numerical relationships.

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

1 complete turn 1 meter 1 kilogram 1 liter

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

360 degrees in 100 centimeters in 1000 grams in 1000 milliliters in

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Module 5 centers on equivalent fractions and operations with fractions. We use fractions when there is a given unit, the whole unit, but we want to measure using a smaller unit, called the fractional unit. To prepare students to explore the relationship between a fractional unit and its whole unit, examples of such relationships in different contexts were already carefully established earlier in the year:

Unknown angle problems help to unlock algebraic concepts for students because such problems are visual. The x clearly stands for a specific number: If a student wished, he could place a protractor down on that angle and measure it to find x. But doing so destroys the joy of deducing the answer and solving the puzzle on his own.

X = 30

X + 330 = 360

X + 240 + 90 = 360

Armed only with these facts, students are able to generate and solve equations as in the following proble:

1. The sum of angle measurements around a point is 360 degrees. 2. The sum of angle measurements on a line is 180 degrees. 3. Hence, from 1 and 2, students see that vertical angles are equal. 4.

angle measures. First, students learn the definition of degree and learn how to measure angles in degrees using a circular protractor. From the definition of degree and the fact that angle measures are additive, the following rudimentary facts about angles naturally follow:

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4.OA.3

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.67

When a cluster is referred to in this chart without a footnote, the cluster is taught in its entirety. 4.OA.1 and 4.OA.2 are addressed in Modules 3 and 7.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

67

66

(25 days)

Module 1: Place Value, Rounding, and Algorithms for Addition and Subtraction

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Grade 4 Modules66 Number of Instructional Days

Alignment Chart

The year ends with a module focused on multiplication and measurement as they solve multi-step word problems. Exploratory lessons support conceptual understanding of the relative sizes of measurement units. Students explore conversion in hands-on settings and subsequently apply those conversions to solve multi-step word problems involving all operations and multiplicative comparison.

Module 6, on decimal fractions, starts with the realization that decimal place value units are simply special fractional units: 1 tenth = 1/10, 1 hundredth = 1/100, etc. Fluency plays an important role in this topic as students learn to relate 3/10 = 0.3 = 3 tenths. They also recognize that 3 tenths is equal to 30 hundredths and subsequently have their first experience adding and subtracting fractions with unlike units e.g., 3 tenths + 4 hundredths = 30 hundredths + 4 hundredths.

x “3 fourths + 5 fourths = 8 fourths” just as “3 meters + 5 meters = 8 meters” x “4 x 3 fourths = 12 fourths” just as “4 x 3 meters = 12 meters” Students add and subtract fractions with like units using the area model and the number line. They multiply a fraction by a whole number where the interpretation is as repeated addition e.g. 3 fourths + 3 fourths = 2 x 3 fourths. Through this introduction to fraction arithmetic they gradually come to understand fractions as units they can manipulate, just like whole numbers. Throughout the module, customary units of measurement provide a relevant context for the arithmetic.

The beauty of fractional units, once defined and understood, is that they behave just as all other units do:

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.

4.NBT.3

Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), … Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

4.MD.1

4.MD.2

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. 69

4.NBT.4

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4.NBT.5 is addressed in Modules 3 and 7; 4.NBT.6 is addressed in Module 3. The focus of this module is on the metric system to reinforce place value, mixed units, and word problems with unit conversions. Decimal and fraction word problems wait until Modules 5 and 6. 4.MD.3 is taught in Module 3.

68

(7 days)

Module 2: Unit Conversions and Problem Solving with Metric Measurement

Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

4.NBT.2

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.68

Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division.

4.NBT.1

Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison. (See Glossary, Table 2.) Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

4.OA.2

4.OA.3

Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1– 100 is prime or composite.

Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using

4.NBT.6

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Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two twodigit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 71

4.NBT.5

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)70

4.OA.4

Gain familiarity with factors and multiplies.

Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

4.OA.1

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

4.NBT.4 is addressed in Module 1 and is then reinforced throughout the year. Multiplying two two-digit numbers is addressed in Module 7.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

71

70

(43 days)

Module 3: Multi-Digit Multiplication and Division

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4.G.1

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Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and

Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.

4.MD.7

An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.

b.

Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.

An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles.

a.

Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:

4.MD.6

4.MD.5

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.

Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

4.MD.1 is taught in Modules 2 and 7; 4.MD.2 is taught in Modules 2, 5, 6, and 7.

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72

(20 days)

Module 4: Angle Measure and Plane Figures

4.MD.3

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. 72

equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

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Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

4.NF.2

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Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understanding of operations on whole

Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

4.NF.1

Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

4.OA.5

Generate and analyze patterns.

Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

4.G.3

Tenths and hundredths are important fractions in this module, represented in decimal form in Module 6.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

73

(45 days)

Module 5: Fraction Equivalence, Ordering, and Operations 73

Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.

4.G.2

parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

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Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

c.

Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.) Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your

b.

c.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4).

a.

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.

b.

d.

Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.

a.

Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

4.NF.4

4.NF.3

numbers.

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Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.

Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram. Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons

4.NF.6 4.NF.7

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Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. (Students who can generate equivalent fractions can develop strategies for adding fractions wit unlike denominators in general. But addition and subtraction with unlike denominators in general is not a requirement at this grade.) For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.

4.NF.5

Understand decimal notations for fractions, and compare decimal fractions. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.) 75

4.MD.4

4.MD.1 is taught in Modules 2 and 7. 4.MD.3 is taught in Module 3. In this module we continue to work with fractions, now including decimal form.

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75

74

(20 days)

Module 6: Decimal Fractions

Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

Represent and interpret data.

4.MD.2

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. 74

answer lie?

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison. (See Glossary, Table 2.) Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

4.OA.2

4.OA.3

4.NBT.5

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Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two twodigit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.77

Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

4.OA.1

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

4.MD.1 is taught in Modules 2 and 7. 4.MD.3 is taught in Module 3. In Module 7, the focus is on multiplying two 2-digit numbers.

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77

76

(20 days)

Module 7: Exploring Multiplication

4.MD.2

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. 76

are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

4.MD.2

The focus now is on customary units in word problems for application of fraction concepts. 4.MD.3 is taught in Module 3.

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78

Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), …

4.MD.1

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. 78

and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

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Appendix-274

Place Value and Decimal Fractions Multi-Digit Whole Number and Decimal Fraction Operations Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication and Division of Fractions and Decimal Fractions Addition and Multiplication with Volume and Area Problem Solving with the Coordinate Plane

5.NBT.5

Required Fluency:

Number and Operations in Base Ten x Understand the place value system. x Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths. Number and Operations – Fractions x Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions. x Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions. Measurement and Data x Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.

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Students’ experiences with the algorithms as ways to manipulate place value units in Grades 2-4 really begin to pay dividends in Grade 5. In Module 1, whole number patterns with number disks on the place value table are easily generalized to decimal numbers. As students work word problems with measurements in the metric system, where the same patterns occur, they begin to appreciate the value and the meaning of decimals. Students apply their work with place value to adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing decimal numbers with tenths and hundredths.

Rationale for Module Sequence in Grade 5

Multi-digit multiplication.

Multiplication and division of whole numbers and fractions—concepts, skills, and problem solving

Key Areas of Focus for 3-5:

Fifth grade mathematics is about (1) developing fluency with addition and subtraction of fractions, and developing understanding of the multiplication of fractions and of division of fractions in limited cases (unit fractions divided by whole numbers and whole numbers divided by unit fractions); (2) extending division to two-digit divisors, integrating decimal fractions into the place value system and developing understanding of operations with decimals to hundredths, and developing fluency with whole number and decimal operations; and (3) developing understanding of volume.

Summary of Year

Module 1: Module 2: Module 3: Module 4: Module 5: Module 6:

CCLS Major Emphasis Clusters

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Sequence of Grade 5 Modules Aligned with the Standards

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

ହ ଽ

଼ ଽ

଼ = ଵ଴

ଷ ଵ଴

ସ ଽ

15 tenths + 8 tenths = 23 tenths = 2 and 3 tenths = 2

1 + = 14 ninths + 8 ninths = 22 ninths = 2 and 4 ninths = 2

+

= 2.3

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

Multi-digit decimal multiplication such as 4.1 × 3.4 and division such as 4.5 ÷ 1.5 are studied in Module 4.

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ʹ ͳ ʹൈͶ ͳൈ͵ ͺ ͵ ͳͳ ൅ ൌ൬ ൰൅൬ ൰ൌ ൅  ൌ  ͵ Ͷ ͵ൈͶ Ͷൈ͵ ͳʹ ͳʹ ͳʹ

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

2 boys + 1 girl = 2 children + 1 child = 3 children 2 thirds + 1 fourth = 8 twelfths + 3 twelfths = 11 twelfths

The new complexity is that when units are not equivalent, they must be changed for smaller equal units so that they can be added or subtracted. Probably the best model for showing this is the rectangular fraction model pictured below. The equivalence is then represented symbolically as students engage in active meaning-making rather than obeying the perhaps mysterious command to “multiply the top and bottom by the same number.”

1.5 + 0.8 = 1

ହ ଵ଴

Work with place value units paves the path toward fraction arithmetic in Module 3 as elementary math’s place value emphasis shifts to the larger set of fractional units for algebra. Like units are added to and subtracted from like units:

Module 2 begins by using place value patterns and the distributive and associative properties to multiply multi-digit numbers by multiples of 10 and leads to fluency with multi-digit whole number multiplication. 79 For multiplication, students must grapple with and fully understand the distributive property (one of the key reasons for teaching the multi-digit algorithm). While the multi-digit multiplication algorithm is a straightforward generalization of the one-digit multiplication algorithm, the division algorithm with two-digit divisors requires far more care to teach because students have to also learn estimation strategies, error correction strategies, and the idea of successive approximation (all of which are central concepts in math, science, and engineering).

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Appendix-276

A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

ଷ ଼

8 units = $32 1 unit = $4 5 units = $20

Solution with units:

ͷ  ൈ ͵ʹ ൌ ʹͲ ͺ

ͳ ͵ ʹ ͵ ͷ ൅ ൌ ൅ ൌ Ͷ ͺ ͺ ͺ ͺ

Solution with arithmetic:

Jill gave $20 altogether.

Unit awareness: 2.1 × 3.8 = 21 tenths × 38 tenths = 798 hundredths Estimation (through rounding): Ϯ͘ϭпϯ͘ϴуϮпϰсϴ͕ƐŽϮ͘ϭпϯ͘ϴсϳ͘ϵϴ Fraction multiplication: 21/10 × 38/10 = (21 × 38)/(10 × 10)

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Frequent use of the area model in Modules 3 and 4 prepares students for an in-depth discussion of area and volume in Module 5. But the module on area and volume also reinforces work done in the fraction module: Now, questions about how the area changes when a rectangle is scaled by a whole or fractional scale factor may be asked and missing fractional sides may be found. Measuring volume once again highlights the unit theme, as a unit cube is chosen to represent a volume unit and used to measure the volume of simple shapes composed out of rectangular prisms.

Similar strategies enrich students’ understanding of division and help them to see multi-digit decimal division as whole number division in a different unit. For example, we divide to find, “How many groups of 3 apples are there in 45 apples?” and write 45 apples ÷ 3 apples = 15. Similarly, 4.5 ÷ 0.3 can be written as “45 tenths ÷ 3 tenths” with the same answer: There are 15 groups of 0.3 in 4.5. This idea was used to introduce fraction division earlier in the module, thus gluing division to whole numbers, fractions and decimals together through an understanding of units.

x x x

Near the end of Module 4 students know enough about fractions and whole number operations to begin to explore multi-digit decimal multiplication and division. In multiplying 2.1 × 3.8, for example, students now have multiple skills and strategies that they can use to locate the decimal point in the final answer, including:

?

$32

Jill had $32. She gave of her money to charity and of her money to her brother. How much did she give altogether?

ଵ ସ

Relating different fractional units to one another requires extensive work with area and number line diagrams. Tape diagrams are used often in word problems. Tape diagrams, which students began using in the early grades and which become increasingly useful as students applied them to a greater variety of word problems, hit their full strength as a model when applied to fraction word problems. At the heart of a tape diagram is the nowfamiliar idea of forming units. In fact, forming units to solve word problems is one of the most powerful examples of the unit theme and is particularly helpful for understanding fraction arithmetic, as in the following example:

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place.

Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

b.

5.NBT.7

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between

Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.82

5.NBT.4

Read and write decimals to thousandths using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000).

Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.

5.NBT.3 a.

Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use whole-number exponents to denote powers of 10.

Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.

5.NBT.2

5.NBT.1

Understand the place value system.

When a cluster is referred to in this chart without a footnote, the cluster is taught in its entirety. The balance of this cluster is addressed in Module X.

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82

80

(20 days)

Module 1: Place Value and Decimal Fractions

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Grade 5 Modules80 Number of Instructional Days

Alignment Chart

Scaling is revisited in the last module on the coordinate plane. Since Kindergarten where growth and shrinking patterns were first introduced, students have been using bar graphs to display data and patterns. Extensive bar-graph work has set the stage for line plots, which are both the natural extension of bar graphs and the precursor to linear functions. It is in this final module of K-5 that a simple line plot of a straight line is presented on a coordinate plane and students are asked about the scaling relationship between the increase in the units of the vertical axis for 1 unit of increase in the horizontal axis. This is the first hint of slope and marks the beginning of the major theme of middle school: ratios and proportions.

