Influence of Fly Ash and Fine Aggregates on the Characteristics of

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com

Influence of Fly Ash and Fine Aggregates on the Characteristics of Pervious Concrete Uma Maguesvari, M*,1 and Sundararajan, T*,2 *- Dept. of Civil Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry-605014, India. 1 Corresponding author, 1ORCID:

0000-0002-0818-4866,

Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of partial replacement of cement by 10% and 20% of fly ash, partial replacement of coarse aggregates by fine aggregates (ranging from 5 - 15%), on the characteristics of pervious concrete. Class C fly ash, coarse aggregates ranging in size from19 mm to 9.5 mm and 9.5 mm to 4.75 mm blended in the ratio of 60:40 respectively, and a constant water / binder ratio of 0.34 were used and ACI method of mix proportioning, was adopted for various mixes. Altogether 32 mixes were designed. Compressive strength, flexural strength, split - tensile strength, total voids, permeable voids, density and permeability by falling head method, were determined. It is seen that the compressive strength range achieved for pervious fly ash cement concretes with a minimum binder content of 300 kg/m3, with fines (10% and 15%), has the potential application as a typical sub-base / base layer for flexible/rigid pavements. Further, replacement of cement by fly ash (up to 20%) has reduced the compressive strength only marginally, whereas, addition of fine aggregates (5 - 15%) has increased the above strength, ranging from ‘marginal’ to ‘high’. Incorporation of fly ash has the effect of reduction in total voids in pervious concretes. Keywords: Pervious concrete, Pervious fly ash-cement concrete, Mechanical properties, Density, Permeability, Voids

INTRODUCTION Pervious concrete is a special concrete with porosity, in which the voids are intentionally created. It allows water and other sources to pass through. Pervious concrete generally consists of Portland cement, coarse aggregate, little or no fine aggregate, admixture and water. It is also called porous concrete, no - fine concrete, gap graded concrete etc. Concrete pavements by virtue of their impervious nature contributes to the increased surface runoff into the drainage system and also causes excessive flooding in built - up areas. The surface runoff that flows over the land or impervious surface, accumulates with it debris, chemicals, sediment or other pollutants that could adversely affect water quality, if it is ultimately discharged untreated into any natural water body. Pervious concrete reduces the surface runoff from paved areas, there by reduces

2ORCID:

0000-0002-0922-4268

the need for a separate storm water retention pond and may also result in the use of smaller capacity storm sewer. Apart from the above, pervious concrete when used in a pavement system has structural, economic and road - user benefits (Mc Cain et al, 2009; Nguyen et al, 2014). Due to the above, there is sustained research interest in the use of pervious concrete in pavement applications, in various regions of the world since the last decade (Huang et al, 2009). However, sustained and comprehensive research leading to the use of pervious concrete as a pavement material in many developing / emerging countries, like India, has not happened, mainly due to lack of standardized technique for material preparation, testing and construction (Chandrappa et al, 2016). Several studies have been carried out and reported using various aggregate grading and types, different cement paste content and water-binder ratios on the properties of pervious concrete such as compressive strength, permeability and void content (Huang et al, 2009; Ibrahim et al, 2014; Cheng et al, 2011; Lian et al, 2010; Girish et al, 2011; Yang et al, 2003 and Bhutta et al, 2012). Cement has been partially replaced by rice husk ash (RHA) for evaluating the properties of pervious concrete (Hesami et al, 2014). Further to improve the strength and abrasion characteristics, super plasticizer, silica fume and polymer have been introduced and investigated (Huang et al, 2009; Lian et al, 2010; Wu et al, 2011 and Dong et al, 2013). Fibers have been incorporated to enhance the performance of freeze - thaw properties (Kevern et al, 2014). Attempts have also been made to introduce rubber on pervious concrete (Gesog et al, 2014). Recycled aggregates, sea shell, brick bats and Municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as aggregates, have been used as a partial replacement for coarse aggregate and various studies have been carried out (Cheng et al, 2011; Nguven et al, 2013; Bhutta et al, 2013; Guneyisi et al, 2014; Hossain et al, 2012 and Kuo et al, 2013). Studies using image analysis have revealed the interface of microstructure on pervious concrete (Sumanasooriya et al, 2011; Neithalath et al, 2010 and Deo et al, 2010). Studies have also been carried out to improve the fatigue strength and toughness of pervious concrete (Chen et al, 2013) and geo polymer as a binder for making pervious concrete (Tho - in et al, 2012 and Sata et al, 2013). (Aoki et al, 2012) have considered seven mixes (3 control; 3 mixes with 20% class F fly ash; one mix with 50% class F fly

