SCHOOL CULTURE BASED HUMANISTIC EDUCATION AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL “TUMBUH” 1 YOGYAKARTA Suswanto Yogyakarta State University [email protected]
Abstract This study aims to understand, describe, and interpret: (1) the development of humanistic education in learning processes conducted by the school members of Elementary School “Tumbuh” I Yogyakarta, and (2) the process of the development of the school culture by the school members to realize education with humanistic values at the school. The study employed the naturalistic paradigm using the phenomenological approach. The data sources and informants were the principal, class teachers (educators), special assisting teachers (educator assistants), administrative staff members, sunject teachers, teacher librarians, counselors, and school committee members. The data were collected through non-participant observations, in-depth interviews, and documentation. The study employed two analysis models, namely the analysis to enhance the data trustworthiness and the analysis through the interpretation of the data on the whole. In this connection, there were four interrelated important stages, namely: (1) data collection, (2) data reduction, (3) data display, and (4) conclusion drawing or verification. This was in accordance with the analysis model proposed by Miles and Huberman (1992:2). The results of the study show that humanistic education values that the students obtain in the development of their potentials are found in: (1) the inclusion school’s culture, (2) the development of the culture, and (3) the implementation of education. First, the humanistic values in the inclusion school’s culture are found in the features of the class, school, and culture. Second, the humanistic values in the development of the school culture are found in the activities in the positive cultural elements that have become a culture and have been developed by the school. Third, the humanistic values in the implementation of education are found in the educational approaches, methods, and learning processes. Keywords: humanist education, school culture
Introduction Indonesia is a unitary state which forms a
“Binika Tunggal Ika” communities as well as
multicultural, so that the application that is both inclusive education by educational institutions of formal and non-formal is one form of appropriate policies. In educational inclusion are values that are humanistic in the implementation process, it is certainly due to the nature of inclusivity that exist in the form of inclusive schools. Schools that are inclusion of various backgrounds and appreciate the existence of each individual, so that each learner the opportunity to develop the potential in them in the same place in the absence of discriminatory treatment. However, in the application of elementary education are still many who do not accommodate children who need special care to develop the potential in the same place as a normal child. Besides not greater accommodation with special needs children in formal education institutions, educational practice that there is still much influenced by the form of education "Bank Style" is education that is destroy the human dignity of children, where education turns into the suppression of the freedom of the child. Children do not have enough opportunities to develop the potential in him. Children do not have the opportunity to explore on him so that they become the object of which is passive. Thus the practical humanistic education, can make students as the subject of active learning, so that they have the
opportunity and freedom to shape themselves to develop any form of unique potential. According to education expert Prof. Zamroni (2001: 45), he revealed that the students' learning activities in schools, including teacher criticized the opinion of "haram", because the teacher’s opinion is correct. Classes arranged so tight, so it does not allow the emergence of ideas and creativity of students. Teachers will not dare to bring issues that warm and sensitive in the community. What is learned only in textbooks, especially those relating to the ideology of the state as if it is the word of God that is forbidden to be disputed and criticized. Education system like this makes the students as human beings are alienated and uprooted from the surrounding reality, because teachers have to educate them to be someone else and not be himself. Finally, education is not a means to develop the potentials of the students but instead make them as human beings are prepared for specific interests. Thus, the concept of humanistic education to teach students to have a deep sense of humanity. Eliminating the properties of selfish, authoritarian and individualistic. Not arbitrarily impose other person understands, or included in their conversation. Education is the practice of humanistic education paradigm that views human beings as integrative unity. Humanistic education is education that sees the human being as a human being living creatures of God's creation with nature-given nature to be developed to the maximum and optimal. Many
critics of the trend in education, even in developed countries like the United States, that education in abat 20 is dominated by educational activities for innovation and experimentation, but lacking in the development of goals and needs of actual dimensions. Quoting from the statement of educational expert Prof. Sodiq A. Kuntoro (2008:4), he argued that the dominance of technological knowledge search, a search of the more sensible ideological. This phenomenon shows how education has shifted from the investment and development of humanitarian values and diversity towards technical education eksperimentatif. Coupled with less meticulously education policy in understanding the learner as a unique and independent human beings and should be personally accountable for his actions, causes of education will turn out to be "deprivation" the creative power of the individual. On that basis, this study was conducted to reveal how the concept and implementation of a school culture based on humanistic education. This is done, because the action program to improve the quality of conventional school has always emphasizing on the aspect of improving the quality of teaching and learning, and a little touch of school management, and less touches on the culture or the culture of schools (Ditjen Dikdasmen Depdikdas, 2002:4). Through the development of school culture is expected to be improved school performance, either by the principal, the teachers, the administrative staff, the students and others; it can be realized when the qualifying culture is healthy and positive. So the school culture into a schoolwide commitment, becoming the identity of the school, the school became a personality. Good culture will effectively result in a good performance at the individual, work