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.

Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use whole-number exponents to denote powers of 10.

5.NBT.2

Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit

5.NBT.6

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

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84

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Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

5.NBT.5

Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.

Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.

5.NBT.1

Understand the place value system. 85

5.OA.2

Write and interpret numerical expressions. 84 5.OA.1 Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.

Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems.

The focus of this module is on the metric system to reinforce place value and writing measurements using mixed units. These skills are also applied to fractions in this module. 85 5.NBT.3 and 5.NBT.4 are taught in Module 1.

83

(35 days)

Module 2: Multi-Digit Whole Number and Decimal Fraction Operations

5.MD.1

Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system. 83

addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems.

Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally and assess the reasonableness of answers. For example, recognize an incorrect result 2/5 + 1/2 = 3/7, by observing that 3/7 < 1/2.

5.NF.2

Write and interpret numerical expressions. 5.OA.1 Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with

Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.)

5.NF.1

Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.87

5.MD.1

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Focus on decimal multiplication of a single-digit, whole number factor times a multi-digit number with up to 2 decimal places (e.g., 3 x 64.98). Restrict decimal division to a single digit whole number divisor with a multi-digit dividend with up to 2 decimal places (e.g., 64.98 ÷ 3). The balance of the standard is taught in Module 4. 87 Examples in this module also include tenths and hundredths in fraction and decimal form.

86

Module 4: Multiplication and Division of

(22 days)

Module 3: Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. 86

Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.

5.NBT.7

divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Interpret the product (a/b) × q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a × q ÷ b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) × 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) × (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) × (c/d) = ac/bd.)

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.

5.NF.4 a.

Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50-pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

5.NF.3

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.89

5.NBT.7

Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.88

5.OA.2

these symbols.

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5.NBT.5 and 5.NBT.6 are taught in Module 2. Teach problems such as 2.7 x 2.1 and 4.5 ÷ 1.5. See “Progressions” pgs. 17 – 18 (http://commoncoretools.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/ccss_progression_nbt_2011_04_073.pdf). 89 The focus of 5.NF.4 in this module is only on part a; 5.NF.4b is taught in Module 5. Include problems involving decimal fractions throughout the cluster.

88

(38 days)

Fractions and Decimal Fractions

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3-cup servings are in 2 cups of

c.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 × (1/5) = 4.

b.

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) × 4 = 1/3.

a.

Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions. (Students able to multiply fractions in general can develop strategies to divide fractions in general, by reasoning about the relationship between multiplication and division. But division of a fraction by a fraction is not a requirement at this grade.)

5.NF.7

Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (n × a)/(n × b) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1.

b.

Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication.

a.

Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by:

5.NF.6

5.NF.5

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.

b.

Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas.

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.

5.MD.3

Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.

5.NF.4

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.91

5.MD.2

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The focus of 5.MD.1 in this module is on the customary system of units as a means of introducing fractions (e.g., 1 inch is 1/12 foot, 1 foot is 1/3 yard, etc.). 5.NF.3 is taught in Module 3; 5.NF.4a, 5.NF.5, 5.NF.6, and 5.NF.7 are taught in Module 4. In this module 5.NF.4b is applied to multiplying to find volume and area. 5.NF.4b certainly includes decimal fraction side lengths of sides of a rectangle (in both fraction and decimal form).

90

(25 days)

Module 5: Addition and Multiplication with Volume and Area

Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems.

Represent and interpret data.

5.MD.1

Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system. 90

raisins?

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Apply the formulas V = l × w × h and V = b × h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole-number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems. Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two nonoverlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

b.

c.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Classify two-dimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties.

5.G.4

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two-dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.

5.G.3

Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties.

Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication.

Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume.

5.MD.5 a.

Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units.

A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units.

b. 5.MD.4

A cube with side length 1 unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume, and can be used to measure volume.

a.

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A Story of Units Curriculum Overview

Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product. Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.

Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.

5.G.2

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Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate).

5.G.1

Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

5.OA.3

Analyze patterns and relationships.

5.OA.2

Write and interpret numerical expressions. 92

A Story of Units: A Curriculum Overview for Grades P-5 Date: 7/31/13

5.OA.1 is taught in Modules 2 and 4.

© 2013 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org

92

(40 days)

Module 6: Problem Solving with the Coordinate Plane

Module and Approximate Common Core Learning Standards Addressed in Grade 5 Modules80 Number of Instructional Days

NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM

66

Appendix-285

Kindergarten

Grade One

Grade Two

Grade Three

Grade Four

Grade Five

A

High School / Adult Grades Seven, Eight+ Grade Six

GRADE LEVEL GOALS

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

TEXT LEVEL LADDER OF PROGRESS

Fountas & Pinnell

R

© Fountas, Irene C. & Pinnell, Gay Su and Heinemann, Portsmouth NH, 2012.

*On the F&P Text Level Gradient™

This chart is intended to provide general guidelines for grade level goals which should be adjusted based on school/district requirements and professional teacher judgment.

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Z+

LEVELS*

FOUNTAS & PINNELL

DIBELS 6th Edition Benchmark Goals ISF

Beginning

Kindergarten Middle

First Grade

n/a

Beginning

LNF 38 33

Middle

n/a

Optional, Not Endorsed

End

n/a

Optional, Not Endorsed

Second Grade Middle End

Fourth Grade

Sixth Grade

PSF

Optional, Not Endorsed

NWF-CLS NWF-WRC࣊ 62 13 52 5 n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

ORF-WC 72* Beginning 57 89* Middle 76 110* End 97

ORF-A࣊ 96 92 98 94 99 97

ORF-WC࣊ 86 66 103 84 114 94

ORF-A࣊ 96 91 98 96 98 96

ORF-WC࣊ 107 Beginning 82 118 Middle 94 127 End 105

ORF-A࣊ 98 95 99 96 99 97

ORF-WC࣊ 117 97 120 96 122 96

ORF-A࣊ 98 96 98 96 99 96

Beginning Middle End

Fifth Grade

Optional, Not Endorsed

LNF 11* 6 34 27 47 42

End

Beginning

Third Grade

Optional, Not Endorsed

Beginning Middle End

PSF

NWF-CLS NWF-WRC࣊

n/a

n/a

33 28

19* 15 39* 35

Optional, Not Endorsed

NWF-CLS NWF-WRC࣊ 25* 2 19 1 54 10 48 3 71 13 62 5 ORF-WC 41* 28 76* 55 96* 75

ORF-A࣊ 91 81 97 92 98 95

RTF

WUF࣊ 49 39 50 40 42 33

Optional, Not Endorsed

WUF࣊

n/a

Optional, Endorsed

Optional, Endorsed

3 1

19 1 37 24

ORF-WC

ORF-A࣊

n/a

n/a

19* 13 47* 31

78 64 91 81

RTF Optional, Not Endorsed

RTF Optional, Not Endorsed

WUF࣊ 25 14 45 35 47 38

WUF࣊ 37 28 46 36 50 40

RTF Optional, Not Endorsed

RTF Optional, Not Endorsed

RTF Optional, Not Endorsed

Key: Beginning

25*

Benchmark Goal (Lowest Core score)

14

Cut Point for Risk (Lowest Strategic score)

*Predominant measure at each period in terms of SAT10 prediction. ࣊ Benchmarkbasedon40thpercentileandcutpointforriskbasedonthe20thpercentile(from nationalDataSystemnorms) ISF: Initial Sound Fluency LNF: Letter Naming Fluency NWF-CLS: Nonsense Word Fluency - Correct Letter Sounds NWF-WRC: Nonsense Word Fluency - Whole Recoded Correctly

RTF: Retell Fluency ORF-A: Oral Reading Fluency- Accuracy ORF-WC: Oral Reading Fluency- Words Read Correctly WUF: Word Use Fluency

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Appendix-286

DIBELS 6th Edition Goals - Page 1 Revision Date: 7-1-2014

Appendix-287

Need for Support

Optional, Endorsed

Not administered during this assessment period

Need for Support

Intensive Strategic Core

Intensive Strategic Core

0 1 – 18 19 and above

Intensive Strategic Core

Optional, Endorsed

0 - 14 15 - 18 19 and above

0 - 27 28 - 32 33 and above

Intensive Strategic Core

Optional, Not Endorsed 0 - 26 27 - 33 34 and above

Scores

Middle of Year Month 4 - 6

Need for Support

Intensive Strategic Core

0 – 23 24 – 36 37 and above

0 - 34 35 - 38 39 and above 0 Intensi 1–2 3 and above

Intensive Strategic Core

Intensive Strategic Core ve Strategic Core

Optional, Not Endorsed

0 - 41 42 - 46 47 and above

Not administered during this assessment period

Scores

End of Year Month 7 - 10

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Word Use Fluency (WUF)2

Words Recoded Correctly (WRC)1

Nonsense Word Fluency-

Not administered during this assessment period

Nonsense Word Word Fluency (NWF-CLS)

Intensive Strategic Core

Not administered during this assessment period

0–5 6 - 10 11 and above

Optional, Not Endorsed

Scores

Beginning of Year Month 1 - 3

Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)

Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)

DIBELS Measure Initial Sound Fluency (ISF)

KINDERGARTEN

DIBELS 6th Edition Benchmark Goals

Appendix-288

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

0 – 13 14 – 24 25 and above

Intensive Strategic Core

Not administered during this assessment period

Not administered during this assessment period

Not administered during this assessment period

0 - 18 19 - 24 25 and above 0 1 2 and above

Core

78% and above

0 - 34 35 – 44 45 and above

Intensive Strategic Core

Optional, Not Endorsed

Strategic Core Intensive Strategic

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core Intensive

13 - 18 19 and above 0 – 63% 64 – 77%

0 - 47 48 - 53 54 and above 0–2 3-9 10 and above 0 - 12

Optional, Not Endorsed

Not administered during this assessment period

Scores

Middle of Year Month 4 - 6 Need for Support

Strategic Core Intensive Strategic

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core Intensive

0 – 37 38 – 46 47 and above

Intensive Strategic Core

Optional, Not Endorsed

31 - 46 47 and above 0 – 80% 81 – 90% 91% and above Core

0 - 61 62 - 70 71 and above 0–4 5 – 12 13 and above 0 - 30

Optional, Not Endorsed

Not administered during this assessment period

Scores

End of Year Month 7 - 10 Need for Support

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Word Use Fluency (WUF)2

Retell Fluency (RTF)

Oral Reading Fluency(ORF)Accuracy2

Fluency (ORF)Words Correct

Oral Reading

Fluency-Words Recoded Correctly (WRC)1

Nonsense Word

Nonsense Word Fluency- Correct Letter Sounds (CLS)

Intensive Strategic Core

Optional, Not Endorsed

0 - 32 33 - 37 38 and above

Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)

Scores

Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)

Beginning of Year Month 1 - 3 Need for Support

DIBELS Measure

FIRST GRADE

DIBELS 6th Edition Benchmark Goals

Appendix-289 Intensive Strategic Core

0 – 38 39 – 48 49 and above

Intensive Strategic Core

Beginning of Year Month 1 - 3 Need for Scores Support 0 - 56 Intensive 57 - 71 Strategic 72 and above Core 0 – 91% Intensive 92 – 95% Strategic 96% and above Core

0 – 27 28 – 36 37 and above

Beginning of Year Month 1 - 3 Need for Scores Support 0 - 51 Intensive 52 - 61 Strategic 62 and above Core 0–4 Intensive 5 – 12 Strategic 13 and above Core 0 - 27 Intensive 28 - 40 Strategic 41 and above Core 0 – 80% Intensive 81 – 90% Strategic 91% and above Core Need for Support

0 – 39 40 – 49 50 and above

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

Intensive Strategic Core

Optional, Not Endorsed

Need for Support Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

Middle of Year Month 4 - 6

Intensive Strategic Core

Optional, Not Endorsed

Scores 0 - 75 76 - 88 89 and above 0 – 93% 94 – 97% 98% and above

0 – 35 36 – 45 46 and above

0 - 54 55 - 75 76 and above 0 – 91% 92 – 96% 97% and above

Not administered during this assessment period

Not administered during this assessment period

Scores

Middle of Year Month 4 - 6

Need for Support

Intensive Strategic Core

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

0 - 32 33 – 41 42 and above

Scores 0 - 96 97 - 109 110 and above 0 – 96% 97 – 98% 99% and above

Intensive Strategic Core

Need for Support Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

End of Year Month 7 - 10

0 – 39 40 – 49 50 and above

0 - 74 75 - 95 96 and above 0 – 94% 95 – 97% 98% and above

Not administered during this assessment period

Not administered during this assessment period

Scores

End of Year Month 7 - 10

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Word Use Fluency (WUF)1

Retell Fluency (RTF)

DIBELS Measure Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)Words Correct Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)- Accuracy3

THIRD GRADE

Word Use Fluency (WUF)2

Retell Fluency(RTF)

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) – Words Correct Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)- Accuracy3

Nonsense Word Fluency-Words Recoded Correctly (WRC)1

DIBELS Measure Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF-CLS)

SECOND GRADE

DIBELS 6th Edition Benchmark Goals

Appendix-290 0 - 96 97 - 116 117 and above 0 – 95% 96 - 97% 98% and above

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

0 - 95 Intensive 96 - 119 Strategic 120 and above Core 0 – 95% Intensive 96 - 97% Strategic 98% and above Core Optional, Not Endorsed