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com Table 2: Chemical properties of fly ash Sl. No

Materials and properties

Table 1: Physical properties of cement and fly ash Sl. No Property

Cement Fly ash

1

Standard consistency 33.5%

35%

2

Initial setting time

35 min

40 min

3

Final setting time

160 min 250 min

4

Soundness

1 mm

0 mm

5

Specific gravity

3.15

2.45

1

Loss of ignition

2.52

2

Silica as Sio2

51.56

3

Iron as Fe2o3

7.15

4

Alumina as Al2 03

23.23

5

Calcium as Cao

10.78

6

Magnesium as Mgo

2.90

7

Sulphur as So3

1.85

120

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Cement, cementitious material as fly ash, crushed gravel as coarse aggregates, river sand as fine aggregates and potable water were the constituent materials used in pervious concrete. Fly ash belonging to (class C) obtained from the thermal power plant located nearby (Neyveli, Tamilnadu, India) was used in all the mixes. Specific gravity of coarse aggregate used was 2.71. Coarse aggregates of size 19 mm to 9.5 mm and 9.5 mm to 4.75 mm, as suggested in ACI 522R - 10 for pervious concrete was used in the present study in the ratio of 60:40 for the mix. Fine aggregates conforming to Zone II of IS: 383 1978, with the specific gravity of 2.62 was used. Salient characteristics of the cement and fly ash used are given in Table 1.

Chemical composition Value (%)

Chemical composition of fly ash is given in Table 2 and particle size distribution of fly ash is shown in Figure 1. The above fly ash is categorized as class C fly ash and hence it is expected to exhibit its cementitious property. Further, as the fly ash has substantial quantity of particles less than 450 microns, it is expected to contribute for the micro - filler effect in concrete.

Percentage of passing

ash) for evaluating the compressive strength, permeability and void content. The reported results were more focused towards the relationship between strength and permeability and strength and voids. However, the potential applications of the reported work have not been indicated. (Hager et al, 2016) have used 20% of class C fly ash along with Portland cement admixtures etc., for the construction of the top layer of pavement for a parking lot test section in the Denver metropolitan region, Colorado, USA. The water quality of storm water after the construction of the parking lot with the above pervious concrete was used to highlight the hydrologic benefit of the system during storm events. In spite of the above types of studies carried out and reported, it can be seen that the use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in the production of pervious concrete and comprehensive studies thereof, including various application, especially for pavements, is still rare. On the other hand, such studies, if carried out and reported, will contribute for sustainable development. Hence, the focus of this study is to evaluate the various characteristics of pervious concrete with and without fine aggregates, cement was partially replaced by fly ash (10% and 20%) to produce pervious concrete. The potential of the above concretes has also been evaluated as a possible pavement material, with reference to the relevant Indian codes, and reported.

