gis for infrastructure development: recommendations for bappenas

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GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BAPPENAS Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative This document has been published by the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII), an Australian Government funded project designed to promote economic growth in Indonesia by enhancing the relevance, quality and quantum of infrastructure investment. The views expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the Australian Indonesi an Partnership or the Australian Government. Please direct any comments or questions to the IndII Director, tel. +62 (21) 230-6063, fax +62 (21) 3190-2994. Website: www.indii.co.id. Acknowledgements This report has been prepared by NGIS Australia Pty Ltd that was engaged under the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII), funded by AusAID, as part of the GIS Definition Study for BAPPE NAS. The support provided by BAPPENAS is gratefully acknowledged. Any errors of fact or interpretation are solely those of the author. NGIS Australia Pty Ltd Jakarta, August 2009 © IndII 2010 All original intellectual property contained within this document is the property of the Indonesia n Australia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII). It can be used freely without attribution by consultants and IndII partners in preparing IndII documents, reports designs and plans; it can also be used freely by other agencies or organisations, provided attribution is given. Every attempt has been made to ensure that referenced documents within this publication have been correctly attributed. However, IndII would value being advised of any corrections required, or advice concerning source documents and/or updated data. CONTENT CONTENT .......................................................................................... ................. I LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................... .......... III LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................... ..........IV ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS.................................................................. V EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................. VIII 1. BACKGROUND ....................................................................................... ... 1 1.1 PROJECT OBJECTIVES................................................................................ .....................1 1.2 PROJECT SCOPE..................................................................................... ........................1 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT .......................................................................... ...............1 2. GIS & INFRASTRUCTURE ......................................................................... 2 2.1 W HAT IS GIS? .................................................................................... ............................2 2.2 GIS AND BAPPENAS.................................................................................. ......................3 2.3 GIS AND GOI LINE MINISTRIES ...................................................................... ..................4 2.4 RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................. .....................5 3. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH ................................................................ 7 3.1 VISION............................................................................................ ................................7 3.2 IMPLEMENTATION TIMEFRAME ......................................................................... .................7 3.3 PILOTS ........................................................................................... ................................8 3.4 HUMAN RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS....................................................................... ..........8 3.4.1 GIS Skills Development ..................................................................... .............................9 3.5 GOVERNANCE ....................................................................................... ..........................9 3.6 DATA ACQUISITION & MANAGEMENT .................................................................... ............9 3.7 NSDI ............................................................................................. ...............................11 4. BENEFITS & RISKS ................................................................................. 12 4.1 BENEFITS ......................................................................................... ............................12 i 4.2 RISKS............................................................................................. ..............................13 4.3 COST BENEFITS .................................................................................... ........................14 5. SUMMARY & RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................... 15 ANNEXES .......................................................................................... .............. 17 ANNEX 1: GIS DEFINITION & EXAMPLE ................................................................ .....................17 ANNEX 2: BUDGET BREAKDOWNS ....................................................................... ....................20 ANNEX 3: HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................. ..................23 ANNEX 4: ESRI SOFTWARE PRICES .................................................................... .....................25 ANNEX 5: PILOT IMPLEMENTATION AT INFRASTRUCTURE DIVISION: DETAILS, ISSUES & RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................. .............26 ANNEX 6: POSITION DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................... ......................34 ANNEX 7: PILOT PROJECTS........................................................................... ..........................37 ANNEX 8: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS .................................................................... .......................41 ANNEX 9: LIST OF PEOPLE CONTACTED ................................................................ ..................62 ANNEX 10: QUESTIONNAIRE........................................................................... .........................64 ANNEX 11: SPATIAL DATA USED BY BAPPENAS........................................................... .............66 ANNEX 12: ATTENDANCE AT W ORKSHOP................................................................. ................67 ii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. GIS USE & CAPABILITIES AT SOME GOI GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.................................4 TABLE 2. BROAD BREAKDOWN OF EXPENDITURE REQUIRED TO IMPLEMENT CORPORATE GIS ......6 TABLE 3. BENEFITS OF GIS FOR BAPPENAS ............................................................ .................12 TABLE 4. RISKS.................................................................................... ..................................13 iii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. DATAFLOW AMONG BAPPENAS & GIS AGENCIES ................................................. ......5 FIGURE 2. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN .................................................................... ........................7 FIGURE 3. RECOMMENDED DATA MANAGEMENT PROCESS .................................................... ...10 iv ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AMDAL Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (Environment Impact Assessment) BAKOSURTANAL Badan Koordinasi Survei dan Pemetaan Nasional (National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping) BAPPENAS Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (National Development Planning Agency ) BNPB Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (National Agency for Disaster Management) BPJT Badan Pengatur Jalan Tol (Toll Road Regulatory Agency) BPMIGAS Badan Pelaksana Kegiatan Usaha Hulu Minyak dan Gas Bumi (Executive Agency for Upstream Oil and Gas Activity) BPN Badan Pertanahan Nasional (National Land Agency) BPPSPAM Badan Pendukung Pengembangan Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum (Water Supply Development Supporting Agency) BPS Badan Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics) BRTI Badan Regulasi Telekomunikasi Indonesia (Indonesian Telecommunications Regulatory Body) BUMN Badan Usaha Milik Negara (State-owned Enterprise) DAK Dana Alokasi Khusus (Specific Allocation Fund) DAU Dana Alokasi Umum (General Allocation Fund) DCA Direct Cash Aid Depkeu Departemen Keuangan (Ministry of Finance) Depkominfo Departemen Komunikasi dan Informatika (Ministry of Communication and Informatics) DesInventar GIS developed by UNDP using open-source products DESDM Departemen Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources) GIS Geographic Information System GITA Geospatial Information & Technology Association IDSD Infrastruktur Data Spasial Daerah (Regional Spatial Data Infrastructure) (RSDI) IDSN Infrastruktur Data Spasial Nasional (National Spatial Data Infrastructure ) (NSDI) IFGI Infrastructure for Growth Initiative IGOS Indonesia Goes to Open Source IndII Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative JBIC Japan Bank for International Cooperation JDSN Jaringan Data Spasial Nasional (National Spatial Data Network) JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency v KDP Kecamatan Development Program KKPPI Komite Kebijakan Percepatan Penyediaan Infrastruktur (National Committee for the Acceleration of Infrastructure Provision) KPS Kerjasama Pemerintah dan Swasta (Public Private Partnership) (PPP) LAPI Lembaga Afiliasi Penelitian dan Industri (Foundation for Research and Industrial Affiliation) MDGs Millennium Development Goals Menkokesra Kementerian Koordinator Bidang Kesejahteraan Rakyat (Coordinating Ministry for People’s Welfare) MoU Memorandum of Understanding MPP Manual Petunjuk Penggunaan (Operational Guidelines Manual) O&M Operational & Maintenance Open Source Software products where source code is available to users and programmers so they can enhance it and build solutions on top of it. P2DTK Program Percepatan Pembangunan Daerah Tertinggal dan Khusus (Accelerated Program for Development of Special and Undeveloped Regions) P2KP Program Penanggulangan Kemiskinan di Perkotaan (Urban Poverty Alleviation Program) PDRB Produk Domestik Regional Bruto (Gross Regional Domestic Product) PISEW (RISE) Pengembangan Infrastruktur Sosial Ekonomi Infrastructure for Social and Economic Development) PKPS Pusat Kerjasama Pemerintah Swasta (Public Private Partnership Centre) PLN Perusahaan Listrik Negara (National Electricity Company) PNPB Program Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (National Program for Disaster Recovery) PNPM Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri (National Program for Community Empowerment) PP Peraturan Pemerintah (Government Regulation) PPIP Program Pembangunan Infrastruktur Perdesaan (Rural Infrastructure Development Program) PPK Program Pengembangan Kecamatan (Subdistrict Development Program) PPPD Public Private Partnership Development PUSDATIN Pusat Data dan Informasi (Data and Information Centre) RKP(D) Rencana Kerja Pemerintah (Annual (Regional) Government Work Plan) RMU Risk Management Unit RPJM Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah (Mid-term Development Plan) RPJP Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Panjang (Long-term Development Plan) RTRW Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (Regional Spatial Planning) SDM Sumber Daya Manusia (Human Resources) Wilayah (Regional vi SIMRENAS Sistem Informasi Manajemen Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (National Development Planning Management Information System) SNI Standar Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Standard) SPADA Support for Poor and Disadvantaged Areas UDP Urban Development Program UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme VPN Virtual Private Network WMS Web Mapping Service vii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Bappenas is the national agency responsible for coordinating, prioritising, monitoring and independently evaluating development planning at the national level. Bappenas is also responsible for financial arrangements (funding priorities and distribution) for development programs and it has a role to play in supporting rapid response to disasters. In addition, it has a role in ensuring provinci al spatial plans comply with national policies. Recent government and presidential decrees (such as the spatial planning decree) have increased th e burden on Bappenas to independently evaluate, monitor and report on projects. Traditional methods of evaluation and prioritisation, that relied on paper maps and hardcopy reports, are no longer vi able. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used throughout the world for over 30 years to support the planning and monitoring activities of infrastructure agencies. “Best practice” infrast ructure and development planning now includes GIS embedded into the business processes of an organisation. To understand how GIS can support the operations of Bappenas, this review was initiated and funded by a technical assistance grant from the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII). Findings: GIS is used extensively by planning and infrastructure agencies throughout the world. In Indonesia, government agencies are increasingly using GIS to manage their information needs and for analysis and decision support. Bappenas’s mandate and recent government and presidential decrees leave little alternative for Bappenas but to embrace GIS technologies in conjunction with the other business intelligence systems. To do nothing now would mean that Bappenas would fall further behind in its ability to evaluate, prioritise and monitor projects. Further, as there are already isolated examples of GIS use at Bappenas, if a coordinated program is not initiated; such examples are likely to multiply, resulting in duplication of effort and dat a. Recommendations: We are recommending that Bappenas invest significantly in GIS technology over a period of the next two to four years and develop a long-term, coordinated approach to its implementation. This should be initiated with a series of pilots in the Infrastructure Division to demonstrate the benefits and identify issues that may arise and how they can be resolved. As other GoI infrastructure agencies also require spatial information to effectively perform their responsibilities, we also recommend that they initiate programs to build their internal capacity to use GIS and share spatial information. Indicative Budget: This report focuses on GIS implementation at Bappenas through a series of pilot projects over six months, followed by increasing the capacity over a period of two to four years. The investment required by Bappenas over this period is between US$1 and US$2 million, to cover hardware, software, additional staff resources, staff training, consulting services and data acquisition. Th e pilots are estimated to cost about US$210,000 over six months. The review also considered issues relevant for effective GIS implementation at Bappenas and made viii the following recommendations: The Pusdatin should be responsible for the administration and management of all spatial data. A GIS training program should be developed and implemented for Bappenas staff to cover both technical skills and general GIS understanding and awareness. Establish a Spatial Secretariat, with the power to make decisions, to oversee and coordinate spatial activities at Bappenas. Bappenas enters into formal agreements with GoI line agencies to share information. Bappenas plays a proactive role in the development and implementation of the NSDI. Bappenas plays a significant role in development planning in Indonesia. This role is likely to inc rease. If it is to effectively meet its obligations, it must embrace the use of GIS technology and invest in its long-term implementation. Action now will place it in a favourable position to take advantage of t he NSDI when implemented. During this review, we heard the comment that Bappenas was merely a “compiler” of projects, rather than a “prioritiser.” This comment arose from the fact that it was perceived to not have the infor mation or tools to be able to independently evaluate proposals. If Bappenas seeks to truly prioritise, not just compile, then effective use of GIS technology is essential. ix GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 1. BACKGROUND Bappenas is the national agency responsible for coordinating, prioritising, monitoring and independently evaluating development planning at the national level. Bappenas is also responsible for financial arrangements (funding priorities and distribution) for development programs and it has a role to play in supporting rapid response to disasters. Within Bappenas, the Infrastructure Division is responsible for planning and evaluating the nation’s infrastructure needs. Bappenas also has a rol e in ensuring provincial spatial plans comply to national policies. To undertake its mandate, Bappenas needs access to reliable and up-to-date information and the too ls with which to analyse it. Bappenas is typical of most GoI departments with respect to its acquisit ion and management of information. Over time, it has developed a number of operational and divisional databases to meet specific needs. This information typically resides in data silos, with the resul t that it is not easy to integrate the different databases or access them. Evidence from other countries demonstrates that spatial information systems can help improve information use and access. Thus, t his review of GIS requirements at Bappenas was initiated, funded by a technical assistance grant from the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII). The review is clearly focused on the Infrastructure D ivision of Bappenas, where the key concerns are: importance of communicating infrastructure needs to a wide audience of investors; monitoring changes in the economic situation linked to the development of infrastructure; monitoring and evaluating the performance of the various infrastructure sectors; and the need for up-to-date information, indicators and tools to assist decision makers to monitor current and past infrastructure projects. 1.1 PROJECT OBJECTIVES To determine whether a GIS is required in Bappenas to help it fulfil its mandate. If so, to recommend options for GIS implementation. 1.2 PROJECT SCOPE The scope is focused on the Infrastructure Division of Bappenas (Deputi Bidang Sarana dan Prasarana), in particular, the Public Private Partnership (PPP) Directorate. The information use, technical capacity and GIS potential of the Infrastructure Division was reviewed in detail. In so doing, its relationships with counterparts in other divisions within Bappenas and other GoI line agencies were evaluated. While options and recommendations are specific to the Infrastructure Division, they are made in such a way that they are relevant to all of Bappenas. 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT This report explains why Bappenas will benefit by investing in GIS technology and it describes an approach for implementation. It does not cover information contained in the Situational Analysis, which is included as Appendix H. 1 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 2. GIS & INFRASTRUCTURE 2.1 WHAT IS GIS? GIS is technology that links information about a feature or asset (such as a road, land parcel or land use type) to its geographic location. The power of a GIS comes from its ability to relate differen t information in a spatial context and to reach a conclusion about this relationship. Most of the information we have about our world contains a location reference, placing that information at som e point on the globe. When rainfall information is collected, it is important to know where the rain is falling. Comparing the rainfall information with other information, such as the types of land cove r (porous or impervious) and steepness of the terrain, may show which areas are prone to local flood ing. This fact may indicate that roads in the vicinity should be constructed above the minimum flood le vel to ensure they are passable during heavy rain. This inference can assist with decisions about road construction and routes in areas subjected to flooding during heavy rain. A GIS, therefore, can re veal important new information that leads to better decision making. GIS has been used to support infrastructure planning for more than 20 years. This is not just true for developed countries but there are numerous examples in developing countries in Asia and Africa, where GIS has improved the effective distribution of the limited resources available for infrastru cture projects. Nor is it true for only transportation networks–power and water utilities, airports and seaports are becoming some of the more advanced users of GIS for managing their operations. There would be few government agencies not using GIS. In the USA, GIS was recently used to help allocate funds fo r the infrastructure stimulus package prepared to stimulate the shrinking economy there. 