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THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS: THE JOURNEYS OF FEMALE AND MALE SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS, ALIKE OR DIFFERENT?

Manine Clara Genge

-4 thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements

for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Depai-tment of Human Development and Applied Psychology Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto

OCopyright by Maxine Clara Genge 2000

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The Development o f Transformational Leaders: The Journeys of Female and Male

Secondary School Principals, Alike or Different? The Degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2000 Mavine Clara Genge Department of Hurnan Development and Applied Psychology Ontario Institute for Studies in Education University of Toronto

-4BSTRACT The first task of this study was to select principals considered to be transformational leaders for the further study. This was done by administenng a survey to the teachers asking about the transformational practices (Podsakoff et al.. 1990: Leithwood et al.. 199O/l991) of their principals. Results showed that the five female and five male secondary school principals, initially identified as effective leaders by district administrators. were perceived to be esercising at least a moderate degree of transformational leadership. The qualitative part of the study was directed, firstly, at discovering how their transformational practices

deveIoped and. secondly, at detennining whether there were gender based differences in the socialization of these principals.

Van Gennep's ( I 909/1960) conceptual fiamework of the three phases of separation. transition and incorporation was used. A pre-separation phase was added. Areas where gender based differences in the socialization of principals were found

during the pre-separation phase were: career options; struggies encountered at university; discrimination in schools; work obstacles; stress around the demands of family and career; scope of leadership; amount of suppon, encouragement and opportunity to develop skills and confidence in their ability. Areas where gender based differences were found duriag the separation phase were: effect of fàrnily on careers; organizational barriers encountered; change in perception of the administrative role; availability of sponsors; eaçe of separation from the role of teacher. Areas where gender based differences were found during the transition phase were: reaction to discipline responsibilities of vice principals; visions or philosophies of the principals who were role models; stress associated with multiple roles; variety of preparatory esperiences for administration; experiences as graduate students; experiences while going through the formal process for becoming an administrator. Areas in which gender made a difference to the type of leadership developed by principals that were shown during the incorporation phase were: visions of principals; support systems; impact of parental role on administrative role; sense of humour; enthusiasm for administrative role.

Becker et al.'s (1961) concept of perspective was used to explain the way in which the women and men dealt with the problematic situations they encountered during their careers. They defined perspective as a coordinated set of ideas and actions a person uses in dealing with some of the problematic situations they encounter in new environments. The wornen and

men in this study coped with situations which were so difficult that new understandings and

actions were necessary.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The preparation of this dissertation has given new meaning to the word support for I have received it from many sources during the time I have been engaged in this study. My husband Mark has been incredibly encouraging, patient, and committed as 1 fulfiiled my drearn. Our

daughters Angela. Stephanie. Margot. Michele. and Christine have been a constant source of inspiration and affirmation as they continued on their own academic journeys. My extended family and friends have supported me in this quest. Professionally there are many to whom 1 owe gratitude. 1 would like to say a special thank you to my supervisor. Dr. Kenneth Leithwood for introducing me to the concept of transformational leadership, and for his patience and constructive advice in guiding me through this study. Thank o u to Dr. Peter Lindsay and Dr. Sandra Acker for their encouragement and insightfd suggestions on revisions. My heartfelt thanks to Doris Jantzi and Rosanne Steinbach, research officers with the Centre for Leadership Development. for thsir friendship and for so willingly sharing their professional expertise with me. I am gratefül to Dr. Dorothy Smith and Dr. Johan Aitken for the emphasis they piaced on researching the gender issue in education. Finally. 1 extend my sincere appreciation to the five women and five men who provided their professional stories to facilitate my research.

Dedicated with Love To Mark for his love, support and encouragement as 1 made this doctoral journey

Our Five Daughters Angela, Stephanie, Margot, Michele, and Christine, who are a constant source ofjoy and inspiration to me. and to The Memory of My Mother and Father Jessie and Edward Major who never had the oppominity to attend secondary school but worked incredibly hard to give me and my six siblings an excellent education

................. .....................................................................................iv DEDICATION .........................................................................................................................v TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................................................vi LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................... ......................xIII ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

m..

CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM....................................................................................

1

Introduction ................................................................................................................................

1

Justification for Study *.......................................................... ...................................................... 3

Summary and Research Questions.. .......................................................................................... -4 Biographicai Information. ....................................................................................................... -3 . . L~mitationso f the Study ............................................................................................................. 6 *

................................................................................. 6 Oveniiew of the Study ........................ . .

CHAPTER TWO: W V I E W OF LITERATURE .....................................................

.........S

Introduction ................................................................................................................................

. . .

The Meaning o f Socialization....................................................................................................

8

9

Research Based on Van Gennep's Framework .............................................................. 9 Research Based on Becker's Framework ..................................................................... 20 S umrnary.. .................................................................................................................

.--29

.. Socialization, Gender and Educaiional Administration ........................................................ 3 1 vi

Trends in Proportions of Male and Female School Administrators............................3 1 Teaching as a Socialization Experience for Administrators.................................. ....35

. . .

Formai Socialization Experiences...............................................................................37

. . .

Informal Socialization Experiences............................................................................. 42 Networks..........................................................................................................

47

Role Models.....................................................................................................

48

Mentors.........................................................................