Month 4 - 6 Need for Support Scores

Middle of Year

Optional, Not Endorsed

0 - 93 94 - 117 118 and above 0 – 95% 96 – 98% 99% and above

Month 4 - 6 Need for Support Scores

Middle of Year

Optional, Not Endorsed

0 - 83 84 - 102 103 and above 0 – 95% 96 – 97% 98% and above

Month 4 - 6 Need for Support Scores

Middle of Year

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

0 - 95 96 - 121 122 and above 0 – 95% 96 – 98% 99% and above

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

Month 7 - 10 Need for Support

End of Year

0 - 104 105 - 126 127 and above 0 – 96% 97 - 98% 99% and above

Month 7 - 10 Need for Support

End of Year

0 – 93 94 – 113 114 and above 0 – 95% 96 – 97% 98% and above

Month 7 - 10 Need for Support

End of Year

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DIBELS Retell Fluency (RTF)

Scores

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)Words Correct4 Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)- Accuracy3

Month 1 - 3 Need for Support Scores

DIBELS Measure

SIXTH GRADE

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

Beginning of Year

0 - 81 82 - 106 107 and above 0 – 94% 95 – 97% 98% and above

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)Words Correct4 Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)- Accuracy3

DIBELS Retell Fluency (RTF)

Scores

Month 1 - 3 Need for Support Scores

DIBELS Measure

FIFTH GRADE

Intensive Strategic Core Intensive Strategic Core

Beginning of Year

0 - 65 66 - 85 86 and above 0 – 90% 91 – 95% 96% and above

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)Words Correct4 Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)- Accuracy3

DIBELS Retell Fluency (RTF)

Scores

Month 1 - 3 Need for Support Scores

Beginning of Year

DIBELS Measure

FOURTH GRADE

DIBELS 6th Edition Benchmark Goals

Appendix-291

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Cummings, K. D., Otterstedt, J., Kennedy, P. C., Baker, S. K., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2011). DIBELS Data System: 2009-2010 Percentile Ranks for DIBELS 6th Edition Benchmark Assessments (Technical Report 1102). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, Center on Teaching and Learning. Available http://dibels.uoregon.edu/research/techreports/#dibels

References

4. The Oral Reading Fluency-Words Correct (ORF) goals and cutpoints for risk for Grade 4 through Grade 6 are based on normative data from DIBELS Data System percentile ranks (Cummings et. al., 2011). Empirical evidence of the percent achieving subsequent literacy goals is not yet available for these estimates. Consistent with established guidelines, the goal (core support) is based on the 40th percentile and the cutpoint for risk (strategic support) is based on the 20th percentile. At points when there was not a 20th or 40th percentile the nearest percentile above the 20th or 40th percentile was use (e.g., 23rd percentile or 44th percentile).

3. The Oral Reading Fluency Accuracy (ORF-A) goals and cutpoints for risk for Grade 1 through Grade 6 are based on normative data from DIBELS Data System percentile ranks (Cummings et. al., 2011). Empirical evidence of the percent achieving subsequent literacy goals is not yet available for these estimates. Consistent with established guidelines, the goal (core support) is based on the 40th percentile and the cutpoint for risk (strategic support) is based on the 20th percentile. At points when there was not a 20th or 40th percentile the nearest percentile above the 20th or 40th percentile was use (e.g., 23rd percentile or 44th percentile).

2. The Word Use Fluency (WUF) goals and cutpoints for risk for Kindergarten through Grade 3 are based on normative data from DIBELS Data System percentile ranks (Cummings et. al., 2011). Empirical evidence of the percent achieving subsequent literacy goals is not yet available for these estimates. Consistent with established guidelines, the goal (core support) is based on the 40th percentile and the cutpoint for risk (strategic support) is based on the 20th percentile. At points when there was not a 20th or 40th percentile the nearest percentile above the 20th or 40th percentile was use (e.g., 23rd percentile or 44th percentile).

1. The Nonsense Word Fluency – Words Recoded Completely and Correctly (NWF-WRC) goals and cutpoints for risk for Kindergarten through Grade 2 are based on normative data from DIBELS Data System percentile ranks (Cummings et. al., 2011). Empirical evidence of the percent achieving subsequent literacy goals is not yet available for these estimates. Consistent with established guidelines, the goal (core support) is based on the 40th percentile and the cutpoint for risk (strategic support) is based on the 20th percentile. At points when there was not a 20th or 40th percentile the nearest percentile above the 20th or 40th percentile was use (e.g., 23rd percentile or 44th percentile).

DIBELS 6th Edition Benchmark Goals

Appendix: About This Program The Core Knowledge Language Arts Program The Core Knowledge Language Arts Program is unlike most reading programs you are familiar with. It has been developed not by a large, forprofit publisher, but by a small, non-profit foundation. The Core Knowledge Foundation is a non-profit, non-partisan educational foundation based in Charlottesville, Virginia. The foundation’s mission is to offer all children a better chance in life and create a fairer and more literate society by educating America’s youth in a solid, specific, sequenced, and shared curriculum. This program is an attempt to realize that mission. Specifically, the program aims to combine excellent decoding instruction with frequent reading-aloud in order to ensure that students can translate letters into words and make sense of the words they are decoding.

About Core Knowledge

E. D. Hirsch, Jr.

Core Knowledge was founded in the late 1980s by E. D. Hirsch, Jr., a professor at the University of Virginia. In the 1980s Hirsch’s research focused on what makes one piece of writing easier to read than another. As part of this research, he created two versions of the same passage for college students to read. One version was considered well written because it followed principles of clarity and style laid out in style books like Strunk and White’s Elements of Style. The other version did not follow those principles and therefore was considered poorly written. Hirsch then asked a large number of college students to read the passages. He recorded how long it took them to read the passages and how well they were able to answer comprehension questions on the passages. He wanted to see if the well-written passages would be read more rapidly and understood more fully than the poorly written ones. He found that they were, but he also found another factor that was even more important for comprehension than the clarity of the writing. He found that readers who possessed a wide base of background knowledge were able to make sense of a wide range of passages, whereas students who lacked this knowledge were not. Hirsch did his tests at the University of Virginia and a nearby community college. He found that the students at the community college could decode well enough and could read and understand passages on everyday topics like roommates and manners, but many of the community college students struggled when the passages treated historical and scientific subjects. One passage on the Civil War generals Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee was especially difficult for many of them. It turned out that many of the community college students tested knew little about the Civil War. They did not know who Grant and Lee were, and, as a result, they struggled to make sense of the passage, even though they could decode the words Grant and Lee well enough. Hirsch realized that these students were struggling to make sense of the passages, even though their decoding skills were good. It was obvious, then, that reading comprehension required something more than just basic decoding skills. Unit 1 | Appendix | 71

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Appendix-292

Hirsch wrote about his discoveries in a 1987 bestseller, Cultural Literacy. He argued that full literacy requires not just decoding skills but also knowledge of words, concepts, persons, places, and ideas that writers tend to take for granted and not explain. Schools must take the responsibility of imparting this body of knowledge, which Hirsch called “cultural literacy.” Hirsch went on to found the Cultural Literacy Foundation in order to promote the teaching of cultural literacy in American elementary schools. The foundation later changed its name to the Core Knowledge Foundation (CKF), but its mission has never changed. CKF publishes curriculum materials for Pre-K through grade 8, provides teacher training, and hosts an annual conference for educators teaching in Core Knowledge schools across the country.

Cultural Literacy

The Core Knowledge Language Arts Program is an attempt to build an early reading program based on the work of E. D. Hirsch, and to combine those insights with fifty years of reading research, as summarized in the report of the National Reading Panel.

The Simple View of Reading Hirsch’s insight about the necessity of background knowledge has been confirmed in many experiments. Virtually everyone who writes about reading now recognizes that reading comprehension requires more than just decoding ability. Many reading researchers now subscribe to a view of reading that is known as “the simple view of reading.” This view, which is associated with reading researchers Philip Gough and William Tunmer, holds that there are two chief elements that are crucially important to reading comprehension: decoding skills and language comprehension ability. To achieve reading comprehension, a person needs to be able to decode the words on the page and then make sense of those words. The first task is made possible by decoding skills and the second by language comprehension ability. If the person cannot decode the words on the page, she will not be able to achieve reading comprehension, no matter how much oral language she can understand. But even if the person can decode the words on the page, that in and of itself is still no guarantee of reading comprehension (as Hirsch discovered in his experiments). If the sentences the person is attempting to read are sentences she could not understand if they were read aloud to her, then there is not much hope that she will understand them during independent reading either. Supporters of the simple view—and there are a growing number of them among reading researchers—argue that a person’s reading comprehension ability can be predicted, with a high degree of accuracy, based on two basic measures. The first is a measure of decoding skills, e.g., a test of singleword reading or pseudoword reading. The second is a measure of listening comprehension. Researchers who hold to the simple view say, “Tell me a person’s decoding ability, as ascertained by a word-reading task, and tell me that person’s language comprehension ability, as ascertained by a listening comprehension task, and I can make a very accurate prediction of that person’s reading comprehension ability.” If the person is a rapid and accurate 72 | Unit 1 | Appendix

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Appendix-293

decoder and also able to understand a wide range of oral language—for instance, classroom presentations, news items on the radio or T.V., books on tape, etc.—then it is a safe bet the person will also do well on tests of reading comprehension. An interesting thing about the simple view of reading is that it can be expressed as an equation:

R=DxC In this equation, each of the letters is a variable that stands for a specific skill: R is a measure of reading comprehension ability. D is a measure of decoding skills. C is a measure of language comprehension ability as measured using a listening task. Each of these skills can be quantified as a numerical value between 0 and 1, where zero stands for no ability whatsoever and 1 stands for perfect, notto-be improved upon ability. Obviously most people have a skill level that falls somewhere between these two extremes. The equation says that if you have some decoding ability (D > 0) and you also have some language comprehension ability (C > 0), you will probably also have some reading comprehension ability (R > 0). How much reading comprehension ability you have will depend on the exact values of D and C. What does it mean to have no decoding ability (D = 0)? It means you cannot turn printed words back into spoken words. A person who cannot decode letters on a page cannot read. The person is illiterate. What does it mean to have no language comprehension ability (C = 0)? Basically, it means you do not know the language. You cannot understand any of it when you hear other people speaking or reading aloud in the language.

John Milton

It is not very common for a person to have decoding ability (D > 0) but not language comprehension ability (C = 0). Why would you learn to read and write a language you cannot understand? But it does happen. One famous example involves the English poet John Milton, the author of Paradise Lost and other well-known poems. Milton went blind late in life. Since Braille had not yet been invented, this meant he could not read for himself. Nevertheless, Milton found a way to keep learning from books: he had friends and relatives read the books aloud for him. However, he was not always able to find a scholar who had the free time and the ability needed to read to him in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and other ancient languages. The solution? Milton taught his daughters to decode these languages so they could read books in those languages aloud to him. But Milton did not teach his daughters the actual languages—the thousands of words and tens of thousands of meanings. That would have been a difficult, time-consuming task. He only taught them the rules they would need to turn letters into sounds. Thus, his daughters acquired solid decoding skills for these languages (D > 0), but they would have scored a zero on any measure Unit 1 | Appendix | 73

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of language comprehension (C = 0). They could turn symbols into sounds, but they had no idea what the sounds meant. Milton, on the other hand, on account of his blindness, had no functional decoding skills (D = 0). However, by virtue of his great learning, he was able to understand Hebrew, Latin, and Greek when they were read aloud to him (C > 0). Between Milton and his daughters, you might say, there was reading comprehension (R), but the younger generation brought the decoding skills (D) and the elderly poet brought the language comprehension (C). The Milton example is an unusual one, but it is possible to give a less unusual one. A decent teacher can teach you to decode Russian letters (or the letters used in many other writing systems) in the course of a couple days of intensive work. Since you already know a lot about reading, all you would need to learn is which sound values the unfamiliar letters stand for. Once you learned that, you would be able to sound out most of the words in the language, but nobody would claim that you are reading Russian. You would have some rudimentary decoding skills (D > 0), but you would be lacking language comprehension (C = 0). You would be able to pronounce words, but you would not be able to make sense of them. Essentially, you would be doing what Milton’s daughters did.

