Temuan: World of Words - Oregon State University


Temuan: World of Words A Temuan/Malay/English Word List

Photo: Center for Orang Asli Concerns

Looi Siew Teip Adela S. Baer Jalil Mohamad December, 2016

Temuan-English-Malay Word List

TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface............................................................................................................................................. 3 Pronunciation Guide ....................................................................................................................... 5 A...................................................................................................................................................... 7 B .................................................................................................................................................... 10 C .................................................................................................................................................... 19 D.................................................................................................................................................... 23 E .................................................................................................................................................... 26 G.................................................................................................................................................... 26 I ..................................................................................................................................................... 36 J ..................................................................................................................................................... 38 K.................................................................................................................................................... 41 L .................................................................................................................................................... 49 M ................................................................................................................................................... 55 N.................................................................................................................................................... 59 O.................................................................................................................................................... 61 P .................................................................................................................................................... 62 R .................................................................................................................................................... 67 S .................................................................................................................................................... 70 T .................................................................................................................................................... 77 U.................................................................................................................................................... 85 W ................................................................................................................................................... 87 Y.................................................................................................................................................... 87


Temuan-English-Malay Word List Preface This publication is a thorough revision of the Temuan-English-Malay Word List compiled by American geneticist, Adela Baer, while doing research on genetic attributes of the Temuan community of Ulu Serendah, Selangor in the 1970’s. She was aided in this work by native speaker Jalil Mohamad. Since some of the glosses in Baer’s Word List incorporate ethnographical material, it is a valuable document not just for the study of the dialect of the Temuan, but also of their material culture. Publication was, however, delayed pending resolution of specific issues with the material presented in the Word List. Firstly, the spelling provided in certain cases was unreliable, and often did not adequately represent the correct pronunciation. The ‘correct’ pronunciation of a word in Temuan is in any case a moot point in the absence of a written standard that cuts across dialectal differences amongst the Temuan speaking communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Secondly, many of the glosses were not accurate. Finally, the Word List seemed to have been compiled with a very inclusive approach and contained many words that are not a part of everyday Temuan usage. This latter feature of this Word List is perhaps a natural outcome of the character of Temuan communities. There is a clear case of diglossia amongst most Temuan speakers, in which Standard Malay is used for communication with outsiders, and is the standard written form learned in school. Temuan proper is used strictly within the community. Temuan communities are also in contact with other Orang Asli groups, and this sometimes leads to inter-marriage with non-Temuan such as the Semai, the Temiar, and the Mah Meri who have settled amongst the Temuan, bringing their own languages with them. Our approach to addressing these cultural factors has been to go back to the Temuan themselves and verify the pronunciation and meaning of each entry in the Word List. This was done through a series of field trips to Temuan villages close to Kuala Lumpur, including the site of Baer’s fieldwork in the 1970’s - Ulu Serendah itself. Other villages visited were Ulu Kuang, Bukit Manchong, Sungai Kelubi, Sungai Tua, and Ulu Rasau. In the process, a number of new terms were added to the Word List, while at the same time, many more have been removed from this updated version because those words were either incorrect or could not be verified. There is significant variation in pronunciation as well as vocabulary across the region in which Temuan is spoken, including communities scattered across Selangor, western Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, and a corner of Johor. The pronunciation represented in this Word List is that of central Selangor, where the fieldwork was carried out, although some of the entries might well represent a lexical item or a pronunciation that does not belong to this area. This is noted especially in the case of a few entries that represent the variety of Temuan spoken at Kuala Kubu Baru, located in northern Selangor. Among the many word items that could not be verified, two criteria determined what words have been retained in this publication:  Spelling - the spelling of the word as originally recorded suggests a valid Malay/Temuan word from the point of view of phonology and the gloss also seems plausible 

Glossary Reference - there is a valid reference to Skeat and Blagden’s glossary in the second volume of their Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. 3

Temuan-English-Malay Word List There has been no attempt in this final version of the Word List to exclude words that are of nonTemuan origin. Where contributors pointed out that a certain word was Melayu (Standard Malay) rather than Temuan, and gave the more commonly used Temuan word, this fact is recorded as part of the revised gloss. Many words that are clearly from other Orang Asli languages also remain. Whether they can be considered stable loanwords, or are merely fleeting visitors to the Temuan world, is a question that is beyond the scope of this Word List. A decision was made to adhere closely to the rules of Standard Malay orthography in this final version of the Word List. This was prompted by two key reasons: 

This is a system which is already familiar to the Temuan themselves, particularly those who are literate, as well as to other readers in Malaysia

Given the significant differences between, for example, the dialect of Central Selangor and that of Hulu Langat, using the Standard Malay spelling for a given word is a good compromise. This because the pronunciation of many words in the Central Selangor dialect is very close to that of Standard Malay. To use a spelling system which tries to reproduce exactly the pronunciation of the informants would make the Word List impractical both for the Temuan, as well as for non-Temuan.

The oft-quoted definition of a language as “a dialect with an army and a navy,” attributed to the linguist Max Weinreich, points to the fact that it is often politics which decides whether a dialect remains one out of several possible spoken varieties of a language, or becomes elevated to the status of a national standard with a codified written form and official sanction. In the case of Temuan, it is clearly a dialect of Malay which shares several intriguing features of pronunciation and vocabulary with Austroasiatic Orang Asli languages. These include Temiar and Semai, which are closely related to the Mon-Khmer languages of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos. So, the question of whether we want to think of Temuan as a ‘dialect’ or a ‘language’ is probably best answered by the Temuan themselves. The participating informants often took pains to distinguish themselves from speakers of Standard Malay by referring to themselves as orang dalam (‘insiders’), as opposed to orang luar (‘outsiders’). The Temuan are ‘insiders’ in the sense that they see themselves as a distinct community and speaking a distinct language, as opposed to those living outside the community who speak a different, if related, language. They are also ‘insiders’ in the sense of being a people of the interior, living at the margins of the rainforest, holding on to their ties to the land. Viewed from a different perspective, the Temuan are in a very real sense ‘outsiders’, with generations isolated and excluded from the mainstream first of Malay, then of Malaysian society. As the Temuan communities, in Selangor especially, come to terms with the mainstream increasingly impinging on their lives in multiple ways, often rudely, it is my hope that this Word List, by recording a very important aspect of their culture - their language - will be of help to them and to those who are trying to help them in whatever way. Looi Siew Teip University of Malaya November 2015


Temuan-English-Malay Word List

Pronunciation Guide The spelling system used in this Word List is essentially Standard Malay orthography. For those who are unfamiliar with this, the following is a quick reference guide: Vowels a similar to the vowel in the English word ‘but’. e stands for two distinct sounds:  similar to the first part of the English diphthong ‘bait’; this sound can vary across the Malay speaking region and be pronounced closer to vowel in the English word ‘bet’  the schwa vowel which appears in many unstressed syllables in English or the Malay e pepet In a small number of entries, the acute accent is placed over the e (é) to different the first pronunciation from the second, without the accent. e.g., lecéh i similar to the vowel sound in the English word ‘beat’ o similar to first element of the diphthong in the English word ‘boat’, pronounced as a pure ‘o’ sound, without any glide; can sometimes also sound like the vowel in the English word ‘pot’ u similar to the vowel in the English word ‘boot’ in the sequences –ung, -um, ur and –uh however, the u has the sound of the first pronunciation of ‘o’ described above. Thus burung ‘bird’, belum ‘not yet’, kubur ‘grave’ and buluh ‘bamboo’ are all pronounced as if they were spelled ‘burong’, ‘belom’, ‘kubo’ and ‘buloh’. Consonants All the consonants are pronounced as in English, except for ‘c’. This is pronounced in all cases as the ‘ch’ sound in words such as ‘church’ and ‘check’. As in many accents of British English, ‘r’ is not pronounced at the end of a syllable in Standard Malay or Temuan. Thus besar ‘big’ is pronounced ‘besa’. The above rules apply to all entries in this Word List. Additionally, the following peculiarities of Temuan phonology should be taken into account. 1. Temuan has a distinct preference for closed syllables (syllables ending with a consonant) at word boundaries. In practice, this results in two highly distinctive features of pronunciation which Temuan shares with other Orang Asli languages: 

Word-final glottal stops. When the word ends with a vowel, e.g. mata ‘eye’, the Temuan speaker will automatically insert a glottal stop at the end, and what is heard is something like ‘matak’. The glottal stop can be heard in Malay words like Jumaat ‘Friday’, where it keeps the two ‘a’ sounds distinct. The word-final glottal stop is inserted as a matter of rule, and is not indicated in the spelling.

Final nasal preplosion. When the word ends with one of the three nasal sounds, -m, -n, and –ng, what you hear is a consonant sound before the nasal sound. It is as though the nasal sounds, which belong to a class of consonants known as sonorants, are not sufficient to ‘close’ the final syllable and the Temuan instinctively ‘closes’ it by inserting the appropriate consonant. Each of the final nasals is preceded regularly by the same consonant with which it is paired: 5

Temuan-English-Malay Word List malam ‘night’  malapm ikan ‘fish’  ikatn ranting ‘twig’  rantikng 2. The clusters –mb-, -nd-, –ngg- and –nj- are often simplified to –m-, -n-, –ng- and ‘-nyrespectively, such as: sambal ‘sambal, a spicy condiment’  sandar ‘to lean against’  manggis ‘mangosteen’  anjing ‘dog’ 

samal sanar mangis anying

Both forms are given as separate entries and are cross-referred to each other. The unsimplified clusters are generally seen as being ‘correct’, ‘formal’ and ‘Malay’ as opposed to ‘Temuan’. 3. The ‘r’ is never pronounced as in Standard Malay or English. In Central Selangor, the ‘r’ is generally realized as a voiced velar fricative [] when it stands at the beginning of a word, as in rajin ‘industrious’. This is the same realization of ‘r’ that one hears in the Malay dialect of Kedah and North Perak, or some speakers of Parisian French and northern dialects of German. When the ‘r’ occurs between vowels, the ‘r’ can be weakened to an ‘h’ sound. Thus perabung ‘roof ridge’ sounds like ‘pahabong’. This weakening can occur to the point where the ‘r’ sounds like a ‘w’ or ‘y’ or practically disappears. Thus baring ‘to lie down’ can sound like ‘baing’, merah ‘red’ sounds like ‘miah’, whilst jirus ‘to sprinkle’ is recorded by Baer as ‘je’us’. 4. The schwa [] vowel in prefixes like pe- and ber- is often pronounced [], which sounds similar to an ‘a’ vowel. Thus, a word like perabung ‘roof ridge’ sounds like ‘pahabong’, whilst berubah ‘to change’ sounds like ‘bahubah’. 5. The ‘o’ is often pronounced ‘u’. Thus ombak ‘wave’, sounds like ‘umak’, whilst orang ‘people, person’ is pronounced ‘uwang’. 6. The Temuan are fond of clipping their words, a phenomenon well-known in Standard Malay. Baharu ‘new’ for example is now always spelled and pronounced baru, whilst dah is often used in place of sudah ‘already’. The Temuan clip their words with a vengeance. A word like hembus ‘to blow’ is automatically simplified to ‘hemus’. This can be clipped to ‘mmus’ or just ‘mus’. Many clipped forms are recorded in the Word List and cross-referenced to the full form.


Temuan-English-Malay Word List

A abun acar acah aci acot acu acuh ada adat

adik agak agas aguk ajak ajal ajar ajih ajuk akar


ridge of house; also perabung condiments, pickled food; samal is more common [acar] not successful; Acah-acah, nyap jadi - It’s not successful fair ouch! oh! [aduh amboi] ouch! oh! [aduh amboi] to try, attempt to have var. hadat custom Nyap beradat, not according to custom Adat berbini, marriage customs Adat besah, the rules for paying certain wedding expenses Adat betina sama jantan, customs of male and female pre-wedding Adat duit, to pay a fee in accordance with custom; in the 1970's a prospective bridegroom paid, usually at the minang (engagement) to his mamak (father's older brother), acting as wali (agent), the sum of Malaysian dollars $22.20 for a janda or at least $44.40 for an anak dara, with the price being $88.80 for a batin's daughter Adat halus, engagement presents Adat nikah, wedding customs Lebih adat, more customary younger sibling adik-beradik siblings to guess a small, biting fly talisman worn by children on a string around the neck to protect them from evil spirits to invite fate; e.g., it is possible to have an ajal of being killed and eaten by a tiger to teach, advise you (familiar, singular); the Malay form awak may also be used. (S&B 733 ajih you singular, Jakun, Malacca) [awak] to mimic, repeat in provoking fashion root, vine Akar labah, red sap ingredient in ipoh poison Akar ulan, a vine that grows in sandy soil (G&T 274 report that this name is given to various medicinal vines, most in the convolvulus family) Ubi are also called akar var. hakal intelligence, common sense Mula-mula beranak, ada satu akal, beranak lagi, ada dua akal means that with her first child, a woman gets one dose of wisdom and with later pregnancies gets another dose


Temuan-English-Malay Word List akan-akan

similar to; e.g., Tulis Jepun akan-akan tulis China; Japanese writing is like Chinese writing [seakan] akhir the end; akhirnya - in the end akhirat var. hakhirat the afterworld; the bottom of seven layers of the world aku I, me, my; the Malay suffixed form –ku may also be used Aku-teh? Who, me? akui to admit, confess alahai phew! alahai leteh - phew, I'm tired! alai to dry things in the sun [salai, jemur] alam world alamat sign, omen, address alang var. halang main cross-beam on the side of a building, at eave level alang alang kepalang describes a situation when something does not work out (nyap jadi), or is insufficient or incomplete alas rainforest, wild, feral[hutan, liar] orang alas what Malays used to call Temuan, that is, forest people barang alas, forest produce used as food; old things no longer used aleu Small-toothed palm civet; also musang lenseng [musang akar] alih var. alis move; nalih to imitate another's speech alis var. alih; alis umah to move house; also pinah umah alo var. alur riverbed; alo guntong ravine alur var. alo amang fine foreign matter in tin ore sediment amang to threaten amat very ambil var. amik; amih to take amih var. amik to take amih ayi, fetch (a container of) water amih sekejap, to borrow (lit. ‘to take for a short while’) [ambil] amik see amih amoi young girl [gadis muda] ampang var. hempang dam ampun to forgive, pardon anak child, offspring of animals anak dara unmarried teenage girl anak angkat adopted child anak sebut a person in an offspring-like relation to someone, versus anak angkat who is a ‘real’ offspring beranak to give birth anca hat, any headgear [topi] angan thought; Angan-angan var. hangan-angan to daydream


Temuan-English-Malay Word List angin

angkat angkit angkuh angkut angsuh anjing anyam anying angking antai antok

anyok apa apem api

apoh arus

wind; sakit angina rheumatism or puffy edema all over body (also basal) Winds arise by the opening of doors in the sky; there are 7 winds: angin buah comes from the south; 3 to 4 months later trees are in fruit angin kelopak a period of about 10 days in December when bamboo shoots erupt from their sheath – refers to the sound made by the sheaths parting angin puting beliong a whirlwind or typhoon, only goes where there are too many people; it kills half of them; but it does not come to Malaysia, or particularly to Temuan villages, because the Temuan are too few; when one sees small whirlwinds, they are the anak of typhoons that are searching for appropriate places Other winds include angin ribut, angin calau, angin berbini, and angin penyakit to lift up; Anak angkat adopted child to lift a light object [angkat] snobbish, arrogant; Me’angkuh, me’angguh to behave arrogantly, to exult over an event or deed; to lord it over others to carry to push in; close, as in closing a box of matches [menolak ke dalam] see anyin var. hanyam to weave (a mat); mata anyam the side edge of a mat where a weaving row was begun var. anjing dog; anying segala red dog, dhole; also kodoing [serigala] var. hangkem puffing and panting after mild exertion; difficulty in breathing; asthma; also penyakit lelah [sesak nafas] a chain; as a measure, 22 yards antok-antok that which produces the heart beat, said to be in a biji kecil (a tiny spot) and not to be the heart itself; the pacemaker of the human heart is its sinoatrial node; three things can kill the pacemaker, and through it a person: api, ayi, angin (fire, water, wind) se-anyok similar [serupa] Hau dianyok don't mimic me what Apa-ni? What's this? toothless [tidak bergigi] fire Tiup api blow (restart) the fire makan api to burn bara api embers bonfire is rumbun firecrackers are api muncung [mercun] in Ulu Kuang, a volcano is called api nuwaka (lit. ‘hell fire’) well! so! see nahoint [kata seru] current (of water); berdarus strong currents (ant. tenang)


Temuan-English-Malay Word List asah

asal asam asap askar asik asing asmara asuh asyik atas atap atau awah aweh ayam ayah



to sharpen, grind, file Batu asah, a whetstone (versus kiki, a file); front teeth of a bride and groom traditionally were sharpened during the wedding ceremony; a pinang nut was put in the mouth to hold it open for this operation; this sharpening was done because when one dies Tuhan gives people a piece of bamboo stem to gnaw through, as a test; if the teeth have never been sharpened (it is only neceessary to do it once), a person cannot gnaw successfully and thus cannot pass on to the afterworld; (Teeth sharpening was not done on children or bachelors because they lack family responsibilities) source, origin, original var. hasam sour smoke, fumes a soldier var. asyik fixated on doing something; absorbed var. hasing separate, foreign; hati terasing feeling strange and uncomfortable love; sexual desire; the more common Temuan term is becint to care for an infant, to suckle, to nurse, to bring up a child var. asik above, up, on top var. hatap woven palm fronds, used for roofing, etc. or atur; var. hatur to stack, to arrange in a row origin [asal-usul] awah zaman dulu ancestors [nenek moyang] affectionate [manja] var. hayam chicken father ayah-tiri stepfather ayah pemudak biological father ayah angkat father by adoption water; river ayi bah flood ayi hujan rain ayi hangat boiling water ayi mata, tears [air] var. hayun to rock, sway, swing

B ba give (me)! ba, amik barang tu give (it to) me, bring it here [bagi] babi pi Babi hutan wild pig baca to read badak badak sumu Sumatran rhinoceros [badak sumbu]; badak cipan tapir badan the body badi var. bahadi bah ayi bah flood 10

Temuan-English-Malay Word List bahadi

bagai begitu bahagi

bagi bahang bahas baharu bahu baik baring

baris baju bakar bakau bakong bakul bala

balai balang balung balau balik


var. badi malign influence of an animal that has been killed; those animals with the most bahadi are the elephant, rhinoceros, tapir, and snake; bahadi causes itchiness, as opposed to jemoi, which causes inflammation kind, variety, sort like that; that's the way to share; to divide bahagi dua to share equally in profits, as when one party contracts to do work and the other owns the resources (such as rubber trees to be tapped); to share justly in rewards (such as various ethnic groups within the populace of Malaysia) bahagi anak a case when the working party gets less than half the profits and the resource owner gets mor to give; for heat contradict or dispute var. baru new shoulder good var. baying lying down Baring mehereng to lie on one's side Baring terlentang to lie on the back baring terlongkok to lie on the stomach one strand, row (of beads in a necklace, etc.); empat baris manik four strands of beads coat, shirt to burn pokok bakau mangrove throat [kerongkong] large, widemouthed, closely-woven basket (not a back basket) misfortune; tolak bala a propitiatory ceremony to prevent bala; e.g. ceremony held when a child has come of age usually when the parents or the grown-up child can afford it; the midwife (bidan) attracts bad karma when she comes into contact with the blood and other fluids at childbirth and she has to be symbolically cleansed of this in a tolak bala ceremony meeting room, building jug, decanter cockscomb to pare off (calloused) skin, or to pare off skin of fruit, or to skin an animal return; to leave baliklah goodbye hidup balik to come back to life sebalik, backwards; a transposition of numbers, etc. to hurl; more commonly lening or bening


Temuan-English-Malay Word List balu

balut balun bancah bangkai bangkit

bangkung bangku bangsa bangsal banir baning banjir bansauh bansong bantai

bantal bantil banting bantok bantu bantut banyak bara barah barang barangkali barat baru basah basal

taboo against killing certain animals, usually five types; the list varies from place to place and may include siamang, timok, kambing gurun, rusa, burung babi and burung tekuk; to avert calamity (especially death in the family ‘mati bini mati anak’), seven individuals from each of the types of animals must be killed within a year [pantang yang melarang pembunuhan binatang-binatang yang tertentu] var. bolot to beat with a stick var. bencah tasteless, off-tasting food [makanan yang sudah basi ataupun tidak sedap] carcass to arise from sleep; to rise from the dead; if a chicken, cat, or other animal jumps over a dead body before it is buried, it can rise up; people must guard the body to prevent this happening; if the body does bangkit, it will be very strong and flexible like getah (rubber) and will become a spirit (jadi hantu), eating people until it is satiated a wild, edible fruit, similar to the cempedak (Artocarpus integer) bench, stool, chair ethnic group (of humans); species (of animal) any open-sided building; shed buttress root a large land tortoise flood; more commonly ayi bah var. bansong verge of death [hampir mati] var. bansauh to butcher; to butcher monkeys correctly, in order to avoid punishment (kena hukum) the rules (undang) require cutting around the neck, then down the front (from neck cuts in the jugular vein area on each side) to the genital area with the two front cuts making a "V"; if the liver is undamaged, it should be removed first, followed by the heart, lungs, and lower jaw, while the head and backbone are lifted out together pillow; bantal wi placenta terbantil lying down (possibly unconscious or asleep) [terbaring] bier, stretched [usungan] putih bantok pure white [putih bersih] aid, assistance futile aku bantut dengan ajih I’ve given up on you; I don’t want to be friends any more var. manyak many; very banyak kuat very strong bara api embers, faggot abscess objects, things perhaps west; timur is east, but no Temuan words exist for north or south clip. baharu new wet puffy edema all over body with eyes bulging out 12