1 In fact, GIS is ubiquitous in transport, utilities, telecommunications, planning and infrastructure agencies world wide as a decision support tool, to the point that it is now just a component of mainstream information management along with financial, statistical and scheduling packages. Typical scenarios where GIS can support infrastructure planning include: evaluation of options (for example, costs of road versus rail networks); route location – by analysing and modeling environmental and social factors that may impact a road route. This information can be used to develop cost surfaces which calculate the cost of different routes; modelling of water supply and irrigation options; modelling population and power supply to develop options for future power generation; management of ports via real time tracking of boats; congestion management through access to real-time traffic information; improved maintenance through condition surveys; safety management through access to accident information and associated data (such as road conditions, weather, traffic); and providing the “big picture”. For further information on the use of GIS for infrastructure planning, operations and maintenance, the Geospatial Information & Technology Association (GITA) has a range of publications. 2 Appendix A also describes GIS in more detail. 1 2 http://surveying-mapping-gis.blogspot.com/2009/01/stimulus-and-infrastructure-planning.html http://www.gita.org/ 2 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 2.2 GIS AND BAPPENAS Bappenas is responsible for formulation of development planning, coordination, monitoring and evaluation at the national level. Bappenas is also responsible for financial arrangements (funding priorities and distribution) for development programs, in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance. This is enshrined in government regulations and presidential decrees (refer to Situationa l Analysis Report, Section 2.1.1). It is required to independently assess development proposals and prioritise them. This is presently carried out with limited information and without knowing the inter-relationship between projects. In addition, Presidential Decree No. 26/2008 requires that spatial planning be integrated at the national level. Bappenas has the responsibility to ensure that the spatial plans developed by provincial and district governments are integrated and compatible and comply with national policies. This is an overwhelming task and one that is almost impossible to achieve without the use of GIS. The Situational Analysis (delivered on 31 July 2009 – refer to Appendix 8) found that: Bappenas needs a wide range of information to be able to independently evaluate proposals. This information typically comes from the proposer and Bappenas does not have the time, resources or skills to acquire additional information. This potentially compromises its ability to deliver independent appraisals. In addition, each directorate collects and maintains the data it requires to carry out its duties. This has resulted in a large number of disparate databases (or data silos) a nd duplication of data and effort. Typically these data are not managed using best practice procedures, are unknown to other sections of Bappenas and, hence, there is little opportunity for data sharing. Recognising this, Bappenas is in the process of implementing an integrated decision support and data management system. Spatial information needs to be included in this solution. Most of the information used by Bappenas comes from other government agencies. The upside of this is that Bappenas does not need to embark on a major data acquisition program. The downside is that agreements need to be reached between Bappenas and each government agency regarding data sharing. At times Bappenas will require additional information and its staff need the skills to obtain it directly from such sources as satellite imagery or by using GPS. Recent government and presidential decrees have increased the burden on Bappenas to locate, evaluate, prioritise, coordinate, monitor and report on projects. Proposals can no longer be appraised in isolation to one another but rather their inter-relationship needs to be understood. This is particularly true when developing the RPJM, RKP and PPP plans. Traditional methods of evaluation and prioritisation, that relied on paper maps and hardcopy reports, are no longer viabl e. Throughout the world, planning authorities are increasingly using GIS to support “best practice” development planning. While there are a few isolated instances of GIS use at Bappenas, there are limited skills and the GIS solutions developed are typically uncoordinated and duplicated data and effort. A coordinated and staged approach to the use of spatial information and technologies will significantly improve the capacity of Bappenas to meet its analysis, evaluation and reporting requirements. Many of the government agencies from which Bappenas obtains data (Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Transport, PLN, Bakosurtanal) operate GIS systems and can provide the information in digital format. A recent presidential decree (No 85/2007) places the responsibility to collect, maintain and disseminate national information clearly with the government agency responsible for the information. This means that there is an obligation for government agencies to share information with each other at no or minimal cost. The National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) program, currently in the design phase, will (in theory) make much of this spatial data available online or via VPN. Consequently, in the near future, more data will be available to Bappenas and it needs to prepare so that it can access and use these data. 3 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 2.3 GIS AND GOI LINE MINISTRIES The Situational Analysis Report identified some of the GoI line ministries that are using GIS. The se include Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Public Works, PLN, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (DESDM) and Bakosurtanal. Some agencies are more advanced in their use and internal expertise than others. Table 1 compares GIS at government agencies from which Bappenas receives data. Despite being a planning agency that must analyse and integrate information, GIS is less use d at Bappenas than at most other GoI line agencies. The NSDI initiative (described above) will enable G oI agencies to better share and access spatial information. This, in turn, will lead to an increased capacity to create and use spatial data. Table 1. GIS Use & Capabilities at Some GoI Government Agencies. GoI Department GIS Use GIS Capability Ministry of Transport Medium Intermediate Ministry of Public Works (PU) Medium Intermediate National Electricity Company (PLN) Medium Intermediate Ministry of Energy & Minerals (ESDM) Medium Intermediate Bakosurtanal Extensive Intermediate/Advance Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) Low Low Bappenas Low Low As the capacity to use GIS increases at the line agencies, so will its effectiveness to plan and m onitor infrastructure projects. Fundamental to this is having access to reliable datasets, hence the impo rtance of the NSDI initiative. In the meantime, line agencies and, indeed, provincial agencies, require s upport to improve their data capture and management programs and to build the capacity to use spatial technologies. As Figure 1 shows, Bappenas is reliant on information from other government agencies and, in turn, it is in a position to provide feedback and updated information back to the line age ncies regarding project evaluation and monitoring. 4 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Figure 1. Dataflow Among Bappenas & GIS Agencies The ultimate aim is to integrate GIS with the work practices and business processes of an organisa tion to the extent that they may not even know they are using spatial technologies to undertake a given task–it operates in the background. Before this can occur, the business processes need to be fully understood and mapped, the information required to support them acquired and validated and applications built that automate these processes. Even in countries that have been using GIS for a decade or longer, this is not always understood or implemented. In Indonesia, the focus remains on gathering reliable datasets, facilitating access to these data and building the capacity to use it for planning, monitoring and evaluation. 2.4 RECOMMENDATIONS Findings: GIS is used extensively by planning and infrastructure agencies throughout the world. In Indonesia, government agencies are increasingly using GIS to manage their information needs and for analysis and decision support. Bappenas’s mandate and recent government and presidential decrees leave little alternative for Bappenas but to embrace GIS technologies in conjunction with the other business intelligence systems. 5 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT To do nothing now would mean that Bappenas would fall further behind in its ability to evaluate, prioritise and monitor projects. Further, as there are already isolated examples of GIS use at Bappenas, if a coordinated program is not initiated, these are likely to increase, resulting in duplication of effort and data. Recommendations: We recommend that Bappenas invest significantly in GIS technology over a period of the next two to four years. This should be kicked off with a series of pilots in the Infrastructure Divisio n to demonstrate the benefits and identify issues that may arise and how they can be resolved. As other GoI infrastructure agencies also require spatial information to effectively perform their responsibilities, we also recommend that they initiate programs to build their internal capacity t o use GIS and share spatial information. Indicative Budget: This report focuses on GIS implementation at Bappenas through a series of pilot projects over six months, followed by increasing the capacity over a period of two to four years. The investment required by Bappenas over this period is between US$1 and US$2 million, to cover hardware, software, additional staff resources, staff training, consulting services, data acquisition and a fact finding tour to Australia for senior Bappenas staff to see first-hand how GIS is used for infrastr ucture planning (see Table 2). The pilots are estimated to cost about US$210,000 over six months. See Appendix B for budget breakdowns. Table 2. Broad Breakdown of Expenditure Required to Implement Corporate GIS US$ US$ Hardware 150,000 200,000 Software 50,000 200,000 Staff costs 300,000 600,000 50,000 100,000 Consultants 200,000 400,000 Other 250,000 500,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 Training TOTAL Annual costs, to cover software maintenance, training and consumables are likely to be between US$50,000 and US$100,000, depending on what software is purchased. 6 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 3. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH This section describes the GIS implementation approach recommended for Bappenas. 3.1 VISION Ultimately, the vision for GIS use within Bappenas is: All Bappenas staff have access to spatial data to assist them with their operational activities and these data will come from a single point of truth. The vision implies that access to spatial information for staff will be through an internal web-ma pping application, the spatial data will be stored in a central location and managed using “best practic e” procedures to ensure data are not duplicated and that staff at Bappenas have the skills and tools to manipulate and analyse the data. 3.2 IMPLEMENTATION TIMEFRAME It is recommended that this vision be implemented in a staged approach over a period of two to fou r years. This will enable Bappenas to build internally the skills required, develop data sharing agreements with GoI line agencies, develop and test data management procedures, demonstrate the benefits of GIS and evaluate the process at appropriate points. The first six months consists of software and hardware acquisition, training and pilot projects in the Infrastructure Division. The following six months repeats these activities across other divisions. In the following years, GIS should be integrated into Bappenas activities, providing decision support. Fi gure 2 also shows the timing and features of the GIS implementation. Figure 2. Implementation Plan 7 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 3.3 PILOTS It is recommended that implementation commence with pilot projects in the Infrastructure Division. These pilots demonstrate the benefits of GIS for a number of Bappenas activities (monitoring, evaluation, analysis and prioritisation), incorporate staff skills development, include a variety of data acquisition actions and introduce “best practice” spatial data management. Five pilot projects have been identified; one for each directorate within the Infrastructure Divis ion. These pilots are described in detail in Appendix G. The pilots will highlight benefits and challen ges associated with using spatial data. Benefits include: knowing where all the proposed and existing projects are located; ability to undertake independent evaluations; more accurate post-implementation monitoring; improved ability to prioritise projects; improved capacity to understand inter-relationship of projects; improved ability to analyse the impact of projects and recommend options; better governance through a clear audit trail; agreements in place regarding inter-agency data sharing; and cost savings. Some of the challenges that will, hopefully, be resolved include: issues associated with obtaining data from other agencies; need to independently acquire data; how data will be shared and accessed across Bappenas; dealing with unrealistic expectations; and inadequate GIS skill levels of staff. Prior to the completion of the pilots, an evaluation will be undertaken and lessons learned from t he pilots will be used in the whole of Bappenas GIS implementation. 3.4 HUMAN RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS Additional personnel are required to manage and implement the six-month capacity building program and pilots. They are: International GIS Expert – to coordinate activities, assist with change management and carry out formal and on-the-job training; National GIS Database Specialist – to develop and implement the data model, acquire data and populate database, develop data management procedures and train staff; and National Web GIS Developer – to develop corporate web mapping interface, in conjunction with Pusdatin. 8 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Job descriptions for these personnel can be found at Appendix F. Initially, they will be based in the Infrastructure Division. It is recommended that, providing performance is satisfactory, the two national staff be engaged by Bappenas after the pilots are completed, to be based with the Pusdati n. 3.4.1 GIS Skills Development GIS skills and knowledge among Bappenas staff is limited and varies among directorates. Some staff have received formal GIS training, others have acquired it on-the-job. Most of those with some training had not used GIS for at least a few years. Expectations of what GIS can achieve are also varied, some staff having unrealistic concepts, seeing GIS as a cure for all problems, others have the view that it is not needed at Bappenas. A series of GIS training courses will be required to build the capacity of Bappenas staff and management to use GIS and understand its potential. Appendix E identifies a recommended training program. 3.5 GOVERNANCE Evidence from other countries clearly demonstrates that a group coordinating GIS activity within a n organisation contributes to a successful GIS implementation. As there are already isolated instanc es of GIS use at Bappenas, such a group is urgently needed. Consequently, we recommend the establishment of a “Spatial Secretariat” to coordinate spatial activities. This secretariat would have responsibility for: developing, implementing and auditing data management policies and guidelines; approving spatial software; coordinating training; coordinating development of GIS applications; liaising with other GoI agencies to develop data sharing agreements; representing Bappenas on NSDI implementation; providing technical direction on the adoption of new technologies; and reviewing the success of GIS implementation at Bappenas To be effective, the secretariat should be made up of senior staff at Bappenas who have the author ity to make decisions. It should include representatives from: Pusdatin Infrastructure Division Regional Development Division Poverty Alleviation Division Performance Evaluation Division (Disaster Response) 3.6 DATA ACQUISITION & MANAGEMENT The pilots rely on information being provided from a number of other GoI agencies. Critical to the success of GIS implementation at Bappenas is the development of agreements with these government agencies to provide spatial data in digital format. The pilots provide the opportunity to develop these agreements, similar to MoU between Bappenas and BPS currently being negotiated. 9 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Once received at Bappenas, the spatial data needs to be reviewed and approved by the Pusdatin (Spatial Data Manager) for completeness and metadata. The data is then submitted for inclusion on the spatial data server for use by Bappenas staff and for publication. From time to time, project specific data will be acquired by Bappenas staff to model and analyse a specific project. Once this process is completed, the data should be validated and stored on the s patial data server, in a similar manner to that required for data obtained directly from government sourc es. Figure 3 describes this process. Figure 3. Recommended Data Management Process We recommend that the Pusdatin should be responsible for the administration and management of spatial data, together with their responsibility for nonspatial data. The responsibility for data content should, however, remain with the data custodians (the creators or suppliers of the data). We also recommend that a full-time Spatial Data Manager be engaged by Bappenas, initially based at the Infrastructure Division but after the pilots to be moved to the Pusdatin. A position descripti on for this role can be found at Appendix E. As part of the pilots, some information (such as RKP, PPP and loan projects) will be converted fro m hardcopy format to a database linked to features in the GIS. Once complete, this information will be provided to the Pusdatin for management and publishing. Furthermore, as part of the pilots, Infrastructure staff may need to generate new data from GPS fi eld surveys or from remote sensing. Again, these data will be provided to the Pusdatin. 10 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 3.7 NSDI Bakosurtanal is leading the implementation of NSDI. A current initiative is the planned developmen t of VPN access for 11 national government agencies so they can share spatial data via Web Mapping Services (WMS). Once this is operational, much of Bappenas’s data needs will be met through this service. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the timing and data to be provided. Consequently, it is recommended that Bappenas develop inter-department agreements, in the interim. Nevertheless, Bappenas should be proactive in supporting this initiative and guiding its direction . 11 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 4. BENEFITS & RISKS 4.1 BENEFITS Bappenas’s mandate requires it to prepare new five-year plans (RPJM), evaluate previous RPJMs, prioritise projects for implementation and identify suitable funding models. This is currently ach ieved by relying on information provided to them in a variety of hardcopy documents and through limited field investigations. They are frequently unable to verify the information that has been provided and project evaluations are undertaken in isolation of one another. GIS is a tool that provides information integration, as well as analysis, and can provide access t o corporate information through a single point. The benefits it provides to Bappenas are identified in Table 3 against some of the major activities undertaken by Bappenas. Table 3. Benefits of GIS for Bappenas Activity Project Evaluation and Monitoring Benefit More accurate information coming from source agencies Integration of information acquired by different methods (from agencies, through field trips, imagery) Evaluations are more credible and auditable Process is quicker and more effective More effective monitoring of post-project benefits Ability to undertake independent reviews of projects Project Planning and Identification Identify areas where projects are required (gaps) Understand regional impacts of projects Ability to see “whole picture” and make more informed decisions Project Prioritisation Ability to see and understand inter-relationship of projects (based on location) Understand whether projects complement or conflict with one another Identify where there are gaps Fosters good governance processes Funding and Promotion Easy access to information for stakeholders Potential partners can see the complete picture Improved public participation Spatial Planning Improved compliance with regulations Integration of spatial plans from provinces Identify inconsistencies 12 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Activity Disaster Response Benefit Improved response times More accurate assessments of damage and impacts More reliable decisions “Single point of truth” that is used throughout Bappenas, resulting in more reliable decisions Corporate Less duplication of data and effort Improved data management Improved quality of reports Increased sharing of information among directorates Elimination of data silos Improved ability to “discover” data available Greater productivity from existing staff Fosters inter-agency collaboration Reduction of long-term costs GIS provides a platform on which business applications can more readily be built 4.2 RISKS No project is without risks and there are a number that may hinder and constrain the implementatio n of GIS at Bappenas if they are not identified and contingency plans developed. Some of these risks are beyond the scope of Bappenas, yet their impact needs to be considered. Table 4 below identifie s some of the risks, their potential impact and proposed mitigation actions. Table 4. Risks Risk Ability to share information within Bappenas Impact High Action Develop and implement guidelines for better data management Successful pilot projects to identify benefits Protectiveness of some directorates with respect to what they have and what they are doing Medium Availability of data from other agencies in appropriate formats. High Clear directives from senior management Successful pilot projects to identify benefits Role of Spatial Secretariat Continue to develop mutually beneficial relationships with key agencies Provide information back to agency, where appropriate 13 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Risk Impact Action Training needs assessment required Low level of GIS skills and understanding at Bappenas Medium Expectations too high Medium Integration with new Integrated Management System (IMS) not successful Medium Spatial architect needs to be engaged at beginning of project to ensure spatial issues are considered when designing IMS architecture NSDI not implemented High Bappenas staff should be actively involved in this initiative to help drive its delivery Ongoing training programs need to be implemented Workshops on GIS for senior management Develop agreements with key government agencies to share data 4.3 COST BENEFITS It was not within the scope of this review to analyse cost-benefits for Bappenas in detail. Howeve r the following observations are made: International research indicates that an investment in GIS technology produces a 4:1 benefit. 