How These Ideas Inform This Program Although this may seem very abstract and theoretical, there are two ideas here that are very important for reading instruction and for understanding this program. The first important idea is that reading comprehension depends crucially on both decoding skills (D) and language comprehension ability (C); the second is that language comprehension ability takes a lot longer to build up than decoding skills. Milton chose to teach his daughters decoding skills because he could teach those relatively quickly. It would have taken him much, much longer to build up their language comprehension abilities. Likewise, in the hypothetical example just given, a decent teacher could teach you to decode Russian print in a few days of intensive instruction, but he or she would need to keep working with you for many weeks—possibly even many years—to teach you enough Russian words and phrases to understand a movie, make sense of a radio report, or read a short story. You are facing a similar situation as a teacher in the early grades. You want your students to learn to read. A crucial first step is to teach them decoding skills. Strong decoding skills can be taught to most young children over the course of grades K–2. It takes longer to teach decoding skills to young children who are learning to read for the first time than it does to teach the same skills to adults who have already learned to read in another language, and it takes longer to teach decoding skills in English-speaking countries because English spelling is rather complex; but even so, most students can acquire basic decoding ability in the early grades. The children will continue to automatize their decoding skills, learn new spelling patterns, and build fluency for many more years, but the basics can be taught in grades K–2. 74 | Unit 1 | Appendix

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That is not the case with language comprehension ability. It is going to take you and your school system a long time to build up your students’ language comprehension ability because this is not a job you can accomplish in the course of a single school year. Rather, language comprehension ability is acquired over many years. Your students began to develop a rudimentary ability to understand language even before they could speak and continued to increase their language comprehension abilities throughout the preschool years. They will make even more gains in your classroom and the classrooms they join after yours. With each new sentence they read or hear, and each new subject they study in school, they will be building up background knowledge, vocabulary, and cultural literacy, and thus increasing the range of materials they are equipped to understand, first orally and later via reading. The more you teach them and the more you expose them to, the more they will be able to understand. It takes a long time to build up the vocabulary and knowledge needed to make sense of most stories in a newspaper or magazine, but this build up is crucial for your students’ reading abilities: for no matter how good their decoding skills may be, they will not understand what they read unless they have the language comprehension ability to make sense of the words they decode. The Core Knowledge Language Arts Program includes two strands of instruction, and these strands correspond with the elements of reading isolated in the simple view of reading. The Skills Strand is meant to build students’ decoding skills (D), while the Listening and Learning Strand is meant to build students’ language comprehension ability (C) by exposing them to vocabulary, concepts, and ideas through frequent reading aloud. It is important that you understand that both strands are crucial for reading comprehension in later grades. You may feel that the decoding skills taught in the Skills Strand are more important to teach in the early grades, and certainly this is the area where you can expect to have the most immediate impact, but it is important that you not neglect language comprehension ability. Remember that it takes many years to build up enough vocabulary and general knowledge to understand a wide range of printed materials. The building of background knowledge needs to begin in Kindergarten (if not before) and continue throughout the elementary and middle school years. If students are not building their language comprehension ability in the early grades, their reading scores are likely to begin to begin to fall off in grades 4 and later. This has been called the “fourth-grade slump,” and it occurs because what is tested on reading tests changes over time. As students progress through the grades, test questions focus less on rudimentary decoding skills and more on comprehension—and comprehension depends on having sufficient vocabulary, background knowledge, and cultural literacy to understand the words you are decoding. Thus, the importance of language comprehension ability increases with time. A weakness in this area may not show up on tests in the early grades, but it will show up in the later elementary grades.

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This has been well documented in the research. In one very interesting study, researchers at the University of Kansas looked at measurements of reading comprehension (R), decoding/word recognition (D), and listening comprehension (C) for the same 570 students in second, fourth, and eighth grade. They found that the two factors D and C accurately predicted R in each grade, but they found that C became more important, in the sense that it explained more of the variation among students over time. The measure of decoding (D) was extremely important in the second-grade results. 27 percent of the variance in reading comprehension in second grade could be explained by decoding skills (D) alone. Only 9 percent of the variance could be explained by listening comprehension (C) alone. By fourth grade, however, the measure of listening comprehension had begun to account for more variance: the unique contribution of C rose to 21 percent while the equivalent number for D fell. By eighth grade, fully 36 percent of the variance in reading comprehension scores could be explained with reference to the children’s listening comprehension ability. The unique contribution of D sank even further. In other words, while reading comprehension depended on D and C at every stage, as the simple view would predict, C explained more and more of the variation among students as time went by. What this tells us is that, once the intricacies of decoding are mastered (and in English this takes some time), reading comprehension depends more and more heavily on language comprehension. And language comprehension depends on background knowledge, vocabulary, and cultural literacy. If you understand Hirsch’s insight into the importance of background knowledge, and you understand the simple view of reading, you can understand why this program has two strands of instruction, and why both strands are very important. The next several sections of this appendix will tell you about the Skills Strand of CKLA.

Two Misconceptions About Reading and Writing The Skills Strand of CKLA teaches the mechanics of both reading and writing. It is based on the most current research on reading and writing, but at the same time it has been written in opposition to some ideas that have been very influential in elementary education in recent decades. Two of those ideas are: • Learning to read and write is natural. • Learning to read and write is easy. Both of these ideas have great emotional appeal. Unfortunately, both of them are wrong.

Learning to Read and Write Is Not Natural Many scholars have argued that spoken language is natural for human beings. The cognitive scientist Stephen Pinker, for example, has argued that human beings have a language instinct, meaning that humans are born with an innate capacity for learning language. This may turn out to be true. It is at 76 | Unit 1 | Appendix

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least a plausible theory since historians, linguists, and anthropologists have never found a human culture that does not use language. When something is universal, it may turn out to be natural. But what is true of oral language is not necessarily true of written language. In fact, with written language we know that we are dealing with something that is not natural or innate because we know when and where writing was invented, and we know that, even today, not all languages have a system of writing. There are still hundreds of languages in the world that are spoken, but not written or read. Ten thousand years ago this was the norm, rather than an exception. At that time, there were probably no human beings who knew how to read or write. According to the linguist Florian Coulmas, the idea of writing down language was probably developed independently by three ancient cultures: the Egyptians, the Phoenicians, and the Chinese. Each used a slightly different system, and the mechanisms these pioneers developed for recording speech then spread from one culture to another, evolving as they went. If these initial inventors had not come up with schemes for writing down speech, we might all be illiterate today. Writing is many things. It is an art that can be taught and learned. It is an invention—one of the greatest inventions in human history. It is a technology that enables us to do things we could not do without it—a technology every bit as exciting and amazing as airplane flight or electric power. But it is not natural. The same is true of reading, which is simply the process of unpacking, or decoding, what somebody else has written. Reading and writing are both highly artificial. We tend to recoil at that word. We have internalized the idea that natural is good and artificial is bad. Therefore, we think, reading must be natural. In fact, as the reading researcher Philip Gough has written, reading is a highly unnatural act. The first step toward good reading and writing instruction is to understand that reading and writing are artificial—but not necessarily in a bad sense. We need to remind ourselves that the word artificial derives from the word art. To say that reading and writing are forms of art that had to be invented and that need to be taught to children does not make reading and writing any less wonderful or important. On the contrary, it makes these things more wonderful and precious, and it also emphasizes the importance of your job as a teacher. There is no job more important than teaching young children the magnificent, valuable, and highly unnatural arts of reading and writing.

Learning to Read and Write Is Not Easy The second idea noted above, that learning to read and write is easy, is also mistaken. Reading and writing are complex behaviors, and they are more complex in English than in many other languages because English has a fairly complicated spelling system. In Spanish, for example, the relationships between letters and sounds are mostly one to one, meaning each sound is usually written with one spelling, and each spelling unit is usually pronounced Unit 1 | Appendix | 77

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one way. This is not the case in English. In order to read and write English with a high degree of accuracy, there is quite a lot that the student needs to learn. As a way of demonstrating the complexity involved in learning to read and write in English, suppose we attempted to list all of the discrete bits of information a person needs to know in order to be able to read and write in English. As a starting point, we might begin with the 26 letters and argue that these are the 26 things one really needs to learn to read and write English. However, for each letter, one eventually needs to learn not only the letter shape but also the letter name (in order to be able to read abbreviations and initials). So that is 52 bits of information. That is a good start, but we must not stop there. In English all letters can be written in uppercase and lowercase forms, and the uppercase forms are not always the same as the lowercase forms. Compare B to b, D to d, H to h, R to r, Q to q. At least 16 uppercase letters have a slightly different form than the matching lowercase letters. So we must raise our estimate of the complexity of the English writing system to 68 bits of information. We are not done yet. Students must also know the 44 sounds these letters stand for. That raises our estimate of the complexity to 112. If there were a simple one-to-one relationship between letters and sounds, that might be a fairly good estimate of the complexity of the code. Unfortunately, the relationships between sounds and letters in English are quite complicated. The 44 sounds of English can be spelled many different ways. In our work on this program we have identified 150 spellings that are frequent enough to be worth teaching in the early grades. That boosts our estimate of the complexity of the code to 262. In addition, students need to learn to track from left to right, to blend sounds into words (when reading), and segment words into sounds (when writing and spelling). They need to learn a handful of symbols used in writing, including the period, comma, exclamation point, question mark, quotation mark, and apostrophe. That raises our estimate of code complexity to about 270 bits of information. We could boost the estimate even higher by adding tricky words and unusual spellings or by pointing out that there are many letters in English that can be pronounced different ways. We could also point out that reading a word like thin requires the students to group the first two letters and attach them to one sound, and that reading a word like cake requires students to scan ahead, see the ‘e’, and realize that it controls the pronunciation of the ‘a’ earlier. But even without these additions it is clear that the English writing system is quite complicated.

The Problem with Whole Language On a conservative estimate, there are 270 bits of knowledge a person needs to be able to read and write English. It is unwise to ask students to tackle all of this complexity at once and hope that they will figure it out. Yet that is precisely 78 | Unit 1 | Appendix

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what is done in so-called “Whole Language” approaches. Whole Language instruction is based on the assumption that learning to read is natural, and not difficult, so reading skills can be allowed to develop gradually, without much explicit instruction. Lots of students in Whole Language classrooms do manage to figure out the English writing system, but many others do not. Whole Language ideas have tremendous emotional appeal, but the Whole Language approach is actually a recipe for leaving many children behind. It is an especially risky strategy for disadvantaged children, e.g., children from lowSES homes. A much better strategy is to introduce the English spelling code explicitly, beginning with the easiest, least ambiguous, and most frequently used parts of the code and then adding complexity gradually. That is the central strategy on which this program is based. The strategy adopted in this program is the same strategy that successful coaches use when teaching children a sport such as tennis. The successful coach does not ask students to learn “Whole Tennis” and soak up the necessary skills all at once by trying to hit all different kinds of shots the first day on the court. Instead, the successful coach teaches the student to hit a forehand ground stroke and provides lots of practice hitting forehands. Then the coach moves on to teach a backhand ground stroke, then a forehand volley, then a backhand volley, then a serve, then an overhead smash, then a drop shot, etc. With each element taught, the student becomes a stronger and more complete player. In the same way, this program begins by teaching the most common and least ambiguous spellings for sounds and then moves on to introduce the more complex parts of the writing system.

Key Aspects of the Skills Strand Some key aspects of the Skills Strand of CKLA are listed below. • CKLA teaches reading and writing in tandem, since they are inverse processes. English writing involves making pictures of sounds; reading involves translating those pictures back into sounds and blending the sounds to make words. • CKLA rejects the Whole Language notion that exposure to rich language and lots of environmental print is sufficient to ensure mastery of the writing system. • CKLA explicitly teaches letter-sound correspondences as opposed to leaving students to figure these out on their own or deduce them by analyzing familiar whole words (as in some kinds of “analytic” phonics). • CKLA focuses on sounds, or phonemes, as the primary organizing principle of the program, rather than letters. • CKLA includes phonics instruction, but the instruction differs from the sort of phonics usually taught in the United States in that it begins with sounds and then attaches those sounds to spellings. In a typical phonics lesson in the U.S., the teacher writes the letter ‘m’ on the board and says, “This is the letter ‘em’. It says /m/.” As a teacher using this program, you will be asked to present your lessons in a different way. You will be asked to begin with the sound. At Unit 1 | Appendix | 79

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the beginning of the lesson you will tell the class: “Today’s sound is /m/.” You will then lead the class in some fun oral language exercises that will allow the students to say and hear the sound /m/. Once the students are familiar with the sound, you will show them how to draw a “picture of the sound.” You will write the letter ‘m’ on the board and explain that this is how we make a picture of the /m/ sound. • CKLA focuses consistently on the phoneme, or single sound, and not on larger units; students learn to read words that contain onsets, rimes, and consonant clusters, but they learn to view and process these larger units as combinations of smaller phoneme-level units. Rimes like –ick and initial clusters like st– are not taught as units but as combinations. • CKLA uses a synthetic phonics approach that teaches students to read by blending all through the word; it does not teach multiple cueing strategies, use of pictures as a primary resource in decoding, or part-word guessing. • CKLA begins by teaching the most common or least ambiguous spelling for a sound (the basic code spelling); later it teaches spelling alternatives for those sounds that can be spelled several different ways. Thus, the system is kept simple at first and complexity is added bit by bit as the students gain confidence and automatize their reading and writing skills. • CKLA includes words, phrases, and stories for students to read and worksheets for them to complete that allow for focused, distributed practice working with the letter-sound correspondences the students have been taught. • CKLA does not require students to read words that go beyond the letter-sound correspondences they have been taught. In other words, all words students are asked to read as part of the program are decodable, either because they are composed entirely of letter-sound correspondences students have been taught or because they are tricky words that have been taught. This means students have a chance to begin reading words and stories that are completely regular before tackling words and stories that are full of spelling alternatives. • CKLA does not require students to write words that go beyond the lettersound correspondences they have been taught. In other words, students are only asked to write words that can be spelled (at least plausibly if not always correctly) using the code knowledge they have been taught so far. • CKLA avoids tricky words and exception words in the first part of kindergarten, preferring to have students learn to read and write with regular words that can be blended and spelled in accordance with the letter-sound correspondences taught. • CKLA avoids letter names in the early lessons of kindergarten, because what is important for reading is not the letter names but the sound values the letters stand for. To read the word cat, it is essential to know /k/ /a/ /t/, not “see aay tee.” • CKLA teaches lowercase letters first and introduces the uppercase letters later.