Temuan-English-Malay Word List basi basuh batang

batas batik batin batu

batuk bau bau bawa bawah bayah bayang baying bayuh bebas bedak beg begitu beguk bejel bekal bekam bekas bekung belacan beladi belah belakang belalai belalang Belandas belang belanja

musty, moldy to wash (things) a rod, tree trunk; a classifier for a length of rod- or stick-like objects batang bertam the midrib of a bertam palm frond batang leher the neck batang tenek the tree that provides the tenek ingredient for ipoh poison boundary batik cloth Temuan headman stone, rock batu bata bricks batu tungku triangle of three stones in hearth on which to set cooking pots Batu nisan tombstone cough; batuk imau a cough due to a tiger (imau pakai) entering one's body as angin (wind) any bad smell main rib of a palm frond, used as a fishing pole bau kail [joran] to bring below, under bayah-bayah as big as; tapak kaki bayah-bayah nyiru, lebih tapak kaki gasi, a footprint as large as a winnowing tray; larger is the footprint of the giant [sebesar] shadow var. baring a woman’s conjugal rights; see tolak bayuh berahi passionate love independent, free cosmetic face powder (made from rice flour) bag; loanword from English clip. gitu such, thus, in this manner goitre lymph glands in the neck [buah kelenjar] to provide; provisions mekam blood-letting (as a therapeutic procedure) container memekung to fart [kentut] shrimp paste bucket [baldi] to split open (see also chempeh, pekih, pencheh, sengat); to part the hair; side, as in belah ini, on this side; sebelah aside, one side (of a page, etc.) back, back side of body; di belakang at the back, subsequently elephant's trunk grasshopper identified by some Temuan of Ulu Selangor as being the Selangor Temuan, with the "true" Temuan living in Negri Sembilan a stripe on an animal; belang canggah forked stripes var. belanya expenses; to pay for another's refreshments belanja hangus to spend a lot of money; didi belanja aku they paid for me 13

Temuan-English-Malay Word List belanya belas belas belat belimbing beliming beliung belok beludu belukar belum belut benam benang benar bencah bencah bencak bencar benci benda bendera bendul bengah bengis

bengkok bentan bentang bentang bentar bentas bentuk berangan berani benget bengkak

bengot benih bening

var. belanja suffix for numbers 11-19 empathy, sympathy; belas kasihan empathy and kindness/pity screen var. beliming, gelimbing star fruit Can be mixed with ikan bilis, shrimp paste, and lada to make acar var. belimbing hatchet; angin puting beliung whirlwind var. melok to turn a corner tadpole [berudu] secondary forest not yet eel to submerge thread accurate, true (M., benar) var. bancah var. bencak var. bencah swampy shrill or rasping voice; ant. lempung to hate thing, object a flag var. benul periodic absence of fever (as in a malarial attack) [keredaan demam yang berkala] quick-tempered, fault-finding, cruel; the Temuan say some people are characterized by bengis, having uncontrollable flareups of anger, because setan has entered their bodies var. mengkok crooked, bent, curved jalan nyap ada bengkok the road has no curves relapse of sickness wooden sled bentang kerbau sled for water buffalo to pull logs with menentang to spread out sebentar in a short while menentas to open up sewn seams [betas] var. mentuk shape; to shape; bentuk pakaian China Chinese fashion (of clothes); bentuk jalan shape of the road wild chestnut (Castanopsis spp) brave; to dare very noisy [bising sampai tak dengar] swollen, as of a bee sting or lymph gland Mata sudah bengkak the eyes are swollen bengkak-bengkil condition in which the body is covered with bumps lonely, deserted (S&B 688 hengioh silence, quiet, Semang) [sunyi] seed grain; a cutting for planting to hurl (e.g. a stick) [baling, lempar] 14

Temuan-English-Malay Word List benul

var. bendul supporting horizontal beam in building construction

berah berah berahi berak beranak

pale; Darah ada berah, pale blood rested from sleep lustful, passionate var. mihak to defecate to give birth (from anak) beranak betul normal delivery beranak nyungsang breech delivery husked but uncooked rice heavy kayu berat hardwood mata berat eyes heavy; sleepy see telengko pokok bercin one of 3 species of hardwood trees from which jemalang can issue 10-20 years after the tree falls and dies; it has an edible fruit "like a tomato" first dawn (from terang) (S&B 561 cherang morning, Besisi) [subuh] potbellied pokok beringin banyan beringin songsang a place in the middle of the ocean that is the home of the original hantu longsui; it has trees with many staghorn ferns (selimba) growing on it to sneeze a species of palm with edible, white-fleshed, sweet fruit Malayan sun bear the pig-tailed macaque monkey eruk pakai is a spirit similar to imau pakai; f a person has this monkey spirit in him, he is always arguing with people (selalu kacau orang); by possessing this spirit, one can cause the death of others (makan semangat orang), as long as God does not concern himself in the matter (Tuhan nyap peduli); possession of the spirit can be passed down in a family, if upon the death of the possessor a descendent dreams about a real beruk; the spirit talks to its possessor in his dreams and it eats only people and pucuk lebak (shoots of a monocotyledonous flowering plant) but does not eat fruit; possessors of this spirit do not admit having it, for fear someone will snatch it; if the possessor is sick, he can cure himself with the help of the spirit by making the appropriate medicine to get something in the eye (See caim) big iron, steel; besi berani a magnet to hit with a cane, belt etc. buah betik papaya female, woman buah betis calf, lower leg true large, of certain objects to allow or let; biar saya basuh let me wash it; biarlah never mind; thanks normal, ordinary; nyap biasa not accustomed to; Orang biasa an ordinary citizen a forest species of monitor lizard lips debate, judicial proceedings

beras berat

bercelengko bercin berderang berdus beringin

bersin bertam beruang beruk

berus besar besi besit betik betina betis betul betung biar biasa biawak bibir bicara


Temuan-English-Malay Word List bidal


biji bikin bilah bila bimbang bincu bingar bingkes bini

bintang bintat bisa bising bisu bisul biola biul biyau bocor bocong bodek bodoh bohong boleh bolot bomoh bongkok borak botak

a maxim Maxims are often quoted during judicial proceedings, such as in a divorce case, for example: Gajah depan mata nyap tahoi, kuman seberang laut tahoi (lit. to be unaware of the elephant before one’s eyes, but to be aware of the germ across the seas); a man does not see the problems in his own house but knows the gossip about problems in the next village bual bidal to talk in maxims (as opposed to bual kasar); such talk is more customary (lebih adat)for leaders to use midwife Bidan tempah midwife retained in advance for services at the end of a pregnancy; the advance payment was $10.50 in Malaysian dollars in 1972 Bidan tait midwife service at birthing without advance notice; in this case, the payment was $25.50 Malaysian dollars in 1972 seed to build, make mengkuang bikin tikar mats are made from pandanus-leaf strips class or knives when worry; uncertainty lipstick [gincu] noisy to release a tied-down sapling in a spring-noose trap (jerat) [melepaskan anak pokok yang diikat ke bawah sebagai jerat] wife berbini to take a wife bini pangkal first wife bini hunjang last wife star spots of a rash or of bites, welts venom, poison noisy a stay-at-home; ant. biul [orang yang tidak keluar rumah] a boil violin a person who has no certain home; a wanderer; to wander ant. bisu. [orang yang suka merayau-rayau] to move aside [bergerak ke tepi] to leak; a drip earthenware, hourglass-shaped jug to flatter stupid to tell a lie can; to be able; boleh jadi maybe var. balut to bandage, to wrap a medicine man or woman; also dukun humpbacked berborak to banter bald


Temuan-English-Malay Word List buah

buai bual buang buat buaya

bubuh bubur bubuk budak budi bued buhan buhul buih bujang bujam buka bukan bukisah bukit buku beku bulai


bulat buluh

bulu bului bumbun bumi

fruit, nut, bean buah ampai kain small, red-pulp fruits that hang like clothes on a clothesline buah bemeting a black fruit with oily contents buah kuku tupai a tree with small, hard-skinned fruit having sweet, grape-like contents (when ripe the skin is red) to swing (such as in a sleeping hammock) berbual to converse; bual bidal to talk in literary allusions, proverbs, and the like to get rid of, throw away var. muat to manufacture, make nyap muat it can't be done, it won’t work crocodile; telur buaya crocodile eggs, edible and found on stream banks buaya lonyong the gharial [buaya julung-julung] buaya katak the saltwater crocodile to put, put away; to put on, wear porridge bubur kacang mungbean porridge; bubur nasi rice porridge a wood maggot; bubuk bikin habuk buluh the maggots have bored out dusty debris in the bamboo child; children budak main a doll wisdom, kindness, understanding; budi sayang loving kindness female genital area [alat kelamin perempuan] weak body, lacking energy; feeble [badan lesu] an evil (jahat) man who has 100 wives [seorang lelaki jahat yang beristeri 100] bubbles, froth bachelor small plaited bag for tobacco or the ingredients of betel quid to open; to turn a page; to undress no, not so twisting and turning hill book; joint of body; buku lali heel clotted, coagulated, frozen; darah beku dark, coagulated blood; a person with this condition has little strength a ginger root [halia] bulai cekung-jangau dried plant material worn on a string around the neck of a child as a charm against illness [sejenis halia kering yang digunakan sebagai tangkal] moon, month bulan haus new moon (lit. ‘thirsty moon’) bulan setengah, half moon bulan penuh or bulan mentah full moon bulan nyus waning moon bulan terang clear moonlight round, circle bamboo buluh betung a species of large bamboo buluh minyak smooth, large bamboo, used for split-bamboo flooring and walls; the bottom sections of this bamboo have light stripes (coreng) buluh perindu a rare species of bamboo that produces minyak sayang (love charm oil) body hair, feathers, fur Bulu pipi short sideburns to singe animal before butchering large bamboo-tube containers (2-3 m long), used as water carriers [keratan buluh yang digunakan sebagai bekas air] the earth; dalam bumi underground


Temuan-English-Malay Word List bunga

bungkas bungkis bungkus bongkok bunglai bongsu bongkar bunuh bunting bunyi burung

buruh buruk busuk busung

busut buta butang

flower, flowering plant; metaphorically, what first-born Temuan children often lack and therefore die in childhood (because, like trees (pokok), they must have have flowers (bunga) before fruit (buah) appear bunga api fireworks bunga cempaka kubur white-flowered variety of frangipani (Plumeria sp.) bunga daun kua spidery white flower of a monocot bunga kayu lada hibiscus (M., bunga raya) bunga kertas, bunga inggu a fleshy-stalked, leafless, fragrant plant; it is burned for medicinal purposes, producing an incense bunga tepus a red gingerwort depression in ground where an animal "nested" (See also umil.) fallen (tree – e.g. blown over by wind (tumbang) bundle, pack (of cigarettes, etc.) bent over, leaning to one side (of trees, people) leaves of this plant are used for tangkal (medicine); [sejenis tumbuhan] the last of a sibship to uncover buried materials or to be so uncovered (as roots when a tree is blown down); to open; to pluck out var. munuh to murder, kill pregnant noise, sound bird burung cenderawasih a mythological bird with bright plumage; bird of paradise burung cogonggongit a forest bird; if one hears its sound, it means that hantu seburu is near and one must run away burung enggang hornbill burung garuda a mythical eagle burung helang a raptor (eagles, owls, kites) burung hudang kingfisher species burung kuang Argus pheasant burung loyon a small, green bird, insectivorous on trees burung pipit sparrow burung punai the green pigeon burung pungguk the hawk owl burung tebuk a species of small owl thunder [guruh] worn, shabby smelly; soured (of milk) penyakit busung abdominal distention (as by eating too much salt) with knees creaking when walking; given this condition, one may not eat salt, meat, or cooling foods such as cucumber (timun) but may eat fish, rice, and heating foods such as durian ant hill blind button; to button up


Temuan-English-Malay Word List

C ca cabai cabok

cacak cabang cabut cacar cacat caci cacing cadar cadung cahar cakar caham cahaya cahont caim cakan cakap cakar cala calan calar calau

caleng calit

to try out, attempt. [cuba] hot green or red peppers the gooey sap (susu kayu) from a tree, burned as (pungent) incense as a protective measure (1) when there is a chalau, (2) against hantu, if people are staying in a house where someone has died, (3) for sick people, and (4) for dead people; a drop of the sap is stuck to the hair of newborns and later some is enclosed in a cloth packet, worn around the child's neck, to prevent fever (demam), convulsions (sawan), or sleeplessness menyacak to implant, to erect (e.g., poles, stakes, posts tihang) Menyacak umah, to erect house posts fork, main branches of tree jalan cabang dua, fork in the road nyabut to pluck out (for example, a tooth) cabut lari to run off smallpox; smallpox scar a flaw, defect, handicapped to vilify, insult [memaki] worm, free-living or intestinal; intestinal worms in children are said to be caused by eating a lot of coconut and meat bedsheet to hold, cradle in one's arms diarrohea; buah kerdas, buah jering, and buah perah have the smell of diarrhoea to scratch, a scratch mark nyakar to scratch, of a cat; for a chicken's scratching, see kekas very salty [sangat masin] light, sunshine to answer, retort (S&B 514 jahut to answer, Mantra, Malacca) [jawab, sahut] eyes irritated by a foreign object caim mata kerana berus [mata tidak selesa erana terkena benda asing] var. cakar to speak cakap se-balik to speak using transposed syllables (M., cakap ) var. cakan to swipe with claws extended (of felines) wood which is easy to peel [kayu yang senang dikupas] nyalan to be afraid to venture [tidak berani melakukan sesuatu] to scratch, to split a sapling by wedging something (such as a knife) along its length various kinds of severe storms; they are caused primarily by laughing at animals (including worms and grasshoppers) or by other irreverence toward nature and can cause great destruction and death; if a calau comes, parents ask their children what animal they have been laughing at, and when they find out, they try to cast a charm (tangkal) quickly (S&B: 768 chalau storm, Besisi) [ribut] nyaleng to light a lamp or a small fire [pasang api atau pelita] nyalit to touch, to tap [sentuh] 19

Temuan-English-Malay Word List caloi camba cambah cambai camcu camol campak campur canang candi

candu cangkap cangkep cangking cangkir cangkung cangkup canguk canggung cani cangkul cantam cantik cap capai carik cari nyari caruk cat catuk cawat cayi

cebuk cega cegar cekung cehoi cehu

nyaloi to not know the direction to go or the direction to point a blowpipe [tidak tahu arah] aromatic, of leaves [wangi – perihal daun] barely sprouting (of seeds, teeth) wild sireh (betel vine) (Piper sp.) [cambai] teaspoon [camca ] nyamol taboo on conversation while hunting [pantang berbual ketika memburu binatang] nyampak to throw down to mix, associate (with people) a small gong kind of fish trap; upright poles in a stream form a fence for a wedge-shaped channel leading to a trap area (usually with a lean-to shelter) [sejenis perangkap ikan] opium var cangkung a skinny person who is squatting [orang kurus bercangkung] var. cangkung a cup to squat a fat person who is squatting [orang gemuk bercangkung] to sit passively and silently with head down incongruous, inharmonious, out of place, unnatural female genitals [alat kelamin perempuan] nyangkul hoe, mattock nyantam joining together [cantum] pretty brand of merchandise cap tangan fingerprints to grasp, grab onto, to reach, to attain to tear, peel, strip (a piece of wood) to look for, search caruk ayi a runnel in a ravine to paint bercat nyawa scarred (lit. ‘painted body’)[berparut] nyatuk to cut a tree with a knife loincloth (originally made of barkcloth) thin (of liquids) susu cayi thin milk (evaporated or fresh) susu pekat sweetened and condensed milk [cair] cebuk mandi container for showering oneself when bathing to be cautious rapids leaves of a certain bush used as a cure (tangkal); the bush is planted in villages and has thick leaves [sejenis pokok yang daunnya digunakan sebagai ubat] nyehoi abundant animal footprints [bekas kaki binatang yang banyak] sound made by waterfall ayi bercehu [bunyi air terjun]


Temuan-English-Malay Word List cekai cekak cekik celak celam celanton celikep celup ceman cemas cemat

cemburu cemes cemohoh cempedak cempua cenawan cendawan ceneh cengak cengal cengang cengcek cengceng cengkenit cengkom cengkuai cengkung cengekel cengkeram cengkerik cengkerut centuk ce'oh cepat ceper cerai cerau cerek

cause of itchy, scaly skin or ulcers on extremities (S&B 640 gai scabiness Temiar) [kudis] cekak pinggang arms akimbo nyekek to strangle, to choke (on food) to wear eye makeup as usual; usually [biasa] to stub one’s toes [tersadung jari kaki] skinny [sangat kurus] to dip (as cloth for dying) spirit in water which can make people sick [hantu dalam air yang boleh membawa penyakit] nyemas anxious, nervous; Temuan more likely to use ngeri or takut inner tube of a blowpipe (S&B: 538 chemat middle piece of inner tube of a blowpipie, Besisi; chemat thick part of inner blowpipe tube, Mantra) [bahagian dalam sumpit] suspicious, jealous to inspect (a new object) [meneliti sesuatu] sound of water splashing or being sprayed out [bunyi air berdesir atau memancut] buah cempedak a kind of jackfruit abacus [sempoa] var. cendawan mushroom; some species are used for birth control Cenawan besut, any edible variety var. cenawan to squint, peek through a small hole [mengintai melalui lubang kecil] agape [ternganga] a hardwood tree (Neobalanocarpus heimii) nyengang bewildered, surprised var. cengceng var. cengceng lanak porcupine quill [duri landak] a red tick, parasitic on humans, leaving raised welts [sengkenit] menengkom to crouch (e.g., when hunting) [mendekam] green-crested, agamid lizard [sejenis cicak] sunken (such as eyes) Makan buah jering, sakit perut, mata cengkung; when one eats jering, one gets a stomachache and sunken eyes stingy, miser Haji Bahil bin Haji Kedekut a stock figure - a miser [kedekut] a deposit, earnest money for services to be rendered, as by a midwife lesser tree shrew [tupai muncung akar] flying gecko [cicak terbang] heel of foot (S&B 640 chentul heel, Kenaboi; kenthul heel, Besisi) [buku lali] to split open (of durian only, when the fruit splits naturally by itself along its segment lines) Derian ce’oh rapid, quick Jam ajih cepat your watch is fast small plate, flat to divorce a splashing sound or sound made by the rain tea kettle 21

Temuan-English-Malay Word List cergah cergas cerita cermat cermin cetek cetok ceyeng cicit Cina cincang cincin cipan cita cit-cit ciun comel comot cong

cong-cong condong congkoh

conong conteng Contoh

coreng cuai cuak cuan cucur

var. cergas capable, active [cergas] var. cergah story; some of the Temuan favorite stories are cerita gasi-gasi, cerita kancil, cerita burung garuda, and cerita badak to take care of, to respect; cermat anak don't mistreat your child mirror, cermin mata spectacles shallow to knock, to hit, to make an indentation, to bite (e.g., snake) to shriek (syn. yai) great-grandchild Chinese to mince finger ring; cincin cinta-cinta: the fabled ring which gives the possessor anything he or she wants immediately tapir; also tampung, tenuk emotion, desire, wish, hope, ambition noise of gritty scraping [bunyi – onom] over there (versus cuan far off); moh ciun let’s go over there (jom kita ke sana) (S&B 620 chun go there, Mantra; S&B 732 chiun there, Mantra) [di situ] dainty [comel] nyomot dirty of face certain shrews or squirrels: used for the common tree shrew [tupai muncung besar] and the pentail tree shrew [tupai akar malam] (S&B: 723, chong, squirrel, Mantra) cong bunga red-cheeked ground squirrel; tupai puteh [tupai pipi merah] cong gemu shrew-faced ground squirrel; also tupai chulis [tupai naming] cong tupai three-striped ground squirrel [tupai belang tiga] warning bark of a dog [bunyi anjing menyalak] var. condong shovel, ladle (S&B chongkoh, scoop up; chongkih, spoon, Besisi) [sodok] nyongkoh to scoop up, to dig up babi tu nyongkoh tanah the pig is digging up the ground var. condong leaning to one side; limau manis conong ke paya the citrus tree leans over the swamp (part of a pantun) nyonteng scrawl, scribble; curah to pour sample; example; there are indigenous peoples in many places on earth because they are contoh who got dispersed to their present locations; when there was a mighty earthquake, it separated land masses off of Malaysia (the place of human origin, according to the Temuan) and thus separated the grandchildren of the original human male and female pair nyoreng streak, stripe, to streak careless to be fearful, anxious [takut, binggung] there (far off) (versus ciun) Jauh sini, situ, chiun, chuan: far from everywhere; (S&B 735 chan, chyan hither, Belandas, Mantra) [di situ (tempat yang jauh) ] thick attap roofing (does not leak), as opposed to tarah (S&B 519 atap chucho a kind of palm, Mantra) 22

Temuan-English-Malay Word List cuba cucang cuci cucil cucur cucuk cucu cuit cuit cukai cuka cukup cuma cuna cundong cungak cungka cungkil cupak curam curam

to try braided hair [rambut bertocang] to wash cuci tangan to wash the right hand in a finger bowl before eating a rice meal a roamer, wanderer; to roam restlessly (S&B 618-620 chub to go away, Semang; chuk to go, Pangan; chok to wander, Besisi) [orang yang merayau] stemless, forest understory palm (Calamus castaneus); its frond main ribs are stripped to make strips to weave baskets [sejenis pokok] to inject, pierce; to run a cord (tali) through attap roofing, etc. grandchild to tap with fingers great-great-grandchild [cicit] a tax vinegar; acetic acid (which is mixed with rubber latex) enough useless [tidak berguna] to bad-mouth someone [memaki atau memfitnah] posterior, butt (S&B 551 chantong posterior, Mantra) assistant, helper (as jenang to batin) [pembantu, pemangku] main cungka an activity game for three people, two making a knot of four hands and one breaking the knot [sejenis permainan] nyungkil to gouge out; to pick food from the teeth penyungkil a toothpick measurement of volume, traditional a half-coconut shell, equal to a quarter gantang; one cupak is four pauh precipitous, steep a gloomy expression [muram]s