group or unit of work, the school as an institution, and the synergistic relationship between the three levels of performance. In terms of school culture in order to influence the education that is humanistic, Dammon in Young Pay (1990:129) a follower of Piaget, said that children acquire knowledge not in isolated social situations, but they are with other children to interact in school. So is the learning atmosphere in the school is built up through the school culture. Of the existing culture, the school community continues to guide and motivate students pluralistic of various ethnicity, religions and races. Differences in background and uniqueness of the students, schools develop their individual potential optimally so that they become independent. Experiences related to the cultural strategy, of some education expert opinion, research educators, it can be concluded that the major effect of school culture on students' learning behavior in school (Peterson et al, 2009: 110). Through the existing school culture channel, so that the educational process has run humanist values then need to be packaged through humane education. The principle of humanistic education is to create a learning environment that children are free from intense competition, rigid
discipline, and fear of failure. The relationship between learners and educators can create relationships that oozes the confidence and sense of security, so there is positive creativity of students (Knight, 1982: 88). The inclusion of primary school “Tumbuh” in Yogyakarta, which is the foundation, now there are four schools, so besides “Tumbuh” 1 elementary school located in Jl. AM. Sangaji No. 48, Regional Jetis, there are three other schools “Tumbuh”, namely, “Tumbuh” 2 primary schools, “Tumbuh” 3 primary school and secondary school (SMP) “Tumbuh”. Of the four schools that are emerging all under one Nusantara Child Education Foundation (Yean). Elementary school “Tumbuh” 1, which is one of the four existing schools “Tumbuh”, an elementary school that was established first and pioneered by KPH. Wironegoro, M.Sc, son-in-law of Sri Sultan HB X. Elementary School Tumbuh 1 that inclusion of this forward and brought the culture of good communication, equitable, and not a lot of bureaucracy. So the practical steps of this guide and motivate school their pluralistic backgrounds to develop their potential optimally. However, in the process of practical implementation, these private institutions do not always go smoothly in accordance with what is expected by the school. Some of the obstacles experienced by private educational institutions, among others: There is still a perception of a negative image of the community towards inclusive and multicultural education institutions. Based on the description on the background of the above problems, researchers can formulate the problem as follows: (1) how the school community to implement humanistic education that gives freedom to the learners in the educational activities and learning in primary schools "Tumbuh" 1 Yogyakarta ?, (2) how the process of developing a school culture that is performed by the school community to realize that education has a humanist values at primary school "Tumbuh" 1 Yogyakarta ?. Formulation of these problems, this study aims to understand, describe and interpret: (1) the development of humanist education in the learning process performed by elementary school citizen "Tumbuh" 1 Yogyakarta, (2) the process of developing a school culture that is performed by the school community to achieve education which has a humanist values at primary school "Tumbuh" 1 Yogyakarta. Elementary Yogyakarta
Elementary school "Tumbuh" 1 is a multicultural inclusive elementary school. This school has some of the characteristics of the layers of a different culture or cultures other than the primary school, the difference is seen in: a) the feature class, b) school features, and c) culture or cultural features. Of the three features that are either related to the physical, behavioral and values and beliefs have some humanist values which can
directly be felt by students when they are in school to develop its potential. a. In the feature class, the students acquire the humanist values of freedom on them, because in the process of teaching and learning in the classroom, they are free to do their own regulator seat, like eg: in the formation that they want in the form of a rectangular seat, formation circular to discuss, and others, so formation that they do not always conventional stacking facing forward or board like most desired teachers in the classroom teaching in general. In its position as learners feel themselves more freely in the activities of learning, relax and do not feel tense, so it can feel like learning situations in their own homes. Building features classrooms, especially in the old building, both inside and outside the classroom looks ancient motif that is maintained by the school community as an asset of cultural heritage of Yogyakarta city. Behavior that maintains the school community assets such as the local motifs also have a positive impact for learners in terms of planting the values of local wisdom. So that learners at heart and have a sense of responsibility upon herself to care for and preserve it. Inclusiveness in the form of a unique potential that exists in the individual received and responded to positively by all educators in the elementary “Tumbuh” 1, and it is regarded as the capital of inclusive school development. Therefore in elemantary school “Tumbuh” 1, there is no special class made excellent class that deliberately established by the school. Each class contained parallel distribution of learners who have varied abilities and the presence of children with special needs, they each obtain the same services as other students, and they also got a special assistance by educator assistant (special assistant teacher). They studied in the same space and the same services in accordance with their individual needs, then this indicates that the uniqueness that is in the individual learners awarded equal rights and treatment without discrimination. b. Features schools that have broad inclusion which means elementary school “Tumbuh” 1 has a scope input learners extensive, ranging from the scope of the gender balance, ethnic origin, national origin, religious beliefs, economic status backgrounds parents / students, as well as a wide variety of child special needs. The nature of broad inclusion owned by the school, learners make good the men and women of the tribe wherever they come from, whatever religion they believe, their descendants born manaupun nation, and come from rich and poor families can be accommodated in elementary school “Tumbuh” 1, in developing its potential. Thus the values of human justice as God's nature also get the same treatment in their studies and knowledge.