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Components The components for the Skills Strand for kindergarten are as follows: Teacher Guides • The teacher guides outline the lessons. There is one teacher guide for each unit. Workbooks

Kindergarten Teacher Guide

• These ten books contain worksheets for students to complete as part of the lessons. There is one workbook for each unit. The worksheets are numbered consecutively so as to coincide with page numbers. The first worksheet is 1, the next is 3, then 5, and so on. When it is possible to include 100% decodable instructions, they are printed on the top of the worksheet. When it is not possible to do this, parent/teacher instructions are printed vertically along the left side. For take-home worksheets, the first item on each worksheet exercise has generally been done for the students, as a model. Each student should have a workbook. Readers

Kindergarten Workbook

• These readers contain 100% decodable texts for students to read in Units 6–10. There is a reader for each of the units listed, and new spellings taught in the unit are printed in bold throughout the reader to help students master new material. The last few stories in each reader are stories for the pausing point, which can be either assigned or skipped depending on the needs of the students in the class. Ideally, each student should have his or her own reader. Students can be allowed to take the books home for additional reading practice when the unit is completed. Big Books

Kindergarten, Unit 6 Reader

• These big books are exact replicas of the readers, but larger. They can be used for “demonstration stories” where you model reading for the students. In kindergarten the stories for Units 4 and 5 are available only in big books. The stories for Units 6, 7, and 8 are available as both readers and big books. Media Disks • The media disks allow you to present a Skills story as a demonstration story, using a computer and a projector or a smartboard, instead of the big book. Using projection allows for much larger images and print size, but it requires some equipment. If you wish to use the media disk, you will need a computer with either a 19 inches on the diagonal or larger monitor, a projector system, or a smartboard. You can use either the big book or the media disk to present a demonstration story. Only a few readers will be made available as big books; all of the readers will be available on the media disks. In other words, if you want to present a story as a demonstration story, and there is no big book for your unit, you will need to use a computer projection system, or else copy the story onto transparencies for display with an overhead projector.

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Pocket Chart • We expect that you have or can obtain a pocket chart for use in chaining exercises. We ask that you make letter cards out of index cards and use the cards to build words on the chart. Large Cards • This set of cards is used for teaching and reviewing sounds and spellings, especially during the Large Card Chaining exercise. The cards are used throughout grade K. Pocket Chart

Mirrors • Handheld mirrors allow students to see what the mouth does when it says a sound. Sound Posters • The sound posters allow you to display code knowledge on the walls of your classroom as it is taught. When a sound is taught for the first time, the TG will prompt you to mount the poster for that sound on the wall of the classroom, along with the spelling card representing the basic code spelling, e.g., the ‘m’ spelling for /m/. The TG will also prompt you to post the spelling cards for spelling alternatives when they are taught. We suggest that you post the vowel posters on one wall and the consonant posters on another to emphasize the differences between these two categories of sounds. The sound posters will be very useful for students as they begin to spell words on their own. If they are not sure how to spell the /k/ sound, they can look up at the posters, find /k/ and see that four possibilities are ‘c’ as in cat, ‘k’ as in kid, ‘cc’ as in soccer, and ‘ck’ as in clock.

Large Cards

Sound Poster with spelling card affixed

Chaining Folders • Students use these folders to practice building words with small cards. The folders are used whenever the teacher guide calls for the Student Chaining or the Chain and Copy exercises. During Student Chaining you call out words and the students arrange letter cards on their chaining folders to spell the words. Each student should have his or her own folder. The folder has pockets where the small cards can be stored between lessons. Small Cards • These cards are to be used in tandem with the chaining folders just described. We suggest you keep the cards in envelopes or in an organizer or caddy. As new sounds and spellings are introduced, you can either pass out small cards for the students to use during Student Chaining exercises, or change the cards before the lessons. Students will store their cards in the pockets of their chaining folders between lessons.

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Students using chaining folders

Lesson Structure The lessons in the program are laid out in the Teacher Guides. There are 150 lessons in each grade. Each lesson begins with an Objectives header. This specifies the sounds, spellings, tricky words, and/or concepts that the students are expected to learn during the lesson. The focus here is generally on new letter-sound correspondences and new tricky words taught. The At a Glance Chart gives an overview of the lesson. This chart lists the name of each exercise in the lesson along with the materials needed to teach that exercise and the suggested time allotted to each exercise. The remainder of the lesson plan is devoted to a detailed description of the procedures for each of the exercises listed in the At a Glance Chart. Those exercises that represent good opportunities for assessment are marked with a tens icon. For more on the Tens system of assessment, see the section below.

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Tens Scores In order to identify struggling students and keep track of the class’s progress, we recommend that you use the Tens system of assessment. Here is how the Tens system of assessment works. Raw scores are converted to numbers between 0 and 10 using the Tens Conversion Chart (printed at the end of this appendix). To use the chart to determine a student’s Tens score, first locate the number of answers that the student got right (along the top of the chart) and then locate the number of “test items” (along the left side of the chart). Next, find the square where the column with the correct number of answers and the row with the number of items meet. This square contains the student’s Tens score. By using the Tens Conversion Chart, you can easily convert any raw score, from 0 to 30, into a Tens score. You may wish to record the students’ Tens scores on the Tens Recording Chart (printed at the end of this appendix). To do this, list the students’ names in the first row and the various exercises in the first column. Record a student’s Ten score for a particular exercise in the square where the column with the student’s name and the row with the exercise meet. Once you have recorded a number of Tens scores, it will be very easy to get a sense of who is doing well. This is because all of the scores are comparable. By simply running your eye down a student’s scores, you can form a reliable estimate as to how the student is doing. We hope that you will calculate Tens scores for your students each time that you encounter an exercise that is marked with a Tens icon. Note that many exercises that are not marked with a Tens icon are also suitable for calculating Tens scores. Please feel free to calculate as many Tens scores as you see fit. If a student appears to be doing poorly, your first course of action should be to provide the student with more support, either during the regular period of instruction or during a tutoring session. Often this will be enough to get the student back on track. If a student continues to post low Tens scores for a prolonged period of time, despite tutoring, that student may need pullout instruction, preferably using a tutorial program with a sound-to-symbol orientation. Contact the Core Knowledge Foundation for recommendations.

Time Management You should use the time allotments listed in the At a Glance Chart (and listed throughout the lesson) to guide you as you work your way through the lesson. For example, in Lesson 8, you should try to spend about 10 minutes on the “Teacher-Student Echo” exercise. You may find that 10 minutes is enough time to run through all of the sentences listed in the lesson plan, or you may find that you can only get through half of them.

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If you are forced to choose, it is better to leave out a few items in each exercise than it is to teach one exercise in full and omit other exercises. In other words, your primary goal should be to teach all of the exercises in the lesson rather than to teach every item in every exercise.

To Learn More To learn more about the program, visit the website: www.coreknowledge.org/reading To learn more about sounds, spellings, and the general approach to reading instruction used here, we highly recommend that you read and study Diane McGuinness, Why Our Children Can’t Read.

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General Overview: Listening and Learning About the Listening and Learning Strand The Core Knowledge Language Arts Listening and Learning Strand is designed to help students build the background knowledge and vocabulary critical to listening and reading comprehension. The decoding skills needed for future independent reading are taught separately in the Core Knowledge Language Arts Skills Strand. The two strands complement each other, building the requisite decoding and comprehension skills that comprise fluent, mature reading. The teaching of the two strands, however, need not be correlated, i.e., teachers may provide instruction and practice in a given unit of the Skills Strand as needed, while moving on to new topics and anthologies in the Listening and Learning Strand. The Tell-It Again! Read-Aloud Anthology books are the central component of the Listening and Learning Strand. Each anthology contains the read-alouds you will share with your students, as well as guidelines for introductions and discussions. Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 each have twelve anthologies which cover specific fiction or nonfiction topics. These topics are centered around domains of knowledge that are based on the Core Knowledge Sequence. A suggested order of instruction is provided for the twelve anthologies at each grade level. There are two factors that helped to influence this sequencing of domains from one grade level to the next and also within a particular grade level: 1.

We considered prerequisite knowledge that would be helpful for students to know prior to a specific domain. For example, it makes sense for students to learn about kings and queens prior to learning about Columbus and the Pilgrims within Kindergarten. It also makes sense for students to learn about the five senses in Kindergarten prior to being introduced to human body systems in Grade 1. It makes sense to learn about the ancient Greek civilization prior to hearing Greek

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myths within Grade 2. It also makes sense to learn about Columbus and the Pilgrims in Kindergarten before learning about the birth of our nation in Grade 1 and then the U. S. Civil War in Grade 2. 2.

We considered the increasing maturity of students as the year progresses, and accordingly placed less intensive domains earlier in the year at each grade level. While we strongly recommend that the anthologies be introduced in the order of the Core Knowledge Language Arts Listening and Learning Recommended Sequence of Domains, you may sequence the presentation of topics to suit your purposes and the needs of your class.

Each anthology should be used with these supplementary components: • Tell It Again! Media Disk or the Tell It Again! Flip Book (for some domains only) • Tell It Again! Image Cards • Tell It Again! Workbook • Tell It Again! Posters (for some domains only) • Tell It Again! Music Disc (for some domains only) • Trade books used as read-alouds (for some domains only) The twelve anthologies and supplementary materials for Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 will provide you and your students with a whole year of listening and learning experiences.

What Students Have Already Learned in Core Knowledge Language Arts Students who participate in the Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 Listening and Learning Strand of the Core Knowledge Language Arts program will build general oral and written language skills, in addition to the background knowledge and vocabulary critical to listening and reading comprehension in later years. In the introduction of each domain after Kindergarten, the content objectives from prior grades that are particularly relevant to the

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new material are listed. This background knowledge will greatly enhance your students’ understanding of the read-alouds they are about to enjoy. Teachers can use this listing of prior knowledge taught to anchor new content for students who have been in the Core Knowledge Language Arts program in prior years. Teachers can also use this listing as a means for informal pre-assessment to aid students who may not have been in the Core Knowledge Language Arts program previously and who lack the background knowledge needed for the new domain of knowledge.

Instructional Objectives The Tell It Again! Read-Aloud Anthologies address both Core Content Objectives and Language Arts Objectives. The Core Content Objectives and Language Arts Objectives covered in each domain are listed in the introduction to the domain.

Core Content Objectives The Core Content Objectives are unique to the Core Knowledge Language Arts program. These objectives explicitly identify the background knowledge or “cultural literacy” students will learn in the course of listening to the read-alouds and participating in the related exercises throughout the anthology.

Language Arts Objectives The Language Arts Objectives identify more general language goals—analogous to those that may be included in your state standards—including goals for both oral and written language. These kinds of objectives are most effectively targeted when they are anchored to the content in the context of a domain of knowledge. One of the most significant differences between the language arts objectives targeted in Kindergarten and Grade 1 and those targeted in Grade 2 is the increasing emphasis in Grade 2 on developing writing skills within the context of the Listening and Learning activities. In Kindergarten, nearly all the language arts goals require only an oral language response from students. You will notice that, in Grades 1 and 2, students are typically asked to respond “either orally or in writing.” Make no mistake—the development of oral language skills in Grade 2 is still critically

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important. In fact, existing oral language competency serves as the underpinning for students’ written-language competency in the future. It is worth mentioning that the responsibility for explicitly teaching students how to write falls within the Skills Strand lessons. The Skills Strand lessons include handwriting, spelling, the use of capital letters and end punctuation, as well as the actual process of writing (such as organizing one’s thoughts into complete and coherent sentences). For this reason, you will not find specific writing skills objectives in the Listening and Learning Language Arts Objectives, nor are there strategies for explicitly teaching writing skills in the Listening and Learning lessons. As you complete Listening and Learning lessons and activities that involve writing, you should, however, always be aware of and reinforce those writing skills that your students have already learned in the Skills Strand. For example, if you notice spelling errors related to the basic code or advanced code spellings that students have already been taught in the Skills Strand, it is certainly appropriate to encourage students to proofread their work and make use of the specific code knowledge they have already learned (referring, for example, to the Phoneme Posters that are posted in your classroom). If students have already learned about the use of periods, question marks, and exclamation marks in the Skills Strand, it is likewise appropriate to encourage students to proofread their work to ensure they have used appropriate end punctuation.

Core Vocabulary One of the primary goals of the Listening and Learning Strand is to expose students to rich, content-related vocabulary. The read-alouds and associated instructional materials within a given domain have been crafted to provide repeated listening experiences with selected vocabulary words. By reading a fiction or nonfiction selection out loud, you allow students to experience written language without the burden of decoding, granting them access to content they might not be able to read and understand by themselves. They are then freer to focus their mental energy on the words and ideas presented in the text, and can eventually be better prepared to tackle rich, printed content on their own.

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Through repeated exposure to words in each domain, students will gain a greater understanding of many different words. This implicit learning of vocabulary words will occur as students listen to and participate in read-alouds and instructional exercises throughout the entire domain; this is the most efficient and effective way to build a broad, rich vocabulary base. In addition, three to five vocabulary words are selected per lesson and highlighted in a more explicit way. These Core Vocabulary words are bolded and explained within the context of the readaloud. One Core Vocabulary word per lesson has also been selected for closer study. The Core Vocabulary covered in each domain is listed at the beginning of the specific Tell It Again! Read-Aloud Anthology in the introduction to the domain. When a trade book is used as the readaloud, the page references for where the words appear are included.