D dacing dada dara dagang dah dahulu daging dagu dahan daki daki dakut dal

Chinese weighing scale front of body; chest anak dara unmarried, teenage girl, a virgin orang dagang foreigner clip. sudah done, already var. dulu muscle, meat chin small branch of a tree to ascend body grime; wah, ajih banyak daki hey, you're quite dirty bamboo flute [seruling] a term of affection for addressing young daughters or nieces; see also tan (S&B 600 kedul female, Besisi; kedol female, Sakai) [kata-kata sayang untuk anak atau anak saudara perempuan] 23

Temuan-English-Malay Word List dalai dalam damak damai danau dangau danur

dapat dapur darah datang datuk daulat daun

dawai dayang dayus

debar deram dedeng dehil dekan demam

denai denda dendam dengan dengkil dengkur dengung

berdalai, nalai to fall together (of a bunch of leaves); also nalai; if only one falls, it is gugur [daun gugur bertimbun] inside blowpipe dart reconciliation, peace lake umah dangau temporary lean-to (S&B 634-635 dong lean-to, Kinta Sakai; dung lean-to, Besisi) the third of the Temuan oaths (sumpah) It means: if I am guilty, may my blood be decomposed into water; the sixth and the seventh oaths are similar, but refer to one's father’s or mother’s blood decomposing (danur ayah, danur emak) to get, obtain kitchen, hearth blood to come grandfather; also nenek var. dulat leaf daun les a banana-like leaf in which rice is cooked daun paku fern frond daun sarau smooth, simple leaf used as a wrapping in which to cook flour-paste dough daun tangkal medicinal herbs, include sireh, kunyit, bunglai, and sedingin wire a young girl misfortune to which one is resigned; one may get 7 years of it for each cat or dog one kills, since they are siblings (adik-beradik) of humans; among other situations, a person may get 7 years of it if he hits someone with a broom or shoe (but not if he hits with a rock, for instance) berdebar pulse, to beat (of heart); to be in a state of alarm or shock berderam shiver [geletar] to cook tubers underneath embers; to warm oneself by the fire bald; hairless (of an animal); fenderless (of a bicycle or car) [botak] large bamboo rat [dekan, sejenis tikus buluh] fever; there are 4 main kinds (See various hantu for causes of some fevers) Tekena and teguh are fevers every 24 hours with red eyes, skin and hot Lemas semangat is a light fever demam kura is a hard, shaking fever demam sejuk chills an animal track a fine for breaking a law longing dendam sakit hati a grudge with shallow (S&B 766 dengkel shallow, Mantra) [cetek] berdengkur to snore berdengung sound of a bird flying, beetle or aeroplane flying 24

Temuan-English-Malay Word List dentam dentung

depan derian dering desir di dia diam didi didih dimpong dinding diri diang dengik dompok dongak dongkah dongkoh dosa dua duduk duga duri during duit duku dukung


dulang dulat duli dulu

nentam sound of door slamming, feet stamping the floor, firecracker, etc. berdentung a "thunk" or "tung" sound; when heard in one's own ear, God (Tuhan) is saying one's name in reading the book of human fate, when one will die and with what sickness; then people say that the death spirit is calling (melikat maut manggil) and they cry out not to let them die yet front, in front var. durian var. during tight, taut (as a guitar string); ant. kendur [tegang] sound of hissing or faint buzzing at di ehnun there, yonder [di sana] di mana where? she, her, he, him, they, them silent they, them, all of them (KKB: ung they) (S&B 512 dikdik, all, Sakai, Perak) [mereka] to boil a very small, blood-eating fly [sejenis serangga yang menghisap darah] house wall berdiri to stand up; berdiri tegak to stand stiffly erect berdiang, nediang to warm oneself by a fire or in the sun to stick the head out (e.g., of the window) or by craning the neck tall and fat, of a person (ant. lengeu.) [orang yang tinggi dan gemuk] var. dongkah to look up var. dongak nongkah dagu to sit with chin in hands to push hard [menolak dengan kuat] var. dusa a sin two; berdua in pairs, a couple sit; duduk termenung to sit contemplatively; duduk betul to sit up straight to test, probe; if a Temuan studies the tangkal of a spirit (hantu), that person is ure to meet that hantu and it will test (duga) him thorn var. dering money buah duku a variety of langsat (Lansium domesticum) to carry a person, usually a child, astride the hips or waist, often with the aid of a tubular sarong suspended from one shoulder across the body, making a sling; to carry a basket traditional healer; his payment for a cure is traditionally $7.70 in Malaysian dollars (in the 1970’s) plus 12 tegas objects; one method of curing is rubbing a drinking glass over the area of the body that hurts; if blood is the cause of the pain, the dukun sees blood in the glass; if a needle is the cause, he sees it in the glass shallow pan for panning (tin) ore var. daulat the authority and majesty of a king; to become a ruler (jadi raja), one must have enough dulat (cukup dulat) clip. peduli nyap duli never mind clip. dahulu the first, the beginning; before (in time); ahead (in space)


Temuan-English-Malay Word List dunia duri durian dusa duyung

the world; it consists of 7 layers, 3 underground, one at ground level, and 3 above; see tanah thorn var. derian var. dosa a sin berdusa to sin, to commit a wrong ikan duyung mermaid; according to an old Temuan story, originally the mermaid as human; if someone obtains some of her tears, it will bring them good luck

E ehnun ekor elak elmu elok emak emas embun empas empuk encik enggan engkar engkau

clip. nun there; di ehnun there [situ] tail to get out of the way; to evade, dodge a blow var. ilmu knowledge fine, good mother; also moi gold; emas pospen the customary fee for a bride mbun ayi mbun dew var. hempas soft, tender (of foods) mister unwilling to break a pledge or disobey an order clip. kau you (an informal form address; impolite when used in the wrong context); when spoken by a Temuan adult to a child, it is "talking down" engket to cut out (e.g., meat) with a small knife (S&B 569 chingked to cut, Semang) [mengerat daging dengan pisau kecil] engkui to startle animals hidden from view by hitting a tree with a stick [memeranjatkan binatang yang tersembunyi secara menghentak pokok dengan sebatang kayu] enjot var. enyot entah perhaps (an expression of doubt); “I don't know”, also entah-hui entai clip. tai just now, very soon, just a moment ago (as opposed to una, meh). Aku pegi entai I'm going right away (S&B 669 entai, tai just now, Mantra, Besisi) [tadi, sekejap masa lagi] enyot var. enjot askew; up and down; also henyot-henyat [berjongkang-jongket] erti var. herti esok tomorrow, sometime in the future ;esok jemah, esok kala, sometime in the future

G gabeh gading

paw, of feline elephant tusk 26

Temuan-English-Malay Word List gadong

gaduh gaga gagal gagah gagap gagoh gahong gajah gaji gaji galah galang gali gamir gambar gambir gamit gambus gampar gampang gamus ganal ganas gancang gancin gancing gandal gandum ganggang ganggu ganjil gansa gantang ganti gantung ganyok gari garu garuda

a climbing plant with poisonous (vomit-causing) tubers, belonging to the yam family (Dioscorea triphylla, D. hirsuta); mutang gadong is the name of an old song (G&T 60 gadong mabok) bergaduh to quarrel small rattan basket [bakul rotan yang kecil] failed, frustrated big and strong mulut gagap to stutter mengagoh to hit with knuckles, head etc. [menghentuk, misalnya dengan buku jari atau kepala] steep, precipitous [curam] elephant wages; makan gaji to work for wages clip. gergaji a saw pole, such as for poling a boat; stick to knock down fruit from trees; Jolok galah is a stick with a forked end lying across e.g., tree trunk lying across the path, obstructing the way ngali to dig var. gambir gambier (a constituent of betel quid) photograph, picture var gamir var. gambit to beckon [melambai] var. gamus var. gampak to slap, to box promiscuous anak gampang is a child born out of wedlock var. gambus a five-stringed wooden musical instrument derived from the Arab lute nganal alike, almost identical nganas fierce, to terrorize, behave violently ngancang nimble, agile ngancin to sit on something sticky [terduduk di atas sesuatu yang melekat] to be pierced by something sharp, e.g. arrow, dart [tercucuk] ngandal to knock against, to meet an obstacle wheat (See bediang) to be interrupted, to be disturb, to lose one's direction or attention strange, peculiar to rub (the body), to wipe [gosok badan] measurement of volume (esp. for rice), equivalent to 4 cupak or 1 imperial gallon (4.546 litres) var. gantis, nganti to change (for example, husbands) ngantung to suspend, hang up berganyok to jest, quip [bergurau] handcuffs; to handcuff to scratch a mythical bird 27

Temuan-English-Malay Word List gasak gasi gasil gasing gatal gauk garam garang gaya gebar gedau

gehing gehing gejil gek gelah gelah gelahit gelang gelap geleh gelendong geletar geli gelimbing gelinya gelung gelut gemas gembira gemuan gemuk genap genceh gendang gendeng gendong genggam genoi genong

to overcome with blows, as in a fistfight; to seize clip. gergasi legendary, man-eating giants var. kasil mite, flea [tungau] top (the toy) ngatal to itch, itchy; promiscuous elder sister (S&B 548 gauk elder sister, Besisi, Belandas, Mantra) salt fierce style, means; KKB kaci Lagi macam mana gaya? So what are you going to do now? (What means are left to you now?) blanket, coverlet var. jedau rainbow; a kind of kayu teras (hardwood tree) can occasionally become a rainbow, when it is 100 years old; a naga (snake) also can become a rainbow, arching itself in the sky; in a double rainbow, the male snake is above and the female below [pelangi] an arrogant, quick-tempered man [orang yang sombong dan mudah marah] tergehing to grin/grimace with teeth showing [tersengih] yellow root vegetable (root about 1 foot long); [sejenis ubi] elder brother (S&B 548 ge-ek, elder brother, Belandas; geha, elder brother, Mantra) [abang] name; title (Syn. nama) [gelar] to tease (Syn. geleh, kacau, usik) a small hole [lubang kecil] var. ngelang bracelet var. ngelap darkness, night; sampai gelap nightfall to tease; disturb; hau di-geleh don't interfere [usik, kacau] sloping inward of a surface; concave ngeletar shiver to tickle var. belimbing ear pendants channel, narrow path bergelut to have fun, to have a good time to be annoyed; to regret happy buah gemuan a forest fruit that can cause nausea fat complete, full, even (number) ngenceh stab with a pointed instrument (S&B II: 570-571 cheg to stab, Semang; gechat to destroy, Sakai) [menikam dengan alat runcing] drum ngendeng to tie (towel or sarong) [ikat sarung ataupun tuala] var. genong to carry in a sling tied over the shoulder to clench in the fist; see also komkom var. genui grandmother (S&B 623 genoi grandmother, Belandas, Mantra) [nenek] var. gendong 28

Temuan-English-Malay Word List gentam gerentah gentat genting gerak geriang gering gerpau gesek gesel geser getah

gerecai getik geyang ghaib giat gi'es gigi gigit gila gila babi giling gitu gobek godek gogoh gogok guha goreng golek gong gonggong

gongok gonyoi gosok gosung goyang

ngentam to sound the gendang (Temuan drum) [hentam] thunder [petir] ngentat concave slender in the middle; narrow valley (home of the hantu seburu); a pass through hills to move; to shake someone to waken them a species of monitor lizard that lives in swamps [sejenis biawak] sick and wasted; same as kelinchat gap-toothed [kehilangan gigi] var. geser to rub; to draw a violin bow (pengesel), ngeseh biola to play the violin var. gesek to rub, to scrub rubber, latex, sap getah buku dried scrap of latex getah keping sheet rubber (hair) standing up [(rambut) menegak] loathsome, disgusting (of vomit, feces, etc.) (S&B 581 ik slime, Sakai; excrement, Mon-Khmer) [jijik, Pk. getik] uncombed hair [rambut yang tidak disikat] (pronounced raib) vanished, lost taunt, mockery [giat, ejekan] uncomfortable feeling [perasaan tidak senang] tooth gigi nyos; incisor [gigi seri]; gigi taring canine; gigi tenggam molar [gigi geraham] to bite crazy epilepsy to roll into a sphere or cylinder; buat-dah tepung giling roll the dough into balls clip. begitu betel nut pounder to stir (a liquid) [mengacau (cecair) ] var. gogok tremors due to old age; to shiver [mengigil; tremor badan pada orang yang berusia] var. gogoh cave [gua] to fry; fried mengolek to shake the head [geleng kepala] tergolek fallen over gong things that are usually carried about on a person, such as a pair of spectacles or a wallet [benda yang sentiasa dipakai atau dibawa macam cermin mata ataupun dompet duit] var. gonggok a black millipede that curls up teeth sticking out [gigi menjulur keluar] to scrub; to brush (teeth); to wipe dimples [lesung pipit] bergoyang to shake, sway 29

Temuan-English-Malay Word List guci gucoh api

var kuci to throw away a faggot (done in the middle of the path or road when a person is late; if not done, the traveller will, it is believed, get sick and perhaps die) gudu-gedak the sensation (and sounds) whilst travelling on a bumpy road [bunyi dan perasaan semasa melalui jalan yang berlubang] gugur to fall spontaneously, of fruit or leaves from a tree rambut gugur hair that falls out when it is combed gula sugar gula angin mints gula taban sweet sap of a forest tree; gula taban is the name given to chewing gum; gutta-percha gulai nyulai curry, to cook curry; gulai lemak curry with coconut milk guli marbles; main guli to play marbles gulung to roll up (such as a home-made cigarette); wooden battens perpendicular to afters (kasau) gempa gempa bumi earthquake; Malaysia has no earthquakes, the Temuan say, because it is the place of origin and dispersal of the human species; it did have an earthquake, however, when the land split up and separated the grandchildren of the Temuan equivalent of Adam and Eve into different land masses of the world guna useful; use Guna ada kerja tapi duit nyap it’s good that you have work, but where’s the money? guncai to stick out, project [menjulur keluar] goncang nyunchang to cause to sway or shake goyang to shake, tremble (with fear), fidget; to be loose (of a tooth) guni gunny sac gunung mountain gunta thunder [guntur] gunting to cut hair; scissors; infants heads are shaved at about four weeks of age to prevent crying (from indigestion?), it is said guntung ravine with water [gaung yang berair] gurau bergurau to jest guruh thunder gusti wrestling

H ha habis habuk hachit hadat hadiah

and; here (S&B 519 ha at, in, to, towards, with, Besisi; S&B 526 ha here, to be, Mantra) [dan, sini] done, finished dust, ashes onom for a sneeze; atishoo! [onomatopoeia bagi bunyi bersin] var. adat gift


Temuan-English-Malay Word List -hah hari

hajat hakal hal

halak halang halas halau halun

halus hambang hamping hamis hampok hamun hancing hancur hangan hangat hangkem hangok hangus hantar hantu

suffix used to soften the force of a word or utterance and to signal politeness; e.g., ini-hah ‘this one’ is preferred to ini alone day; una hai that day; a full day consists roughly of setengah hari (starting at noon), petang (4-6 PM), senja (7 PM), gelap (8 PM-midnight), setengah malam (1-5 AM), and pagi (5 AM-noon) wish, desire var. akal issue, affairs, difficulties; apa hal? what's the issue? emak nyap boleh sumpah anak, kena hal; anak nyap boleh sumpah emak, tulah; mothers can't swear at their children, they'll incur difficulties; children can't swear at their mothers, they'll incur misfortune Bila orang mihal, aku nyap campur when people are discussing a problem, I don't get involved Indian var. alang var. alas to chase off, drive away to travel or speak without adequate knowledge of the situation (S&B 720 lun to speak, Sakai; S&B; 727 lu fool, Besisi) [berjalan ataupun bercakap tanpa pengetahuan yang cukup] fine, delicate to throw, hurl (e.g. a lembing) [buang, baling] stench [hancing] strong smell, esp of beef and goat meat rank smelling (as sweat, singed hair, burned rice) [hapak] bad language, to swear, to curse stench to disintegrate, to be destroyed ; dunia hancur the end of the world var. angan hot; ayi hangat hot water var. angking var. mehangok; someone who has no qualms about asking for things from friends and neighbours [orang yang kuat meminta, tiada muka malu] burnt (of food) to send or convey; hantar balik to return (something) spirit, ghost hantu bayang spirit which comes out at night and wakes up children (Malay and Temuan, bayang, shadow) hantu bayuh comes into the hinai ceremony during the tolak bayuh hantu beruk a tulang beruk (femur of the short-tailed macaque) is hung over the door of some Temuan houses to signify hantu beruk is involved in agreement between someone and a resident of the house to do something at some time; if someone agrees to comes to bury a corpse at a certain time and fails to show up, the hantu beruk assures the defaulter will get a fever and perhaps die; if someone is away and does not return home (or arrive at a specified destination) on time, especially after dark, someone will throw a burning faggot (bara api) on the path


Temuan-English-Malay Word List and tell the hantu beruk to go away; otherwise, the hantu beruk will come and someone will get a fever hantu bubul an evil man who has about 100 wives hantu bukit hill spirit hantu busung cause of edema (Bukit Lanjan); also known as basal or sakit angin (Serendah) hantu ceman water spirit which can make people sick hantu imau see imau pakai hantu jemalang an evil spirit, mischievous as a child; a gnome of disease, sometimes can be exorcized to mitigate the harm (such as causing madness) of tulah, resemblance between a parent and a same-sexed child; a case of tulah means this hantu is in action; there are three species of hardwood trees from which jemalang can issue forth, years after the tree has fallen dead and become a rainbow (gedau) or dragon (naga): merbau, jelutong, and bercin; if the dead tree is standing, it can jadi gedau; if fallen, it may jadi naga 10 to 20 years later; the naga or the gedau are like the wap (breath) of the hantu jemalang; to exorcize (tangkal) this hantu in a case of tulah, among other things a hole will be drilled (tebuk) in one ears of the child; if the exorcism is ineffective, the child must be given to others to raise, otherwise one of the two in tulah will die hantu jemoi causes sakit bengkak; the body swells up due to encountering the urine or bisa (poison) or faeces of a dead animal hantu kenait lives only in a different world, below earth, and has a strange manner of speaking; it does not come up to graves and eat souls of dead people, because they are already like him, but it does go after the souls (semangat) or even the bodies of living people; in one story, long ago a Temuan man was digging a large hole in the forest to get out a long edible tuber, ubi hau, when he fell into the hole and the hantu kenait caught him and thought he was lauk (food); but the man said he was manusia (humankind) and the hantu kenait asked him, "Berapa kaki?" (how many feet do you have?); the man thought that if he said two, the hantu would think he was a chicken, and if he said four, would think him a sapi (wild ox), but he did say four and the hantu started eating him, first his feet, then his legs, stomach, and upward; later the man’s younger brother, a good person, looked for him and found the hole with only bones in it When he tangkal kuat (put a strong spell on it), the older brother hidup balik (came back to life), but the older brother was jahat (bad) and shot a poisoned blowpipe dart into the jering kernel (sumpit buah jering, so now people can only eat a little of it; he also sumpit the leaves of buah betek (papaya), so now they are pahit (bitter) and only the fruit is edible The younger brother objected to all this, saying that orang tanah tujuh (people on earth) need all the food they can get, that there is never enough; the older brother also stole animals such as the tiger as well as illness from the world of the hantu kenait and put them here on earth to bother people (S&B 616-617 kemoyd, kemoit, the grave spirit for Perak and Kedah Orang Asli; Dentan: 91-107 ketmoid, a spirit associated with death and graves - some part of a dead person becomes this bad spirit, according to the Semai)


Temuan-English-Malay Word List

hanyir hanyut hap hapal haram harap harung harus

hantu kenang causes fever with shivering (Bukit Lanjan and Serendah) hantu kubur the grave spirit, white and corpse-like (versus a jin, which is black); though frightening to see, this hantu should not be feared because he will not catch or hurt humans; he comes out of graves between 7 pm and 5 am and he lingers by the graves between 7 pm and 9 pm (so one should not go near then) but later wanders off looking for food Older Temuan say that to see the hantu kubur one should burn one inch of a threeinch stick above the body in the grave and put some ashes above the eyes so that then at 7 pm one can see this hantu hantu melikat maut this spirit removes the breath of a person when he reaches sufficient years (umur cukup), for Tuhan; this hantu used to appear as a man and tell a person his fated time (ajal) had come but people hit him so he complained to Tuhan and the latter told him to go not as a man but as a penyakit (illness) or invisibly, which he now does; he calls their melikat to go to the bottom layer of the world, called lapis tujuh; birds and other animals with small eyes are reported by the Temuan not to die by themselves (mati sendiri), such as through illness and instead, they are all murdered (victims of predators) because the melikat maut cannot enter through their tiny eyes (masuk mata); tuhan observes humans, however, through their eyes hantu pari the evil spirit of tanah tanjung (promontory), said to be named after ikan pari; if you are travelling alone, this hantu will call out your name (the sound is like a whirlwind) and if you reply, "Hoi," you will be caught and put to death by the hantu hantu palong causes abdominal pains and diarrhea hantu pelisi can enter a human body and cause sickness; pelisi causing the common cold (selimuh) glances off children who wear a charm (tangkal) against it, although they may still have the sniffles for a day or two; adults can resist (tahan) the pelisi much better than children can (Skeat: 329-330, pelisit) hantu sawan the spirit that causes convulsions and crying fits hantu senyakala the spirit of dusk who makes it necessary for a person to gerak (be roused) if they fall asleep between 4 pm and 7 pm; thus Temuan do not sleep at this time; he is sa-buta (the blind one) and sa-pekak (the deaf one) hantu tajam causes sharp (tajam) pains all over the body hantu taun looks like any ordinary human being; wears a yellow and red cloth around the neck and offers medicine to people who are traveling alone, which, if taken, causes illness or death; people wear hinai (henna) on the little finger when he is around fishy smell drifting, floating no more, no longer there learn; learn by heart [hafal] illicit; a strong expression of negation; satu sen haram, not one cent confidence, to hope to stride across a stream or river proper, fitting, right; said when one gets what he deserves, as in the English phrase, "serves you right" 33