Percentage passing

100 80 60 40 20 0 10

1 0.1 Particle size ( mm)

0.01

Figure 1. Particle size distribution of fly ash

Mix proportioning Four distinct binder contents for proportioning pervious concrete mixes were considered, namely, 250, 300, 350 and 400 kg/m3 and cement was partially replaced by fly ash by 10% and 20% (by weight). The above range of binder contents cover the wide range of possible applications and also cover the range prescribed by Indian standards for use in cement concrete. The above four binder contents formed the basis for the mix proportioning of ‘control mixes of pervious fly ash – cement concrete’, without ‘fines’ (i.e. without fine aggregates), but using coarse aggregates. Coarse aggregates were partially replaced by fine aggregates by 5%, 10% and 15% (by weight). About 60% of the total coarse aggregates content in the size range of 19 mm to 9.5 mm and 40% in the size range of 9.5 mm to 4.75 mm, were used for the production of pervious concrete mixes. A constant water- binder (w/b) ratio of 0.34 was maintained for all the mixes. The above w/b was adopted from earlier studies conducted and reported (Lian et al, 2010) . All the mixes were designed according to ACI 522 R - 10 as there is no Indian code available for pervious concrete. All together 8 control mixes without fines (i.e. 4 with 10% and 4 with 20% of fly ash replacement); 24 mixes with fines (12 each for each

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com level of replacement of 10% and 20%), were proportioned for casting various specimens for determining the strength, permeability and void characteristics of pervious concrete. The designations of various mix series and the corresponding mixes in the series are given in Table 3. Further, details of a typical mixes (for binder content 250kg/m3) are given in Table 4.

Table 3: Designation of mix series and the corresponding designation of mixes in the series Sl. No Designation of mix series 1 CF1 2 CF2 3 CF1S1 4 CF2S1 5 CF1S2 6 CF2S2 7 CF1S3 8 CF2S3

Designation of No. of ‘mixes’ mixes C1F1S1 to C4F1S1 4 C1F2S1 to C4F2S1 4 C1F1S2 to C4F1S2 4 C1F2S2 to C4F2S2 4 C1F1S3 to C4F1S3 4 C1F2S3 to C4F2S3 4 C1F1S4 to C4F1S4 4 C1F2S4 to C4F2S4 4

Remarks Control mixes with 10% replacement of cement by fly ash, but without fines Control mixes with 20% replacement of cement by fly ash, but without fines CF1 mix series with 5% fines CF2 mix series with 5% fines CF1 mix series with 10% fines CF2 mix series with 10% fines CF1 mix series with 15% fines CF2 mix series with 15% fines

Table 4: Details of typical mix proportion of 250 Kg/m3 Sl. Mix Cement Fly ash Fine Coarse No designation content (kg/m3) aggregate aggregate (kg/m3) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) 1

C1F1S1

225

19.5

0

1640

2

C1F1S2

225

19.5

82

1590

3

C1F1S3

225

19.5

164

1540

4

C1F1S4

225

19.5

246

1474

5

C1F2S1

200

39

0

1640

6

C1F2S2

200

39

82

1590

7

C1F2S3

200

39

164

1540

8

C1F2S4

200

39

246

1474

100mm cubes have been used, as an alternative to the standard size of cube of 150 mm, as recommended in the above code. However, in order to assess the potential applications of pervious concretes investigated in the study for pavement application, it becomes necessary to investigate the ‘size effect’ on cube compressive strength of pervious concretes, as the strength requirements specified in the relevant IS codes correspond to the values based on tests conducted on 150 mm cube specimens. Accordingly, the size effect on compressive strength was carried out on a typical series of mixes and the average value of size effect for pervious concrete was determined as 0.91, which compares well with the size effect for conventional concretes are on reported by (Neville, 2006). The above factor was used latter, to assess the suitability of pervious concrete for various types of pavement applications, based on the strength requirements stipulated in the relevant IS codes.

Note: C1, C2, C3 and C4 – denote cement content 250, 300, 350 and 400 in Kg/m3, in the mixes

Flexural strength

F1 and F2 – 10%, 20% replacement of cement by fly ash in the mixes

Flexural strength of pervious concrete specimens was determined by three-point load test on beam specimens of size 100 mm x 100 mm x 500 mm, and in accordance with the Indian standard IS: 516 - 1959, after 28 days of normal curing. The above size of specimen is chosen, for the reasons stated above.