Lesson Structure Lesson Overview Each lesson is introduced by an overview that summarizes the instructional objectives and key vocabulary addressed in the lesson. An “At-a-Glance” chart summarizes the specific exercises included in the lesson and the length of time required for each. Materials needed other than the Tell It Again! Read-Aloud Anthology and Flip Book or Media Disk are also listed in the chart.

Length of Lesson The Tell It Again! Read-Aloud Anthology for each domain contains several daily lessons. Each lesson is composed of two distinct parts, so that the lesson may be divided into smaller chunks of time and presented at different intervals during the day. In Kindergarten, each entire lesson will require a total of fifty minutes; in Grades 1 and 2, each entire lesson will require a total of sixty minutes. In each lesson, a single read-aloud is the focus of the entire lesson. During the first part of the lesson (part A), designed to be taught in thirty-five minutes for Kindergarten and forty minutes for Grades 1 and 2, students will listen to and briefly

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discuss the read-aloud. During the second part of the lesson (part B), designed to be presented at another time during the day for fifteen minutes in Kindergarten and twenty minutes in Grades 1 and 2, students will extend their understanding of the read-aloud.

Pausing Points Pausing Points are included within each domain where it makes sense to pause and spend one to two days reviewing, reinforcing, or extending the material taught thus far. A teacher may have students do any combination of the suggested activities and in any order. Activities may be done with the whole class or with a small group of students who would benefit from the particular activity. Both the decision to pause and the length of the pause are optional and should be determined by each individual teacher based on the particular class’s performance.

Lesson Components Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes) The “Introducing the Read-Aloud” section of each lesson includes the material you need to provide students with a framework for listening and understanding the read-aloud they are about to hear. For each read-aloud, one or more specific exercises is described that may guide you in introducing background information, presenting vocabulary, or asking students what they already know about a topic. Sometimes, content taught in earlier read-alouds may be reviewed in this part of the lesson. Often, students are asked to make a personal connection to something in the readaloud they are about to hear. Every “Introducing the Read-Aloud” section concludes with establishing a specific purpose for listening to the read-aloud that is directly linked to one or more of the objectives for the lesson.

Presenting the Read-Aloud (10 or 15 minutes) In the “Presenting the Read-Aloud” section, the actual text of the read-aloud is given (with the exception of those lessons which use a trade book for the read-aloud itself). The expectation is that you will read this aloud to students, following the printed text word for word. viii Listening and Learning | General Overview

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We have also included several different prompts to assist you in making the read-aloud more effective: • Thumbnail Illustrations placed in the margin adjacent to the read-aloud text provide you with guidance as to when to show the associated Flip Book or Media Disk image as you read aloud. • Guided Listening Supports are included in the margin. These prompts signal that you should pause in reading the actual text of the read-aloud to provide quick clarification or ask questions, as indicated, to ensure that students understand critical details and information as the read-aloud is presented. These interruptions to the read-aloud are intended to be very rapid so as not to interfere with the flow of the read-aloud and the students’ overall understanding. • Bolding of Core Vocabulary Words within the read-aloud text signals that these words merit a pause within the read-aloud to provide a brief explanation. You will find three to five Core Vocabulary words per read-aloud. While each read-aloud has been carefully designed to include rich vocabulary throughout, these bolded words are key to understanding a part of the read-aloud. Other challenging vocabulary beyond the Core Vocabulary may be discussed during subsequent readings of the same read-aloud, for example, during Student Choice, as explained below. In some cases, we have used an actual trade book as the readaloud instead of printing a read-aloud in the anthology. In those cases, we have included page references as well as the end of the applicable sentence from the trade book in bold as the cue for when to use the Guided Listening Support prompts. In these cases, we especially recommend that you spend a few minutes preparing prior to the presentation of the read-aloud.

Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes) Comprehension Questions (10 minutes) The “Discussing the Read-Aloud” section always begins with a series of questions designed to ensure that students understand the read-aloud. The comprehension questions are directly related to and address the objectives of each specific lesson.

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These questions tap literal understanding of the read-aloud and recall of pertinent details, as well as require students to make inferences about what they have heard. If students have difficulty responding to any of these questions, you should reread pertinent passages of the read-aloud and/or refer to specific images. The discussion of these questions is an opportunity for you to once again make use of the rich vocabulary of the read-aloud. If students give one-word responses or fail to incorporate the rich vocabulary in their own responses, you should expand the student’s response, using richer and more complex vocabulary. It is highly recommended that you encourage students to answer in complete sentences by asking them to restate the question in their responses. In Kindergarten, the last question in each “Discussing the ReadAloud” section is a Think Pair Share. With Think Pair Share, you will ask a question and then instruct students to think about and discuss their answer with a partner. In Grades 1 and 2, the last question in each “Discussing the Read-Aloud” section uses either a Think Pair Share strategy or a Question Pair Share strategy. With Question Pair Share, you will have students think of a who, what, where, or when question to ask their neighbor as a way of encouraging students to both formulate and answer appropriate questions. Both strategies provide an opportunity for all students to be engaged with and talking about the read-aloud. As time permits, you then will ask pairs of students to share their thoughts and questions with the entire class. Word Work (5 minutes) In the Word Work exercise, explicit, direct instruction is provided to quickly and systematically review one of the Core Vocabulary words. The procedures in this section were developed using the research and methodology described by Isabel Beck, Margaret McKeown, and Linda Kucan in their seminal work on explicit vocabulary instruction, Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction (Guilford Press, 2002).

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Extensions (15 or 20 minutes) Generally, this section of the lesson describes one or more specific exercises designed to again provide additional opportunities for teachers to use, and for students to hear and use, the rich background knowledge and language of the specific read-aloud that students have heard earlier in the day. Given the increasing focus on developing student writing skills in Grade 2, you will often find that extension activities at this grade level incorporate opportunities for writing. We have provided a tiered approach to writing by suggesting several different activities that require greater or lesser writing competency on the students’ part. You may select the specific writing activity that best matches your students’ current writing skill level and/or you may choose to select different activities within an extension for individual students as a means of differentiating instruction. Occasionally, you will note that a Student Choice activity is recommended. In this case, the students are given a chance to select a previous read-aloud for a second reading. Let the students discuss which read-aloud they would like to hear again and ask them to give reasons for their choices. Then have them vote with a show of hands. Reread the story that gets the most votes. If the vote is a tie, you may cast the deciding vote or flip a coin. Another option that may be presented in the Extensions section is a Domain-Related Trade Book activity where you will choose and read a trade book that is related to the topic of an anthology. A list of recommended titles is included in the introduction of each domain, or you may select another title of your choice. In at least one of the Extension activities of most domains, students will also be introduced to a specific Core Knowledge saying or proverb. Proverbs are short, traditional sayings that have been passed along orally from generation to generation. These sayings usually express general truths based on experiences and observations of everyday life. While some proverbs do have literal meanings—that is, they mean exactly what they say—many proverbs have a richer meaning beyond the literal level. It is important to help your students understand the difference between

Listening and Learning | General Overview

© 2010 Core Knowledge Foundation

Appendix-315

xi

the literal meanings of the words and their implied or figurative meanings. Instructional Masters and Parent Take-Home Letters Blackline Instructional Masters and Parent Take-Home Letters are included in the Tell It Again! Workbook. A reference copy and answer key (when appropriate) is included in the appendix of the anthology. The Instructional Masters are designed to provide additional practice and/or assessment opportunities. The Parent Letters are designed to keep parents abreast of what their children are learning during the Listening and Learning Strand, as well as provide suggestions for activities that parents might enjoy with their children at home that reinforce what they are learning in school. Image Cards Image Cards are another component that may be used to reinforce and/or deepen students’ understanding of the information covered in the domain. Each domain has a set of Image Cards that are used as a part of some of the lesson activities, such as introducing and reviewing the material, sorting, and sequencing. The lessons in which the Image Cards are used are listed in the introduction of each specific domain. Posters Posters are another component of some domains that may be used to reinforce and/or deepen students’ understanding of the information covered in those domains. The lessons in which the Posters are used are listed in the introduction of each specific domain. Music Disc The Music Disc is another component of some domains that may be used to reinforce and/or deepen students’ understanding of the information covered in those domains. The lessons in which the Music Disc is used are listed in the introduction of each specific domain.

xii Listening and Learning | General Overview

© 2010 Core Knowledge Foundation

Appendix-316

Assessment: The Tens The Core Knowledge Language Arts Program uses a unique system of assessment, called the Tens. In the Tens system of assessment, all scores are converted to numbers between 0 and 10. A 10 indicates excellent performance and a 0 indicates very poor performance. Tens scores are recorded on a simple grid, called a Tens Recording Chart, where the students’ names are listed in the horizontal rows and the various activities are listed in the vertical columns. (A blank Tens Recording Chart is provided as part of the program materials and may be copied as needed.)

Tens Conversion Chart

Number of Questions

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Listening and Learning | General Overview

© 2010 Core Knowledge Foundation

Appendix-317

xiii

Once a number of Tens scores have been recorded, it is very easy to get a sense of who is doing well and who is not because all of the scores are comparable. By simply running your eye along the row where a particular student’s scores are recorded, you can form a reliable estimate as to how the student is doing. If Susie’s scores are 8, 9, 10, 7, 9, 10, you can feel confident she is learning the words and concepts taught in the read-alouds. If Bobby’s scores are 2, 3, 5, 1, 3, 2, you can be pretty sure he is struggling. Assessment opportunities are marked throughout each Tell It Again! Read-Aloud Anthology with a Tens icon (Figure 1). Whenever you see this icon, it means you have an opportunity to record a Tens score. (The lessons in which the assessments are used are also listed in the introduction of each specific domain.) There are two kinds of Tens scores: observational Tens scores and data-driven Tens scores. A data-driven Tens score is based on the number of correct answers on an exercise or Instructional Master. To record this kind of Tens score, use the Tens Conversion Chart on the previous page to convert a raw score into a Tens score. This chart is also included in the introduction of each domain. Simply find the number of correct answers the student produced along the top of the chart and the number of total questions on the worksheet or activity along the left side. Then find the cell where the column and the row converge. This indicates the Tens score. By using the Tens Conversion Chart, you can easily convert any raw score, from 0 to 30, into a Tens score. Domain Assessment A domain content assessment is included at the end of each domain to evaluate students’ understanding and retention of the domain’s central concepts and vocabulary.

xiv Listening and Learning | General Overview

© 2010 Core Knowledge Foundation

Appendix-318

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• Informative Writing: Classroom Community Quilt (W.4.2, W.4.5, W.5.9, and L.43)

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• Analysis: Meg Lowman’s Research in the Rainforest (W.5.2, W.5.8, and W.5.9) • Research-based Narrative: Rainforest Field Journal Page (RI.5.7, 5.9, W.5.2, 5.3, 5.7, 5.9.)

• Analytical Essay: How Esperanza Changes over Time (RL.5.2, 5.3, W.5.9)

• Narrative: Readers Theater Script and Performance of Scenes from Esperanza Rising (W.5.3, 5.9, SL.5.6)

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RI—The Most Beautiful Roof in the World: Exploring the Rainforest Canopy, Kathryn Lasky

RL—Esperanza Rising, Pam Muñoz Ryan RI—Universal Declaration of Human Rights (excerpts)

RI—The Scoop on Clothes, Homes, and Daily Life in Colonial America, Elizabeth Raum RI—If You Lived in Colonial Times, Ann McGovern

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• Research-based Narrative: An Important Event in a Colonial Village (RI.4.9, W.4.3)

RI—The Iroquois: The Six Nations Confederacy, Mary Englar RL – The Keeping Quilt, Patricia Polacco (teacher copy only) RL—Eagle Song, Joseph Bruchac (optional)

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• Research-based Narrative: Freaky Frogs Trading Cards (W.3.2, 3.3)

• Informative Writing: Accessing Books around the World Bookmark (RI.3.2, W.3.2)

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RI—My Librarian Is a Camel: How Books Are Brought to Children around the World, Margriet Ruurs

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• Opinion Writing and Speaking: Preparing for and Responding to Natural Disasters (RI.5.7, 5.9, W.5.1, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9) • Informative Writing: What Makes a Hurricane a Natural Disaster? (W.5.2, 5.9) • Opinion Writing: Jackie Robinson’s Legacy (W.5.1, 5.9)

RL—Eight Days: A Story of Haiti, Edwidge Danticat 2

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• Opinion Writing: Letter to a Publisher— a Famous Athlete’s Impact (RI.5.9, W.5.1, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9)

RI—Promises to Keep: How Jackie Robinson Changed America, Sharon Robinson

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• Opinion Writing and Speaking: Public Service Announcement—the Importance of Voting (RI.4.9, W.4.1, SL.4.4, 4.3, 4.6, 4.5)

RL—The Hope Chest, Karen Schwabach

RI—Simple Machines: Forces in Motion, Buffy Silverman

• Opinion Writing: An Editorial on Simple Machines (RI.4.3, W.4.1, 4.7, 4.9)

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• Informative Writing: Challenges to Having Enough Clean Water for Everyone (W.3.2)

• Opinion Writing and Speaking: Public Service Announcement—the Importance of Water (W.3.1, 3.6, 3.7, SL.3.4, 3.5, 3.6, L3.3b)

RI—One Well: The Story of Water on Earth, Rochelle Strauss

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• Summary and Opinion Writing: Who Is Your Favorite Character in Peter Pan, and Why? (RL.3.3, 3.5, W.3.1, 3.2)

• Narrative: Writing a Newly Imagined Scene from Peter Pan (W.3.3)

RL—Classic Starts: Peter Pan, J.M. Barrie, retold from the original by Tania Zamorsky

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1 4M1A has been revised by NYSED. The revised version will be posted in summer 2014. The Iroquois: The Six Nation Confederacy will continue to be used as a central text. The Keeping Quilt has been added as a readaloud in Unit 3. Eagle Song will no longer be a required text for this module; it will be an optional independent read with an independent reading guide. There also will be several mini-lessons for in-class discussions if teachers choose to use this novel. 2 Based on field feedback, the novel Dark Water Rising has been removed from 5M4. Districts using 5M4 in the 2013-14 school year: teach just Units 1 and 3. For 2014-15, Unit 2 of 5M4 will be revised. Eight Days: A Story of Haiti will remain. The new unit will not require any new text purchases.