Temuan-English-Malay Word List hasam hasil hasing hatap hati hating hatur hau hau haus hawa hawa hawai hawai hayam hanyam hayun helai helang hemus hempang hempap hempas hempit henak hendak hengas hengkeng hentak henyot hereng herti hes heyong hidang hidap hidoi hidu

var. asam sour results, products var. asing foreign var. atap liver; the location of feelings, “heart” hati panas, to be angry nating to lift and carry a small object in the hand var. atur to arrange, to stack (in layers) don't! (Also jangan) (KKB uses misau) (S&B II, p. 733, gau, don't! Sakai, Phg.) ubi hau an edible tuber thirsty head cold with blocked-up nose (versus selimuh, a rummy nose) [demam elsema dengan hidung tersumbat] well! so! (Bukit Lanjan) [kata seru] to hunt unsuccessfully [memburu tetapi tidak berjaya] berhawai streaked face painting (as done by the Temiar) [corengan muka orang Temiar] var. ayam chicken var. anyam to weave (a mat) var. ayun sheet; classifier for clothing or fabric, paper and other materials in the form of a sheet raptor (e.g., eagles, owls, kites) (S&B 586 helang, eagle, kite, Mantra; S&B 676 klang owl, Kasengan, an Indochinese Mon-Khmer language) var. hembus to breathe out; can be shortened to mmus, or just mus (Hembus only in very correct or ‘Malay’ pronunciation) var. ampang dam to fall and hit the ground heavily var. empas to beat (e.g., clothes while doing the laundry) to squeeze between two surfaces var. hendak clip. nak to want, to intend var. henak to shoot a gun; (Syn., tembak) [tembak] var. hingkang terhengkeng, terhingkang bow-legged [berkaki pengkar] to hit, stamp, knock a post into the ground henyot-henyat to walk in an erratic fashion [berjalan berjongkang-jongket] baring mehereng to lie on one’s side var. erti meaning, sense; nyap berherti it doesn't make sense var. hes hawa to blow the nose (S&B 537, kahes to blow the nose, Besisi) [membuang hingus] sooty [berjelaga] to offer food, refreshments to bear (the consequences of one's own adventures or follies; "Hidap-lah ajih" [tanggung, hadap] to sniff, smell; apa bau? cuba hidoi, what's that smell? Try to sniff around (S&B 717 ingoy to smell, Sakai, Perak) [hidu] to smell, for example, a flower 34

Temuan-English-Malay Word List hidung hidup higung higung hijau hilai hilang hilir hinai hina hindik hingat hinggu hingkang hingus hinik hirik hiris hirit hisang hisap

hisab hitam hitung hirup hoi hoi hakhirat hong

hono hoyong huban hubung hudang hiris

nose to live; the quickening of a fetus you people (in one family); those people (in one family); that couple (In KKB, ung is used for this meaning) (S&B 628 hi, he, she, it, Besisi) [anda] son- or daughter-in-law [menantu] green to drag something behind oneself [heret] hilai lutut to crawl on hands and knees[merangkak] vanish, disappear, lost downstream (ant. hulu) var. inai to insult, tease, disparage, disdain to step repeatedly with the foot (as on a foot-operated mortar) lesong hindik a mortar for rice and tapioca var. ingat. to remember a shelter [tempat perlindungan] var. hengkeng snot var. hindik var. hirit to pare (for example, a potato) var. hirik mehirit to thresh grain (rice) by treading on it hisang masak Malay weasel; aso merang [pulasan tanah] to suck, suckle, to smoke (cigarette); when a baby is at the stage when it eats regular food but occasionally wanders back to the breast, it is described as budak hisap to compute; tiga kali hisab ka-dapat Count three times to make sure it's right black to count, calculate to slurp response to the call, “where are you?” (S&B 552 serhoi to call, Mantra; S&B 564 hoi to arrive at, from, Besisi; S&B 565 hoi towards, Sakai) interjection; hoi, mana pergi? hey you, where are you going? [kata seru] var. akhirat the afterworld; the bottom of seven layers of the world the call used to get the attention of someone far away in the forest (the customary response being hoi) [kata seruan untuk mendapatkan perhatian seorang yang berada jauh di dalam hutan] very deep sleep [tidur lelap] to sway from side to side whilst walking [bergoyang ke kiri kanan semasa berjalan] var. uban rambut huban greying or white hair to link, connect var. udang shrimp to bite with open mouth, in a scraping motion


Temuan-English-Malay Word List


hukur hukum hulat hulu hulubalai huma humut hunjur hujung

rain; usually ayi hujan hujan batu hail hujan renyeh drizzle [hujan renyai] hujan rencing, hujan panas drizzle with the sun shining [hujan panas] hujan pejok steady rain for weeks [hujan yang berpanjangan] var. ukur to measure linearly customary Temuan laws about wrongdoing; ikut hukum to pay a fine when in the wrong var. of ulat upstream; hulu pisau a knife shaft a former rank of Temuan officialdom; the head of the balai [penghulu balai] non-irrigated rice field, usually in the uplands see umut var. unjur duduk hunjur to sit with legs stretched the tip, end of anything

I ibu igau igol ikan

ikat ikut ilai

mother (rarely used; see emak, moi) ibu jari thumb ngigau, migau nightmare, delirium, to talk in one’s sleep hat, any headgear (S&B 680, peningal, head, and sapu tinggol, head kerchief, Jakun) [topi ataupun penutup kepala yang lain] fish ikan badau a short, black fish ikan beludah a species of fish ikan belut the swamp eel ikan bilis anchovy ikan buntal puffer fish ikan bujuk a species of snakehead (Channa lucius) ikan haruan a species of snakehead (Channa striatus) ikan kapak a swampy water fish ikan masin salt fish ikan pari skate, ray ikan patung Malayan Leaffish (Pristolepis fasciata) ikan puyu Climbing Perch (Anabas testudinus) ikan sebarau Hampala macrolepidota ikan seluang Rasbora spp ikan sembilang various catfish; at least one kind has barbs with poison near the gills ikan temperas var. cemperas Cyclochelichthys apogon to tie to follow cackle with laughter 36

Temuan-English-Malay Word List iman imau



ingat ingar

ini intai intan intip ipar ipoh

iri iring insang isi itik itu

to be calmed down after being angry (hati ditenangkan selepas marah) var. rimau, clip. harimau tiger, also kodong; it only eats o'ang salah, but first it peers at the person to see if he or she is ajal (fated) to be eaten by a tiger; if one looks straight at the tiger, so its head is clearly seen, the tiger will not eat that person; but if one looks upward, the tiger may eat him imau pakai a spirit-type tiger which can enter a person like angin (wind); if it does so and one becomes sesat (lost) in the forest, one can ride on its back until close to home; then it becomes small and reenters the body; this were-tiger is not evil, only like air, but if a person says he is not afraid of it, when he is in the forest he will meet a tiger and it will make a big noise and appear to be huge to frighten him and the tiger will not eat this person; like the be'uk pakai, can cure its possessors of illness by leaving the body, which it will do only in private, so the possessor must go into the forest a ways before the spirit will keluar (exit) and lick the person (gilat), thereby curing him of illness (For the origin of imau, see hantu kenait) (S&B 739, kohon, Jakun) imau akar black or spotted leopard imau dahan clouded leopard imau car leopard cat [kucing batu] imau bintang black or spotted leopard imau kumbang black leopard term of address for any woman to whom one is not related or affined and who is too young to be addressed as genoi (grandmother); a term of address for a parent's younger sister or the wife of a parent's older brother (S&B 663, inah, aunt, Mantra; younger aunt, Besisi) [makcik] var. inai henna, used in wedding ceremonies; on the second day hinai is brushed on the foreheads and palms of the bride and groom to signify the condition of marriage (see also tolak bayuh); also painted on the little finger as protection when hantu tauhn comes var. hingat to remember, think said to a crowd when one wishes silence (Br. Sar. noisy; S&B 630 peningar to listen, Jakun) [ungkapan yang disebut di hadapan sekumpulan orang untuk mendapat perhatian mereka] clip. ni this, this one, these to spy on, snoop diamond to spy on, snoop in-laws blowpipe-dart poison ipoh malai the strongest of the ipoh poisons, reportedly (S&B 683 malai strychnine(?) poison, Besisi) mehiri hati to be envious, jealous, grudging to accompany gills contents; to fill; pelita ada isi minyak, the lamp has oil/kerosene duck clip. tu that, that one, those 37

Temuan-English-Malay Word List J jarang jaras jabeh jadi jadi-jadian jaga jagung jahanam jahat jahil jahit jaring jalan

jalang jala, jalas jaleh jelepak jaman jamban jambang jambu jamin jampi

jamu jan janda jandek jangan jangau janggut jangkang

jangkar jangkit

seldom; widely-spaced creel bag, pouch, sack; jabeh tepong flour sack [buntil, sarung] to become, to turn into; nyap jadi it didn't work out supernaturally created animals watchman; to guard, protect, be awake maize hell, an expletive directed at someone or something wrong, bad, evil improper behaviour nyahit to sew fish net to travel, road jalan lurus to travel straight ahead jalan pingkah to walk bowlegged jalan kencoh, to walk pigeon-toed jalan tingelap, to walk with a limp jalan timpang, to walk with one heel cutting in nyalang to be lecherous, promiscuous fish casting net var. nyaleh to be cheeky or playful, on the part of a male; for a female, see ngeleting [bersenda-senda] to flop down with fatigue [jelepok] var. nyaman epoch, age [zaman] privy whiskers; long sideburns a rose-apple or the guava tree and its fruit; jambu miah pink nyamin guarantee incantation, magic; Temuan usually say tangkal instead of jampi; as an exception: jampi si-kuning kuning, magic to make the face beautiful (a term of endearment) to entertain a guest makan berjamu, a large feast a bad hat, also a name given to a pet pig-tailed macaque, the beruk [orang jahat, nama yang diberi seekor beruk yang menjadi binatang kesayangan] divorced, widowed var. berjandek to travel with a group [bersiar atau berjalan secara berkumpulan] don't (imperative) (see bulai) a beard a large underground root (vs. akar, a small root, or jangkar, buttress root) jangkang mene’ong, the reddish bark of a smallish root that is chewed raw as ubat batuk, cough medicine buttress roots of a tree var. nyangkit to spread (of disease, fire); jangan jangkit, don't gossip 38

Temuan-English-Malay Word List janji jantan jantas jari

jati jatuh jantung jauh jarum jawak jedau je’es jehong jehok je'os jerejak

jejentik jeladoi jelai, nyelai jelam jelantang jelapuk jelengkung jeling jeluh jelondong jelonong jelutung jelud jemah jemah jemalang jemur

to agree; perjanjian, agreement, contract male, man to cut in half ; to slash through roots or vines finger ibu jari thumb jari telunjuk index finger jari telunjok hantu middle finger jari manis ring finger jari kerenkeng, little finger true, real nyatoh to fall; matahari jatuh laut the sun sets over the sea the heart; jantung pisang, the heart-shaped inflorescence of the banana plant far away needle, syringe the water monitor lizard (S&B 649 jawak water monitor lizard, Besisi, Mantra) [biawak] var. gedau a damp place [tempat yang lembab] gluttonous [tamak makan] penjehong glutton [orang yang tamak makan] var. johok to pour out, empty out (a liquid); to invert a container and empty out the dregs [tuang] terjehok spilled out [tertumpah] any short palm rib (used for making baskets, etc.) small, vertical, split-sapling strips (lath) set parallel to one another in building construction, especially to support buluh dinding (bamboo strips used in wall construction) mosquito larva [jentik-jentik] food remnants [sisa-sisa makanan] to give change (coins) [memberi duit kecil] var. nyelam foodstuffs tree-nettle (leaves are poisonous) crumbs, rubbish not cleaned up [sisa-sisa makan, sampah yang tidak dikemas] half-awake [separuh sedar] var. nyeling sidelong look poison container for blowpipe darts (S&B 683 jelok, Belandas.) [bekas racun untuk damak] var. jelonong var. jelondong a wide, pandanus-strip-woven basket, about one foot in diameter by two feet long [bakul anyaman daun mengkuang] a species of forest hardwood tree from which jemalang can issue forth 10 to 20 years after the tree dies and falls down (Dyera costulata) var. belud lack of concern or care (M, tidak peduli) dregs, remainder [sisa-sisa] esok-esok jemah one day perhaps (S&B 513 jemah forever, Besisi; chema tomorrow, Semang) see hantu jemalang to dry in the sun (e.g clothes) 39

Temuan-English-Malay Word List jemoi

jempas jemput jemu jenak jenak jenang jengka

jengking jengok jengkal jengkas jengkau je’ong je’os

jerangkang jerat jerawat jerih jering jernih jes jes jetok jijes jilat jimat jimbun jin jinak jingking jirus jiwa l joboh

var. nyemoi supernatural force haunting a place of killing (as of a deer); supernatural influence on a person due to encountering an animal such as kibau, or due to the bisa of animals; see also bahadi (S&B 616 kemoit ghost, Sakai, Pahang; kamoi demon, Old Khmer) [badi] var. nyempas finished, to finish [habis] to invite in sated, bored [jemu] unusable remnants (see also jeladoi, jelapuk) [Sisa yang tidak boleh diguna] nyenyak very deep sleep (see also hono) assistant to batin back of the mouth; jawbone, lower jaw [rahang bawah] Jengka kancil, pattern on the bottom of a sentong (basket) formed by the weaving process, so-called because it reputedly looks like the lower jaw of a mousedeer (S&B 558, jenka, lower jaw, Besisi) var. jingking var. nyengok to glance at span between thumb and finger var. nyengkas dessicated, to bedessicated [kering kontang] var. nyenkau to reach for an object on the same level as oneself to drain a cup midrib of bertam palm frond (from which baskets and other items are made) (S&B 541 jais tio spine, backbone, Semang; jas kio midrib of palm frond, Semang) [pelepah daun bertam] a kind of softwood tree with a trunk diameter of about 2 feet a spring trap with a noose; a snare pimple panting; exhausted from exertion a forest tree (Pithecellobium jiringa) with fruit (black when ripe) that contains an edible kernel clear, of water; ant. keroh steady rain for hours, in the expression: hujan jes-sa-jes [hujan yang turun tidak berhenti-henti] to pluck (for example, fruit) [memetik umpamanya buah] var. nyetok to stare silently (as in fishing) [merenung dengan diam (umpamanya semasa memancing) lanak jijes long-tailed porcupine [landak padi] to lick careful, thrifty, economical small-clawed otter [memerang kecil] a black-coloured evil spirit (that enters the body of a dead person). Jin Ali the evil son of hantu seburu; if one dreams of a badak, it is this jin nyinak tame, docile var. jengking to stand feet apart knees slightly bent, arms akimbo to sprinkled (S&B chius to sprinkle, Semang.) life, soul orang joboh Malay (S&B 654 jobo Mantra; jebo Besisi) 40

Temuan-English-Malay Word List johok johong jojol jolok jompot juah juak jukrah

jodoh jongang juga julai juling jumpa junih junjung juntai

var. jehok to pour out, empty out (a liquid); to invert a container and empty out the dregs [menuang, mencurah] ravine with streamlet [jurang] hilltop, ridge; also kematang [kemuncak bukit, rabung] to pick or bring down fruit with a stick; the stick is a penyolok same as kojot; with tie with drawstring [menggunakan tali untuk mengetatkan seluar atau beg] var. juak to toss up (as buaya does, according to Temuan legend, two times to a person it's caught, before it eats him) a Temuan official with a high rank (below that of the batin and the jenang) (S&B 557 jukrah deputy chief, Jakun and Besisi) [pegawai yang diberi pangkat bawah daripada batin dan jenang] similar, a kindred spirit, to match to stick out also projecting, overhanging, in the term: berjulai-pulai nyuling strabismus to meet, encounter many years ago [bertahun-tahun yang lepas] to carry on the head or shoulders to dangle, hang down

K kabus kabut kaca kacang kacau kaci kadang

-kah kahaba kahak kail kain

kais kait

mist mist, fog kabut tebal cloud [awan] (S&B 572, kabut, cloud, Belandas, Kenaboi) a piece of glass beans, legumes kachang tanah peanuts; bubur kacang a mungbean dessert flavoured with fresh, grated coconut and sugar ngacau to stir (a liquid), to interfere, to annoy, to tease (KKB) means; see gaya kadang-kadang occasionally interrogative suffix Nyanyi-kah dengar? Do you want to sing or listen? spider web (S&B 722, alhaba, kelaba, spider, Mantra [sarang labah-labah] phlegm ngahak to clear the throat by coughing and swallowing phlegm [mengeluarkan kahak dari kerongkong] to fish; bau kail fishing pole; mata kail fishing hook cloth, sarong kain putih white cloth; used by Temuan to wrap a body for burial; no other color may be used; if no white cloth is at hand, the body is buried unwrapped kain sal towel ngais to scratch or dig (of e.g., chickens and dogs ) ngait to snag fruit with a pole; pengait pole used for snagging fruit 41

Temuan-English-Malay Word List kaki kala kala kalah kalat kalang kalung kalau kali

kemban kambing kami kamin kampak

kampit kampung kanan kancah kancil kandang kandar katek kapak kapal kapir kapur karat kasar kasau kasi kasihan kasil kasut kata katak kau kateng katil kawan

foot kaki setut, kaki kebas a foot that is numb time, occasion kala jengking scorpion to lose (ant. menang) stupid [bodoh] lying across necklace or ring if once; jangan sekali-kali, don’t ever (do something); kira semua sekali add it all up; sekali also indicates the superlative degree: budak kecen sekali the smallest child sarong or fabric tied round the body to cover the breasts; ngemban to tie a kemban goat kambing gurun serow var. kamin exclusive we (not including the person addressed) See kita for the inclusive we var. kami a pandanus basket similar to a sentung but lacking stiffening around the base and top, used to transport tubers [bakul mengkuang yang digunakan untuk memunggah ubi] a pandanus bag, or any bag village right (side) cauldron a mouse deer an enclosure, such as for goats to carry on a pole dwarf [katik] axe kapak siam an axe with a flared-edge blade a ship kapalterbang airplane non-Moslem (used only for non-Orang Asli groups) [kafir] lime for the betel quid; chalk rust rude, coarse, rough parallel rafters to support attap roofing to give; kasi tahu tell pity, sympathy var. gasil shoe to say any frog, including katak hijau, katak inkon, katak keluli, katak putih an impolite form of address to another in northern Selangor, but acceptable in southern Selangor to fasten, hang up [sidai] bed friend; berkawan to befriend 42

Temuan-English-Malay Word List kawasan kawat kahwin kau kaya kayap kaye kayu

kayuh kapang kapang ke kera kebun keceh

kecep kecen kecok kecun kediak kedoing kejar kejim kejut kekas kelabu keladi kelahi kelain kelakok kelam kelambuk kelamin kelimbah kelapa

neighbourhood, area, district to scratch kawat duri barbed wire (S&B 703, kawait, to scratch, Besisi) to wed clip. engkau rich orang kaya rich man ringworm syn. kurap Malayan flying lemur; see kubung (Cynocephalus variegatus) [kubung] tree, wood batang kayu logs kayu api firewood pedal (of bicycle, etc.) or row (of boat) chopping block [landas cincang] a woody climber (Enkleia malaccensis) to long-tailed macaque orchard, vegetable plot kebun getah rubber plantation disturbance of sand, gravel or earth when someone or some animal walks along a path; berkeceh babi dirt along track disturbed by a passing wild boar [keadaan pasir atau tanah yang bersepah-sepah di atas jalan selepas laluan orang atau binatang] to collect bits and pieces, such as fruit off the ground [mengutip benda, misalnya buah-buahan dari atas tanah] small [kecil] pigeon-oed to move out of the way; kecun ajih tu seken, akuk nak laluk make way please, I need to get through armpit [ketiak] a winged insect; its larva, ulat not, is edible [sejenis serangga bersayap] berkejar to rush, race, to chase a moment baharu kejim, a moment ago [kejap, sekejap] to startle, to rouse (someone), terkejut to be startled to scratch (of chickens or dogs) grey mata kelabu film over eyes taro (various Colocasia spp.) keladi kemahang a forest species, of which the root and stem bottom are edible; the stem top, if eaten, causes itching berkelahi to quarrel, fight, get into fisticuffs (syn. gaduh) to get separated, to separate ajih kelain, akuk kelain “you go your way, I go mine” behaviour [kelakuan, perangai] buat kelakok to have an attitude, to behave badly [mengada] gloomy, obscure, in half-light; kelam-kabut chaotic, confused var. kelamuk mosquito net [kelambu] a couple, a family drainage channel that leads away from the kitchen from the washing up area [longkang yang menyalur keluar air dari dapur] coconut; kelapak sawit oil palm 43