Preparation and testing of specimens

Split tensile strength

Compressive strength

Split tensile strength was determined in accordance with the Indian standard IS:5816 - 1999, on cylindrical specimens of size 100 mm diameter and 200 mm height, after 28 days normal curing. Even though, 150 mm diameter cylinder specimen is recommended in the above code, 100 mm diameter was chosen so as to limit the consumption of materials. Hence, all the

S1, S2, S3, S4 – denote the percentage of fine aggregates 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, respectively.

Cubes of size 100mm x 100mm x 100mm were cast for each mix and moist cured for 24 hours before demoulding and curing in water continued at 24◦C until testing at 7 days and 28 days. Compressive strength was determined in accordance with the Indian standard IS: 516 - 1959. As the largest nominal size of the coarse aggregate used in this study does not exceed 20mm,

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com reported results in this paper, are based on the above size of specimen only. Permeability Specimens of size 90 mm diameter and 150 mm height were cast and tested after 28 days of normal curing. An experimental set up [Figure 2] was exclusively fabricated for determining the permeability of pervious concrete specimens, based on the falling head permeability method, proposed and reported by (Neithalath et al, 2006), as there is no equivalent standard prescribed in Indian codes. The above procedure has also been prescribed as the standard procedure in ACI 522R - 10.

Total and Permeable voids Specimens of size 90 mm diameter and 150 mm height were cast and tested after 28 days of normal curing, and the total voids were determined in accordance with ASTM C 1754/C 1754M - 12. Permeable voids (∅𝑝𝑣 ) were calculated using the procedure in the above code and using Equation (1). ∅𝑝𝑣 = [1 −

(𝑤2 − 𝑤1 ) 𝜌𝑣

] x 100

----- (1)

where w1 is the specimen weight under water, w2 is the weight of the specimen with the SSD condition, ρ is the density of water and v is the volume of the specimen (Seo, 2006).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The compressive strength of pervious concretes for different binder contents (with 10% and 20% replacement of cement by fly ash) and percentage of fines are shown in Figure 3.

Compressive strength (MPa)

Figure 2. Experimental setup of permeability testing

250 300 350 400

20 15 10 5 0 10

20 0

10

20

10

5

20

10

10

20

Fly ash %

15 Fines %

Percentage of fines and percentage of fly ash Figure 3. Compressive strength (28 days) of pervious fly ash- cement concrete for various binder contents (two levels of fly ash replacement) and percentage of fines

The actual compressive strength of pervious concretes in CF1 and CF2 - series (i.e. zero fines) increase with increase in binder content and the strength ranges from 5.70 to 8.83 MPa (at 28

days) for the range of binder contents considered. Incorporating the size effect, the estimated value of the above compressive strength ranges from 5.19 to 8.04 MPa (at 28 days) and the

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com above strength range falls within the typical compressive strength reported (i.e. 2.8 to 20MPa) for pervious concretes in ACI522R - 10. The above strength range also satisfies the typical strength range prescribed in the relevant Indian codes (Table 5) for use in lean cement concrete (LCC) as a base / sub - base layer of a

flexible pavement. However, the strength range achieved even up to 20% replacement of cement by fly ash, (i.e. in CF1 and CF2 series of mixes) is less than the typical strength range prescribed for use in DLC in the relevant Indian codes. Thus, there is scope for improvement in the strength of pervious fly ash - cement concretes, for potential application / (s) as a sub – base / base material in pavements.

Table 5: Strength requirements for LCC and DLC as per Indian Standards Sl. No

Purpose

Compressive strength (MPa)

Reference

1

Lean cement concrete (LCC) for base / sub base of flexible pavement.

3.7 - 7.2 (at 28 days)

IRC: 74 - 1979

2

Dry lean Concrete (DLC) for sub - base of rigid pavement.