3 Th at is, for every US$1 invested, there is a benefit of US$4 in terms of improved efficiencies, revenue generated and better decisions. Bappenas’s annual operating budget is about US$40M (2009).4 A 0.1 percent improvement in efficiencies will save it US$400,000 each year. This is greater than the annual investment require d in GIS. Projects that require nongovernment funding can be financed through loans, grants or private partnership. The Public Private Partnership Centre (PKPS) reviews project suitability for private funding before commissioning detailed feasibility studies. In the case of Kertajati airport proposal, the actual cost of a comprehensive feasibility study is about US$1 million. Therefore, i t is paramount to evaluate the proposal prior to commissioning a feasibility study. GIS can support this pre-feasibility evaluation, potentially saving millions of dollars if the need for costly feasibility studies is negated. 3 4 Korte, George. 1996. "Weighing GIS Benefits with Financial Analysis." Government Finance Review, O ctober, p. 49-52.(and also in GIS World, July 1996, p. 48-52). http://www.inilah.com/berita/ekonomi/2009/06/09/114028/bappenas-targetkan-serap-anggaran-95/ 14 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 5. SUMMARY & RECOMMENDATIONS Recent government and presidential decrees (such as the spatial planning decree) have increased th e burden on Bappenas to locate, evaluate, prioritise, coordinate, monitor and report on projects. Traditional methods of evaluation and prioritisation, that relied on paper maps and hardcopy repor ts, are no longer viable. Throughout the world, planning authorities are increasingly using GIS to sup port “best practice” infrastructure and development planning. A coordinated and staged approach to the use of spatial information and technologies will significantly improve the capacity of Bappenas to mee t its analysis, evaluation and reporting requirements. Recommendation 1: Bappenas develops a staged plan to implement a corporate GIS. When a large organisation first implements GIS, best practice suggests that it is most effectively achieved through pilot projects. Pilot projects demonstrate the benefits of GIS and identify and r esolve issues that may arise prior to a full implementation. Pilot projects are cheaper to implement, pro vide “quick wins” and minimise project risks. Recommendation 2: The GIS implementation should commence with pilots in the Infrastructure Division. Effective data management is essential for effective use of spatial data. There should be a single “point of truth” for each dataset. Information created by Bappenas directorates needs to be available to other sections of Bappenas from a central location. The Pusdatin is well placed to manage the spatial da ta and to ensure “best practice” management procedures are in place and enforced. Recommendation 3: The Pusdatin should be responsible for the administration and management of all spatial data. Additional human resources will be required to carry out the pilots and for ongoing data managemen t and application development. These include an international GIS database expert and local staff to fulfil GIS Web development and GIS data management roles. It is expected that there will be sufficient work to continue the engagement of the national staff after the completion of the pilot s. They should be located with the Pusdatin. Recommendation 4: A GIS web developer and GIS database manager should be engaged for the pilots and retained thereafter, located with the Pusdatin. Recommendation 5: An international GIS expert should be engaged for a period of six months to support the GIS implementation and change management. GIS skills and knowledge among Bappenas staff is limited and varies among directorates. Expectations of what GIS can achieve is also varied, some staff having unrealistic concepts, seein g GIS as a cure for all problems, others have the view that it is not needed at Bappenas. A range of GIS training is required for Bappenas staff and management. This includes technical training as well a s awareness workshops. On-the-job training should also be provided. Recommendation 6: A GIS training program should be developed and implemented for Bappenas staff to cover both technical skills and general GIS understanding and awareness. Evidence from other countries clearly demonstrates that a group coordinating GIS activity within a n organisation contributes to a successful GIS implementation. Consequently, we recommend the establishment of a “Spatial Secretariat” to coordinate spatial activities. This secretariat would have responsibility for policies, technical direction, resource requirements and liaising with other Go I agencies. To be effective, the secretariat should consist of senior staff from a range of division s at Bappenas and who have the authority to make decisions. 15 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Recommendation 7: Establish a Spatial Secretariat, with the power to make decisions, to oversee and coordinate spatial activities at Bappenas. Bappenas receives most of its data from other government agencies. This is currently done in an informal manner and usually pertains to hardcopy information. GIS requires digital information and agreements are required between Bappenas and other GoI line agencies to share information. It is a matter of some urgency that these agreements are put in place. Recommendation 8: Bappenas enters into formal agreements with GoI line agencies to share information. It is important that Bappenas plays a proactive role in the development of the NSDI. Once the NSDI is in place, data acquisition for Bappenas will be much easier, quicker and cheaper. Recommendation 9: Bappenas plays a proactive role in the development and implementation of the NSDI. 16 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEXES ANNEX 1: GIS DEFINITION & EXAMPLE What is GIS? A GIS is a computer system capable of capturing, storing, analysing, and displaying geographically referenced information; that is, data identified according to location. Practitioners also define a GIS as including the procedures, operating personnel, and spatial data that go into the system. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualise data in many ways that revea l relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quick ly understood and easily shared. More and more frequently, GIS technology is integrated into enterprise information system frameworks. How does a GIS work? Relating information from different sources The power of a GIS comes from the ability to relate different information in a spatial context and to reach a conclusion about this relationship. Most of the information we have about our world contai ns a location reference, placing that information at some point on the globe. When rainfall information is collected, it is important to know where the rain falls. This is done by using a location referenc e system, such as longitude and latitude, and perhaps elevation. Comparing the rainfall information with other information, such as the location of marshes across the landscape, may show that certain marshes receive little rainfall. This fact may indicate that these marshes are likely to dry up, a nd this inference can help us make the most appropriate decisions about how humans should interact with th e marsh. A GIS, therefore, can reveal important new information that leads to better decision making . Many computer databases that can be directly entered into a GIS are being produced by governments, private companies, academia, and nonprofit organisations. Different kinds of data in map form can be entered into a GIS (Figures 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f, and 2). A GIS can also convert existing digita l information, which may not yet be in map form, into forms it can recognise and use. For example, digital satellite images can be analysed to produce a map of digital information about land use an d land cover (Figures 3 and 4). 17 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Figure 1a. Road Network Figure 1b. Hydrology Figure 1c. Contours Figure 1d. Digital Elevation Model Figure 1e. Scanned topographic map Figure 1f. Digital orthophoto 18 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Figure 2. Geologic map. Figure 3. Landsat 7 satellite image from which land cover information can be derived Figure 4. Satellite image data in figure 3 have been analysed to indicate classes of land uses and cover. 19 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 2: BUDGET BREAKDOWNS GIS Implementation at Bappenas: Budget for Six-month Pilots Item Number Unit Price (US$) Total (US$) Comment Hardware Desktop computers 5 2,000 10,000 Server 1 5,000 5,000 A3 printers 1 5,000 5,000 GPS units 3 300 900 Subtotal Hardware Required for ArcGIS licences Required for field work and training 20,900 Software ArcGIS ArcView 9.3.1 5 licences 2,100 10,500 Spatial Analyst Extension 1 licence 3,500 3500 10 licences 0 0 1 licence 0 0 MapWindow Open Source Desktop GIS MapServer web mapping application Total Software Existing computers should be adequate 14,000 Staff Resources International GIS expert (includes fee, travel, living expenses) National experts (GIS Database; Web Mapping) 1 105,000 2 for 6 months 25,000 Total Staff Resources 4 months intermittent. 130,000 Capacity Building Training Field trips Total Capacity Building 3-4 courses 15,000 Formal GIS, GPS, RS courses 9,000 For data collection and training 24,000 Other Project Expenses Consumables, communication, reports 9,500 Contingencies 10,000 Total Other Expenses 19,500 TOTAL 208,400 20 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT GIS Implementation at Bappenas: Budget for Four Years (Excluding Pilot Expenses) Item Number Unit Price (US$) Total (US$) Comment Hardware Desktop computers 20 2,000 40,000 Server 2 5,000 10,000 A0 plotter 4 10,000 40,000 A3 printers 5 5,000 25,000 GPS units 20 300 6,000 Subtotal Hardware Required for ArcGIS licences Required for field work 121,000 Software ArcGIS ArcView 9.3.1 20 licences 2,100 42,000 Extensions (Spatial Analyst, 3D Analyst) 4 licences 3,500 14,000 ArcGIS Server 1 licence 100,000 100,000 3 years 30,000 90,000 30 licences 0 0 1 licence 0 0 Software maintenance MapWindow Open Source Desktop GIS MapServer web mapping application Total Software Less if open-source products used Optional – there are other cheaper alternatives Usually 20% of software price If open-source products are used, desktop software prices decrease 246,000 Staff/Consulting Resources Bappenas staff 150 staff months 100 staff months 150,000 Additional Bappenas staff required 200,000 On-site for up to 4 years Implementation consulting (local and international) 240,000 Support ArcGIS Server (or similar) implementation Total Staff Resources 590,000 National experts Capacity Building 55,000 Formal GIS, GPS, road safety courses Field trips 20,000 For data collection and training Fact Finding Trip 22,000 For up to 6 Bappenas staff Total Capacity Building 97,000 Training 12 courses 21 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Item Number Unit Price (US$) Total (US$) Comment Other Project Expenses Consumables, data, imagery, communication, reports 220,000 Contingencies 200,000 Total Other Expenses 420,000 TOTAL 1,474,000 Notes on Budget: Recurrent costs are included in the budget and include: o Software maintenance of approximately US$30,000 per year. This could be less if more opensource and less ESRI products are used; o Consumables is approximately US$35,000 per year; and o Training of about US$15,000 per year. Hardware specifications can be found in Appendix B. A discussion regarding software options can be found in Appendix E. Position descriptions for recommended staff can be found in Appendix F. The pilots recommend a mix of ESRI and open-source GIS software, the mix to be evaluated at the end of the pilots. This may impact the overall software cost. Some hardware could be leased but it is not expected that this would have a significant impact on the budget. 22 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 3: HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS The hardware specifications are indicative only. Spatial Data Server DELL Power Edge R710 (or similar), Quad Core Intel Xeon E5310, 2x4MB Cache 2.0 GHz, Memory 4GB (4x1024), DDR-2 667MHz ECC 2R Fully-Buffered Memory edit, 2 x Hard Drives (SATA/SAS) 250GB 3.5-inch 7.2K RPM SATA II Hard Drive - RAID 1, Operating System Microsoft Windows Server 2008 X32 Standard Ed. Eng (5 CALs). Desktop Computers Processor: Intel or AMD 2.4 GHz or greater. RAM: 2 GB DDR 2 800 HDD: 320 GB, 7200 RPM Optical Drive: Dual Layer DVD reader Graphics: Geforce 9600 or Radeon 4500 series with 512 MB of RAM. Monitor: at least 22” with resolution of at least 1680 x 1050. A0 HP Large Format Inkjet Plotter Technology Colour Thermal Inkjet Max. Resolution 2400 x 1200 dpi Platform PC - Mac Printer Type Large Format Printer Connectivity RJ-45 Network Adapter Media Type Coated paper * Plain Paper * Semi-gloss Paper Total Media capacity 1 Roll Max media Size Roll (106mm) Internal hard drive size Greater than 20,000 MB Memory Min 256 MB Operating System Windows XP, Windows NT Server, Windows 2003 A3 Colour Laserjet Printer Technology Colour LED Max. Resolution 1200 x 600 dpi Platform PC - Mac Printer Type Laser Colour Printer Connectivity RJ-45 Network Adapter/USB Media Type 64-120 g/sq m Total media capacity 400 sheets Max media Size A3 Memory Min 256 MB Operating System Windows XP, Windows NT Server, Windows 2003 23 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Garmin GPS Product Model Garmin 60CSX Interface Serial & USB Waterproof Yes Receiver High Sensitivity Ability to add maps Yes Memory Expendable Custom Point of Interests Yes 24 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 4: ESRI SOFTWARE PRICES Note: These prices may vary and prices should be confirmed with the vendor prior to purchase. ESRI Software Prices ArcGIS ArcView 9.3.1 (includes ArcPress and StreetMap) Single Licence 1st licence 2nd to 10th licences US$2,104 US$1,896 Concurrent Licences 1st licence 2nd to 10th licences US$4,191 US$3,774 ArcGIS Extensions (Single or concurrent licences) 3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, Geostatistical Analyst, ArcGIS Publisher, Network Analyst. 1st licence 2nd to 10th licences US$3,496 US$3,148 ArcGIS Arc Editor 9.3.1 (single or concurrent) 1st licence US$9,756 ArcGIS ArcInfo 9.3.1 1st licence US$19,495 ArcGIS Server Enterprise (Advanced) Up to 4 cores US$55,930 ArcGIS Server Workgroup (Advanced) Price per core US$9,555 25 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 5: PILOT IMPLEMENTATION AT INFRASTRUCTURE DIVISION: DETAILS, ISSUES & RECOMMENDATIONS The pilot projects at the Infrastructure Division are described in Appendix G. They will include t he following steps: 1. select and procure hardware and software; 2. carry out formal training; 3. confirm pilot projects; 4. 5. 6. acquire data to support pilots; implement pilot projects that demonstrate how GIS can be embedded into Infrastructure Division business processes; identify staff requirements to support GIS applications; 7. on-the-job training; and 8. implement web mapping application for all Infrastructure staff. At the same time, Bappenas should be proceeding with the following: 1. 2. establishing a “Spatial Secretariat” to coordinate activities within Bappenas; collaborating with IMS team to ensure spatial information is integrated in the architecture; 3. 4. developing spatial data management procedures and practices that fit with guidelines for nonspatial data; defining relevant staff roles to support GIS applications and data management; 5. reviewing existing GIS applications to ensure compatibility and interoperability; 6. identifying and implementing web mapping application for all Bappenas staff; and 7. developing agreements with other GoI line agencies to share data. Obviously, these activities cannot be carried out in isolation to one another and it is expected t hat GIS activities at the Infrastructure Division will drive and support activities across Bappenas. 1. Hardware Hardware requirements include: Application and data servers Desktop workstations Plotters and printers GPS units and digital cameras Specifications for these can be found in Appendix 2. For the pilots at the Infrastructure Division, we recommend the following hardware be purchased: 5 GIS workstations 1 Data server (to be managed by Pusdatin) 1 A0 plotter (optional) 1 A3 colour printer 3 GPS units 26 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT To best utilise GIS software and to allow for good visualisation of maps, it is recommended that dedicated GIS workstations be acquired with large screens. Existing staff workstations may not hav e the capacity to effectively use GIS software, resulting in slow outputs. These computers should be placed in a location where there is common access. Existing computers should be adequate to run MapWindow or could be upgraded at minimum cost. A centralised and dedicated GIS data server is recommended, to be based at the Pusdatin. This enforces the concept of a single source of data and will provide more effective and efficient data management. An A0 plotter is required to print larger maps but is optional for the pilots. A good quality A3 c olour printer is recommended to supplement existing printers. Colour printing is essential for GIS maps. Field equipment: While most spatial information will be provided from other agencies, on occasions it will be necessary for Bappenas staff to obtain and validate data from field visits. For this, a basic GPS unit will be needed. For the pilots, the Infrastructure Division should acquire three units to be shared among each directorate, as required. 2. Software 2.1 Open Source versus Commercial 2.1.1 Open-source Software Open-source software is distributed freely, together with the source code, which enables the user to customise it. Open-source products typically originate from not-for-profit organisations, universi ties or agencies, such as the UN. Most open-source products have a user community that provides support and enhancements to the base product. There are a growing number of desktop and web-GIS opensource products with functionality that is now comparable to commercial products. Some of the better known ones include: GRASS GeoServer MapBender MapServer MapWindow Open Layers PostGIS Quantum GIS uDIG Using free open-source software enables an organisation to put a GIS on every desktop computer and customise the interface to the users’ specific requirements. However, there is always the concern that the product may not have an enduring future and, generally, commercial products have more features . 2.1.2 Commercial GIS Software The best known commercial GIS products include: AutoCad 27 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ArcGIS (ESRI) CadCorp Intergraph MapInfo Smallworld In Indonesia, ArcGIS and MapInfo are the most common, and most government agencies that have GIS use ESRI products. However, because of the cost, an increasing number of agencies are moving to open-source products. It is important to bear in mind that the cost does not only include the i nitial purchase price but also an annual support and maintenance fee, usually about 20 percent of the purchase price. The prices for ESRI products can be found in Appendix D. ESRI desktop ArcView licences are either single (for an individual workstation) or concurrent (or floating). Concurrent licences are more expensive but provide flexibility as the licence can be shared across a number of workstations. Th ere are also a number of ArcView extensions (3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst) which provide modelling capabilities and may be required by some Bappenas staff. ESRI ArcGIS is recommended over MapInfo because it is more widely used among government agencies in Indonesia. 2.2 Types of Users Typically, an organisation has a number of different types of GIS users who each require access to different functionality and, hence, different software. Briefly, they are described in Table 5 (be low): Table 2.1: Matrix of User Groups Mapped to Functionality Required Functionality Required User Group Power User