Temuan-English-Malay Word List kelak kelat kelawar

kelecoin kelatuk keledang keledek keleh kelen kelencat kelenjar Kelet

kelétok keletoh kelih klim kelincau

kelincing keling kelinga kelentit kelip kelobok kelolot kelongkong kelopak kelopeng keluang kelubi kelucung

afterwards, in a short while (S&B 672, kelak, klak, Jakun, Belandas) astringent bat; the clubs suit in a pack of cards kelawar besar black-bearded tomb bat [kelawar dagu hitam] kelawar cheku diadem horseshoe bat [kelawar bahu puteh] kelawar cheliau wooly horseshoe bat [kelawar ladam terbesar] kelawar lempong lesser large-footed bat [kelawar hitam bakau] kelawar yip bicolor horseshoe bat [kelawar ladam bulat biasa] termite or insects that are attracted to and swarm around light same as above but bigger buah keledang the fruit of a large forest tree (Artocarpus lanceofolia), similar to the jackfruit sweet potato to make superifical slashes in a fish (before frying) [mencalar daging ikan sebelum digoreng] a person not accustomed to surroundings e.g., country bumpkin in the town and behaves awkwardly malnourished (of people, animals or plants) var. kelenyar lymph gland in groin an Orang Asli group said by the Temuan to live near Tasik Bera in Pahang who erect only leaf shelters, and move every one to two weeks (a possible reference to the Temoq or Che Wong?) [sekumpulan Orang Asli yang dikatakan menduduki kawasan berhampiran dengan Tasik Bera] to sprain [tergeliat] to throw [lempar] to want; kelih sangka-ku mati (you) want to think I'm dead to fold paper, cloth; to fold up trousers, sleeves [lipat] to move aside; to stray off the path, e.g. when two persons are on a path together and one turns off the path Berayau-rayau sampai kelincau to wander about and get lost [bergerak ke tepi; sesat jalan] mosquito larvae [jentik-jentik] a south Indian var. of telinga clitoris to blink any small butterfly or moth (S&B 551, kelobok, butterfly, Besisi.) [kupu-kupu atau rama-rama yang kecil] stupid [bodoh] buttress root [banir] petal; leaf sheath, such as on a bamboo shoot; angin kelopak, an annual three-day breeze nail parings, fallen-out eyelashes, etc. [sisa-sisa seperti kuku jari yang telah dipotong atau rambut yang gugur] flying fox buah kelubi the white-fleshed, somewhat sour fruit of a palm to cover the body completely [menutup seluruh tubuh] 44

Temuan-English-Malay Word List keluh

miscarriage; to induce abortion, heavy rocks are said to be heated, wrapped in cloth, and kept for two to three days over the stomach when a woman is three to four months pregnant [keguguran bayi] kelulut a small, black, stingless bee that sucks liquid from wounds [lebah yang kecil dan tiada penyengat] kelutut joints [sendi] kemalangan accident kematang hilltop, ridge [kemuncak bukit, rabung] kemian fragrant incense (from resin of the tree Styrax benzoin) that is burned (1) in the hinai ceremony of weddings for tolak bayuh (2) for dead persons, such as in the spirit house, umah melikat (3) for sick people [kemenyan] kembar twins are anak kembar kena incur, contact kenal to recognize kenan a quirk of anatomy, personality or behaviour inherited from parents; it is believed that if the mother spends a lot of time with another person other than the father during pregnancy, the child’s kenan can follow that of this other person, or even that of an animal kenang sympathy, compassion [belas kesihan] kenang to remember, recall, reminisce kencis to flick away with a finger [menjentik] kencing urine ngencing to pass water kencoh to pour water out of a vessel; e.g. to water the plants [menuangkan sedikit air daripada bekas; menyiram] kencot to prick or pierce [cucuk] kendur loose (such as a guitar string) kenggalong banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) [linsang] kening forehead; eyebrows kenip a small hopper bug that ‘sings’, this night sound being like an infant crying to be nursed [serangga kecil yang bunyinya diibaratkan sebagai tangisan bayi yang hendak menyusu] kensel cancel [batal] kentak poverty-stricken [papa] kentung brittle rind, eggshell, or the like (S&B 712-713, ketokng, rind, Besisi.) [kulit luar yang keras dan mudah repuh, seperti kulit telur] kentut fart kena to fit (of clothes) [kena, padan] kenyal firm and springy kenyang satiated, full, satisfied kenyet to wink [kenyit] enyis to push aside with the foot, push back [sepak ke belakang] ke’ong to hit [pukul] kepai a sling bag [beg yang bergantung dari bahu] kepak wings (of birds, insects) kepal to press together with the fist into a consolidated mass, e.g. rice, clay, etc. 45

Temuan-English-Malay Word List kepala kepalang

head, clip. pala [kepala] alang kepalang describes a situation where something doesn’t work out (nyap jadi), or is insufficient or incomplete kepang buah kepang a small, sweet, tough-skinned, tan fruit keping classification for a sheet of paper, a segment of fruit, such as a lime kepit to carry under the arm kepok storage bin for threshed rice (padi) made of tree bark kerajaan government kerak layer of scorched rice adhering to the inside of a cooking pot kera for the sake of, because of kerang shellfish kerani clerk kerantang spider web [sarang labah-labah] kerangkeng back of the mouth; throat [kerongkong] keras hard, strong, obstinate kerat to cut off, sever; classifier to denote part of something, usually a long rod-like object or string sekerat dawai a length of wire kerbau water buffalo kerdas a fruit which, like jering causes stomachache if many are eaten. (G&T 123, the fruit (seeds) of a common leguminous tree (Pithecolobium confertum) with pods that have an evil smell, like that of petai) kerenes the veins of a palm leaf used bound together and used as a broom [lidi] kerenyai to grin/grimace with teeth showing (syn. gehing) [tersengih, Ked. kerenyeh] kereta vehicle, car keretapi train keretup a crackling noise [bunyi geresek] kering dry kerja work, to work [kerja] kertas paper kertas haribulan calendar keropeng scab keruh turbid (ant. jernih) kesak kesak-kosek sounds in the undergrowth [bunyi dalam semak-samun] kesai undercooked and still hard (e.g., rice) [tidak cukup masak dan masih keras, seperti nasi dll.] kesan spoor, tracks, trace kesat to wipe off moisture kesat rough-textured surface (versus licin) kesau sound made by an animal or a person falling into the undergrowth Kesau, aku jatuh dalam semak “Kesau, I’ve landed in the scrub” keset curly hair [rambut keriting] kesian pity kesing hard (object) [(benda) keras] ketagih addict ketam a crab ketat tight fitting ketawa to laugh; clip. tawa 46

Temuan-English-Malay Word List ketil keting ketuh ketuk ketul ke'ung kira kiri kijai kijang kikir kilat kincih kingking kita kodoing kodong kodong kojot kolem koloi komkom

konjol kontang koncot kopak kopes kopi korek kosek kotor koweng kuali kuap kuat kubang kubung kubur kuci

a pinch (of something); a small amount Achilles tendon tired, of legs, from exertion (S&B 740, kerok, tired, Mantra; kebok, tired, Jakun) [penat] to hit classification piece, e.g., seketul kayu a piece of wood to beat with a large stick (S&B 569, kuh, to strike, Senoi) [balun] to count, calculate [kira] left (side) incense (similar to cabok and kemian)consisting of the resinous gum of a tree barking deer to file, a file lightning to toss something down (such as a bunch of petai pods) berkingking to squat [cangkung] we, including the person addressed; (see also kami) the dhole; (also anying serigala) [serigala] extremities (e.g., fingers, hands, feet) cut off [kudung] tiger; also imau (S&B 739, words for tiger include podong, South Pahang Sakai; podogn, Mantra and Semelai; kohong, Kenaboi and Jakun) [harimau] to tie with a drawstring [mengguna tali untuk mengetatkan seluar atau beg] pond [kolam] cover for quiver for blowpipe darts [penutup telak, bekas menyimpan damak] ngomkom to close, or clench (fists), or to curl up (e.g. in pain); can also denote the stiffness of a corpse [mengetap, menggengam tangan, atau mengerekotkan badan (bila kesakitan) ] to tie with drawstring (syn. kojot) [mengguna tali mengetatkan seluar atau beg] dry, parched lame [jalan tempang, Kel. kecok] broken into pieces or coming off, like bits of a wall to peel [kupas] coffee to clean the ears is ngorek telinga kosek-kasak sounds made in the undergrowth or thicket, e.g., when someone walks through [bunyi di dalam semak] dirty you people contraction of kau orang (coarse) wok kuali tangkai a frying pan nguap to yawn strong, powerful; to tangkal kuat is to perform powerful spell or charm mud wallow the Malayan Flying Lemur (Cynocephalus variegatus) a grave var. guci dried/roasted melon seed [kuaci]


Temuan-English-Malay Word List kuci

penyakit kuci a local, itchy inflammation, with symptoms similar to those experienced from overeating buah jering or buah kerdas; (drinking coconut juice, ayi kelapak, is a pallitive) [bengkak dan kudis di mana-mana bahagian ubuh] kucing cat; (cats and dogs should not be killed because they are adik-beradik to humans); if a cat jumps over a corpse, the corpse may rise up kucing ampau flat-headed cat [kucing hutan] kudik, sekudik similar [serupa] kudis itchy skin infection udis cicai the result of scratching an itch between the toes, arising from contact with the urine of certain animals or from stepping on certain things in the forest kudis beruk the result specifically of contact with short-tailed macaque’s (beruk) urine kuek the sound made by a pig [bunyi seekor babi] kuih cakes and puddings kuini buah kuini the variety of mango native to the Malay Peninsula (Mangifera odorata) kuis to rummage through a pile of things with a stick or a finger, in search of something [menolak barang ke tepi dengan sebatang kayu atau jari untuk mencari sesuatu] kukang slow loris [kongkang] kuku nail, claw [kuku] kukur to grate pengukur a coconut grater [pengukur kelapa] kukus to steam (food) kukus moonrat [tikus ambang bulan] kulat lack of confidence; embarassment kulit skin, soft rind kuman germs kumbar kumbar berteduh lymph gland in armpit [buah kelenjar di bahagian ketiak] kumpul to gather kunci lock; key penyakit kunci, jaundice with liver and gallbladder ailment; penyakit kunci penyah arthritis kuning yellow kuning bayu light yellow (S&B 758, biug, white, Senoi) [kuning muda] kunyah to chew kunyit tumeric kupas to peel (fruit); more commonly kopes kurang less kurap ringworm kura var. kuwa tortoise demam kura hard, shaking fever, not necessarily identified by Temuan as malaria [kura-kura] kurus thin (of people) kusat to peel off kutip to collect kuwa kura


Temuan-English-Malay Word List L laci lancung larang labah labah-labah labu lada ladang

laga lagi lagu -lah lahir lahoit la i-lah lain laju laki lakum

laku laku lalai lalat lalang lalu lama lamai laman lambai lambat lampar lampai lampan lampau lampet

drawer not pure, dishonest; a play name is a nama lancung to prohibit akar labah plant which produces a red sap, an ingredient in ipoh poison spider a long squash; gourd pepper garden plot; farm; the time for planting a ladang is tiga bulan buluh (when the bamboo is 3 months of age), that is, when the sheaths (kelopak) have dropped off the bamboo shoots berlaga to fight (e.g., buffalo, cock etc.) more lagik tigak batu, ‘three more miles’; but tiga batu lebih a little over three miles song; Lagu oiyop, an old Temuan song clit. softens the force of a command or request dunia lahir the time of the world when miracles occurred, such as the tenggilling (pangolin) getting a tongue and losing its teeth a Temuan oath: “may my body waste away if I am guilty” (S&B 597 gilhoit to deceive, northern Sakai; jeloit to err, Pahang Sakai) [suatu sumpah orang Temuan] an expression of assent or weariness; also lari to run, run away different, other fast, speed man, husband buah lakum Adam’s apple; according to Temuan lore, a fruit once got stuck in the male throat and became the Adam's apple (S&B 736 lakhum Semang, throat) [lekum, buku leher] to sell well, to be in demand to do (something) careless house fly lallang, a ubiquitous tall grass to go past, charge past; past (of time) old (except for people, for which see tuha); a long time var. lambai to wave, beckon cleared space around a house; play area outdoors var. lamai slow, late melampar randomly located all over the place a large forest leech [sejenis pacat besar yang boleh ditemui di hutan] to wash for tin, using a wooden tray exceedingly, much more; terlampau too much; to excess luxuriant leafiness of trees; the temiang (blowpipe) is not used under these conditions [keadaan di mana pokok-pokok tumbuh dengan subur dan berimbunrimbun; dalam keadaan ini temiang tidak boleh digunakan] 49

Temuan-English-Malay Word List lampi lampin lampu lanak lancas



lancas lanci landa langgar langit langkah langkak langkap langsung langui langkeh lastik lantai lantak lantak lantang lantas lantik

latih lantok lap lap lapar lapang

old pendulous breasts [buah dada yang tua dan labuh] diaper; traditionally a cawat (loincloth) was used lamp, light (see landak) to slash through wood, trees (S&B 561, chas, manchas, to cut one's way through the forest, Pangan) [merintis jalan dengan mencantas dan menebas lalang dan rimbunan] var. lanak porcupine; lanak raya Malayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) lanak teboin brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus macrourus) lanak jijes long-tailed porcupine (Trichys fasciculata) cengcek lanak porcupine quill hillside pool; it is forbidden to bathe there because such spots are inhabited by spirits (See teberai); if one does bathe there, or even worse, urinates or defecates there, great harm will befall that person, such as a severe fever [Kolam di sebelah bukit yang menjadi tempat tinggal teberai; Bermandi atau membuang air di situ akan membawa bala] to slash through wood, trees (S&B 561 chas, manchas to cut one's way through the forest, Pangan.) [merintis jalan dengan menebas lalang dan rimbunan] to slice [memotong kepingan] to pan for tin [landa: mencari bijih dengan dulang] to crash into; to collide with sky stride, pace, measure (i.e., taken to attain a goal); melangkah to stride to hit someone or something with a stick or other object [memukul dengan sebatang kayu dll.] a kind of palm tree forthwith, not at all; berlangsung to take place melangui to call out (to someone about 20 yards away) [seru] always quarreling [sentiasa berkelahi] slingshot clip. stik (Eng. elastic) [lastik] floor to ignore someone and him do as he pleases to ram down, to hit distinct (of sound) passing right through to appoint; a batin without direct descendents may appoint someone as his uccessor when he dies; a dying father may appoint a male friend to watch over his family if a son is too young, or if he has no son to start an event [memulakan upacara] thick bark which can be laid down as flooring (S&B 712 lantok skin, bark, Kenaboi, Besisi) [kulit kayu yang boleh digunakan sebagai alas lantai] to wipe to vanish suddenly [lenyap dengan tiba-tiba] hungry empty, vacant


Temuan-English-Malay Word List lapit

lapit lapuk lara larai laring latah lata latam lauk laun laut lawa lawak lawan layan layang layar layu lebah lebak lebam lebang

lebas lebat lebih lebu lebur lebuh lebuh lecéh lécéh lécét lecik lecir

layer; buluh lapit two thicknesses of split-bamboo (for walls); the world has seven layers; the lowest, where melikat are, has day when we have night and vice versa (because the sun revolves); its doorkeeper asks entrants what they’re doing there; one time he didn’t let a Temuan in, so the man went back home and came alive again; lapit tujuh the seventh, bottom-most layer of the world, where melikat exist [lapis]berlapit, behapit in folds, in layers [berlapis] to cover, e.g., with a tablecloth or bedsheet [lapik] mold, decay, mildew buah lara a fruit similar to the tampoi (S&B 730 lara tampui, Mantra) despondent, disappointed [kecewa] old Temuan word for a bicycle aberrant behavior in which a person repeats words or gestures of others; echolalia waterfall, cascade pressing or stamping down dishes accompanying rice in a meal (syn. ulam) protracted; lama-lah laun bertemu juga; after a long time, (we) meet again (S&B 673 lahun old, Kenaboi) ocean pretty, handsome, smart, chic jest, joke berlawan, melawan to fight, oppose; lawan tikam see tajih to pay attention to to glide (in the air) berlayar, melayar to sail wilted bee; lebah nisan honey bee [lebah madu] nisan lebah, honey [madu] medicinal plant with a cluster of sword-like leaves but no visible stem [sejenis tumbuhan yang boleh dijadikan ubat] bruise a tree found in secondary growth (belukar) which makes good house posts (tihang) [sejenis pokok yang ditemui dalam belukar, yang digunakan sebagai tiang rumah] to slash lebas rumput, to slash (tall) grass [tebas] dense, of rain or of fruits in a cluster more than, greater; nyap lebih, not more; lebih kurang, more or less terlebih too much dust, dusty to melt (usually metal) road, lane storm; melebuh to become stormy; to warn children that they may cause a chalau, say, “melebuh tekalah" [ribut] slimy, muddy (shallow) [berlumpur] worthless, useless meleceh to run someone/something down to develop a blister melecik to splash out; ayi melecik water splashing out [percik] to melt (e.g., ice, plastic, wax) [mencairkan (ais, plastik, lilin, dll.)] 51

Temuan-English-Malay Word List lecit

wet and muddy; melecit to become wet and muddy (e.g., when trampled over) [lecah] lecur ngelecur scalded, blistered Ledang Gunung Ledang is a mountain in Melaka; an immense tiger is reputed to live there; it’s also the name of a Temuan song legas to snap a long object in two [mematahkan sesuatu yang panjang jadi dua] lehi neck [leher] lehoi said as an invitation to enter one’s house (S&B 552 serhoi to call, Mantra; S&B: 564 hoi to arrive at; from, Besisi; S&B 565 hoi towards, Sakai) [digunakan untuk menjemput orang naik rumah] lekas quickly lekat melekat to stick on, adhere to lekuk hearts (suit in a pack of cards) lelah asthma, exhaustion lelayang kite [layang-layang] leleh meleleh (water) dribbling; can denote a runny nose lemah weak lemak fat, grease gulai lemak curry containing coconut milk buah lemak a sweet ‘fruit’ with a centre ‘like ice’ produced by a bulb below ground level; when one drinks water after eating this fruit, the water tastes sweet; this fruit is sought, according to legend, by the garuda (a mythical bird), which is now featherless; if the garuda were to find and eat this fruit, it would grow feathers and come and eat people lemas to drown lembah valley lembing spear lembek soft, mushy lambung to billow out or up lemas to asphyxiate, to have difficulty breathing; lemas semangat a kind of light fever due to a dream or a fall, in which one's soul is temporarily lost lembu cattle lembut soft; proper and correct; cakap lembut to speak in a proper and refined manner lémén to hold and examine [memegang sesuatu dalam tangan dan menelitinya] lemoi melemoi very slowly; to drag out a job; to dawdle along [perlahan] lempai melempai to dangle out, as a baby’s legs when carried [berjuntai] lempang to slap lempen to deflate (of balls, tyres), e.g. due to a puncture [kempis] lempet stemless, understorey palm (larger than cucur); the main ribs of its fronds are stripped to make basket-weaving material [pokok seperti cucur, tetapi lebih besar; tulang daunnya digunakan untuk anyaman] lempong kelasar hairless bat [sejenis kelawar] lempung soft and light (of wood); smooth, mellow (of voice); ant. benchar lencem sharp, pointed [runching] lendir viscous fluid, mucous


Temuan-English-Malay Word List lengan

arm, especially the forearm tali lengan straps for sentung basket lengan baju sleeve lengang sparse lengas a species of tree with a sap that causes a rash [sejenis pokok yang mana getahnya boleh menyebabkan ruam] lengeu tall and skinny (ant. dompok) [tinngi dan kurus] lenggong sound made when an object is hit[bunyi yang keluar apabila sesuatu dihentak] lenggong berlenggong to hit with a light object lengkak melengkak to wear eye glasses [memakai cermin mata] lengkap complete lengkeh thumping sound eg head knocking against the wall, when thumping the table with fist [bunyi yang keluar bila kepala terhantuk ataupun semasa menghentak meja] lengkot to bend a sapling or branch over, as when getting at its fruit [melenturkan dahan dsb] lengkang lengkang-lengkung twists and turns (in a road or path) lengkum melengkum to be unable to sit up on one’s own (for example, an infant) [tidak berupaya duduk tegak, seperti bayi] lengong buah lengong a green-skinned mango with red pulp lenguh to feel weak in the limbs lening to throw, hurl (for example, a piece of wood) [lontar] lenyap vanish lepas past, over lepuh ngelepuh blistered lepuk slapping sound, e.g., when slapping wet clothes on a board or a rock lerai to separate two people (e.g., who are quarelling) leseh to throw a pointed projectile, such as a spear [melontar lembing] lesek restless; melesek to fidget [gelisah] lesung mortar letah the final stage of decomposition of the body; the name of a Temuan oath (sumpah) that means let my body rot (if I am guilty) [tahap terakhir penguraian mayat; nama yang diberi kepada satu daripada siri tujuh sumpah utama orang Temuan] letak to put letih weary liar wild liang a small aperture, a pore, a crack (e.g., in floor boards) liat tough but flexible; cakap liat cussing liban to hit sidewards with a stick or log [menyebat sesuatu di bahagian tepi] licau completely finished [habis langsung] licin slippery, smooth (versus kesat) lidah tongue lidi the veins of a palm leaf used bound together and used as a broom; kerenes is the more commonly used term in Temuan lilin candle, wax limau citrus fruits; limau purut leprous lime 53

Temuan-English-Malay Word List limbat limpai limpang limpun linang lindung lingkar lintah lintang lintas lenyek lipan lipas lipat lipur lisah litak lobak locot lodeh lodoh lojoh lojok lokoh lombong lompang lompat longgar longgok longkang longkas longkoh longsui

a species of catfish var. of lempai melimpang to walk with a lame [berjalan tempang] a basin [besen] berlinang to drip, to flow in drops (e.g., sweat, tears) to shelter berlingkar to be coiled up (like a snake), melingkar to encircle the swamp leech melintang horizontal terlintang (also terlentang) flat on one’s back to cross to splash feet in puddles [memercik air dalam lopak dengan kaki] centipede cockroach to fold up; a crease; lipat ganda manifold melipur to work oneself out of a situation [melepaskan diri dari sesuatu keadaan] restless (due to anxiety); clip. of gelisah [gelisah] weary (S&B: 740 litak tired, Beduanda, Malacca) [penat] Chinese radish melocot blistered [lecet, terkelupas kulit] silt, mud (can sink in it past the ankles) [lodak] a Temuan oath: “may my internal organs rot (if I am guilty)” [suatu sumpah orang Temuan] melojoh perpendicular to [serenjang, tegak lurus] to keep moving, momentum, e.g., a car to rolling downhill in free gear [lajak] hard a mine promiscuous, of women; Lompang Sagu is song sung by men about women who have spurned them, in which the women are accused of being loose [rambang] to jump, leap loose; loose fitting (versus ketat) to gather objects together in a pile; a pile (of things) ditch, drain to come off, peel off (e.g., skin, tiles, tree bark) [lekang] type of rambutan whose flesh comes off easily from the seed [rambutan longkah] hantu longsui a blood-eating, naked spirit with a cat’s face that lives in the bird’s nest fern (selimba) and can become human; as a human, she is young and beautiful, with long hair, and has no difficulties with childbirth and as a human, she does not eat burnt ikan bilis or belacan and does not dance (beronggeng), as these are taboos (pantang), which, if broken, will turn her into a bird; when a spirit, she can be kept away from a birthing area by putting mengkuang (thorny pandanus) under the house; in the forest, if a certain call is heard, one must produce a bad odour (bau busuk) by burning salt or salt fish (ikan masin) to keep her away; she can eat a man’s testicles without him even knowing it; there are many manifestations of her, but the original longsui lives on an island in the ocean where they many selimba grow [hantu yang memakan darah dan bermuka kucing, yang dikatakan tinggal di dalam semun, sejenis paku pakis] 54