7.0 (at 7 days) 10 (at 28 days)

IRC: SP: 49 -2014 IRC:58 - 2015

Addition of “fines” has increased the compressive strength of pervious fly ash - cement concretes, for all the range of finescontent considered. This is attributed to better packing of the matrix and improvement in interfacial bond, when compared to ‘no fines’ pervious concrete. Further, there is continuous improvement in the compressive strength due to the addition fines, ranging from marginal to high as the Binder content increases. The strength behaviour of pervious fly ash - cement concrete, with and without fines, is similar, (Figure 4 and 5) for the range

of binder contents considered, and is independent of fly ash replacement levels. As the minimum compressive strength of 10 MPa (at 28 days) is required for DLC to be used as a sub base in a rigid pavement (Table 5), the strength range achieved pervious fly ash - cement concrete, excluding the binder content of 250 Kg/m3 alone, fulfils the above requirement. Therefore, it can be stated safely that the minimum binder content for pervious fly ash - cement concretes, to be used in DLC in a rigid pavement with fines (10 and 15%) is 300 kg/m3.

Compressive Strength (MPa)

18 16

0

14

5

12 10

10

8

15

6 4 2 0 200

250

300

350

400

450

Binder content with 10% fly ash replacement (Kg/m 3) Figure 4. Compressive strength of pervious fly ash-cement for various binder contents and percentage of fines (10% fly ash replacement).

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Compressive Strength (MPa)

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com 20

0 5 10 15

15 10 5 0 200

250

300

350

400

450

Binder content with 20% fly ash replacement (Kg/m 3 )

Figure 5. Compressive strength of pervious fly ash-cement for various binder contents and percentage of fines (20% fly ash replacement).

Compressive strength (MPa)

The variation of 7 - days compressive strength of pervious concretes is shown in Figure 6. It is observed that the average ratio of 7 to 28 - days compressive strength of pervious fly ash - cement concretes reported in this study, is 0.83 and 0.8, for with and without fines respectively, and for the range of parameters and binders considered. The above value is within the range (0.75 to 0.87), reported by several earlier investigators (Joshaghani et al, 2015; Aoki et al, 2012;

Ravindrarajah et al, 2012 and Kevern et al, 2008) for pervious cement concrete. Further, the trend in the compressive strength at 7 - days and 28 - days are also similar. The above behaviour is in line with the reported behaviour of pervious cement concrete ( Joshaghani et al, 2015; Aoki et al, 2012; Ravindrarajah et al, 2012 and Kevern et al, 2008).

250 300 350 400

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 10

20 0

10

20

10

5

20 10

10

20 15

Fly ash % Fines %

Percentage of fines and percentage of flyash

Figure 6. Compressive strength (7 days) of pervious fly ash - cement concrete for various binder contents (two levels of fly ash replacement) and percentage of fines.

Density with compressive strength Density of pervious fly ash - cement concrete with and without fines ranges from 1849 to 2087 kg/m3, for the two levels of fly ash replacement. The influence of fly ash content on the density of pervious concretes, is negligible. Considering the lowest value of density reported in this study for pervious fly ash cement concrete, it is about 77% of the standard density of

conventional concrete and comparable to the reported value of earlier investigators, for pervious concretes. The effect of density on the compressive strength of pervious concretes is shown in Figure 7. As the density of pervious fly ash - cement concrete increases, its compressive strength also increases.

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Compressive strength (MPa)

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1800

Flexural and split- tensile strength Variation of flexural and split-tensile strengths of pervious fly ash - cement concrete for different binder contents with two levels of fly ash replacements and fines are shown in Figure 8 and 9, respectively. Both the above strength behaviour of pervious fly ash - cement concrete is similar to that of the corresponding compressive strength behaviour with respect to no fines and range of fines considered.

y = 0.0021e0.0043x R² = 0.882

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

Density(Kg/m3)

Figure 7. Effect of density on the compressive strength of pervious fly ash- cement concretes.

Flexural strength (MPa)

3 3 250

2

300 350

2

400

1 1 0 10

20

10

0

20

10

5

20

10

10

20 15

Fly ash % Fines %

Percentage of fines and fly ash Figure 8. Flexural strength of pervious fly ash - cement concrete for various binder contents (two levels of fly ash replacement) and percentage of fines.