** This plan shows the two main writing tasks per module and the standards most central to each task. See Curriculum Map for the full list of standards assessed (including the writing process and language standards). * This plan shows most full-length books all students read, and a few key articles. See separate document “Trade Books and Other Resources” for a complete list of resources needed in order to implement the modules.

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Appendix-319

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• Graphic Style Novelette (RI.5.9, W.5.2, and 5.3)

• On-Demand Informational Writing: Philo Farnsworth’s Invention of the Television and How It Changed People’s Lives (RL.5.3, W.5.2, and L.5.4)

RI - The Boy Who Invented TV: The Story of Philo Farnsworth, Kathleen Krull

RL - Investigating the Scientific Method with Max Axiom, Super Scientist, Donald B. Lemke

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• Choose-Your-Own- Adventure Animal Defense Narrative (RI.4.9, W.4.2, and 4.3)

• Inspired P oem W.4.11) (

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• Writing about the Pufferfish (RI.4.9, W.4.2, 4.4, 4.7, and 4.8)

RI - Animal Behavior: Animal Defenses, Christina Wilsdon

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• Research-Based Letter to Author (W.3.2)

• Reading and Writing about a New Informational Text (RI.3.1, 3.2, 3.5, W.3.2, and 3.8)

(Additional texts for book clubs)

RI - Exploring Countries: Japan, Colleen Sexton

RL - Magic Tree House #37: Dragon of the Red Dawn, Mary Pope Osbourne

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• Biographical Essay: Selected Poet (RI.4.9, W.4.2, W.4.5)

RL—Love That Dog, Sharon Creech RI—A River of Words: The Story of William Carlos Williams, Jennifer Bryant (teacher copy only)

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• Editorial Essay: The Effects of Mining on the Lives of Canada’s Inuit People (W.5.1)

RI - The Inuit Thought of It: Amazing Arctic Innovations (We Thought Of It), Alootook Ipellie and David MacDonald

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• Opinion Writing: American Revolution Broadside (W.4.1)

RI – The Declaration of Independence (excerpts)

RL - Divided Loyalties: The Barton Family During the American Revolution, Gare Thompson and Barbara Kiwak

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RI - Face to Face with Wolves, Jim and Judy Brandenburg

RL - Aesop’s Fables, Jerry Pinkney

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* This plan shows most full-length books all students read, and a few key articles. See separate document “Trade Books and Other Resources” for a complete list of resources needed in order to implement the modules. ** This plan shows the two main writing tasks per module and the standards most central to each task. See Curriculum Map for the full list of standards assessed (including the writing process and language standards).

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Appendix-320

Appendix-321

• Description: These three or four sentences tell the basic “story” of the eight-week arc of instruction: the literacy skills, content knowledge, and central text.

• Module title: This signals the topic students will be learning about (often connected to social studies or science) and aligns with Instructional Shift #1, building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction.

• Module focus: Read this first. The “focus” is the same across the grades 3-5 band and signals the progression of literacy skills across the year as well as alignment to the CCSS instructional shifts.

The purpose of this document is to provide a high-level summary of each module and name the standards formally assessed in each module.

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• Option 2B specifically includes supplemental lessons with explicit writing instruction aligned with CCSS L1–3 and with Reading Foundations instruction aligned with CCSS RF.3 and RF.4. These lessons are intended as models of the type of robust instruction that teachers need to incorporate in their literacy time beyond the bounded “one-hour per day” of the modules.

• For Modules 2 and 3, option B formally assesses all standards formally assessed in Option A (and possibly some additional standards as well).

• Teachers should begin the year with Module 1, which lays the foundation for both teachers and students regarding instructional routines.

• Of these six modules, teachers would teach four: Module 1, followed by either Module 2A or 2B, then either 3A or 3B, then Module 4.

• There are six modules per grade level.

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– One final performance task that is a more supported project, often involving research.

– Six unit-level assessments that almost always are on-demand: students’ independent work on a reading, writing, speaking, or listening task.

• Each module provides eight weeks of instruction, broken into three shorter units. Each module includes seven assessments:

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Taken as a whole, these modules are designed to give teachers concrete strategies to address the “instructional shifts” required by the CCSS.

These grades 3–5 curriculum modules are designed to address CCSS ELA outcomes during a one-hour English Language Arts block. The overarching focus for all modules is on building students’ literacy skills as they develop knowledge about the world.

Appendix-322

• Standards: In each module, the standards formally assessed are indicated with a check mark; see details below.

– Scaffolded essay (involving planning, drafting, and revision)

– Speaking and listening (discussion or oral presentation)

– Extended response (longer writing or essays of the type that is scored using the New York State 4-point rubric) (either on-demand or supported)

– Short constructed-response (short-answer questions of the type that is scored using the New York State 2-point rubric)

– Selected response (multiple-choice questions)

– The curriculum map below lists the title of each assessment, the standards assessed, and the assessment format.

– Assessments are designed to be curriculum-embedded opportunities to practice the types of skills needed on state assessments.

– Most assessments have a heavy emphasis on academic vocabulary, particularly determining words in context.

– End of unit assessments typically, though not always, are writing assessments: writing from sources.

– Mid-unit assessments typically, though not always, are reading assessments: text-based answers.

– Each unit includes two assessments, most of which are “on-demand” (i.e., show what you know/can do on your own).

• Unit-Level Assessments

• Final Performance Task: This is a culminating project, which takes place during Unit 3 of every module. Performance tasks are designed to help students synthesize and apply their learning from the module in an engaging and authentic way. Performance tasks are developed using the writing process, are scaffolded, and almost always include peer critique and revision. Performance tasks are not “on-demand” assessments. (Note: The end of Unit 3 assessment often addresses key components of the performance task.)

• Texts: This lists texts that all students read. The text in bold is the extended text for a given module: the text(s) with which students spend the most time. Remember that texts can be complex based on both qualitative and quantitative measures. Texts are listed in order from most quantitatively complex (based on Lexile® measure) to least quantitatively complex. Texts near the bottom of the list are often complex in ways other than Lexile. Within a given module, the list shows the wide variety of texts students read as they build knowledge about a topic. This aligns with Instructional Shift #1, building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction. For a procurement list that specifics texts that need to be purchased for use with the curriculum, go to commoncoresuccess.elschools.org or EngageNY.org and search for the document “Trade Books and Other Resources.”

Appendix-323

Adaptations and the Wide World of Frogs

My Librarian Is a Camel: How Books Are Brought to Children around the World

This module introduces students to the power of literacy and how people around the world access books. Students build close reading skills while learning about people who have gone to great lengths to access literacy. They focus on what it means to be a proficient, independent reader, assessing their strengths, setting goals, and developing their “reading superpowers.” They then delve into geography, considering how where one lives affects how one accesses books. They apply their learning by writing a report (bookmark) about how people access books around the world.

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'HVFULSWLRQ This module is designed to help students use reading, writing, listening, and speaking to build and share deep knowledge about a topic: in this case, frogs. Students first do a class study of the bullfrog. Then they read excerpts from the central text, Everything You Need to Know about Frogs and Other Slippery Creatures, to study a variety of “freaky frogs”—frogs that push the boundaries of “frogginess.” Students demonstrate their expertise by writing a “freaky frog trading card”—a researchbased narrative that highlights their research and educates others about the diversity of frogs, focusing on how their freaky frog survives.

Researching to Build Knowledge and Teaching Others

Becoming a Close Reader and Writing to Learn

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This module focuses on a study of the classic tale Peter Pan as students consider how writers capture a reader’s imagination. Students delve into narrative structure, focusing on character (central to the third-grade standards). They then examine author’s craft in Peter Pan, specifically use of dialogue and vivid language—and write their own scene based on Peter Pan. To build fluency, they participate in a Readers Theater based on Peter Pan, and read aloud a monologue. They write opinions, including which Peter Pan character is their favorite and why.

A Study of Peter Pan

Connecting Literary and Informational Texts to Study Culture “Then and Now”

This module is designed to help students use reading, writing, listening, speaking, and collaborative skills to build and share deep knowledge about a topic. Students begin with a class study of the culture of Japan in which they read Magic Tree House: Dragon of the Red Dawn, a book set in ancient Japan, paired with Exploring Countries: Japan, an informational text about modern Japan. Students form book clubs, reading a new Magic Tree House book set in their selected country and an informational text, to build expertise on a different country. They demonstrate their expertise by writing a research-based letter to Magic Tree House author Mary Pope Osborne that informs her of customs and traditions that have endured in a culture from the past to modern time.

Analyzing Narrative and Supporting Opinions

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Researching to Build Knowledge and Teaching Others

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In this module, students explore the questions: “Who is the wolf in fiction?” and “Who is the wolf in fact?” Students begin by reading the traditional Chinese folktale Lon Po Po and a series of fables that feature wolves as characters to build their understanding of how the actions and traits of the wolf and other characters contribute to a sequence of events that convey an important lesson to the reader. Students then move on to research facts about real wolves through the central text Face to Face with Wolves. As they read the text closely, they collect information about the characteristics, behaviors, and habitat of real wolves. To close the module, students write a narrative based on a problem faced by real wolves.

Wolves: Fact and Fiction

Analyzing Narrative and Supporting Opinions

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This module focuses on the importance of clean freshwater around the world. Students continue to build their geography and mapreading skills (begun in Module 1) by studying where water is found on earth. They examine the water cycle and watersheds, comparing how different texts present similar information. Then students research challenges facing the earth’s clean water supply: pollution, access, and the demand for water. Students develop opinions about what they can do to conserve, protect, or provide access to clean water, and then create a public service announcement (PSA).

The Role of Freshwater around the World

Gathering Evidence and Speaking to Others

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Appendix-324

• The Incredible BookEating Boy, Oliver Jeffers (RL, 470L; teacher copy only)

• Nasreen’s Secret School, Jeanette Winter (RL, 630L)

• The Librarian of Basra: A True Story from Iraq, Jeanette Winter (RL, 640L)

• Thank You, Mr. Falker, Patricia Polacco (RL, 650L; teacher copy only)

• The Boy Who Loved Words, Roni Schotter (RL, 780L; teacher copy only)

• Waiting for the Biblioburro, Monica Brown (RL, 880L; teacher copy only)

• That Book Woman, Heather Henson (RL, 920L; teacher copy only)

1

• Poison Dart Frogs Up Close, Carmen Bredeson (RI, 830L)

• “Staying Alive, Animal Adaptations,” Expeditionary 3Learning (RI, 890L)

• Everything You Need to Know about Frogs and Other Slippery Creatures, DK Publishing (RI, 820L)

• “The Poison Dart Frog,” Douglas Florian (RL poems, NL)

• “The Red-Eyed Tree Frog,” Douglas Florian (RL poems, NL)

• “The Glass Frog,” Douglas Florian (RL poems, NL)

• All the Small Poems and Fourteen More, Valerie Worth (RL poems, NL)

• “The Birds Leave the Nest” script adapted by Expeditionary Learning from: Peter Pan; or The Boy Who Would Not Grow Up by J.M. Barrie (RL, 480L)

• “The Mermaid Lagoon” script adapted by Expeditionary Learning from: Peter Pan; or Peter and Wendy by J.M. Barrie (RL, 540L)

• Classic Starts edition of Peter Pan, J.M. Barrie, retold from the original by Tania Zamorsky (RL, 860L)

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2 Texts listed in order of informational text first, then literature; both categories shown from most to least quantitatively complex (based on Lexile®).

• Exploring Countries: Italy, Walter Simmons (RI, 870L; for 1/3 of class)

• “Discovering Culture,” Expeditionary Learning (RI, 990L)

• "Republic of Iraq." In CultureGrams Kids Edition 2013 (RI, 1200L)

• “The Ancient Art of Rangoli,” Shruti Priya and Katherine Darrow (RI, 1130L)

• Magic Tree House #45: A Crazy Day with Cobras, Mary Pope Osborne (RL, 570L; for 1/3 of class),

• Magic Tree House #34: Season of the Sandstorms, Mary Pope Osborne (RL, 580L; for 1/3 of class)

• Magic Tree House #37: Dragon of the Red Dawn, Mary Pope Osborne (RL, 580L)

• Magic Tree House #33: Carnival at Candlelight, Mary Pope Osborne (RL, 590L; for 1/3 of class)

• Deadly Poison Dart Frogs, Lincoln James (RI, 700+L) • Bullfrog at Magnolia Circle, Deborah Dennard (RL, 670L)

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1 For 3M1, students work with most texts about the same amount.