Temuan-English-Malay Word List lori lotong luar luas lubang lubuk luncat lucut ludah luka lukah lukis lulum lumat lumi lumpur lumur lumut lungkat lutung luncur longkang lungsur lupa lurus lutut

lorry var. lutung dusky leaf monkey outside; keluar to go out spacious hole lubang tahi anus deep pool in a river to leap up with both feet together [loncat] released; slipped from one’s grasp saliva; meludah to spit wound [luka] a basket-like fish trap paint, draw to suck, to lick to pulverize see lumur below mud var. lumi to smear, to coat, e.g., with flour, or mud (of a pig wallowing in the mud) lichen, moss split open (fruit) [ berpecah kulit (buah)] var. of lotong meloncur to slip forward or downward drain, ditch to slide down to forget straight knee

M mabuk macam madu madu magah mahajen mahal mahang mahu mai main mancong mayang

to be drunk like, resembling, ways; dua macam cakap to say two contradictory things honey second and subsequent wives [isteri yang kedua, dan yang seterusnya] something reprehensible or revolting; [perkara yang tidak elok] enough [cukup] mahajen sangat too much [terlalu banyak] expensive a small tree (Macaranga spp) to want (more commonly, nak) clip. mari come (S&B 565 mai come, Belandas, Mantra, also Cham) to play; card games include main colet and main tan; bukan main its no joke buah mancong horse mango (yellow pulp) hot (of ambient temperature) [panas]


Temuan-English-Malay Word List makan

maki malam malang malas malu mamah mamai mamak mamalang mambang

mampus man mana manai manai manau mancung mancis mandi mandul mangis manik manggis mangkuk manis manisan manja mangkar mantong Manul manusia manyak ma’ok


to eat makan penyudah farewell dinner makan ramai-ramai a large feast makan tanah (lit. to eat earth); to appropriate someone else’s land; this is what hill rice (padi huma) is said to do to the land and is the reason why rice can only be planted once in a forest clearing to use bad language, to swear night; the more usual Temuan word for night is gelap unlucky lazy, reluctant to ashamed, embarrassed to chew to talk to oneself, without being aware of it, as in delirium or illness father’s older brother [bapa saudara] var. mambang var. mamalang mambang kuning yellow clouds at sunset; hantu mambang a spirit that can take on any colour, said to cause illness in which there is fever, weakness, and cold hands dead, to die who, which, that (syn. nan) [yang, nan] where mana-mana anywhere; Di mana where? Ke mana? Where to? very stupid [sangat bodoh] crazy behavior [kelakuan gila] rotan manau a thick rattan (Calamus manan) tapering hidung mancung prominent nose matches to bathe var. manu var. manggis bead var. mangis mangosteen bowl sweet honey; clip. nisan [madu] affectionate half-ripe (for fruit like durians and mangosteens); half-cooked, still hard (of tubers) pig [babi] var. mandul barren humankind var. banyak many; very tragic results of doing something dangerous or unusual on the day a Temuan in the community dies; [akibat yang menyedihkan hasil daripada perbuatan merbahaya ataupun luarbiasa pada hari seorang dari golongan Temuan di sesuatu empat meninggal dunia] angry 56

Temuan-English-Malay Word List marin masa masak masam masih masuk mat

yesterday, a long time ago [kelmarin] time or period; Masa Jepun the period of Japanese occupation ripe; cooked, to cook sour; Muka masam sour face still, continuing enter very tiny, such as certain seeds (S&B 595 ma'at Semang , matan Jakun, seed; S&B 715 mat small, Mantra) [sangat kecil] mata eye mata hari the sun [matahari] mata hari mati (lit. dying sun) west; mata hari keluar (lit. rising sun) east mati die mawas legendary man-like ape; orang utan merasap to go in search of a sexual partner [mencari teman persetubuhan] me'enk to grunt [mendengkur] megah to lord it over others, to boast [megak] meh a year ago or more mehado to visit neighbours (S&B 733 mah people, Besisi; mai people, Semai; dol house, Besisi, Perak Semai) [melawat jiran] mehereng see hereng mejeh tiger (said by Selangor Temuan to be used by Pahang Temuan) (S &B: 738 meje, mejeh tiger, Belandas, Mantra, Kenaboi) [harimau] mekoh to be lazy to get out of bed [malas bangun, selalu lewat bangun] melantong very smelly [sangat busuk] melesin same as bersin to sneeze melikat the soul of a dead person (as opposed to semangat, the soul of one alive) See also hantu melikat mawat and umah melikat Melikat are the cause of dreams in which dead persons appear; upon awakening, the dreamer must pasang kemayan (burn incense) and tell the melikat to go away; (S&B 317 nabi melaikat the supreme being in the Besisi and Jakun religion, who lived a long time ago when the sky had 7 suns, 7 moons, 7 stars, and 7 rainbows; the last were really the 7 snake-souls of the serpent called naga melaikat; the serpent lies in a land at the edge of the sky, with his head reaching to the gate of heaven; also in this land are 7 large birds, the garuda, and a gigantic elephant, which is really an elephant soul) [malaikat] melok var. belok mempelam var. pelam buah pelam a small mango menang to win menantu son- or daughter-in-law menarung var. nyenyerung otter; memerang is a small otter [memerang] mene’ong see jangkang mengah to pant, to breathe heavily (from exhaustion) mengandung pregnant mengkapas buah mengkampas, buah kapas fruit of a large forest tree with fragrant flowers mengkok var. bengkok crooked, bent mengkuang a kind of screwpine (Pandanus species) whose leaves are used for mat making 57

Temuan-English-Malay Word List mengoh mentah mentek

to worry, be anxious [bimbang, gelisah] still hard, half-cooked rice, [(nasi) belum cukup masak] cold and numb, as hands in cold weather[merasa sejuk dan kebas]; liquids vary in temperature from hangat (hot), through seram ketong kuku, to sejuk and mentek mentek sweet [manis] mentri the third ranking traditional Temuan official [pegawai yang berpangkat nombor 3 dalam adat Temuan] mentuha father- and mother-in-law [bapa mertua / ibu mertua] mentuk var. bentuk menung to think deeply; to ruminate over something termenung to be deep in though menunggang upside down; from tunggang merang Malay weasel; also hisang masak [pulasan tanah] merayang flickering (e.g., of candlelight, or light reflected in water) [berkelip-kelip] merbau pokok merbau a species of forest hardwood tree (Afzelia Palembanica) from which jemalang can issue forth 10 to 20 years after the tree has died and fallen merbuk zebra cove (Geopelia striata) mersik crisp, crunchy (of food) miang itchy mihak see berak mihing on one’s side; baring mihing to lie on one’s side [pada sebelah badan] mikai watermelon clip. of temikai [tembikai] memang truly; naturally "that's the way it is" mimpi dream, to dream minang engagement, to become engaged; ideally by the mother of the man conferring successfully with the mother of the woman involved minggu week; hari minggu Sunday minta to ask for minum to drink minyak oil; gasoline minyak api kerosene minyak kelapa coconut oil minyak geliga medicinal oil of eucalyptus misai moustache misim smiling [mesem (Javanese)] miah see merah moh move! let's go! (also jalan) Temuan also say, "Apa lagi kita-tai!" or "Lekas!" !") (S&B 620 moh to go, Mantra and Orang Asli of Rasa, Selangor) [jalan, ayuh] moi mother (S&B 663 moi mother, Belandas, Mantra, Beduanda) [emak] mok joints; also kelutut [sendi] moncong var. muncung animal snout, bird's bill mongkot senyap muyang ancestor [moyang] muat to accommodate muat var. buat muda young; unripe (of fruit, ant. of masak) 58

Temuan-English-Malay Word List mudah mudik mudi muh muha mui muka mula mulut mumong mumau muncung mungkah muntah munuh meredom mus musang

musim mutan

easy, cheap to travel upstream stern, rudder cartilage at tip of nose (S&B 671 muh nose, Semang, Mantra, Besisi, Ulu Langat Temuan) [hidung] all; clip. of semua [semua] mother; also emak [ibu] face; muka manis friendly face the first, the beginning mouth the tailess fruit bat (Megaerops ecaudatus) [cecadu tidak berekor] (any) flying squirrel, as opposed to the large colugo (kubung) [tupai terbang] var. moncong the Silvered Leaf Monkey (Presbytis cristata) [lotong kelabu] to vomit var. bunuh to go on a forest expedition to search for products to use or sell or to go on a fishing expedition to breathe out; clip. of hemus generic name for members of the civet family particularly musang ampau Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) [musang pulut] musang jebat Oriental Civet (Viverra tangalunga) [tanggalong] musang langkap Masked Palm Civet (Paguma larvata) [musang lamri] musang lenseng Small-toothed Palm Civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata) [musang akar] musang menturun binturong (Arctictis binturong) [binturong] musang sempah short-tailed mongoose (Herpestes brachyurus) [cerpelai ekor pendek] season or period; musim ayi hujan, rainy season clip. of rambutan

N nabi nadi naga nah nahoint naik nak nakal

creator of the world; has various names, including Tuhan; thoughts can be directed to this creator [tuhan] pulse, heartbeat dragon here; take it well! so! also apoh (Jinjang dialect) (Serendah uses woih; Bukit Lanjan uses hawa) ascend to want, to intend; clip. henak mischievous, perverse 59

Temuan-English-Malay Word List nala nala ada Nalai nama nampak nan nangka nanti napas napoh nas nasi nasib naus

nenas nenek nentang ngalok ngan nganga ngangai ngelang ngeleting ngeri ngigau ni niak nibung nikah nilai niluk nipah nipis nisan nisan nonong nun -nya nyala

always [selalu] a very long time [tempoh yang sangat panjang]. var. berdalai to fall together (a bunch of leaves) [daun gugur bertimbun] name; nama lacung play name to see var. man; nan ini lagi: this, there, here; nan ini sikit (move) a little farther away (S&B 757, nan kamana? where are you (going)? Orang Laut.) jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) to wait for/ otherwise; Jangan main panas, nanti kena hawa don't play hard, or you'll catch a cold breath; [nafas] large mouse deer nurse; [jururawat] cooked rice luck, fate deathly look of a person who contemplates his death; as opposed to the look of one who is gravely ill (tenat) [wajah seorang yang merenungkan kematiannya – berbeza daripada wajah seorang yang sakit tenat] pineapple grandfather; also datuk see tentang sense of disgust, revulsion unwilling; clip. enggan (S&B 670, gan, unwilling, Mantra) to gape ternganga agape careless [cuai, lalai] var. gelang flirtatious, promiscuous, of a female [kelakuan rambang (seorang perempuan)] scary, suspenseful, worrying see igau clip. ini no more, no longer there [tiada lagi] a species of stemmed, forest palm to marry syn. bersama worth, value feeling of acidic corrosion of teeth, due to eating buah masam, sour fruits [perasaan seolah-olah gigi dihakis semasa memakan buah masam] the nipah palm thin, of flat objects batu nisan any upright grave marker nisan lebah honey; clip. of manisan (S&B 633 nisan honey, Beduanda, Johol, Negri Sembilan) [madu] var. menong always; continual; (S&B 732 nong there, that, Besisi; menong since, Sakai; nono this, Negri Sembilan Orang Asli) [selalu] there, yonder [nun, di situ] possessive suffix showing possession to flare up, blaze 60

Temuan-English-Malay Word List Nyaman nyamuk nyanyi nyap

var. jaman mosquito to sing not, no; some Semai have been known to call the Temuan Mai Nyap, the ‘nyap’ people (S&B 604 nyap no, not, Mantra, Besisi) [tidak] nyawa life, body nyengong immature ears of corn, 1 to 2 inches long, eaten whole nyenyak deep sleep; see jenak nyenyerung otter [memerang] nyiru winnowing tray for rice nyulu see rotan nyus see surut nyunga quick-tempered, cruel [bengis] nyungkil to dig up, using leverage [ungkil]

O oh oiyang oiyang oiyet okam oloi olor oluh ompot onak onang oncan oncong ong

ongkoi onoh

opa opan

said when a person thinks another doesn't understand him; also oluh [kata seru yang diujar apabila seorang berpendapat ia tidak difahami] to enjoy a party, dancing, or the like, but not used for food [bersuka ria] small insect with pleasant song, heard in afternoon [sejenis serangga kecil] afraid [takut] a hardwood tree with thorns and sap that causes a skin rash [sejenis pokok berduri yang mengeluarkan getah yang boleh menyebabkan ruam kulit] so, such; hu bukan oloi jauh, it's not so far; oloi-nya as is the case [begitu] var. of ulur to reach out (one’s arm) [hulur] var. of oh another word for imau [harimau] curved thorn; barbed; hooked affectionate [manja] cloth bag [buntil] mumble to oneself unconsciously (Syn. moloin) (See besungut, mamai) you (in N. Sembilan and South Selangor); in Central and N. Selangor, ajih is the usual form; here ong may be used in more formal situations to address an older person who is not a relative or close friend) leaning to one side (of trees); [menyondong] said to a pet pig-tailed macaque, the beruk, to tell him to go bite someone; also a name given to this pet, or to a long-tailed macacque (kera); see jan and yen [perkataan yang digunakan untuk menyuruh seekor beruk kesayangan untuk mengigit seseorang; nama yang diberi kepada beruk atau kera kesayangan] oldster; [orang tua] palm frond sheath [upih]


Temuan-English-Malay Word List orang

osong otak oweh

human, person; seorang alone; Aku seorang I am all alone [orang] orang Melayu Malay; Temuan generally use the term jobok to refer to Malays; Selangor Temuans recognize 6 subgroups of Malays: 3 from Sumatra, 1 from Bangka Island, 1 from S. Borneo and Java (S&B 654 jebo, jobo Besisi) orang Bengali Bengali orang Cina Chinese orang Dayak Dayak (Bornean) orang keling Tamil orang pigi African orang putih white person orang serani Eurasian orang tanah tujoh people on earth (see also manusia); literally, people of the seventh layer of the world orang asli the original people of West Malaysia orang gunung mountain people; how Temuans describe orang asli living at high elevations orang dagang foreigner orang laut sea people (boat living) orang salah a wrongdoer orang tanjan lowland or foothill people; used by Temuans of N. Selangor state to refer to themselves placenta (S&B 667 sonk navel, Semai; sok placenta, Khmer) [plasenta] brains (interjection) like a disbelieving "humpf" in English; [kata seru, mengeluarkan perasaan tidak percaya]

P pacat padah padam padan padi

pagar pagi paha paham pahabung pahit pari pajung pakai

the common forest leech result; nyap padah, useless, unprofitable; ada padah, it worked out to extinguish a fire or a light, or let it go out (versus pasang); to erase adequate, fitting rice in the husk (versus beras, hulled rice and nasi, cooked rice) padik melinjar a kind of rice planted by the Temuan padik humak hill rice semangat padik the ‘soul of the rice’ fence morning thigh to understand [faham] var. perabung bitter var. ikan pari skate or ray tap root of 5-6 ft. tree; metaphorically, head of the family [akar tunjang] to wear, put on, use 62

Temuan-English-Malay Word List pakaian pakat paku paku pala palung palu pamah panah panang panas panau pancing pancut pandang panggang panggil pangkal pangkat

pangkin pangku panglima pangsa panjang panjat pantak pantang pantat panting pantun papah papan parah pasal pasang

pasang pasir pasu patah

clothes to cooperate; an agreement fern; paku seleleh edible species of fern with reddish fronds nail head; clip. of kepala; pala kurak inability to decide what one wants [kepala] sluice for sedimenting tin from ore to strike with a stick flat land bow and/or arrow see pandang hot discolored patches of skin caused by a fungus; tinea to fish with a line; (Temuan usually say kail instead) to squirt water; ayi pancut, the running water outlet of a water pipe (traditionally made of lengths of bamboo) var. panang to look at panang umah, to awaken (literally, to look at the house) panang penyudah, deathbed parting to roast (fish, etc.) to call; to address someone beginning; the first, for instance, bini pangkal, the first wife (but anak sulung means first child) rank (in familial relationships), stage, degree; pangkat turun the degree to which two people are related by descent; pangkat tuan to achieve high status bed platform; bedroom; hokkien pangkin bedroom [pangking] (memangku) to hold between chest and forearms an offical Temuan title, much below batin a segment, such as a segment of an orange; umah pangsa, a block of flats long (ant. pendek) to climb a tree mantak to pound, to knock (e.g., with a hammer or rock); drive in (nails) taboo female private parts four days hence; day after tulat; the sequence is esok, lusa, tulat, panting quatrain prop, support a person (e.g., who has difficulty walking) board severe (of a wound) cause, because; apa pasal why to erect a building; to light (a lamp or incense); to set in position pasang duit to bet on (a fight, etc.) pasang jarring to set up a fish net classification pair; sepasang kasut; a pair of shoes sand food bowl, flower pot broken clean through, of rigid objects 63

Temuan-English-Malay Word List patah patuk patung patut pauh pauh parut paya payah payau payung pecah

classification used for words, verses; sepatah pantun, a quatrain to bite (of snake) statue, figurine; anak patung, a doll fair, proper, ought to buah pauh a kind of sweet mango (Mangifera pentandra) a quarter cupak; buah pauh, a kind of wild mango scar swamp, marsh difficult; nyap payah, not necessary; not difficult brackish umbrella to break, burst open; to split bamboo and flatten it to use as flooring; to become separated from travelling companions; kacang pecah, the peanuts are scattered; demam pecah, sporadic fever pedang sword, bayonet pedas (chili) hot pedih to smart, sting, irritate (for example, skin) peduli clip. duli to care, concern oneself with something pegang to hold perabung var. pahabung roof ridge perangai disposition, behaviour pergi to go peringkat level, stage pejam to shut (of eyes) pejoh, hujan pejoh raining steadily for days or weeks; (Pah. perjar: incessant, of rain) [M. hujan yang berpanjangan] pekak deaf pekat sticky and thick; susu pekat sweetened, condensed milk pekik to scream pekes to snap into two [patah dua] pekih to split open a palm for its heart (umut); [membelah pokok palma untuk mendapatkan umbut] pekililing encircling pelahang (Bukit Lanjan) see pemohong pelakun an actor pelam var. mempelam pelamin bridal dais pelampung var. temiang pelampung a short blowpipe [sumpit pendek] pelanduk large mouse deer pelantar raised, roofless platform in front of the house pelat poorly pronounced or spoken with an odd accent pelir penis; buah pelir testicles pelipat var. pelipatan hollow behind knee pelita kerosene lamp peluh sweat pemohong var. pembohong 64

Temuan-English-Malay Word List pemohong pendek pengapit pengantin penggal pengkalan pengsan pening penuh penyaden penyakit `

var. pembohong liar, fake (Bukit Lanjan: pelahang) short bride’s or groom’s helper [orang yang menyokong/menolong pengantin] bride, groom var. pengal to break off, to cut (into two pieces) pier/jetty to faint, black out dizzy full hantu penyaden a spirit that sucks blood, causing death [penanggalan] disease penyakit batu said to be like penyakit kunci; gallstones; for this condition there is a taboo (pantang) on eating durian, ikan pari, ular, and babi to prevent the condition returning; a little lada is permitted; there is no pantang on eating tupai, sikah, lotong, gila-bau, tengilling, most fish, pelanduk, or rusa penyakit kunci jaundice with liver and gall bladder ailment penyakit kunci penyah arthritis penyakit lelah asthma, exhaustion (See hantu kenait origin of condition) penyakit nyelap a deathly disease which is fatal in one to two hours [selap] penyakit pekung yaws penyapu a broom; it is a major taboo (pantang) to hit anyone with a broom; this results in the victim becoming ill or dying; hitting with a shoe has less severe results, but is equally forbidden penyegan one who works only occasionally, an idler (from segan) [pemalas] penyengat a sting; any hymenopteran insect (bee, wasp, etc.) penyepit tongs, tweezers; from sepit perah a forest tree with an edible seed [buah perah] peranjat var. peranyat to startle (someone) terperanjat to be startled peranyat var. peranjat percaya trust, to have faith in perdah kayu perdah handle of a hatchet perengkong throat [kerongkong] buah perengkong Adam’s apple perindu a plant used in a love potion is buluh perindu perintah government rule; perintah British British rule in Malaya peria bitter gourd; bitter melon peridi high fertility perigi well (of water) periuk saucepan, cooking pot perlahan slow pernah already perut abdomen, stomach; uterus perut kosong hungry pesat hasty; makan pesat to eat hurriedly petai a legume tree with large edible beans in 6 to 12 inch-long pods (Parkia speciosa) sekeping petai one pod; sepudung petai a bunch of pods petang afternoon petenah to brag; to bad-mouth someone [bercakap besar, fitnah] 65