Split Tensile strength (MPa)

3 3 250

2

300 350

2

400

1 1 0 10

20

10

20

10

20

10

20

Fly ash %

0

0

5

5

10

10

15

15

Fines %

Percentage of fines and fly ash Figure 9. Split tensile strength of pervious fly ash - cement concrete for various binder contents (two levels of fly ash replacement) and percentage of fines.

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com The actual flexural strength attained is in the range of 1.40 to 2.06 MPa and 1.45 to 2.75 MPa for pervious fly ash - cement concretes with no fines and fines, respectively. Similarly, the split tensile strength attained is in the range of 1.45 to 1.86 MPa and 1.49 to 2.57 MPa for pervious fly ash-cement concretes with no fines and fines, respectively. It is observed that replacement of cement by fly ash, up to 20%, has only a marginal reduction in the flexural and split tensile strengths.

voids

on

Compressive strength (MPa)

Influence of total characteristics

compressive

strength

The total voids contents are in the range of 17.58 to 28.76% (for 10% fly ash content) and 13.55 to 24.76 % (for 20% fly ash content), and the corresponding compressive strength ranges from 6.30 - 16.95MPa (for 10% fly ash content) and 5.7015.03MPa (for 20% fly ash content) respectively (Figure 10 and 11). The above total voids contents and the compressive strength of pervious fly ash - cement concrete (with 10% replacement of cement by fly ash) ranges are within the typical void content and strength ranges of pervious concrete reported in ACI 522 R - 10, whereas the total void content of pervious fly ash - cement concrete 20% replacement of cement by fly ash is slightly lesser.

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

y = 53.414e-0.072x R² = 0.799

15

20 25 Total voids (%)

30

Figure 10. Effect of total void on the compressive strength of pervious fly ash - cement concretes (10% fly ash replacement).

Compressive strength (MPa)

16 y = 39.214e-0.073x R² = 0.783

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 10

15

20 Total voids (%)

25

30

Figure 11. Effect of total void on the compressive strength of pervious fly ash - cement concretes (20% fly ash replacement).

In general, replacement of cement by fly ash has resulted in reduction in total voids content, and this is primarily attributed to the micro-filler effect of fly ash, thereby reducing the total voids in the pervious fly ash - cement concrete. In spite of the above effect, the resulting compressive strengths are within the typical range reported in ACI 522R - 10 for pervious concrete. Thus, addition of fly ash has resulted in beneficial effects from technical, economic and environmental considerations. The range of total voids of pervious concretes reported in this study, are within the range of void content reported (i.e. 14.95% to

40.14%) by several earlier investigators (Joshaghani et al, 2015; Bhutta et al, 2013; Hossain et al, 2012; Kuo et al, 2013; Ravindrarajah et al, 2012 and Kevern et al, 2008).

Permeability The permeability of pervious concretes for different binder contents (with 10% and 20% replacement of cement by fly ash) and percentage of fines are shown in Figure 12. Permeability of pervious fly ash - cement concrete without fines, decreases with

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com increase in binder content, and it ranges from 1.19 cm/s to 0.641 cm/s. Permeability of pervious fly ash - cement concrete with fines are in the range of 1.028 cm/s to 0.324 cm/s. Addition of fines has decreased the permeability of pervious fly ash - cement concretes, for all ranges of fines considered and that the average reduction in permeability is 15.63%, for pervious fly ash - cement concrete. However, the overall reduction in permeability due to fines in pervious fly ash cement concretes is even up to 60%. The above reduction in permeability is attributed to the combined effect of fines, and the type of binder (cement / fly ash) and binder content. The permeability of pervious concretes in this study is observed to be within the range (i.e. 0.1 to 2 cm/s) reported for pervious cement concrete, by various researchers (Kevern et al, 2008; Li et al, 2013; Martin et al, 2014; Qin et al, 2015; Haselbach et al, 2005 and Deo et al, 2011). It is to be noted that the higher value reported by a group of earlier researchers is for the case of using higher size coarse aggregates (i.e. 12.5 mm to 19 mm) (Joshaghani et al, 2016).

