Lecture 1: Introduction to Microcomputers

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1/15/2010

Lecture 1: Introduction to Microcomputers

Today’s Topics • What is a microcomputers? • Why Wh do we e st study d microcomp microcomputers? ters? • Two basic types of microcomputer architectures • Internal components of a microcomputers

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Microcomputer •

Major components of the computer - the processor, the control unit, one or more memory ICs, one or more I/O ICs, and the clock



A single printed circuit board usually connects the ICs, making a computer called a microcomputer Memory

Address/Control

Data/Instructions Microprocessor Input

Input / Output

Data

Processor (ALU)

Control Unit

Output

Status/Control

Clock

Another definitions Microcomputers, Microcontrollers, and Microprocessors • Microcomputer

– Relatively small and inexpensive computer that is contained on one or a few chips

• Microcontroller

– A single-chip microcomputer

• Microprocessor

– The processor and control unit part of the single-chip computer(=microcontroller) is called microprocessor.

There is no single and clear definition of these terms.

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Why do we study Microcomputers? • Embedded systems use microcontrollers or microcomputers. • Some interesting statistics (from a few fe years ears ago)

– An average American interacts with 300 or more embedded systems every day. – 95% of all microprocessor will be sold each year for embedded systems. – IEEE estimated that over 700,000 people worldwide were employed writing code for embedded system in 2007.

Basic Architecture

What are ….?

Princeton and Harvard • There are many other architectures in use. They will be discussed in a computer architecture course. • Here, we will cover two major architecture of microcomputers. – Princeton and Harvard architecture – The main difference is the memory structure

• Princeton Architecture*

– Known as Von Neumann architecture – Single memory contains both the program code and the data data.

• Harvard Architecture

– Two separate memories. One contains only data while the other is containing only program code.

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Princeton Architecture Known as Von Neumann • No separate memory space for program code and data

Memory

Address/Control

Data/Instructions Microprocessor Input

Input / Output

D t Data

Processor (ALU)

Control Unit

Output

Status/Control

Clock

Harvard Architecture • • •

OK.. I see. One clear distinction of these two is whether two separate memory units exist or not.

Two separate memory units

The length of an instruction could be different from the data size

Both data and a program instruction can be read at the same time Data Memory Data

Code Memory Instructions

Address /Control

Microprocessor Input

Input / Output

D t Data

Processor (ALU)

Control Unit

Output

Status/Control

Clock

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Major components 1. Processor • Also called an arithmetic logic unit (ALU). • Operations s such ch as addition addition, s subtraction, btraction bit-wise bit ise AND and OR, shift operations. • The processor has registers (groups of D flip-flops used to store binary values). • Many microcontrollers perform operations on data that is located in a register. This requires the microcontroller to load the h data d from f memory into a register in the h processor, manipulate the data, then store the new value back to memory. • The processor also generates signals that indicates when values are negative, zero, or when arithmetic overflow occurs.

Major components 2. Control Unit • A synchronous sequential machine that coordinates the flow of data between the other units and operations of the other bl k blocks. • The sequence of states and control output of the unit depend on the inputs: the current program instruction, the status outputs of the other blocks, and the input/output block. • Generally speaking, central processing unit (CPU) refers to not only the processor but also the control unit.

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A Quick Introduction of HCS12 Microcontroller HCS12 (=68HC12 or 9S12) family microprocessor • The Motorola 68HC12 was introduced in 1996 as an upgrade for the 68HC11. • Features – – – – – – – –

16-bit CPU Standard 64-KB address space support Multiplexed (address and data) external bus. 0 to 4 KB of on-chip EEPROM 2 KB to 14 KB of on-chip SRAM 10 bit A/D converter 10-bit t 16 KB to 512 KB of on-chip flash memory (or ROM) Etc. etc. etc.

Major components 3. Memory • Memory is the place where program code and data are stored. • A sequence seq ence of directl directly addressable ‘locations.’ ‘locations ’ • Therefore, the number of addresses available in a memory is limited by the number of bits used to represent the address. • If 16 bits are used for the address, there are 65,536 (=216) different addresses available.

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Major components 3. Memory - continued • A memory location is referred to as an information unit which has two components: its address and its contents. Address bus lines

CPU

Memory Data bus lines

• The content indicated by an address can be interpreted by the microprocessor as one of ttwo o things things. – Instruction code are used as inputs into the control unit and determine how it operates. A group of instruction is called a program. – Data are the numbers to be processed or the results of operations in the processor.

Major components 4. Clock • A periodic signal for the sequential machine in the control unit. • Also used by other blocks to synchronize operations

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Major components 5. Input/Output • The Input/Output (I/O for short.) block represents the interface between the internals of the microcomputer and the outside d world. ld • Keyboard, LED and LCD display, printers for example.

Instruction Codes • Instruction codes consist of Operation Code and Operand • Operation Code (Op Code for short)

– This tells the microcomputer what action to perform and how to interpret the operand. All instructions must have an op code.

• Operand

– The operand contains the data that microcontroller will perform the action on. – Some operands include several numbers for op codes that specify more complex actions. – Some operation codes that perform simple tasks do not need to have operands.

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Instruction Length Fixed and Variable-length • Fixed length

– Each instruction is the same number of bits as all others. Op Code 1

Operand

Op Code 2

Operand

Op Code 3

Operand

• Variable length*

– The length of each instruction may be different. Op Code 1

Operand

Op Code 2 Op Code 3

Operand Operand

Questions?

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Wrap-up What we’ve learned • The definitions of microcomputers, microcontroller, and microprocessor • The importance of microcomputers in the real world • Princeton* and Harvard architectures • Processor, control unit, memory, clock, and I/O are the major components of microcomputers.

Now.. I get the clear picture what the microcomputers are. And I feel like that this is going to be really fun.

What to Come • Review number systems • Introduction Introd ction to the HCS12/9S12

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Lecture 1: Introduction to Microcomputers

1/15/2010 Lecture 1: Introduction to Microcomputers Today’s Topics • What is a microcomputers? • Why Wh do we e st study d microcomp microcomputers?...

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