c. At the primary school culture feature “Tumbuh” 1 have the philosophy carring, this feature is always emphasized and highlighted by the school everyday learning environment. In the learning process is also more emphasis on learning that is cooperative rather than competitive, for example: a friend who saying, multi-ability grouping, the form of discussion of work activities, groups and so forth. From the form of cooperative learning, led to a high sense of tolerance among learners, so that a sense of individualism in developing her potential which leads to the nature of the competition does not appear in the class. The next cultural features are "natural support" namely: the learning process both inside and outside the classroom who always emphasized unity among stakeholders. Natural support which means more provide the opportunity for anyone who is in school to accompany learners in the process of developing individual capabilities. Existing forms of togetherness stakeholders is believed to be a key in creating a culture of natural support. With the natural sports programs so students also felt he gained full assistance in their conducting exploration in the school environment. Learning program that is fairness in the classroom, the school seeks through this program with the maximum in order to meet the needs of the individual and not for uniformity, e.g: level assignment given to students are also different, the lack of a ranking of the learning outcomes in the classroom and not the existence of a class of students who stay because they do not reach the target value, especially because they are not up grade standard value that is realized in the form of numbers. Schools in particular all educators realize that every student must have the strengths and weaknesses of each, and therefore with the fairness properties that exist in primary schools “Tumbuh” 1, make students do not feel compelled to do the same, and it is hoped will result in similar results in the study. Here's a picture of inclusion elementary school culture “Tumbuh” 1 Yogyakarta:
Schoo l cultur e
Feature Class, School, and Culture
Humanis t Values
Figure 1. School Culture of Inclusion “Tumbuh” 1 Development of Culture School On the development of a school culture that is pervasive value humanisnya, which there are the cultural elements that are positive. Cultural activities that are positive elements that could be found in some of the activities that was done the students, cultural creativity as they do in the library. Learners
perform these activities basically they do not feel instructed by educatornya, but they do so voluntarily and they assume that you have become a necessity for him. Learners in the library are free to do whatever activity they want, for example: they do reading activities, storytelling, discussion, seek a variety of information from the internet and so forth. In explorating activity was also accompanied by a teacher librarian and these activities are usually carried out at recess and at religious subjects, so for those who have a different religion during the time they directly engage in activities that they want in the library. While the focus on the issues of cultural democratization on him. The perceived value of democratic humanist learners, especially on their activities in order prepare each class. Prepare learners are consulted and their order sanctions. The results of the consultation efforts they are doing with konskuen and responsibilities, so that they do without any fear because sanctions will get provided by educatornya. The next humanist values are in terms of solving problems faced by the students. In problem solving, students experience firsthand the solution process, both individual and group problems. While educators act as a mediator to attempt to mediate and facilitate them in solving and resolving their problems. The culture of this sort of problem solving process would the learner the opportunity to feel and space for independent motion in determining what is best for themselves. Humanist values contained in the subsequent development of a culture that is in the "open house" and "Tumbuh Fair", the habit of open house events held annually and conducted early in the year before the study began (prior to the registration of new learners). The core of the activity program is to convey information directly relating to the vision and mission of the school as well as the method and system of learning that was done by the school. Open house is an early form of communication (Parents Pre-Communication) can provide some sort of understanding (deal) between the parents/ guardians of the students to the school. While the agenda is “Tumbuh Fair” conducted at the end of the semester, both odd and even semesters. Activities that provide opportunities for students to display their creativity variety results. The results show the creativity that they are an accumulation of dominant competence of the themes that exist in the project each class. Here is a picture of the development of the existing school culture in elementary Tumbuh 1:
Culture Develo pment
Element s of Culture
Humani st Values
Figure 2. Development of School Culture