Temuan-English-Malay Word List petir petik peti petir picit piring pijak pijat pikir pikul pilih pin pinah pinang pindah pinggang pinjam pintal pintu pipi pipih pipit pisang pisau pitam plet pohon pohon pokok pondan pondok pontianak

posel potong puyuh puas puasa pucam pucat pucuk

thunder to pluck (flower, fruit, or stringed instrument) box; peti ais refrigerator loud thunder (S&B 738 pateh Jakun) to pinch small plate or saucer to step, tread on bedbug to think, ponder [fikir] to carry a weight to select, choose pin; pin baju safety pin var. pindah pinah umah to move (house); also alis umah betel nut var. pinah waist to borrow; (also amik sekejap) to twine, twist, braid door cheeks flat, versus bulat, round burung pipit sparrows and other passerine birds banana (many edible kinds, such as embun, mas, minyak, senangka, susu) knife; pisau sebelati razor blade to faint, followed by dizziness dart cases: a bundle of reeds in a quiver, each holding one blowpipe dart (S&B 688 plet Besisi, Mantra, Jakun) classification for tree to apply (for something), supplicate tree transvestite hut, shelter vampire spirit of childbirth which wears batik; men call her with kemayan to sleep with them; she can enter the body and in then eat blood, but later she can run off; she sometimes talks to people in dreams and people sometime see her in the day; she is beautiful and like the longsui and teberai can become human knead (as dough) into a ball; turn an object about to observe it better [mengadun (tepung); memutar sesuatu benda supaya dapat memerhatinya dengan lebih teliti] to cut, slice; classifier for a short length of a rod-like object; potong ayam to slaughter a chicken; potong susu, to tap rubber trees burung puyuh quail satisfied, content; puas mandi to bathe to one’s heart’s content to fast colour faded, washed out pale shoot (of bamboo, fern etc.) 66

Temuan-English-Malay Word List pucuk puja pujuk puki pukul pula pulai pulang pulau puluh pulut pun punah punai puncak pundong punggah pungguk

punggung puntal punya purut pusat pusing putih puting putus

classification for letters; sepucuk surat a letter to worship, to pray; pujaan hati adored one to coax, e.g., to coax an angry person to do something vulg female genitals; pukimak vulg (your) mother’s genitals hit downward; beat with small stick, strike; o'clock, pukul tujuh 7 o’clock on the other hand a tree with abundant white sap that grows on sandy soil; it reputedly cannot live in the forest because it originated as a human being to go back; to return (something) island; pulau buah island of fruits (a paradise where no one dies) var. sepuluh ten; duapuluh, twenty glutinous rice also to be destroyed; utterly ruined the green pigeon (several kinds) the free or tip end of anything; summit (of a mountain) lean-to shelter, often roofed with large leaves; (S&B 635-636 dung house, Besisi;pondong hut, Mantra) [pondok] to unload, to move (something) the hawk owl which, according to the Temuan, was the husband of the moon and had an urge to visit the human world; although the wife (moon) objected, she did travel to earth and is heard calling when the moon is out buttocks; the bottom of an object to pick fruit; to twist around owned by; also -nya as a possessive suffix knobbly, rough (of skin) limau purut leprous lime navel, centre to revolve, rotate, turn white, light in color; blonde (hair) putih bantok pure white a pacifier sever

R rabuk rabun rabus racun rajin rakit ramah ramai ramai rambai ramas

tinder, blowpipe wadding myopia to exhale tobacco smoke from the mouth [menghembus asap rokok dari mulut] poison industrious raft friendly many (people) var. rambai var. ramai fruit similar to the duku; varieties: rambai jambi, ramai-pachat to massage; to knead 67

Temuan-English-Malay Word List rambut rambutan rampai rampas rana rancung rangkak rangkak rahung rangkap rangkut rantas ranting rasa rasi ratah ratah rata rawang rayak rayau rayu rebana rebung rebus recik redup regat rehat rejan relap relung relung remeh rempit rempit renang rencas rencet rencing

hair clip. mutan mutan gadong is the name of an old song; there is a species of rambutan called rambutan gading in Malay var. merampai miscellaneous to seize, to jerk; to tug at or off to pine away small bamboo-tube container, often for water [bekas air yang diperbuat dari buluh] to crawl to wander aimlessly [berjalan tidak tentu hala] to cry loudly [menangis dengan kuat] to total to grab, seize, appropriate; merangkut tanah to seize someone else’s land [merampas] to slash through (undergrowth, branches etc.) twig to taste serasi, terasi to be appropriate, to match, to resemble; for the condition nyap terasi, see under tulah [padan] to chew [kunyah] not accompanied by rice; meratah to eat meat and vegetables without rice flat, level, to smooth a morass; muddy area overgrown with weeds to pan for tin [mendulang (bijih timah)] to prowl, wander along at random to appeal, to petition a type of percussion instrument bamboo shoot (edible) to boil something in water to splash overcast, gloomy to take a short cut through undergrowth (semak) [mengambil jalan pintas melalui semak] berehat to rest lazy [malas] merelap shining, flickering a cavity; semi-enclosed storage place animal track in the bush insignificant; scraps; crumbs of food to go fast, to accelerate [jalan dengan pantas, pecut] to cane [Pk. rempit: menyebat dengan rotan] berenang to swim to slash through wood, trees [rantas] in spurts misting rain with the sun shining; this is a time of roaming spirits (masa hantu) uring which it is dangerous to travel, especially if there is a rainbow (jedau) [hujan panas] 68

Temuan-English-Malay Word List rences rendah rendam rendang reneh rengat rengka rengkah rengkes renjis rentang rentak rentap renyis resemi resul ribut rimau rimbas rimba rindu ringan rintis ripung risau roda rokok roman ronggeng rongkong rosak rotan ru rugi rumbun rumpun rumput runcing runsing rupa rusa rusuk

merences to tear bits off something, such as paper low, short to soak dense, thick, crowded (with fruit, or with people in a gathering) to boil; to bubble out, as from the breathing of a crocodile under water gripping pain, as from an abscess to pull up, to tear or rip (S&B 731 rengka to tear, Mantra) [koyak] to die [mati] skinny [terlalu kurus] var. renyis stretched out, to stretch out rentak tabung bamboo stompers (musical instruments; not used by northern Selangor Temuan) [keratan buluh yang digunakan untuk menghentak irama] to snatch or tug roughly, such as clothes from a line var. renjis to sprinkle, dribble; to strum (the guitar) one’s nature; clip. semi [sifat seseorang] to sleep [tidur] storm var. imau adze primary rain forest longing light to slash a path through the forest a short python; it can become a tikus kelapa sawit - a rodent that lives in oil palm trees (S&B 719 ular ripong smaller python, Jakun, Malacca) [ular sawa kecil] anxious, uneasy wheel cigarette the "look" of a person; the Temuan depend on this to determine a person's character beronggeng a dance bones, skeleton [tulang, tulang rangka] broken, destroyed rattan rotan dahan a kind of rattan; rotan manau a thick rattan; rotan nyulu a thin rattan rotan tunggal ‘the best’ rattan pokok ru casuarina loss bonfire; fire made on the ground tree grass pointed to worry, to be anxious appearance sambar deer ribs 69

Temuan-English-Malay Word List S sarang sabit sabun sain saja sakai

sakal sakit saksi salah salai salak salak salam salin salur sama samal saman sambal sambung sambung sambut sampai sampu samun sanang sanar sandang sandar sangeh sanggit sanggul sangkar sangka sangkal sangkong

bird’s nest; hive; sarang tebuan hornet’s hive sickle soap to sign [menandatangan] only clip. sahaja orang sakai menial slave; a term used by Temuan to refer to themselves disparagingly; a term used for Orang Asli by other groups, out of contempt or ignorance; an early name for Temuan “used by white people” to bump one's head on something a disease; to hurt witness, evidence error, wrongdoing nyalai to preserve meat or fish by drying it over embers nyalak bark (of dog), to bark buah salak very sweet, edible fruit with three segments, each having a large seed; thin, red, and rough skin a greeting to change (of clothing); more commonly in Temuan, ganti baju or tukar baju; bersalin to give birth; more commonly in Temuan is beranak channel, gully the same; sama rata equal, same level; bersama to marry; to have sexual relations with var. sambal (chili) hot and spicy condiments summons from the police var. samal to join one house-width of attap roofing (about 50 atap nipah to a side which is eight feet long) var. samut to catch (a ball, etc.); to receive (visitors) to arrive sakit sampu a wasting disease scrub (See semak samun) See sandang See sandar var. sanang to carry slung over the shoulder (as a rifle or towel) var. sanar to lean one's back on something to make an umah melikat (spirit house) [membina sebuah umah melikat] rubbing together (e.g., two tree branches) [bergesel,umpama dua dahan pokok] coiffure cage; chicken coop to expect; nyap sangka dia mati, (we) didn't expect her to die to disavow, deny [menafi] pain in the sides [sakit pinggang]


Temuan-English-Malay Word List sangkut santau sanyok sapa sapi sapu sarung sate satu saudara sawai sawan sawi sayang sayap seberang seburu


sedang sedar sendawa sedingin sedui segala

to stick, to snag; metaphorically, to stick in the mind, to memorize; tulis, sangkut, baca write, remember, read (what children do in school) a slow-acting, compound poison [racun yang bertindak dengan perlahan] numbness in the limbs (e.g., as a result of sitting in the wrong position for too long) [kebas] var. siapa who cattle to sweep; a broom; to rub on (ointment, etc.) a wrapping; for the article of clothing, the Temuan more usually use kain; sarung bantal pillow case skewered pieces of meat barbecued over a charcoal fire one, in a definite sense cousin; close collateral relative trance; bersawai to get into a trance as part of a healing ritual (for grave illness) convulsions; jampi sawan, medicine and a spell against crying fits and convulsions in infants mustard greens love, pity wing the opposite side, across hantu seburu this forest spirit lives in high valleys or passes and may owned by a human being; if possessed, the owner has good fortune in getting money, food, and in concocting medical cures (as a dukun); possession is lost if a person behaves badly (lying, laziness, fighting with spouse) since God censures such behavior; hantu seburu can become human and if there is hujan rencing (rain with sunshine) and a certain bird is heard, this hantu is nearby; if there is no such rain and one hears many of these birds, it is a tiger; the followers of this hantu are a certain bird, a certain squirrel, and fireflies; if one sees or hears these in the forest, he must run away before this hantu catches him or he will become ill with fever and die; the fever will be impossible to cure with a charm (tangkal) Originally this hantu was a man; when he travels he carries a spear (lembing) and if he stabs you, the wound is fatal wound; he consumes a person’s life force (semangat) and his son, Jin Ali, is evil while his wife, Siti Setima, is not evil as she just sits at home; people do not see hantu seburu nowadays [sejenis hantu yang menduduki kawasan pergunungan] to say, mention; Jangan disebut lagi is said to invite visitors into one's house; anak sebut, an individual in an offspring-like relation to a person (usually used of a close relative), but an anak angkat, an adopted child, is a ‘real’ offspring to be in the process of to be awake, to awaken momentarily to burp herbaceous plant (Bryophyllum calycinum); its leaves are used against fevers to drag out a job, to dawdle [sengaja membuat kerja atau berjalan dengan perlahan] anying segala red dog, dhole; also kodoing [serigala]


Temuan-English-Malay Word List segan

clip. gan shy, reluctant; segan is used especially in refusing food; gan is used more often in refusing to do something (See penyegan) segera speedily segi angle se’im spoiled and giving a smell (of food) [(lauk) yang sudah berbau] sejuk cold seken a little; see sikit [sedikit] sekoi millet sekung arthritis [artritis] seladang gaur; seladang hutan banteng selam var. nyelam to dive; to jump down (on land) selamat safe; orang selamat, an inactive, listless person who just sits around the house selap var. nyelap to be possessed or disturbed by a spirit; to lose one’s mind due to spirit possession selemuh head cold with little runny nose (versus hawa, thick, nose-filled head cold); the hantu pelisi that causes colds does not arrive during the durian season because he does not like the smell of durian (S&B 671 muh nose, Semang, Mantra, Besisi, Ulu Langat (Temuan) ) [selsema] selimba the bird’s nest fern, reported to be the home of the hantu longsui [semun, sejenis paku pakis, yang dikatakan menjadi tempat tinggal hantu longsui] selimut blanket selit to insert an object into a crevice seluk to grope with the hand (in a hole or pocket) selungkar to uncover, e.g., push a mass of things aside when looking for something [selungkur] sembah var. semah to salute respectfully; an offering, such as the objects given by a mother to a bidan (midwife) who assisted at the birthing of her child; an sudah lehoi semah-nya is said as an invitation to enter one's house semai to plant in a (rice) nursery semak scrub, undergrowth; also as a compound semak samun semangat life force; semangat padi, the ‘soul of the rice’, which contains blood of a fowl, etc., and is kept in a small basket; lemas semangat a light fever due to a dream or a fall, in which one’s soul is temporarily lost semat paku semat small nails for minor house construction [paku kecil] sembat to hit, beat with a small stick sembahyang prayer; any religious activity sembunyi to hide sembur to spit (of a snake spitting venom) semi clip. of resemi one’s nature [sifat seseorang] sempat to be able to or to have the time to (to do something); Aku sempat balik lagi I'll be able to return later sempit narrow sempul to stick out tesempul sticking out senal See sendal sendal var. senal to insert, wedge in (a piece of something) senam to engage in physical exercise 72

Temuan-English-Malay Word List senang senapang senduk sengka sengkalan sengkang sendi, seni sengat sengoh seng'oi senja senjakala sentaduk sental sentap senteng sentil sentiasa sentung

senyakala senyap senyum sepah sepak sepam sepang separuh sepesial sepit serah serai seram serani serap serdang seri seru serunai serupa sesak

comfortable, easy, not occupied nyap senang, busy senang hati happy, contented shotgun ladle, spatula to rake batu sengkalan pestle [lesong] crossbar, hyphen joint to sting lonely, deserted (S&B 688 sengoyt quiet, Besisi) [sunyi sepi] vanish, disappear, lost (S&B 603 hoi, nahui to lose, Sakai; she to lose, disappear, Besisi) [lenyap, ghaib] dusk, sundown; precedes selalam (See also senjakala, senyakala var. senyakala dusk praying mantis; clip. taduk [sentadu] to scrub to jerk ; tug at or off; seize; draw out (as inflammation, by applying a poultice to the skin); nyentap napas to inhale ill-fitting (of clothing) [(pakaian) tidak padan] distended of cheek, as with a betel quid always tightly woven back basket made from strips of the main ribs of the fronds of lempet or cuco, two kinds of palms [sejenis bakul yang didukung di belakang] (S&B 389 sentong, Belandas; S&B 524 Besisi) var. senjakala dusk deserted, lonely, quiet to smile var. bersepah scattered about, e.g., rubbish to kick buah sepam a small mango red colouring derived from a plant, Caesalpinia sappan; used for face decoration, such as beauty marks on cheeks and lipstick (binchu) half (except for time measurements, for which use setengah) special to hold with tongs, tweezers, chopsticks, etc.; penyepit tongs, tweezers to give, to deliver lemon grass to get goose bumps (out of fear) hati seram sejuk numb with fear; seram ketung kuku cooler than hangat and warmer than sejuk Eurasian to absorb ayi serap underground stream tall fan palm; used for roofing material if attap materials are not available charming, beautiful to call out loudly shawm (musical instrument) similar, same crowded, busy; nyesak asthmatic breathing [nafas sesak] 73

Temuan-English-Malay Word List sesal sesat setai setan

setia setuju sewa sial siram siamang siang siang siap siapa siat sibar sidang sikah sikat sikit siku sila silang silat silap silu sim simah simbah simen simpai simpan simpang simpoh simpul sinar singgah singguh singgung singit singkap singsing

nyesal sorrow; repentence; to repent, regret to stray away, become lost bersetai broken, ragged, torn (e.g., of clothes) [bercetai-cetai] Satan; the sixth of the seven jin; he cannot be chased away with a tangkal (charm); he preys on dying people and can enter a man's body or a tiger's body and make them crazy [syaitan] loyal, faithful to agree rent bad luck to squirt water siamang daytime (as opposed to gelap) to scrape (vegetables), to descale (fish) ready; siap makan, ready to eat who; var. sapa to tear off [sirat] to build an annex (to a house) to stop (of rain) (S&B 726 sidang stop, Beduanda) [Pk.& Pah. sidang (hujan) berhenti] banded leaf monkey [lotong] hair comb; classifier for a bunch of bananas sesikat pisang a little; var. seken; clip. of sedikit elbow var. duduk bersila to sit cross-legged lying across each other, of feet or wood; bersilang-silang criss-crossed indigenous form of martial arts; Temuan more likely to say lawan error to feel hesitant, lacking in confidence, cowed sourface (S&B 510 sim sour, Semang) [muka masam] var. simbah var. simah to splash out, as water from a pail; to water the plants cement cords, rattan; used to lash together or reinforce e.g., a broom to its stick, a chisel blade to its handle; nyimpai lash together or reinforce using simpai to keep, remember; bersimpan to recall old times [mengenangi masa dahulu] intersection various species of trees (Dillenia spp, Wormia spp) to knot, tie (as a piece of cloth) to shine to stop off at to rub shoulders with (involuntary) to knock or rub elbows; nyinggung elbow aside, hurt someone’s feelings var. menyingit to grumble [merungut] var. nyingkap to draw apart or aside, such as mosquito netting var. nyingsing to roll up (e.g. sleeves or sarong) 74

Temuan-English-Malay Word List si’oi sipi

siput sireh sisik siti situ siyu-siyu sodok soldadu sokong sombong sompoh song songkok songsang sontot so’ol sopan sorong sotong setengah stik suap suara suci Sudah sudu sudut suis suka sukat suku sukui sulit sulung sulur suluh

var. bersioi choral singing, still practised by the Temuan in Pahang (S&B 711 sioi, sihoi to sing, chant, Besisi and Mantra) to glance off (when hitting something); this is what happens to hantu pelisi upon encountering a tangkal (charm) or cabok worn by an individual; he slides past the person rather than entering the body snail; siput babi the large land snail betel vine scale of fish, pangolin, etc. to scrape off (bark, scales) a whistle [siti, sejenis wisel] there onset of fever (S&B 602 siyau fever-heat, Besisi) [tahap permulaan demam] shovel, ladle soldier to support var. somong arrogant carrying a person on shoulders (as a bride or groom being taken for a ceremonial bath during wedding ceremonies) to feel on the verge of death, as in penyakit nyelap cf. bansauh, bansong (S&B 710 som unwell, Pangan) [merasa diri hampir-hampir mati] Malay-style hat upside down, the reverse; letak songsang breech birth short (of persons) [sontok] breakfast, first meal of the day before going into the jungle or going out to work [sarapan pagi] modest; jangan malu, di-ngilang sopan don't be shy, throw away modesty to push forward; to pass around (a food dish, etc.) cuttlefish, squid half; See tengah clip. of lastik slingshot (English elastic) [lastik] a mouthful; to eat with the fingers; makan suap to take a bribe voice pure; suci hati a pure heart clip. dah; past, over a spoon corner, nook switch (e.g., for light) to want, to like to measure a quarter; tiga suku three quarters, crazy var. bersukui to ration food confidential, difficult; kesulitan difficulty the first, the beginning, the eldest shoot coming out of a vine a torch


Temuan-English-Malay Word List


sumbi sumbu sumpah

Sumpit sundal sungai sungko sungkup sungut sunti sunting sunyi suruh supaya surat surut susah susu susun

incest or pseudo-incest, e.g., one is forbidden to marry one’s mother-in-law or father-in-law; forbidden to marry the widow of one’s father-in-law; forbidden to marry one’s father's brother's child or mother’s sister’s child (especially if the mother and her sister have different fathers); but one is allowed to marry the child of a mother’s brother or a father’s sister (cross cousin) The first two human beings were orang asli, a male and a female made from earth (tanah); they had one daughter and one son who, together, had many children (this was sumbang but not dosa because it was useful for them to buat ramai increase the population); later there was a mighty earthquake which separated the descendants into different world land masses and thus into different bangsa; after that sumbang was also a dosa to insert (a piece); to patch (for example, a tooth with gold) fuse, wick oath; nyumpah to take an oath, to swear; there are seven such oaths for the Temuan: (1) hancur, (2) lahoit, (3) lodoh, (4) danur, (5) letah, (6) danur ayah, and (7) danur emak; they all refer to accepting some vengence or disaster if what they say is untrue; for minor accusations or problems, only the first two are said: hancur and lahoit; if a person is asked to swear to his innocence and fears to do so for any reason, he says, “Aku puah kala” (I'm afraid to do so); because the Orang Asli have sumpah Tuhan (blasphemed) and were tall previously, they are becoming progressively shorter; when they get to be about one foot tall, the world will end and must start all over again, with dead people coming alive and vice versa, people becoming animals and vice versa; this end will happen in 7 times 100 years, because there are 2 eyes, 2 nostrils, 2 ears, and 1 mouth, totaling 7 var. nyumpit to shoot a blowpipe (temiang) promiscuous river; syn. ayi besa sungko-sangka sprawled out [sungkur-sangkar] lid, cover bersungut to mutter to oneself gadis sunti adolescent girl flower and other ornaments worn in the hair; nyunting to pluck a flower (to use as sunting), to edit a text to be quiet; deserted; vacant to order, command in order that letter nyus to wane (of the moon); to ebb (of the tide) difficult milk; latex of the rubber tree; any plant sap; Susu cayi, thin milk (fresh or evaporated), in contrast to susu pekat, thick milk (as sweetened, condensed). in layers or rows