General User Data discovery Simple modelling and analysis Map production Casual User Viewing of information Data discovery Simple map production 2.2.1 Create and edit data Modelling Spatial analysis Quality map production Software Recommended ArcView Spatial Analyst Open Source (for example, MapWindow) Web-GIS Web GIS Web GIS applications allow the user to access spatial information via their browser. There is no n eed to purchase a software licence for each computer, although a map serving application is required. Both open-source and commercial map servers are available. The use of open-source map servers (such as MapServer and GeoServer) generally requires significant development effort to implement, while commercial products (such as GeoSamba and ArcGIS Server) can be implemented quicker and 28 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT include built-in functionality that may have to be programmed if open-source map servers are used. Full ArcGIS Server implementation is expensive and not warranted or recommended at this point. At Bappenas, online GIS applications have been developed by some groups (Performance & Evaluation and PNPM Mandiri). In each case they use the DesInventar product developed by UNDP, which is based on open-source products – OpenLayers, MapServer, PostGIS, PostGres and MySQL. UNDP staff have advised that DesInventar can be made more widely available for Bappenas. Consequently, building open-source solutions for Bappenas will not be as time-consuming or expensive as if they were starting from no base. 2.3 Software Options & Recommendations Desktop GIS The following desktop software options are appropriate for the pilots at the Infrastructure Divisi on: Option 1. 5 ArcView single licences – one in each directorate on a dedicated workstation 1 Spatial Analyst Extension (concurrent licence) MapWindow licences for all staff who require personal access to GIS software Option 2. 3 ArcView concurrent licences – that can be shared across all directorates 1 Spatial Analyst Extension (concurrent licence) MapWindow licences for all staff who require access to GIS software Option 3. MapWindow licences for all staff who require access to GIS software The software for options 1 and 2 costs approximately the same (about US$13,200). Concurrent licences are a more efficient use of licences but require that licences do need to be shared – thi s could be inconvenient while staff are learning to use the software and demand is high. Spatial Analyst i s recommended because it provides advanced modelling capabilities that will be of benefit for some evaluation and monitoring activities undertaken by Bappenas staff. Option 3 is basically free in t erms of software but may not provide all the modelling functionality required by Power Users. Consequently, we recommend Option 1. Web GIS DesInventar can be customised and integrated with the Bappenas intranet to provide access to proje ct and proposal information via a map interface. The backend open-source products (Map Server and Open Layers) used in DesInventar are suitable for expanded web-GIS development. 29 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT We recommend that DesInventar be enhanced to serve as an enterprise WebGIS solution for Bappenas, commencing with roll out in the Infrastructure Division. Using DesInventar leverages the development effort already undertaken at PNPM Mandiri. A suitably skilled GIS web developer should be engaged for six months to develop and support the Web-GIS application (see Appendix 6 for job description). Figure 4 shows the hardware/software configuration recommended. Figure 2.1: Hardware & Software Configuration for Pilot at Infrastructure Division 2.4 GIS Skills Development GIS skills and knowledge among Bappenas staff is limited and varies among directorates. Some staff have received formal GIS training, others have acquired it on-the-job. Most of those with some training had not used GIS for at least a few years. Expectations of what GIS can achieve is also v aried, some staff see GIS as a cure for all problems, others have the view that it is not needed at Bappe nas. The following formal GIS training courses are recommended for staff in the Infrastructure Division once the software has been installed: Introduction to GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcView Introduction to MapWindow Introduction to Spatial Analyst Using Web-GIS 30 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT In addition we recommend that an international GIS expert be engaged for the period of the pilots (six months) to provide project management, change management, on-the-job training and to conduct GIS awareness workshops for management (see Appendix E for position description). Other training may be required in conjunction with some of the pilots (for example, data acquisition using GPS and satellite image interpretation). 2.5 Data Acquisition & Management The pilots rely on information being provided from a number of other GoI agencies. Critical to the success of GIS implementation at Bappenas is the development of agreements with these government agencies to provide spatial data in digital format. The pilots provide the opportunity to develop these agreements, similar to the MoU between Bappenas and BPS currently being negotiated. Once received at Bappenas, the spatial data needs to be reviewed and approved by the Pusdatin (Spatial Data Manager) for completeness and metadata. The data is then submitted for inclusion on the spatial data server for use by Bappenas staff and for publication. From time to time, project specific data will be acquired by Bappenas staff to model and analyse a specific project. Once this process is completed, the data should be validated and stored on the s patial data server, in a similar manner to that required for data obtained directly from government sourc es. Figure 5 describes this process. We recommend that the Pusdatin should be responsible for the administration and management of spatial data, together with their responsibility for nonspatial data. However, the responsibility for data content should remain with the data custodians (the creators or suppliers of the data). We also recommend that a full-time Spatial Data Manager be engaged by Bappenas, initially based at the Infrastructure Division but after the pilots to be moved to the Pusdatin. A position descripti on for this role can be found at Appendix F. As part of the pilots, some information (such as RKP, PPP and loan projects) will be converted fro m hardcopy format to a database linked to features in the GIS. Once complete, this information will be provided to the Pusdatin for management and publishing. Further, as part of the pilots, Infrastructure staff may need to generate new data from GPS field surveys or from remote sensing. These data will also be provided to the Pusdatin. 31 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Figure 2.2: Recommended Data Management Process 2.5.1 Data Model Figure 2.3: Proposed Data Model 32 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT The data model integrates information received from different suppliers, so that data may be efficiently stored and retrieved. It describes the relationships between datasets received from a variety of providers. The basis for the data model are administrative boundaries and most other data link to this dataset. This includes both national and project generated data. This data model is conceptual and will need to be refined once the pilots commence when the actual data to be used is confirmed and the data fields known. 2.6 Human Resources As identified above, three additional personnel are required to manage and implement the six-month capacity building program and pilots. They are: International GIS Expert – to coordinate activities, assist with change management and carry out formal and on-the-job training; National GIS Database Specialist – to develop and implement the data model, acquire data and populate database, develop data management procedures and train staff; and National Web-GIS Developer – to develop corporate web mapping interface, in conjunction with Pusdatin. Position descriptions for these personnel can be found in Appendix F. Initially, they will be base d in the Infrastructure Division. It is recommended that, providing performance is satisfactory, the two national staff be engaged b y Bappenas after the pilots are completed, to be based with the Pusdatin. 2.7 Bappenas Integrated Decision Support & Data Management System Bappenas is currently designing an integrated IMS to support its national development planning and monitoring and evaluation processes. The aim is to store all Bappenas data in a single data wareho use with a data search and discover capability. Some analytical and modelling tools will also be avail able. Location is the means by which most of this information can be truly integrated. Hence, it is esse ntial that access to, and management of, spatial information is considered in the architectural design p hase of this IMS. Of particular importance is the database. We recommend that SQL Server2008 be used so that the spatial data can be stored in the database, rather than in separate files (all editions o f SQL Server 2008 support spatial data). The design should also take into consideration accepting a WMS from other government agencies, which is proposed as part of the NSDI. 33 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 6: POSITION DESCRIPTIONS International GIS Expert Position : Senior GIS Database Specialist (International) Location : Bappenas, Jakarta Duration : 6 months Duties and Responsibilities