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• Lon Po Po, Ed Young (RL, 670L)

• “The Wolf and the Sheep” found at: http://www.gutenberg.org /files/19994/19994h/19994-h.htm#Page_42 (RL, 700L)

• “The Tricky Wolf and the Rats” found at: http://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/7 3/more-jatakatales/4979/the-trickywolf-and-the-rats/ (RL, 700L)

• Aesop’s Fables, Jerry Pinkney (RL, 760L)

• “A Wolf in the Park” found at: http://www.scottishpoetry library.org.uk/poetry/poe ms/wolf-park (RL, 780L)

• “The Wolves and the Sheep” from the Gutenberg Project (RL, 820L)

• “The Fox and the Wolf,” Lynda Durrant Lemmon (RL, 1010L)

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• “Tackling the Trash,” Jill Esbaum, Highlights for Children (RI, 650L)

• “Where in the World Is Water?” Expeditionary Learning (RI, 730L)

• “Let’s Get Physical,” Junior Scholastic (RI, 790L)

• “Ryan Hreljac: The Boy Who Built a Well,” Elisabeth Deffner, February 2009 (RI, 800L)

• “Dry D ays ni A ustralia,” Ann Weil (RI, 840L)

• “Earth’s W ater C ycle,” Gina Jack (RI, 920L)

• One Well: The Story of Water on Earth, Rochelle Strauss (RI, 960L)

• “Rivers and Streams,” Nature Works (RI, 970L)

• “The Water Cycle,” U.S. Geological Survey (RI, 1080L)

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Appendix-325

1

Research-Based Letter to Author (W.3.2, W.3.4, W.3.5, W.3.7, W.3.8, L.3.1h, L.3.1i, L.3.2f, and L.3.3a) research-based scaffolded narrative and explanatory letter

Summary and Opinion Writing: Who Is Your Favorite Character in Peter Pan, and Why? (RL.3.3, RL.3.5, W.3.1, W.3.2, W.3.4, W.3.5, L.3.1, L.3.2 and L.3.3) scaffolded literary analysis essay

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Wolf Narrative (W.3.3, W.3.4, W.3.5, L.3.1g, h, and i) narrative

• Face to Face with Wolves, Jim and Judy Brandenburg (RI, 970L)

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4 Supplemental Information for Appendix A of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy: New Research on Text Complexity http://www.corestandards.org/assets/E0813_Appendix_A_New_Research_on_Text_Complexity.pdf

Freaky Frog Trading Cards (W.3.2, W.3.3, W.3.4, W.3.5, and L.3.3) research-based scaffolded narrative and explanatory paragraph

Accessing Books around the World Bookmark (RI.3.2, W.3.2 (and a-d), W.3.4, W.3.5, and L.3.2) scaffolded explanatory paragraph

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• “Soccer Mania,” Cynthia Hatch (RI, 440L)

• Exploring Countries: Japan, Colleen Sexton (RI, 740L)

• Exploring Countries: Iraq, Lisa Owings (RI, 810L; for 1/3 of class)

• Exploring Countries: India, Jim Bartell (RI, 840L; for 1/3 of class)

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Common Core Band Level Text Difficulty Ranges for Grades 2–3 4: 420–802L

• “Spadefoot Toad,” Melanie Freeman (RI, 780L)

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• “Physical Environments around the World,” Expeditionary Learning (RI, 680L or 530L)

• “One Boy’s Book Drive,” Boy’s Quest (RI, 700L) (alternate)

• My Librarian Is a Camel, Margriet Ruurs (RI, 980L)

• Rain School, James Rumford (RL, 420L)

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VoiceThread Public Service Announcement (W.3.1, W.3.4, W.3.6, W.3.7, SL.3.4, SL.3.5, SL.3.6, L.3.3b) scaffolded speech

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Appendix-326

Collaborative Discussion Skills (SL3.1b and c) speaking and listening

Close Reading and Powerful Note-Taking on My Own (RL.3.2, RL.3.3, W.3.8, and L.3.4a) selected response and short constructed response

A Letter about my Reading Goals (W.3.2 and L.3.6) extended response

Listen Up! Recording Our Reading (SL.3.5) speaking and listening

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Informational Paragraph about the Poison Dart Frog (W.3.2, W.3.4, W.3.7, L.3.3a and L.3.6) extended response

Close Reading of an Excerpt about a New Freaky Frog (the Spadefoot Toad) (RI.3.1, RI.3.2, RI.3.5, RI.3.7, and L.3.4a) selected response and short constructed response

Informational Paragraph about How a Bullfrog Survives (W.3.2, W.3.4, L.3.3a, and L.3.6) extended response

Reading to Capture Key

Close Reading: Bullfrog at Magnolia Circle (RI.3.1, RI.3.2, RI.3.3, RI.3.7, W.3.8, and L.3.4a) selected response and short constructed response

a New Informational Text (RI.3.1, RI.3.2, RI.3.5, W.3.2, and W.3.8) extended response

Reading and Writing about

Books (RL.3.1, RL.3.9, W.3.8, SL.3.1, and SL.3.3) short constructed response and speaking and listening

on the Magic Tree House

Text-Dependent Questions

Book Discussions and

extended response

L.3.3, and L.3.2f)

(RL.3.1, RI.3.5, W.3.2,

Informational Paragraph

Research-Based

On-Demand Writing of a

Dragon of the Red Dawn (RL.3.1 and RL.3.4) selected response and short constructed response

Details: Chapter 6 of

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Reading Fluency: Reading a Scene from Peter Pan (RL.3.3 and RF.3.4) short constructed response and reading fluently

Writing: New Scene from Peter Pan (W.3.3 and W.3.4) extended response

Opinion Writing about Wendy’s Actions (RL.3.6, W.3.1, and L.3.6) extended response

Character Analysis: Peter Pan’s Traits, Motivations and Actions That Contribute to a Sequence of Events in the Story (RL.3.3) short constructed response

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Reading and Answering Questions about Face to Face with Wolves (RI.3.2, RI.3.4, RI.3.6, W.3.2 and W.3.10) selected response and short constructed response

Reading a New Section of Face to Face with Wolves: “Life in the Pack” (RL.3.1, RL.3.2 and RL.3.4) selected response and short constructed response

Part 1: Character Analysis and Opinion Writing: “The Wolves and the Sheep” and Part 2: Reading Fluently (RL.3.3, L.3.4, W.3.1, and RF.3.4) extended response

Selected Response and Short Answer Questions: “Fox and Wolf” (RL.3.1–4 and RL.3.7) selected response and short constructed response

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On-Demand Informative Writing to Inform Readers about Water Issues (W.3.2 and W.3.4.) extended response

Asking and Answering Questions about Water Issues (RI.3.1, RI.3.8, and W.3.8) selected response and short constructed response

Comparing and Contrasting Two Texts about the Water Cycle (RI.3.2, RI.3.7, RI.3.8, RI.3.9 and L.3.4c) selected response and short constructed response

On-Demand Informational Paragraph: Where in the World Is Water? (W.3.2 and L.3.1) short constructed response

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Appendix-327

Answering Text-Dependent Questions about Librarians and Organizations around the World (RI.3.2, RI. 3.1, W.3.8 and SL.3.1) selected response and short constructed response

Accessing Books around the World: On-Demand Informative Paragraph about a New Country (W.3.2) extended response

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Research-Based Narrative Paragraph about Your Freaky Frog (a second category from the recording form) (W.3.2, W.3.3 and L.3.3) extended response

Writing a First-Draft Freaky Frog Trading Card Narrative Paragraph (W.3.2, W.3.3a, W.3.5, W.3.7, and L.3.3) extended response

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Using the Writing Process: Revising and Editing the Letter to Mary Pope Osborne (W.3.2, W.3.4, W.3.5, L.3.1, L.3.2, and L.3.3) extended response

(RI.3.3, RI.3.5, W.3.2, W.3.4, W.3.5, W.3.7, W.3.8, and W.3.10) extended response

Letter to Mary Pope Osborne

Drafting a Research-Based

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Opinion Writing about a New Character (W.3.1, W.3.4, and L.3.2) extended response

On-Demand Book Summary (RL 3.2, W.3.2, and W.3.4) short constructed response

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Final Wolf Narrative (W.3.3, W.3.4, W.3.5, L.3.1g, h and i) narrative

Revising Story Plans (W.3.3 and W.3.5) graphic organizer

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VoiceThread Script Presentation and Critique (SL.3.4) speaking and listening

On-Demand Opinion Writing: The One Thing That Should be Done to Conserve, Protect, or Provide Access to Clean Water (W.3.1 and W.3.4) extended response

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Appendix-328

• For more guidance about how to address CCSS RF.3 (Phonics and Word Recognition), CCSS RF.4 (Fluency), and CCSS L.1, 2, and 3, see the stand-alone document Foundational Reading and Language Standards: Resources Packages for Grades 3-5. This resource provides guidance about structures and purpose for an Additional Literacy Block alongside the modules. The overview in that stand-alone document also includes a list of example lessons that teachers can use as a model to develop additional similar lessons.

• Some standards (e.g., W.2) have a main or “parent” standard and then subcomponents (e.g., W.2a). Often, students’ mastery of the entirety of this standard is scaffolded across multiple modules. Therefore, in the curriculum map below, the “parent” standard is checked only if all components of that standard are formally assessed within that particular module. Otherwise, just the specific components are checked.

• Some standards are not applicable in an on-demand assessment context (e.g., R.10 or W.10). In the curriculum map below, these standards are noted as “integrated throughout.”

• Because of the integrated nature of the standards, even standards that are not formally assessed are often embedded in instruction throughout every module (e.g., RI/RL.1).

• “B” modules will assess all the same standards as “A” modules but may address additional standards as well.

• Some standards are formally assessed in multiple modules.

• In the curriculum map below, any specific CCSS with a check mark indicates formally assessed.

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Appendix-329

Not formally assessed. To be addressed upon revision.

RL.3.10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

RL.3.9. Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series).

RL.3.7. Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).

RL.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

RL.3.5. Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections. *

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Integrated throughout.

Implemented through Accountable Independent Reading: see “Launching Independent Reading in Grades 3–5: Sample Plan” (stand-alone document on EngageNY.org).

*

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RL.3.3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

RL.3.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

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RL.3.2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.

RL.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

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Appendix-330

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Implemented through Accountable Independent Reading: see “Launching Independent Reading in Grades 3–5: Sample Plan” (stand-alone resource on commoncoresuccess.elschools.org).

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“Foundational Reading and Language Skills: Resource Package for Grades 3-5” (in Resources on commoncoresuccess.elschools.org). On this document, look specifically at the section titled “Independent Reading: The Importance of a Volume of Reading and Sample Plans.”

5 This is a standard specific to New York State. RL.3.11 and RL.3.11a are particularly emphasized in M1. In the elementary modules, RL.11a and b are also addressed through Accountable Independent Reading. See

RL.3.11. Recognize and make connections in narratives, poetry, and drama to other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, personal events, and situations. 5

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* Not formally assessed. To be addressed upon revision.

RI.3.10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

RI.3.8. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).

RI.3.7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).

RI.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

RI.3.5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.

RI.3.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.

RI.3.3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

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RI.3.2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.

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RI.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

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Integrated throughout.

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Appendix-332

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C. Use context clues to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

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B. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

A. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

RF.3.4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

D. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

C. Decode multisyllable words.

B. Decode words with common Latin suffixes.

A. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes.

RF.3.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words

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Appendix-333

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B. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.

C. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.

D. Provide a concluding statement or section.

A. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.

W.3.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

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A. Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.

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D. Provide a concluding statement or section.

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C. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.

W.3.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

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B. Provide reasons that support the opinion.

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A. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.

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W.3.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

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Appendix-334

* Not formally assessed; to be addressed upon revision 6 This is a standard specific to New York State.

W.3.11. Create and present a poem, narrative, play, artwork, or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class. 6

W.3.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

W.3.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

W.3.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.

W.3.6. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

W.3.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

W.3.4. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

C. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order. Provide a sense of closure.

B. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.

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Integrated throughout.

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Integrated throughout.

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Appendix-335

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B. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

C. Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.

D. Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

E. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds. 7

This is a standard specific to New York State. Not formally assessed; to be addressed upon revision.

SL.3.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.

SL.3.3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.

SL.3.2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

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A. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

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Appendix-336

SL.3.6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.

SL.3.5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.

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I. Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.

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H. Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.

G. Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.

F. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.

E. Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.

D. Form and use regular and irregular verbs.

C. Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).

B. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.

A. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.

L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

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This module includes an example lesson to address the standard, but this component of the standard is not formally assessed. See the Overview document in the Foundational Reading and Language Standards: Resources Packages for Grades 3-5



B. Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English.

A. Choose words and phrases for effect.

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G. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

L.3.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

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E. Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).

D. Form and use possessives.

C. Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.

B. Use commas in addresses.

A. Capitalize appropriate words in titles.

L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

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This module includes an example lesson to show teachers how to address the standard, but this specific component of the standard is not formally assessed. See the Overview document in the Foundational Reading and Language Standards: Resources Packages for Grades 3-5. * Not formally assessed; to be addressed upon revision.