Temuan-English-Malay Word List

T ta’an taban tabuk tabur taduk tagar tagur -tah c tahak tahan tahi tahoi tahu tahun -tai tai tajam tajih

tajur takik takung takut talam tali tamat tambah tambang

handle of an axe [tangkai kapak] a forest tree with sweet latex used as a chewing gum (Dichopsis gutta) to slap/hit; tabuk pala to box ears [tabuh (coll.), menampar, memukul] var. nabur to scatter, strew, such as seeds in feeding chickens bertaburan sown, scattered praying mantis clip. of sentaduk [sentadu] outer tube of temiang (blowpipe) (S&B 538, tago Besisi, tagur Mantra) to throw; [Kel. tagur, melempar] lit. then, so; Boleh, kata buaya-tah; (I) can, said the crocodile then [pun] an older aunt, or aunt-in-law [emak saudara yang sudah berusia] to restrain, resist; prohibit; stop (a vehicle, etc.) feces tahi geseng, dark, smelly deposit on teeth; if one laughs at a person who has this condition, it will bring about a storm (kena calau); tahi lalat mole to see, observe (S&B 644, tahoi seen; toi, nahoi to see, to know; Mantra) [menengok, meneliti] to know year clit. then, so Bersumpah dia-tai: "Ajih esok aku-aku juga makan" Then he swore "I'll eat you tomorrow [pun] clip. of entai recently; several hours or days ago [tadi] pointed, sharp (ant. tumpul) a traditional competition between two men during the durian season in which each tries to break open a durian fruit of his opponent with a pointed, short stick tied in the middle of a cord or rattan; the cord is held between outstretched arms, twirled seven times, and then flung (holding onto the ends) forward at the durian; if the durian breaks open (pecah buah), that competitor wins, unless his opponent also accomplishes pecah buah; if both men miss or both pecah buah, it is a draw; players may risk their durian orchards and bystanders may bet money (pasang duit) on the outcome; this competition is also known as lawan tikam [pertandingan semasa musim durian di antara dua orang di mana mereka cuba memecahkan durian lawannya dengan sebatang kayu yang dilancar menggunakan sekerat tali] large fishing rod usually fastened to the ground; a lighter rod made of bertam is known as a bau kail nakik to cut deeply into (e.g., bark, skin) vessel for fluids; to stagnate (of fluids) ayi bertakung stagnant water afraid a metal tray; dishpan string, cord; tali pinggang waist cord, belt to finish to increase fare 77

Temuan-English-Malay Word List tampa tampak tampal tampang tampar tampi tamping tampoi

tampung tempoyak tan tan tanah

tanak tanam tanang tancas


tandan Tanduk

tampa kaki sole of foot (S&B 610, tampa (jong), sole (of foot), Besisi) [tapak kaki] see tampar to post up (such as notices, pictures); to cover up a window; to patch (a tire); to plaster, paste on; more commonly, lekat buah tampang a forest fruit, according to one source, can be used as a tart flavouring agent var. tampak to slap var. nampi to winnow beras (rice) in a nyiru (a winnowing tray) to hit with a stick; (S&B 72 tampogn, to strike, Mantra) [memukul dengan kayu] a fruit (Baccaurea sp.) tampoi kemoh a tampoi fruit larger than tongioh tampoi tongioh a brown-skinned, round fruit with red contents about an inch in diameter tamponek buah tamponek the monkey-jack (Artocarpus sp.); a golden, sweet fruit similar to jackfruit tapir; also tenuk, cipan fermented durian a term of endearment for a son or nephew [kata-kata sayang untuk anak atau anak saudara lelaki] pr. tan ini this one tan itu that one [yang] earth, dirt tanah retak, cracked earth; Tanah Tujuh old Temuan name for the Malay Peninsula, home of the seven bangsa (kinds, groups), some of which are animals; also the name for the world of the seven layers (lapit), three bumi bawah (underground), one tengah-tengah (in the middle), and three bumi atas (above) (See story under sumbang) [Tanah Tujuh adalah nama yang diberi oleh orang Temuan kepada Semenanjung Melayu, tempat tinggal tujuh bangsa, yang sebilangannya adalah haiwan; Tanah Tujuh terdiri daripada tujuh lapisan, iaitu tiga lapisan bawah tanah (bumi bawah), tiga lapisan di atas (bumi atas) dan satu lapisan di tengah] to steam rice sepenanak nasi the time it takes to steam rice (about 20 minutes) to plant, bury (e.g., a corpse) var. tandang bertanang to visit or wander around to slash through roots or vines (aka) (S&B 561, manchas, chas, to clear a way through jungle, Pangan) [merintis jalan dengan mencantas dan menebas lalang dan rimbunan] a sign, omen; mark, footprint; as a sign that he is human and not an animal, a Temuan may wear a fresh leaf behind his ear when he is travelling during hujan rencing; otherwise, a hantu (a spirit) who sees him then would not be able to make out that he is human and would attack him; sudah bertanda engaged to be married; tanda harap the paying back of double the amount of the marriage fee when a divorce is planned a whole stem of bananas is setandan pisang var. tanuk animal horn


Temuan-English-Malay Word List tanggal

tangan tangguh tanggung tangis tangkai tangkal tangkap tangkul tani tanuk tanya tapak tapih tapi tapis tarah tarik taruh taruk tasik tatap tating taun tawar tawa tawas tebal tebas tebang teberai


to get detached, as, for example, a tooth falling out; aperson without any kin is an orang tanggal [orang yang tiada pertalian keluarga atau saudara dengan siapasiapapun dikenali sebagai orang tanggal] hand to postpone to support (not physically), to be responsible for to cry stalk, stem an incantation or charm used against illness, evil spirits etc.; long ago tangkal were given to humans by the spirits that inflicted illnesses on them to catch landing net farming; petani farmer see tanduk to ask palm (hand); sole (foot); tapak kaki footprint; tapak umah house site sheath, covering tapih pisau knife sheath clip. of tetapi to strain a liquid loosely constructed, thin, attap roofing (versus cucur) [atap yang nipis] to pull, pull out (for example, a drawer), to drag; tarik napas to inhale to wager (money), to place (something) shoot, bud; taruk bayam young amaranth (Chinese spinach) lake to scan (an area) to lift up, carry in the hand(s); tating bawa adik balik Carry your little brother back home cholera to offer to laugh; clip. of ketawa alum thick to cut down scrub or clear tall grass to fell (trees) seven sisters who are real women, but known for bathing at noon or midnight at a waterfall or pool on a hillside (lancang); they can be seen by ordinary people but they can disappear by flying away using wings on their dresses; they are like the sirens of Greek mythology, but are not evil; if a man is bodoh (stupid, naive), they want him; in the old days, many Temuan men were bodoh and thus got a teberai; one can hear them often but seldom sees them and they give off a fragrant smell [Tujuh adik beradik yang suka bermandi pada waktu tengah hari ataupun tengah malam di sesuatu air terjun ataupun lancing; apabila menemui orang biasa, mereka boleh melenyapkan diri dengan menggunakan kepak di atas pakaian mereka; mereka boleh diibaratkan dengan siren mitologi Yunani, tetapi tidak berniat jahat; mereka suka berpasangan dengan lelaki yang bodoh] riverbank 79

Temuan-English-Malay Word List teboin tebuan tebuk tebung tedung teduh tegah tegak tegal tegap tegarau tegas

teguh teguh

teh -teh tekah tekak tekan tekena telah telah telat telaga telak telan telanjang telap telengko telinga telingkah

var. lanak teboin brush-tailed porcupine [landak nibung] a hornet which makes a nest of earth to bore into (for example, drill a hole in an earlobe); to carve a dugout boat mouthpiece of a blowpipe; (S&B 538 tebong Besisi, Mantra) [bahagian sumpit yang diletak pada bibir semasa digunakan] var. ular tedung cobra shady to prohibit vertical cause; tegal apa? what is the cause? one must use pasal (because) instead of tegal in the response sturdy; badan tegap, healthy body; duduk tegap to sit up straight buah tegarau a fruit with white pulp to settle, resolve [menjelas] tegas tangkal for a grave illness (sakit tenat), certain objects are put into a miniature boat and sent downriver, thereby removing the spirit (hantu) that caused the illness so that it cannot return tegas ubat there are 12 substances that symbolize the ingredients of traditional medicine, such as a piece of cloth, a knife, salt (kain, pisau, garam) and so on; thus patients give these objects to the dukun when their cure is effected strong, firm a kind of hot fever with reddened eyes and skin which occurs every 24 hours; [demam panas yang mengakibatkan mata dan kulit kemerahan yang berulang setiap 24 jam] tea clit. ini-teh this one here [yang ini]; also ini-hah; teh-itu after that [lepas itu]; (S&B 735 teh this, Sakai, Perak) tree stump (S&B 684 tekah post, pillar, stem, base of tree, Besisi) [tunggul] throat to press, to push, to exert pressure on a kind of fever; see demam [sejenis demam] indicates that an action has been completed or that an event is over; dia telah mati he has died to predict the future [telah, meramal] quiver for blowpipe darts; the quiver cover is called koloi (S&B 688 telak, Mantra; telah, teluk, Menteri) well; bathing area quiver for blowpipe darts; the quiver cover is called koloi [bekas untuk menyimpan damak] to swallow naked penetrating, as rain through clothes bercelengko to rest the chin on the knee or arm; to sit with hands on knees [berteleku] ear mismatch, clashing, misaligned; e.g., when two building posts do not match up 80

Temuan-English-Malay Word List telur

teluk tembaga tembak tembikai tembus temiang temikai temin tempah tempang tempat tempayan tempeleng tempias tempuh tempurung temu tenang tenat tendang tenek

tengah tengam tenggiling


egg; used to diagnose and treat chest illness by wafting the egg through kemayan smoke, rolling it over the body, breaking it open in a bowl, and diagnosing the illness on the basis of whether one sees blood in the egg, sees a hole (lubang) in it, is "dissolved" (hancur), etc.; after diagnosis, patient is wiped with the egg bend of river, bay brass, bronze, copper to shoot (e.g., with a gun) var. temikai watermelon clip. mikai to break or pass right through blowpipe; temiang pelampung, short blowpipe; buluh temiang, species of bamboo used for making blowpipes see tembikai iron ferrules reinforcing the connection between knife blade with shaft to book, to reserve (something) bertempah to retain services, as of a midwife before the time of childbirth lame with a stiff leg place, locality, location earthenware jar for water storage, etc. to slap (face or ears) mist or spray (e.g., from rain, waves hitting the sides of a boat) to pass; to go coconut shell tempurung lutut knee cap meet; bertemu to meet intentionally calm, of water (slow current) (versus berdarus); calm of mind; "tenang!" “calm down!” a grave illness is sakit tenat to kick tree sap used as an ingredient in ipoh poison for blowpipe darts; the sap first runs white, then yellow (S&B 683 tenet poison, Besisi; ternak poison, Belandas) [sejenis getah yang digunakan dalam racun ipoh] var. setengah half, middle; tengah hari, midday molar tooth (S&B 658 dhgam, Khmer; tegam, Chrau; gam, jawbone, Stieng - all Mon-Khmer languages; S&B 741 tenggam, Pangan) [(gigi) geraham ] the pangolin (scaly anteater); the tenggilling is said to have traded its teeth to the buaya (crocodile) for his tongue, thus the tenggilling cannot eat people; when the world comes to an end (dunia hanco), they will trade back; before the initial trade, the tenggilling was jahat and ate people, whether it had an insatiable craving (punan) or not; the buaya, a sibling of the tenggilling, told it that manusia (mankind) would exterminate it because he ate people [before the buaya got teeth, he could eat people only by swallowing them whole; after he got teeth, it was easier to eat them]; the buaya only eats people if there is a hal, dusa, or punan he agrees with Tuhan about this; when the buaya catches a person he tosses his head (juah) two times to tell Tuhan he has caught an orang salah (a guilty person), before he eats him to quarrel 81

Temuan-English-Malay Word List Tengkin tengking tengko tengkorak tengkuk tengkul tengok tentang tentang tentu tenuk tenung

tepak tepat tepi tepuk tepung tepus terang terap teras terbang terjun terung terup terus tetak tetapi tetek tetas tian tiba tidur tihang tikar tikam tiket

var. nengkin to dispute, object, protest (S&B 513 tekeng angry, Jakun, Johore) [membantah, membangkang] harsh and high pitched voice (as when scolding a person) bertengking to quarrel nengko to tap out (e.g., contents of a tin) (S&B 727 ya-tankah to tap, Pangan) [mengetuk sesuatu, misalnya tin, untuk mengeluarkan benda di dalamnya] skull nape of neck ankle; (S&B 642 tengkhu knee, Kenaboi) [pergelangan kaki] to see, look at opposite, facing nentang to look (straight at something); [memandang tepat-tepat pada sesuatu] certain tapir; var. cipan fortune-telling; the ability to read signs and omens; one should not observe bad things closely or will incur their effects; if one observes a snake closely, he will be bitten; if one sees blood in the forest without cause (no animal wounded), one must run away or else incur self-disappearance or encounter a tiger, a ghost, or something else unusual (whether good or bad) to play the drum with the hands is tepak gendang, as opposed to playing it with a stick (pukul) exactly edge to pat, as patting children to put them to sleep or as patting a friend's back when meeting him after a long separation; tepuk tangan to clap hands flour a species of ginger clear, bright; cakap terang, to talk forthrightly plant used to make barkcloth (Artocarpus elasticus); barkcloth is kain terap hard heartwood (of tree) to fly to leap down; ayi terjun waterfall eggplant playing cards; the four suits are speds, diman, lekuk (hearts), and kelawar (clubs) straight through to slash with a cutting weapon; to cut tall grass is tebas rumput clip. tapi breast to hatch (from eggs) uterus; minta tian duit, to ask for contributions from descendents of a newly-dead elder to pay for the expenses of grave construction and of a remembrance feast to arrive to sleep; tidur pelandok, to sleep with eyes open [tidur dengan mata terbuka] post, pillar [tiang] mat to stab ticket 82

Temuan-English-Malay Word List tikus tikus ayi tikus babi tikus berah tikus umah tilam timang timba Timbal timbang timbul timbus timur timok

timpa timpak timpuk

timpuh timun timus tinggal

tinggi tingkap tingkat tinju tinting tiong tiup tipu tiram tiri tiris titik tongkat tokok

rat, mouse Bowers’ rat [tikus bulu kasar] pentail tree shrew (See also cong) [tupai akar malam] long-tailed giant rat [tikus mondok ekor panjang] house shrew [cencurut rumah] mattress to rock an infant held in both hands, to hold an object in the palm to assess its eight dipper, small bucket var. timal and timal-menimal to balance on a fulcrum to weigh, estimate the weight, consider the pros and cons to bring or come to the surface, to float up var. timus east gibbon (S&B 660, timok, Besisi, Beduanda, Mantra) [ungka] timok tangan hitam dark-handed gibbon [ungka tangan hitam] timok tangan putih white-handed gibbon; var. wak-wak [ungka tangan puteh] to befall a kind of drum [sejenis gendang] to postpone timpuk satu minggu lagi postponed for one more week nikah timpuk a temporary marriage, without ceremony; it is permitted for several months, during which time the man is obliged to save up enough money to pay for the customary wedding expenses [tangguh] duduk betimpuh to sit with legs folded back cucumber var. timbus to bury objects (to be retrieved later) to live, as in didi tinggal kampung, they live in a village; to leave something behind, to remain; as in aku tinggal payung di umah, I left my umbrella in the house, and tinggal ada sekin there is a little left tall window storey, floor to box, strike with the fist to winnow with a swaying motion var. burung tiong mynah to blow; tiup api, blow up (mend) the fire to cheat, deceive oyster a step relation, such as bapa tiri, step-father oozing, dripping leak drop, point; the period mark in writing; titik batu, gravel crutch, cane, prop (including an under-floor house support) to increase over present levels


Temuan-English-Malay Word List tolak

tolol tolong tongkeh tonggeng topeng tong tongkol tontot toreh torek tores toyol

tu tuai tuala tuan tuang tuba tudung tuha tuhan tujuh tuju tukar tukul tulah


tulat tulis

to push, to reject; tolak bayuh when kemian is burned during the hinai ceremony and its smoke is “washed” up over the bride and groom, that is, minta hantu; if this is not done, the couple will die extremely stupid to help, aid to push over the edge [tolak keluar atau tolak ke bawah] to bend down a mask, such as a swimming mask large can; tong minyak oil can a bunch of rambutans, of ears of maize, of chestnuts, etc. to pull out [cabut] to tap (rubber); var. tores suppurating ear infection to tap (rubber) var. toreh a good spirit which must be obeyed if it calls one to travel; comes out only at night; is clever at stealing for a person; but if a man possesses it, his wife will be thin because the toyol drinks her milk clip. itu "Pukul-lah,” kata dah imau tu, “Hit him,” said the tiger to harvest rice towel (more usually kain sal) a polite form of address for men; sir to pour out fish poison, from a plant source veil, scarf, covering (as for a camera lens), lid Kain tudung pala head scarf old (of people) [tua] god seven; tujuh hari literally seven day week direction setuju to be in agreement to change, substitute hammer var. nulah misfortune from sacrilege or extreme presumption, such as calling a person by his true name when he is ill, or talking back to one’s parents; another situation which can attract tulah is when a child resembles the same-sex parent; this condition is described as nyap terasi (cf. rasi); in this case, if friends ask to adopt the child, the child must be given away, otherwise one of the two lookalikes will die; the Temuan say this is why adoption is so common among them; to avoid giving a child away, if one is clever, one can successfully use a charm (tangkal) to cast out the spirit (buang jemalang); part of the charm involves drilling a hole in the child's earlobe bone tulang beruk some Temuan houses have a long bone (femur) of a pig-tailed macaque (beruk) hung above the door to have some control over hantu beruk tulang kering tibia tulang papan bahu scapula (shoulder blade) three days hence; the day after lusa to write 84

Temuan-English-Malay Word List tumbang tumbuk tumbuh tumit tumpah tumpang tumpul tun tunam tunang

tunas tunggah

tunggal tunggang tunggu tungku tunggul tunjuk tuntung tuntung tupai

turun tutuh tutup

to topple heavily to strike a blow; to pound in a mortar to grow, to sprout up (like a moustache); to be newly leaved sole of the (foot) just before the heel to spill out to lodge with; to get a lift in a vehicle dull, blunt there; yonder [nun, di-sana] to bury or submerge worthless objects in water or mud [benam] engaged to be married; bertunang period of engagement period before marriage; following the engagement ritual (minang), the suitor brings gifts (belanya minang) to his fiancée for each of several months until the wedding (nikah) the sprouting of a small shoot on a felled tree var. nunggah to build a ladder and scaffold above the bani (buttresses) of a tree in order to cut it down; (S&B 509, gah, to fell trees, Besisi) [membina tangga dan pentas di atas akar bani sebatang pokok untuk menebangnya] single; anak tunggal, a single child upside down; nunggang to ride (e.g., horse, bicycle) to wait hearth stones (on which to set a pot) tree stump to point out, show to invert (a tin or the like); to empty out dregs a large species of river turtle squirrel tupai belong Prevost's squirrel [tupai gading] tupai chulis shrew-faced ground squirrel; also cong gemu [tupai naming] tupai kodis slender squirrel [tupai cherleh] tupai miah reddish squirrels, such as the black-banded [tupai tompok] and the plantation squirrel [tupai merah] tupai mengas black giant squirrel [kerawak hitam] tupai pucok cream-colored giant squirrel [kerawak puteh-kuning] tupai puteh red-cheeked ground squirrel; also cong bunga [tupai pipi merah] to descend, get off to cut off (branches of a tree) to shut, close; penutup covering, lid; Saudara punya muka, aku tutup mata I don't flirt with girls that are my close relatives

U ubah uban ubat ubi ubi buheng

to change, be altered; berubah to move (household); commonly pinah [pindah] var. huban rambut huban greying or white hair medicine edible tuber a forest tuber 85

Temuan-English-Malay Word List ubi gejil ubi hau ubi kayu

a forest tuber a forest tuber (S&B 762 hau, Semang) cassava (tapioca); kinds are called ubi kayu medan; ubi cincang is a way of preparing and eating cassava by making a flour dough and frying it ubi kentang potato udang var. hudang shrimp ukir to engrave, carve ukung backbone (S&B 542 kong backbone, Mantra) [tulang belakang] ukur var. hukur to measure (linearly) ular snake ular tedung king cobra ular lidi a venomous snake ular sawa common python ular cening a kind of python ular ripung a short python ulam dishes accompanying rice in a meal; in Malay, ulam refers only to raw vegetable accompaniments [lauk] ulang to repeat ulas covering, wrapper; classifier for a segment of a fruit such as durian or lime ulat var. hulat worm, maggot ulur var. olor to reach out (one’s arm) [hulur] ulu var. hulu upriver umah house [rumah] umah melikat spirit house built near a grave: a small, makeshift, stilted lean-to that contains offerings for the spirit of the dead umak waves Rambut umak laut wavy hair [ombak] umbi tree roots umur age umut var. humut palm cabbage, "heart" of palm; Ulat not is a fat, edible, 3-inch long larva (of kedoing) that lives in the apical meristem of the kelapa, nibong or langkap palms; for the umut of the banana plant to be edible, one must cut it just before the flower develops; the umut of pinang (betel palm) is inedible, reputedly making people crazy umpan bait uncang bag, pouch undang rules undur to retreat ung (KKB) they, them [mereka] unjur var. hunjur unta camel untung gain, profit upah fee urat vein, artery usung to help someone walk, to support, prop up; can also be used to denote the action of carrying a corpse on a pole usung mayat/kandar mayat) usik to tease, annoy 86

Temuan-English-Malay Word List

W waris wak wak-wak wap warna walau wali wangi wayang waspada woih

heir aunt or uncle; used for pangkat tinggi relationships, for older siblings of one's parents; an older aunt, or aunt-in-law may also be called tahak agile gibbon vapour (as of a hantu); steam (of boiled water, hot springs) colour although agent (for pre-nuptial arrangements), usually a mamak (uncle) fragrance movie patient, tolerant well! so! (Serendah) see nahoint [kata seru]

Y ya yai yen

yes to shriek; (syn. ceyeng) [pekik] name given to a pet long-tailed macaque monkey (the kera)



Temuan: World of Words - Oregon State University

Temuan: World of Words A Temuan/Malay/English Word List Photo: Center for Orang Asli Concerns Looi Siew Teip Adela S. Baer Jalil Mohamad December, 2...

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