Oversee implementation of GIS at Bappenas Prepare program to execute pilot projects

Assist with development of User Requirements In conjunction with Pusdatin, prepare data model and populate database Develop guidelines for “best practice” data management Implement change management at Bappenas associated with GIS introduction Help establish a “Spatial Secretariat” at Bappenas Support the Spatial Secretariat to develop data sharing agreements with other GoI line agencies Conduct formal and on-the-job GIS training Schedule other training (GPS, remote sensing) as required Conduct workshops for Bappenas management on benefits of GIS Implement web-based solutions to support information integration and decision support Liaison with Bakosurtanal regarding integration with the NSDI framework Qualifications/Experience

University degree in Geography, Planning, Computer Science, GIS or other relevant field; Minimum of ten (10) years of relevant work experience; Proven experience developing and managing teams and mentoring senior staff;

Competent user of ArcGIS; Proven training experience; Understanding of data issues in Indonesia; Sound knowledge and understanding of interoperable SDI;

End-to-end project management and delivery; Knowledge in IT architecture and distributed data; Knowledge of database structures and models; Interface design and development experience;

Experience publishing data over the web; Understanding of web security issues: securing Web Services, data access restrictions;

Understanding of metadata standards; Previous experience working in Indonesia; Ability to write clearly and concisely in English; Knowledge of Indonesian language desirable. 34 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT National GIS Database Specialist Position : GIS Database Specialist (National) Location : Bappenas, Jakarta Duration : 6 months Duties and Responsibilities

Working with Pusdatin, develop and implement data model for spatial data at Bappenas Develop data management procedures Liaise with GoI line agencies to acquire spatial data Populate geodatabase Manage data conversion from hardcopy products, as required

Training Liaise with Bakosurtanal regarding access to NSDI Qualifications/Experience

Degree or Diploma in Computer Science, GIS or other relevant field or equivalent; Minimum of five (5) years of relevant work experience; Proven experience managing and administering spatial databases; Practical experience with ESRI GIS products, MS Access; Experience with web mapping applications, geodatabases and open-source software; Understanding of SDI (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards; Proven training experience; Ability to write clearly and concisely in English. National GIS Web Developer Position : GIS Web Developer (National) Location : Bappenas, Jakarta Duration : 6 months Duties and Responsibilities

Customise open-source products (DesInventar) to meet needs of Bappenas staff Gather user requirements for web-GIS applications Training Preparation of training manuals

Integrate GIS with other Bappenas web-based solutions Liaise with Bakosurtanal regarding access to NSDI 35 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Qualifications/Experience

Degree or Diploma in Computer Science, GIS or other relevant field or equivalent; Minimum of three (3) years of relevant work experience; Experience developing web-mapping applications, including open-source software;

Practical experience with ESRI GIS products (desirable); Web development using Java; Understanding of Web Services; Understanding of SDI and OGC standards (desirable);

Proven training experience; Ability to write clearly and concisely in English. 36 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 7: PILOT PROJECTS Description Water Management & Irrigation Objectives Data Requirements Outputs/Outcomes Project Evaluation & Monitoring The Directorate of Water Management & Irrigation (WMI) 1. Provide WMI staff receives proposals to increase the water available for irrigation with the skills, tools to meet increasing agricultural demands. WMI is required to and data so they can independently assess whether these proposals meet RPJM goals independently and whether the proposal can be implemented effectively. evaluate proposals. These proposals typically have a social cost (resettlement) 2. Develop linkages which must be weighed against the economic benefit. WMI is with other also required to carry out post-implementation monitoring to government agencies ascertain if the predicted outcomes have been achieved. All the so they willingly information used by WMI for evaluation is normally provided provide relevant to them by the proposer. Yet the evaluation is supposed to be spatial data. independent. 3. Foster collaboration This pilot aims to make relevant spatial information available and sharing of to staff at WMI, together with the appropriate analysis tools information across (GIS), so they can evaluate and monitor the outcomes of the Bappenas proposal. directorates. The pilot will require information from the Directorates of 4. Locate and map all Land Administration & Spatial Planning and Regional projects for current Development, hence providing the opportunity for crossRKP. directorate collaboration. While this pilot will focus on one project area, the location of all projects that are part of the current RKP will be identified and mapped in the GIS. Dams Irrigation network Changes in land use Rainfall