Influence of characteristics

permeable

voids

on

permeability

The trend in the compressive strength behaviour and permeability are inversely related, for all the range of binder contents (with 10% and 20% replacement of cement by fly ash) and percentage of fines considered, which is on expected lines (Figure 10,11 and Figure 13 and 14). Increase in permeable voids increases the permeability and it is independent of the binder content in pervious concretes (Figure 13 and 14). Permeable voids content range from 11.08 to 25.89%, considering all the range of parameters considered in this study. It is seen that the above range is 75% to 91% of the corresponding total voids, obtained in this study and the above fact can be considered as an advantage for various applications of pervious concrete.

400 350

Permeability (cm/sec)

300 1.500

250

1.000 0.500 0.000 10

20 0

10

20

10

5

20

10

10

20 15

Fly ash % Fines %

Percentage of fines and percentage of fly ash Figure 12. Permeability of pervious fly ash - cement concrete for various binder contents (two levels of fly ash replacement) and percentage of fines.

Permeability (cm/s)

1.4 y = 0.0596x - 0.3662 R² = 0.865

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 10

15

20 Permeable void (%)

25

30

Figure 13. Effect of permeable voids on the permeability of pervious fly ash- cement concretes (with 10% replacement of fly ash).

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 12, Number 8 (2017) pp. 1598-1609 © Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com

1.2 y = 0.0617x - 0.3714 R² = 0.851

Permeability (cm/s)

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 10

15 20 Permeable void (%)

25

Figure 14. Effect of permeable voids on the permeability of pervious fly ash- cement concretes (with 20% replacement of fly ash).

CONCLUSIONS The actual compressive strength of pervious fly ash - cement concrete with no fines, ranges from 5.70 to 8.83 MPa (at 28 days) for binder contents ranging from 250 to 400 kg/m3 and the above strength range achieved has potential applications for use as a typical sub-base / base layer in flexible pavement, especially, in Indian conditions. Replacement of cement up to 20% by fly ash has reduced the above compressive strength range only marginally, and therefore it still has potential applications in flexible and rigid pavements, after improvement in the above strength by various established methods. However, if a minimum binder content of 300 kg/m3 is used in pervious fly ash - cement concrete with 10% and 15% fines, then, it can be used for DLC as a sub - base in a rigid pavement, satisfying Indian standard code provisions. Addition of fine aggregates (ranging from 5 to 15%) has increased the compressive strength of pervious fly ash - cement concretes, ranging from ‘marginal’ to ‘high’. Strength behaviour of flexural and split- tensile strength is similar to that of the corresponding compressive strength behaviour of pervious fly ash - cement concrete, for all the parameters and their ranges considered in this study. Replacement of class C fly ash has resulted in reduction of total voids, which may be attributed primarily to the micro - filler effect of fly ash. There is a reduction of about 12 - 16% in the permeability of fly ash - cement pervious concretes, considering all the effect of no fines and fines in the above two systems.

REFERENCES [1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7] ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to acknowledge the support and cooperation extended by the Department of Civil Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry, India, to carry out this work.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR Uma Maguesvari, M, is a Research scholar in the Department of Civil Engineering Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry, India. Her research interest is in pervious concrete and its characterization. Her teaching experience in the similar field for more than 10 years. Dr. Sundararajan, T, is currently Professor of Civil Engineering at Pondicherry engineering college, Pondicherry, India. He has a total of over 38 years of experience covering all facets of civil engineering. He earned his Ph.D. from Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. His areas of research interests include: water resources engineering, computer applications in civil engineering, construction management. He has made extensive/overseen studies in the areas of natural fibre cementitious composites, fly ash activation and applications and in general in the area of supplementary cementitious materials and applications.

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Influence of Fly Ash and Fine Aggregates on the Characteristics of

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