Implementation of Education Implementation of primary school education conducted Tumbuh 1 has some values that are humanistic. Humanist values which are intended to be felt by learners found in: a). Educational approach in learning, b). The method used in the learning process, and c). The process of learning activities conducted within and outside the classroom. Education approach Approach to education that is inquiry and learner-centered (student centered) are done school humanist values have meaning for students, because the shape of the intended approach learners can participate more actively in developing their potential. Educational inquiry approach applied to both the guided and free inquiry in the development of their potential they get more opportunities to explore. This is certainly in line with the principles of humanistic education wing progressivism which states that in principle this stream of child-centered education, where the role of an educator is not authoritarian, with more opportunities to provide various forms of student participants to dialogue, so that in the the development potential that exists at the individual more berfocus on involvement and activities of learners themselves. Methods In Learning Of the various steps of the method applied in SD Tumbuh 1, learners obtain treatment that is humane in developing their potential is quite unique. Of the various steps in the learning of the students felt that the method to obtain the form of freedom and appreciation of all educators in elementary Tumbuh 1 Learners in their efforts to develop capabilities, can free to choose and determine their learning style, and his system is the most liking. Likewise, free learners in addressing the problems they face, be it personal, group and learning resources. For the problem of the source of a mass subject, they are free to obtain various information and answers himself in the media that has been provided by schools and the media that he had in their homes. Activity Learning Process In the learning process is applied in elementary Tumbuh 1, there are values that are humane to learners. The values of the humanist nature can be felt by learners on three main points, namely: either in the form of learning, practical democracy in the teaching learning process, or assessment form provided to learners in the process of development potential. Humanist values which exist in the learning process are contained in the form of learning, namely the existence of a model activity "morning carpet, core activities as well as day carpet", and coupled learning activities conducted outside the area of the school is used as a source of learning, or with a program called
minitrip. Of all the forms of the above has been implemented in all grade levels that exist in the elementary school Tumbuh 1. The teaching and learning process in the form of unconventional, students are able to ekplor their ability. While the educator and assistant educator focusing on the involvement of learners in the process of learning the form in question. Educators more dominant positioned itself as a motivator and facilitator in the process by facilitating the necessary needs of each in the development activities. Humanist values contained in praxis democracy, namely: the learning process inside and outside the classroom that are running, students gain a sense of freedom in expressing a variety of opinions and ideas form or Idea that they have. Educator and assistant educator is in the classroom, in this case sought to continue to provide a form of motivation and opportunities to learners to be more active and able to appear in front of their friends or in front of the classroom. For educators subsequently always appreciate any form or model as well as learners in the way of his ability to express in the classroom. Humanistic values contained in the form of assessment of the results of the development of
individual potential, Tumbuh 1 primary school assessment in continuous development by using varied instruments that have been designed in accordance with the ability of individuals who are supposed to be measured. At the same measurements made efforts aiming to not seek a certain rank or standardized they need to accomplish in general, but its main goal is to see how far the progression of the capabilities of each individual that has been achieved. Thus the ability learners do not feel that there is in him compared to the other students. So also on the level of difficulty about what they are doing also varied, ranging from a low difficulty level, middle, hight and about the difficulty level for students who have special needs (ABK). From all the results of the assessment of development that has resulted not in numbers, but in the form of descriptive, which further results of this assessment will not affect students in the classroom in terms of the increase, as in Tumbuh 1 primary school does not know the term is not up grade. Following visualization Implementation applied learning in elementary Tumbuh 1:
a. exploration Implementation of Education
b. Questions & Answers c. experiment d. Research e. Data Collection and Reporting f. Deepening Understanding g. Creating and Testing the Theory h. Elaboration Solutions to
Problems Forms of Teaching and Learning Teaching Learning Process
Form of Assessment
H u m a n i s t i c V a l u e
Figure 3. Implementation Scheme of Education Conclusion Based on the results of the study as described in the discussion above it can be concluded that the school culture based humanist education in elementary schools Tumbuh 1 Yogyakarta, namely the values of humanistic education that are contained in the layers of culture that can be observed (concrete) and a layer of culture that is not can be observed (abtrak), be it that of the inclusive school culture itself, the development and
implementation of education school culture. Humanist values which are: the presence of the basic principles of freedom of learners they gained in developing the potential that is in them, any form of relationship maintenance between existing stakeholders, especially the relationship between educator with student participants, the existence of the basic principles of democracy in the process learning both inside and outside the classroom, lack of respect and equal treatment of forms that exist on individual uniqueness.
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