Infrastructure Topography Socio-economic Resettlement Imagery Spatial plans Land ownership and value RKP projects Hydrology/Rivers Flood plains/catchment areas Contours Outputs: Staff trained to use GIS, GPS and remote sensing for information gathering, modelling and project evaluation. MoUs signed with other government agencies regarding data sharing. GIS database for all current RKP projects. Outcomes: Ability to undertake independent evaluations. More accurate post-implementation monitoring. Improved ability to prioritise projects. 37 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Description Energy, Telecommunications & Informatics Objectives This pilot will bring together all the relevant information required by ETI to assist with the prioritising of proposals, together with the tools to enable access to, and visualisation of, this information for decision makers. Outputs/Outcomes Prioritisation & Visualisation 1. The Directorate for Energy, Telecommunications & Informatics (ETI) is required to prioritise proposals for new energy supplies. It receives many proposals from a number of government agencies. Generally, these are reviewed in isolation to one another. ETI would like to have the capability to visualise the inter-relationship of these proposals, together with relevant data on energy sources and networks and energy needs for the next five years (RPJM), so that they can better prioritise 2. project proposals and allocate budgets. In particular, the government wants to increase the proportion of renewable energy projects in provinces. Data Requirements Provide ETI staff with the skills, tools and data so they can visualise the interrelationship of proposals and prioritise them more convincingly. Develop linkages with other government agencies so they willingly provide relevant spatial data. 3. Locate all energy proposals for current RPJM. 4. Locate all geothermal plants. Administration boundaries Roads, railways Transmission lines Power stations Distribution networks (electricity and gas) Oil and LPG storage and plants Renewable energy sites Energy resources (for example, geothermal) Population centres (cities) Population Socio-economic (% poverty) Imagery Spatial plans Geological Data - fault lines, geological structure of the area Volcanic data Outputs: Staff trained to use GIS for information management and visualisation. MoUs signed with other government agencies regarding data sharing. GIS database for all current RPJM energy projects and geothermal plants. Outcomes: Improved ability to prioritise projects. Improved capacity to understand inter-relationship of projects. Ability to identify locations for potential geothermal power plants. 38 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Description Transportation Objectives It will also map all the proposed transport projects for the next RKP and assess them against the RPJMN objectives. Outputs/Outcomes Analysis of Options 1. Transport staff have the skills, tools and information to analyse different options. Consequently, there can arise competing priorities for transport 2. Demonstrate how options from these two agencies and the Transportation GIS can provide Directorate at Bappenas is required to arbitrate. It does not objective analysis. always have the information to adequately adjudicate. 3. Locate all transport RKP projects and This pilot considers access to the port at Tanjung Priok in analyse against Jakarta, in particular the rail and road options. It will gather the national targets. information required to undertake a high-level analysis of the options and train staff in GIS modelling techniques. The Ministry of Transport has responsibility for rail networks in Indonesia, while the Ministry of Public Works has responsibility for road networks. Data Requirements Tanjong Priok port layout and infrastructure (including 5km buffer around port) Rail network Toll road network Land ownership Land use Socio-economic Traffic information Travel time from industrial areas Accident locations and severity Port capacity and expansion plans RKP transport projects Outputs: Staff trained to use GIS for analysis and modelling. Staff trained to use GPS for data collection. GIS database for all current RKP transport projects. Outcomes: Improved ability to analyse projects and recommend options. Objectivity of GIS demonstrated. Transport projects checked against national targets (RPJMN). Housing & Settlement (to be confirmed) 39 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Description Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) Objectives Outputs/Outcomes Project Analysis & Feasibility 1. Provide PPP staff with the skills, tools and data so they can analyse the impact and benefits of proposals, prior to going to a feasibility study. 2. Develop linkages This pilot will demonstrate how GIS can assist with the with other analysis of project by modelling the impact of the proposed government agencies airport on existing airports and identifying its inter-relationship so they willingly with existing and proposed toll roads. provide relevant For example, the analysis may identify additional revenue to spatial data. the proposed toll roads from the potential traffic generated by 3. Locate and map all Kertajati airport. Similarly, Kertajati airport may benefit from current PPP additional access provided by the proposed toll roads. This proposals. information would make both proposals more attractive to potential investors therefore a feasibility study can be commissioned. It will also map all current PPP proposals to identify gaps. The PPP Directorate is required to evaluate and prioritise projects that are suitable for funding through Public-Private partnerships. Projects are typically provided in isolation to one another, with limited data to support an evaluation. Consequently, expensive pre-feasibility studies are required. One example is the proposed Kertajati Airport in West Java and a number of toll roads that are adjacent to it. Data Requirements

Airports Roads, railways Land use Socio-economic Spatial plans Imagery Outputs: Staff trained to use GPS, satellite imagery and GIS to acquire and model information. MoUs signed with other government agencies regarding data sharing. GIS database for all PPP projects. Options for Kertajati airport identified. Outcomes: Improved ability to analyse the impact of a development proposal. Improved capacity to understand how projects can impact each other – benefits and constraints. Cost savings, resulting from more stringent selection of projects suitable for feasibility studies. 40 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 8: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background The Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII) was established in July 2008 as part of the Austra lia Indonesia Partnership under the Infrastructure for Growth Initiative (IFGI). IndII has three components to its structure–one is concerned with infrastructure project management, one with removing policy and regulatory constraints to infrastructure development, and the last is a grants program directed at enhancing social and environmental impacts of the government’s infrastructure projects. In this activity, specialist GIS consulting company, NGIS Australia, has been engaged by IndII to work with Bappenas to review its GIS requirements. The key concerns for Bappenas are: importance of communicating infrastructure needs to a wide audience of investors; monitoring changes in the economic situation linked to the development of infrastructure; monitoring and evaluating the performance of the various infrastructure sectors; and the need for up-to-date information, indicators and tools to assist decision makers to monitor current and past infrastructure projects. 1.2. Project Objectives To determine whether a GIS is required in Bappenas to manage its data analysis needs. If so, to recommend options for GIS implementation. 1.3. Project Scope The scope is focused on the Infrastructure Division of Bappenas (Deputi Bidang Saran dan Prasarana), in particular the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Directorate. The information use, technical capacity and GIS potential of the Infrastructure Division was reviewed in detail. In so doing, its relationship with counterparts in other divisions within Bappenas was evaluated. While options and recommendations are specific to the Infrastructure Division, they are made in such a way that they are relevant to all of Bappenas. As Bappenas works in collaboration with a number of other government agencies, the following other government departments were also consulted: Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Transport, Bina Marga, PLN, BPS, BPN, Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources, Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs, Bakosurtanal and UNDP. National policies on data acquisition and sharing were reviewed and considered in order to ascertain realistic opportunities for inter-agency cooperation . World “best practice” models for data sharing, access and management are described and incorporate d into an appropriate solution for Bappenas. This Situational Analysis also considers the Executive Information System currently being implemented at Bappenas, using SAS products, and how GIS can best fit within the proposed IMS architecture. 41 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 1.4. Methodology A number of methods to collect relevant information from Bappenas staff and other agencies were used to prepare the review. These included: Interviews: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a number of subdirectorates within the Infrastructure Division and, where possible, a subdirectorate from other departments. The aim was to understand their business processes and the associated use of information, any issues encountered and how to improve existing processes. Interviews were also undertaken with staff from other government agencies and the UN. A list of people interviewed can be found in Appendix A. Questionnaires: A questionnaire was distributed to selected Bappenas staff. The objective of the questionnaire was to collate information regarding the types of activities undertaken by the staff , what information they required to support these activities, how the information was obtained and any issues experienced. Seven questionnaires were completed and returned (from about 15 distributed) across a range of directorates. The questionnaire can be found in Appendix B. Workshops: A workshop was held with the Transport subdirectorate to understand how they prepare their mid-term development plan. Another workshop was conducted with the PublicPrivate Par tnership (PPP) subdirectorate. The objective of the workshops was to capture the business processes, data input and the expected outcome of the process. We are confident that this combination of approaches provided adequate information from a representative cross-section of Bappenas staff for the researchers to be able to undertake the ana lysis required. 1.5. Purpose of the Document This document reviews the current situation at Bappenas, in particular the Infrastructure Division , with respect to its objectives, use of information to meet these objectives and GIS capacity (both tech nical and in terms of staff resources). It describes some of the issues facing Bappenas and how GIS can address these issues and provide long-term benefits. This document serves as the background to a final report that will propose recommendations for Bappenas and an Implementation Plan. It also provides information to key staff at Bappenas and Ind II to encourage further discussion. 42 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 2. CURRENT SITUATION This section describes the function of Bappenas and its mandate. It also describes how information is used by Bappenas to meet its objectives and the drivers for change. It describes the current GIS u se and capacity at Bappenas and, in particular, the operations of the Infrastructure Division. 2.1. Bappenas Mandate & Objectives Bappenas is responsible for the formulation of development planning, coordination, monitoring and evaluation at the national level. Bappenas is also responsible for financial arrangements (funding priorities and distribution) for development programs, in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance . This is enshrined in government regulations and presidential decrees (see below). Bappenas also has a role to play in supporting rapid response to disasters. 2.1.1. Laws and Regulations Bappenas mandates and responsibilities are clearly defined in Presidential Decree No.82/2007: Formulation of National Development Plan Coordination of the National Development Plan process Monitoring and evaluation of the progress of National Development Plan Budget preparation for development programs in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance and National Development Planning Minister Coordinate domestic and foreign funds sourcing in cooperation with relevant government agencies Monitor the implementation of development projects identified from National Development Plan Preparation of reviews and recommendations on the implementation of National Development Plan to the president General administrative duties The above presidential decree provides high-level guidelines to Bappenas. The mandates and objectives are expanded further for each directorate. The Ministerial Decree PER.005/M.PPN/10/2007 defined Infrastructure’s directorate functions and responsibilities. 2.1.2. National Development Plans To fulfil its mandate, Bappenas prepares a series of development plans in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance and relevant ministries. In general, the development plans are grouped into: Long-term national development plan (RPJPN) (25 years); Mid-term national development plan (RPJMN) (5 years); and Work schedules (RKP/RKPD) (1 year). 43 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 2.2. Infrastructure Division Deputy Infrastructure is required to develop and implement policy on national infrastructure plann ing and to evaluate proposals and monitor their implementation. It is divided into five directorates, each with sub directorates: Irrigation and Water Supply Swamp, Irrigation & Water Management River, Coast, Dam and Lake Water Resources Infrastructure Institution Transportation Land Transportation Sea Transportation Air Transportation Road Transportation Housing and Settlement Drinking Water & Waste Water Garbage and Drainage Housing and Settlement Development Energy, Telecommunication and Information Energy Development & Utilisation Electric Power Telecommunication & Informatics Public-Private Partnership Development Institutional, Information and Regulation Rate and Risk Analysis Budgeting and Investment cooperation Each directorate has between 10 and 14 staff, responsible for: Preparation of national development planning policy Synchronising and coordination of National Development Planning National Development Planning implementation Monitoring, Evaluation & Analysis of National Development Planning progress reports 2.3. Drivers Bappenas is typical of most GoI departments with respect to its acquisition and management of information. Over time, it has developed a number of operational and divisional databases to meet 44 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT specific needs. This information typically resides in data silos, with the result that it is not e asy to integrate the different databases and there is some level of duplication. Access to reliable, consistent and up-to-date information is crucial for the operations of any bus iness. Bappenas management recognise that to achieve this, better information management and access procedures need to be implemented. Bappenas is seeking to facilitate better integration of, and access to, planning-related informati on. Spatial systems can support this aim. The benefits of implementing a corporate-wide spatial information solution include: better integration among different directorates and deputies; everyone using the same version of the data (“single point of truth”); improved reporting; improved information management and access; data duplication and data silos eliminated; centralised and intuitive access to all corporate information through a single point; ability to respond to emergencies more quickly and effectively. The drive to develop NSDI also means that in the near future more national datasets will be availa ble and Bappenas needs to be ready to use them effectively (see Section 3.1 below). 2.4. Data Use & Management at Bappenas As a coordinating agency, Bappenas generally does not collect its own data; instead it relies on o ther departments to supply data to support its activities. Bappenas receives project proposals for revi ew from government agencies at all levels. As an example, these proposals could be for a railway expansion or a new toll road. The proposals include supporting information such as costs estimate, environmental and social impact assessment and an implementation plan. The proposals and supporting information typically come in hardcopy format and are scanned, prior to distribution, a nd are stored in Bappenas’s Electronic Library System (ELS). This is the only central record of propo sals maintained by Bappenas. Typical proposal documentation contains maps of the location of the proposed project, existing lan d use, technical drawings of proposed structure and adjacent infrastructure. These are usually provi ded as hardcopy products, often at different scales. As a result, information is difficult to manipula te or analyse, layers cannot be overlaid and information storage and retrieval is cumbersome. Appendix D identifies the spatial data used by Bappenas and the agencies that provide it. One of Bappenas’s mandates is to provide an independent review of development project proposals. Therefore it is not sufficient for Bappenas to simply accept and adopt the supplied studies, analy sis and recommendations. Bappenas must be able to perform independent high-level evaluation of the proposals. Hence, it must be able to acquire and use independent information to assist this proces s. Interviews with Bappenas staff indicated that this was often difficult to achieve. The questionnaire also highlighted the following issues: difficulty in obtaining relevant data; data is often outdated and incomplete; no data description (metadata); 45 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT need to know the location of projects, existing infrastructure; project impacts and constraints are too narrowly focussed; data is often isolated from other directorates; and no means for data discovery. In general, Bappenas staff rely on other organisations to provide the information they need to undertake their duties and they have inadequate resources to validate the information. There is no formal process for acquiring information from other government agencies or from other sections in Bappenas. This is typically achieved by informal requests and the process can be quite time consuming. Figure 2.1: Data Management at Bappenas The diagram above (Figure 2.1) demonstrates how each directorate and subdirectorate collects, stor es and manages their own data. This leads to information duplication and makes data discovery and access difficult. 2.5. Examples of GIS Use at Bappenas At Bappenas, there are a number of units that are using GIS for a specific purpose. This has gener ally occurred because someone in that unit had previous GIS skills or because of collaboration with an external agency that was using GIS. These GIS applications are being developed independently and often in isolation from one another, resulting in data duplication and siloed information. In some cases, the units are protective of what they developed and are not keen to share it with other groups wit hin Bappenas. The take-up of GIS by subdirectorates is expected to continue and it is critical to prov ide an integrated approach for GIS implementation to ensure compatibility and reduce duplication. The following use of GIS at Bappenas was identified and there may be other isolated examples. 46 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 2.5.1. Regional Development and Planning The Regional Development and Planning Directorate has established a Data Utilisation Unit (DUU) to develop spatially dynamic models to meet its mandate. Law No.17/2007 stipulates that development plans must incorporate spatial planning laws. The unit has recently completed a data modelling exercise to illustrate the potential of desktop GIS technologies (ArcGIS) to incorporate spatial planning data in data modelling. The model uses BPS statistical data and Bakosurtanal administrati ve boundaries to produce a number of scenarios for economic development on Sumatra and Java. This project is funded via a loan from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) and is a component of Indonesia’s NSDI implementation strategy. Figure 2.2: Sample Output from DUU GIS Application 2.5.2. Spatial Planning and Land Administration One of the main programs in this subdirectorate is the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM) Mandiri. The PNPM project is a collaboration between a few sectors within Bappenas: Human Resources and Culture (SDM), Regional Infrastructure for Social and Economic Development (PISEW) and Regional Planning and Development. The PNPM Mandiri program focuses on alleviating poverty through infrastructure projects. The program is developing a centralised information system to monitor progress and activities from a number of its initiatives (RISE, SPADA, PPIP, PPK and P2KP) and to share the information among its stakeholders. The system is based on the UNDP DesInventar product, customised to meet its particul ar requirements. DesInventar is an open-source product and utilises data from Bakosurtanal (administrative boundaries) and BPS (socio-economic statistics). Bappenas staff primarily use it f or data visualisation (for example, location of villages adjacent to infrastructure projects) and for simple report and map generation. 47 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Figure 2.3: DesInventar GIS Interface used by PNPM Mandiri Project 2.5.3. Performance and Evaluation Performance & Evaluation is a new directorate established in 2009 to focus on the evaluation of progress/outcomes from the various projects approved by Bappenas. The directorate is also responsible for rapid impact assessment during disasters. GIS has been used in the past to assist this directorate to meet this second objective. The direct orate uses UNDP’s DesInventar to overlay information and assist with rapid damage assessment reports. It is basically a viewing tool and limited by the reliability of the information that it has access t o. At least two groups within Bappenas are using DesInventar and its suitability for wider use needs to be evaluated. It is a simple GIS-based data viewing tool, originally designed for generic disaster management. Figure 2.4: DesInventar Interface showing Location of Recent Disasters in Indonesia 48 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 2.6. Bappenas Integrated Decision Support & Data Management System Bappenas is implementing an integrated information management system to support its national development planning and monitoring and evaluation processes. The aim is to store all Bappenas dat a in a single data warehouse with a data search and discover capability. Some analytical and modelli ng tools will also be available. The information will be used to support decision making and make information available via mobile devices. The implementation team is currently gathering users’ requirements and will commence system design in September 2009, with a view to full system implementation in 2011 to assist the 2011 RKP formulation. One of the main objectives of the new information management system is to store data and documents from all directorates in one central location. Each directorate currently stores and manages their own data. This practice leads to data duplication and information silos and means that data sharing is difficult. Figure 2.5 reflects the new architecture where data, from external agencies or from wit hin Bappenas are to be loaded and stored in a central database. Figure 2.5: Proposed IMS Overview This IMS initiative provides the opportunity to also store spatial data with the textual data in a managed environment. Before this can occur, a number of issues have to be resolved, such as data custodianship, data models and data management practices. However, it is important that the search ing functionality and the architecture developed for the IMS incorporates spatial information. 2.7. Staff Technical Capacity From the sample of staff that was surveyed, GIS skills and knowledge among Bappenas staff is limit ed and varies between directorates. Some staff have received formal GIS training, others have acquire d it on-the-job. Most of those with some training had not used GIS for at least a few years. The expectations of what GIS can achieve was also varied, some staff unrealistically seeing GIS as a c ure for all problems. Should Bappenas implement a GIS solution, considerable training for staff will be required at a number of levels. 49 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 3. OTHER INITIATIVES This section describes other initiatives and projects occurring in Indonesia and worldwide that ma y have an impact on Bappenas. 3.1. GoI Initiatives and Mandates There are a number of laws, including presidential decrees that govern the use and dissemination o f spatial information. 3.1.1. NSDI Presidential Decree No.85/2007 provides legal foundation and support from the President of Indones ia for a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). Article 6 of this decree places the responsibil ity to collect, maintain and disseminate national information clearly with the government agency responsi ble for the information. This means that there is an obligation for government agencies to share information with each other at no or minimal cost. Bakosurtanal is the leading agency for NSDI implementation. Funded by a grant from the Japanese government, it has commenced pilot projects for Bali, providing access to spatial data online. The next stage is for similar projects in Surabaya and Yogyakarta. At the national level, Bakosurtanal is developing VPN access to 11 national government agencies to access spatial data via Web Mapping Services (WMS). Bappenas is represented in this group. This project is expected to be operational by October 2009, but will initially only provide a list of available static maps; the WMS service wil l follow. In the short term, Bappenas will need to continue to access information directly from line agencie s, but once the WMS service is fully operational, much of the data it will require can be accessed via th is service. To utilise it, a user requires desktop GIS software or a GIS-based web viewer, such as GeoSamba or GeoServer. It is important that the architecture implemented for spatial information i s designed in a way to take advantage of this service, when it occurs. 3.1.2. Spatial Planning The law 17/2007 and 26/2007, stipulated that spatial planning at all levels of government (provinc ial, district and subdistrict) should be completed by April 2009. In addition, Presidential Decree No.26/2008 requires that spatial planning be integrated at the national level . Bappenas has the responsibility of ensuring that the spatial plans are integrated and compatible and comply with na tional policies. This is a daunting task and one difficult to achieve without the use of GIS. However, a number of obstacles remain to be overcome, not least of which is the compatibility of the provinci al and district spatial plans. 3.1.3. E-Government The law 11/2008 defines the framework on the use, management and access of electronic data. This provides the foundation for data accessibility and sharing between government agencies. The Minist ry of Public Works is preparing a ministerial decree on public access to electronic data. In essence it stipulates that data collected by government agencies (spatial or nonspatial) must be accessible t o the public (where appropriate). When this decree is in place, in theory it will encourage data sharing 50 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT among agencies. Bappenas needs to be ready to be able to accept these data and it could also play a role in making it happen. 3.2. Relationship with Other Projects There are a number of projects external to Bappenas that should be taken into account when reviewing GIS requirements for Bappenas as these projects may influence the outcome of GIS implementation. 3.2.1. The UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG) were established in 2000 as the targets for raising communities out of poverty. In Indonesia, the UNDP has developed a website that utilis es GIS technologies to monitor MDG progress. The website is based on DesInventar and utilises BPS data. This information and software are available to Bappenas and some groups within Bappenas are already utilising it. DesInventar implementation in Indonesia is a cooperation between UNDP, Bappenas, BNPB, Ministry of Home Affairs and DFID. Further information is available at http://dibi.bnpb.go.id/DesInventar/about.jsp. 3.2.2. Ministry of Transport The Ministry of Transport commenced a data capture project in 2008. This project is capturing majo r transport assets, such as airports, harbours and train stations as point information. As part of t he NSDI, this information will be available as a WMS service. The Ministry of Transport is also developing Rail and Sea Transport Master Plans. One of the objectives of the rail master plan is to identify areas for rail network expansion and the feasibility of involving the private sector. Bappenas needs to be aware of these master plans when evaluating projects. It currently receives t he information in hardcopy format only. This makes it difficult to evaluate new proposals adequately. The WMS data service from the Ministry of Transport will also provide information that can support Bappenas’s activities. 3.2.3. Ministry of Public Works Bina Marga (a unit within the Ministry of Public Works (PU)) manages a national road database of some 36,000 km of roads. The road attributes are updated yearly but road positions were last updat ed in 2003. A new project to update road locations using in-car GPS is currently underway and it is expected that within a few years an accurate national roads database for the whole of Indonesia wi ll be available. As part of the NSDI project, this dataset will be available via a WMS service. Access t o this dataset by Bappenas will greatly help it to meet is project evaluation responsibilities. At PU, the Pusdata (Centre for Data and Information) is investigating a web-based GIS solution to provide access to spatial data to the rest of the ministry. They plan to use open-source products for this application. This will potentially increase the amount of data available to other agencies, such a s Bappenas. 51 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 3.3. Google Earth & MS Virtual Earth Web-based mapping products such as Google Earth and Microsoft Bing Maps (previously known as Virtual Earth) can be used as an alternative for background data for many GIS applications. The resolution of these products varies from sub-metre (in some cities) to over 100 metres in less populated, remote areas. Most of Indonesia is covered by Landsat satellite imagery with a resoluti on of 25-30 metres, with some cities having imagery available at 1-3 metres. The imagery is typically 2-3 years old; older in some locations. However, for many applications, this imagery is quite appropri ate. Figure 2.6: DesInventar Interface using Google Earth Data as Background Google Earth and Bing Maps can be integrated with GIS applications, such as ArcGIS Server, GeoSamba and MapGuide. An agency can overlay its corporate information to provide a locational context. At a simple level, this can be done at no cost, but if an agency wants to use Google Eart h or Bing Maps as part of an operational system, fees apply. At this point it is not clear whether Google Earth and Bing Maps would be part of an operational G IS solution for Bappenas. This will depend on Bappenas users’ requirements. As a point of interest, the UNDP DesInventar solution displays data from BPS and Bakosurtanal on a Google Earth background (see Figure 2.6 above). 52 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 4. PROJECT PLANNING & EVALUATION AT BAPPENAS This section describes how projects are identified, prioritised and evaluated at Bappenas and how GIS can fit into some of these processes. 4.1. Development Planning Process Figure 4.1: Development Planning Process Figure 4.1 (above) illustrates the development planning process in Bappenas. The National Long-ter m Development Plan (RPJPN) provides Bappenas with the Government of Indonesia’s missions and visions for the next 25 years. The RPJPN is divided into five Mid-Term Development Plans (RPJM), each plan lasts for five years. Line ministers prepare their development plans in accordance with the themes and objectives of the mid-term plans set out by Bappenas. The plans are further divided int o five Annual Development Programs (ADP). These programs contain project proposals for implementation. There are a number of points in this process where GIS can assist. 53 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 4.2. Mid-Term Development Plan Figure 4.2: Mid-Term Development Plan Figure 4.2 (above) illustrates influencing factors in the formulation of the RPJM for the Transpor t Directorate. The RPJM would provide the framework and guidelines for line ministers for the development of their strategic development plan (Renstra). GIS can be used to make this process clearer, more transparent and auditable, promoting “good governance” in infrastructure planning an d project selection. 4.3. Project Evaluation Once Bappenas has finalised the RPJMN, line ministers prepare their development program proposals. When completed, the program proposals are submitted to the respective divisions within Bappenas (for example, Infrastructure Division) for review and evaluation. The division evaluates each prog ram proposal against a number of criteria: RPJMN program priorities and specific objectives (for examp le, 20 percent of the APBN is set aside for education), while the Deputy of Funding and the Minister o f Finance review the source and methods for project funding. The draft implementation plan and funding (RKP) are submitted to the House of Representatives (DPR) for input. Figure 4.3 illustrates this process and identifies where GIS can support it. 54 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Figure 4.3: Project Evaluation Process 4.4. PPP Projects Projects that require nongovernment funding can be financed through loans, grants or private partnerships. The Public-Private Partnership (PKPS) directorate reviews project suitability for pr ivate funding before commissioning detailed feasibility studies. GIS can support the evaluation and feasibility studies and monitor their progress. 55 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Figure 4.4: The Evaluation & Funding Process for PPP Projects 56 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 5. BENEFITS OF GIS This section summarises some of the issues facing Bappenas, how GIS can assist to resolve them and its benefits and the risks associated with GIS implementation. 5.1. Summary of Issues The situational analysis identified a number of issues that impact on how Bappenas carries out its mandate both now and in the future. They include: Data Silos: Each directorate collects and maintains the data it requires to carry out its duties. This has resulted in a large number of disparate databases. This data is typically not managed using best practice procedures, is unknown to other sections of Bappenas and, hence, there is little opportunity for data sharing. Insufficient Data: Because of time and resource constraints, Bappenas staff often have to rely on the information provided as part of the proposal to evaluate the proposal. At times these data are inadequate and inaccurate, making it difficult to undertake an independent review. Government Decrees: Recent government and presidential decrees have placed an increased burden on Bappenas to locate, evaluate, coordinate and monitor projects. This will only increase over time. GIS Islands: There are a few isolated instances of GIS use at Bappenas. This is resulting in solutions being developed on different platforms and significant duplication of effort. GIS Knowledge: There is limited knowledge of, and skill in using, GIS technology at Bappenas. In fact, some staff consider it will be a cure-all for many of their problems. Central IMS: The new integrated decision support and data management system currently being designed for Bappenas needs to include spatial information within its architecture. This implementation should include guidelines for data management. NSDI: Plans to implement an NSDI may make more data available for Bappenas. Bappenas should be actively involved in the VPN project currently being implemented. DesInventar: As a couple of groups within Bappenas currently use DesInventar, its appropriateness for extended use at Bappenas needs to be considered. Google Earth/Bing Maps: As the information from these sources becomes more current, they become more viable as alternatives for providing base data for overlaying project/proposal information. Information Sharing: Some directorates within Bappenas are often loathe to share data and can be secretive regarding applications they have developed. An improved information-sharing culture and associated policies will improve the effectiveness of Bappenas. 5.2. Strategic Benefits Bappenas’s mandate requires it to prepare new five-year plans (RPJM), evaluate previous RPJMs, prioritise projects for implementation and identify suitable funding models. This is currently ach ieved by relying on information provided to them in a variety of hardcopy documents and through limited field investigations. Frequently they are unable to verify the information that has been provided and project evaluations are undertaken in isolation of one another. 57 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT GIS is a tool that provides information integration, as well as analysis, and can provide access t o corporate information through a single point. The benefits it provides to Bappenas are identified in Table 5.1. Table 5.1: Benefits of GIS for Bappenas Activity Project Evaluation and Monitoring Benefits More accurate information coming from source agencies Integration of information acquired by different methods (from agencies, through field trips, imagery) Evaluations are more credible and auditable Process is quicker and more effective More effective monitoring of post-project benefits Ability to undertake independent reviews of projects Project Planning and Identification Identify areas where projects are required (gaps) Understand regional impacts of projects Ability to see “whole picture” and make more informed decisions Project Prioritisation Ability to see and understand inter-relationship of projects (based on location) Understand whether projects complement or conflict with one another Identify where there are gaps Fosters good governance processes Funding and Promotion Easy access to information for stakeholders Potential partners can see the complete picture Improved public participation Spatial Planning Improved compliance with regulations Integration of spatial plans from provinces Identify inconsistencies Disaster Response Improved response times More accurate assessments of damage and impacts More reliable decisions 58 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Activity Benefits “Single point of truth” that is used throughout Bappenas, resulting in more reliable decisions Corporate Less duplication of data and effort Improved data management Improved quality of reports Increased sharing of information among directorates Elimination of data silos Improved ability to “discover” data available Greater productivity from existing staff Fosters inter-agency collaboration Reduction of long-term costs GIS provides a platform on which business applications can more readily be built 5.3. Risks/Constraints No project is without risks and there are a number that may hinder and constrain the implementatio n of GIS at Bappenas if they are not identified and contingency plans developed. Some of these risks are beyond the scope of Bappenas, yet their impact needs to be considered. Table 5.2 below identifies some of the risks, their potential impact and proposed mitigation actions. Table 5.2: Risks Risk Ability to share information within Bappenas. Impact High Action Develop and implement guidelines for better data management Successful pilot projects to identify benefits Protectiveness of some directorates with respect to what they have and what they are doing. Medium Availability of data from other agencies in appropriate formats. High Clear directives from senior management Successful pilot projects to identify benefits Continue to develop mutually relationships with key agencies Provide information appropriate back beneficial to agency, where Training needs assessment required Low level of GIS skills and understanding at Bappenas. Medium Expectations too high. Medium Workshops on GIS for senior management Integration with new IMS not successful. Medium Spatial architect needs to be engaged at beginning of project to ensure spatial issues are considered when designing IMS architecture Ongoing training programs need to be implemented 59 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Risk NSDI not implemented. Impact High Action Bappenas staff should be actively involved in this initiative to help drive its delivery Develop MoUs with key government agencies to share data 60 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 6. SUMMARY Bappenas is typical of most GoI ministries with respect to its acquisition and management of information. Over time, it has developed a number of operational and divisional databases to meet specific needs. This information typically resides in data silos, with the result that it is not e asy to integrate the different databases and there is some level of duplication. Most of this information is in hardcopy format (or scans of the hardcopy). Bappenas’s mandate requires it to prepare new five-year plans (RPJM), evaluate previous RPJMs, prioritise projects for implementation and identify suitable funding models. This is currently ach ieved by relying on information provided to them with the proposals and through limited field investigations. They are frequently unable to verify the information that has been provided, thus, the independence of project evaluations is jeopardised. GIS is a tool that provides information integration, as well as analysis, and can provide access t o corporate information through a single point. While there are some examples of GIS use at Bappenas , they are isolated and restricted to a few units. There is, however, scope to increase this use thr oughout the ministry and this will result in significant benefits and efficiencies, while helping it to me et the objectives of its mandate. We recommend that Bappenas develops a staged plan to implement a corporate GIS, commencing with pilots in the Infrastructure Division. Pilot projects are recommended because they are a cost-effective way of demonstrating the benefits of GIS, while resolving any issues that may arise. A number of potential pilot projects have been identified and confirmation regarding which ones should be implemented first is required. 61 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 9: LIST OF PEOPLE CONTACTED Bappenas staff visited and contacted for this report: Contact Name Organisation Dr. Ir. Bastary Pandji Indra MSP Sunandar M.Sc. Yudo D. Priaadi Public Private Partnership Development (PPPD) Ir. Rahmat Mardiana MA. Dr. Ir. Oktorialdi Gatot Pambudhi S.Kom. MPM Asep Data and Information Centre (Pusdatin) Rooslina Tampubolon MSc. Arief (Divusi ITB) Mira Tayyiba MSEE Andianto Haryoko Yusuf Suryanto Directorate for Energy, Telecommunication and Informatics Jadhi J. Ardajat Ir. Bastian MBA Ikhwan Hakim Ir. Hari Kristijo M.Sc. Fatty Rachma Directorate of Transportation Directorate of Settlement and Housing Ari Zaenal Arifin ST Directorate of Land Administration and Spatial Planning Uke M. Hussein M.Sc. Directorate of Regional Development SIDIK, IKA Deputy for Poverty, Labour and Small-scale Business Ir. Juari Fandi Nurzaman Directorate of Water Management and Irrigation Budi Wibowo Agus Setiadi Deputy for Performance Evaluation 62 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Persons from outside Bappenas visited and contacted for this report: Contact Name Ir. Bebas Purnawan M.Sc. Ir. M. Arief Syafi'I M.Eng.Sc. Organisation Bakosurtanal Mulyanto Darmawan M.Sc. MESRA EZA Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs Republic of Indonesia Ridwan Yunus; Sidik UNDP Ir. Djoko Prasetyo National Electricity Company (PLN) Hernadi Tri C. Sri Subekti Boedi Santoso Ministry of Transport Heru Wisnu Wibisono Ir. Haryatno Sumarman M.Sc. Max Antameng; Ministry of Public Works Satrio; Saman Abdurrahman Rinaldi Adam Suyus BPS (Central Bureau of Statistics) Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources BPN (National Land Administration) 63 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 10: QUESTIONNAIRE GIS and Data Questionnaire: Jawablah beberapa pertanyaan dibawah ini dalam Bahasa Indonesia atau Bahasa Inggris – manapun yang anda lebih menyukai. (Please answer in English or Bahasa Indonesia – whichever you prefer.) Pertanyaan ini hanya memerlukan beberapa menit waktu anda dan diharapkan bisa membantu Bappenas dan NGIS dalam memahami sejauh mana teknologi GIS dapat membantu aktifitas pekerjaan anda. (This questionnaire will only take a few minutes of your time and is designed to help NGIS a nd Bappenas better understand how GIS technology can help you with your work activities.) Nama (Name): ________________________ Departemen (Dept): _______________________ Q1. Sebutkan tipe aktifitas yang anda lakukan sepanjang waktu kerja anda? Contoh perencanaan, monitor, evaluasi, mencari data, analisa. (What type of work activities do you do – planning, monitoring, evaluation, looking for data, analysis, other.) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Q2. Informasi-informasi apakah yang anda inginkan untuk melakukan pekerjaan-pekerjaan anda? (What information do you need to do your work?) ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Q3. Dari manakah anda mendapatkan informasi atau data tersebut (dari bagian lain di lingkungan Bappenas atau dari departemen lain)? Yang mana saja? Dalam format apakah data yang anda terima? (From where do you get the information – from other sections of Bappenas or from other government agencies?) Which ones? In what format are the data?) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Q4. Bagaimana anda menggunakan data tersebut? Apakah ada analisa (jika ada) yang anda lakukan? Apa yang anda hasilkan dari informasi yang anda gunakan tersebut? Untuk siapa output tersebut (internal, departemen lain, umum)? (How do you use the data? What sort of analysis (if any) do you do? What products do you produce that use the information? For whom (internal, other government agencies, the public)?) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 64 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Q5. Apakah ada kendala dengan data yang anda terima? (Misalnya: Sulit untuk mendapatkannya, tidak akurat atau tidak lengkap, tidak up-to-date, susah untuk melakukan analisa.) (Are there any problems with the data you receive? Example: hard to get, not accurate or complete, not up-to-date , difficult to analyse.) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Q6. Informasi apakah yang sekiranya dapat membantu dalam pekerjaan anda? (What information would help you to do your job more efficiently?) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Terima kasih atas bantuan anda. Kembalikan lembar questionnaire yang sudah anda lengkapi ini ke Pak Sunandar (Direktorat Pengembangan Kerjasama Pemerintah dan Swasta) dalam dua hari ini. (Thank you for your help. Please return the completed questionnaire to Pak Sunandar (Directorate o f Public Private Partnership Development) within 2 days.) 65 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 11: SPATIAL DATA USED BY BAPPENAS This appendix describes the spatial data we identified that Bappenas staff are using and the agenc ies that provide it. 66 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ANNEX 12: ATTENDANCE AT WORKSHOP This appendix identifies the attendees at the workshop that discussed the interim report on 30 Jul y 2009 at Bappenas. Other GoI government agencies were well represented. 67 GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 68

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gis for infrastructure development: recommendations for bappenas

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