.............................. -49 . .

. .

Advocacy Orgamzations................................................................................5 1 On-the-Job Leadership Experiences................................................................

52

Leadership Stereotypes and Gender............................................................................. 53 Selection Processes........... ...

..................................................................................... 57

Summary.....................................................................................................................

-61

Leadership Types: Transformational and Transactional.......................................................... 63 Gender and Leadership Types..................................................................................................

69

Overall Sumrnary.....................................................................................................................

75

CHAPTER THREE: mTHODOLOGY

...........................................................................77

Research Design ......................................................................................................................

77

Sample.....................................................................................................................................

80

Interviews..................................................................................................................

80

S urvey..........................................................................................................................

80

Data Collection........................................................................................................................

vii

81

Interviews ...................................................................................................................

-81

Field notes ...................................................................................................................

82

Survey ..........................................................................................................................

83

Data Analysis .........................................................................................................................

-84

Survey..........................................................................................................................

84

Field Notes ..................................................................................................................

-84

Interviews ....................................................................................................................

-85

......................89

CHAPTER FOUR: SURVEY DATA AND PRE-SEPARATIONPHASE

The Survey Data: Transformational Leadership......................................................................

89

. . Qualitative Data .......................................................................................................................

89

Pre-Separation Phase...............................................................................................................

92

Formative Experiences ........................................ Teaching Experiences Prior to Employment with Present Board ............................... 93 Persona1 Experïences Impacting on Developrnent as a Leader ................................... 93 Reasons for Becoming a Teacher................................................................................ 96 Timing of Decision to become a Teacher .................................................................. 100 Formal Educational Experiences of Women and Men........................................ 102 Contribution of Formal Educational Experiences to their Practice as Teachers .......................................................................................

1 04

Positive Experiences Teachers had Pnor to Accepting Positions of

...

Added Responsibility ..............................................................................

viii

1

07

Negative Experiences Teachers had Pnor to Accepting Positions of Added Responsibility .....................................................................................112 The Leadership Activities of Females and Males Before They

Accepted Formal Leadership Roles............................................................... 118 Family Responsibilities that had an Impact on Teaching Career ............................... 120 Summary and Discussion ...................................................................................................... -122 The Pre-Separation Phase ......................................................................................... 1 22 Transformational Practices During Pre-Separation Phase ......................................... 123 Gender Based Differences During Pre-Separation Phase.......................................... 126 Problematic Situations Resulting in Perspective Shifi During Pre-Separation Phase..................................................................................... 130 Conclusion ...........................................................................................................................

CHAPTER FIVE: SEPARATION

131

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Introduction ...........................................................................................................................

133

Own Practice in the Role of Assistant Department Head ................................................ 133 Own Practice in the Role of Department Head..................................................................... 135 The Role of Coordinator ........................................................................................................

140

Formal Educational Studies Early in Teaching Career.......................................................... 141 Obstacles in Separating fiom the Teacher Role .................................................................... 142 Reasons for Seeking Administrative Position ........................................................................ 145

Timing Of Decisions To Become Administrators ................................................................. 148

Summary and Discussion...................................................................................................

149

The Significance of the Separation Phase.................................................................. 149 Transformational Leadership Practices During the Separation Phase....................... 150 Gender Based Differences in Socialization During Separation Phase.....................

152

Problematic Situations Resulting in Perspective Shift During Separation Phase......158 Conclusion.............................................................

. . .........................................................

160

CHAPTER SIX: TRANSITION PHASE........................................................................1 6 2

........................................................................................... Introduction.......................... . .

162

Contact with the Vice Principal in the School (Role Models)........................................... 162 Role of Principal (Role Models)............................................................................................

169

Negative Practices Used by Administrators........................................................................... 177 Exceptional Leaders as Role Models..................................................................................... 180 Credentials Required for Administrative Positions............................................................... 182 Graduate Studies While Preparing for Administrative Positions.......................................... 183

Positions of Responsibility Held While Seeking to Become Administrators........................187 Board Process For Becoming An Adrninistrator................................................................... 189

Summary and Discussion...................................................................................................

The Signi ficance of the Transition Phase..................................................................

1 9 6

196

Transformational Leadership Practices During Transition Phase..............................197 Gender Based Differences in Socialization During Transition Phase.......................203 Problematic Situations Resulting in Perspective Shifi During Transition Phase ......208

Conclusion ..........................................................................................................................

-210

CHAPTER SEVEN: INCORPORATION PHASE...................................................... 1

4

Introduction ............................................................................................................................

214

The Role of Vice P ~ c i p a.................................................................................................... l

214

The Role of Principal.............................................................................................................

230

LifeIong Learners...................................................................................................................

253

Sense of Humour ....................................................................................................................

256

Relationship with the Board ...................................................................................................

257

..

Central Office Administrative Positions................................................................................ 259

.... Professionai and Personal Identity..................................................

.............................. -262

. . Admlnistrator Support Systems.............................................................................................

265

Sumrnary and Discussion .......................................................................................................

269

The Significance of the Incorporation Phase ............................................................. 269 Transformational Leadership Practices During the incorporation Phase...................271 Gender Based Differences in Socialization During Incorporation Phase.................. 276 Problematic Situations Resulting in Perspective Shifi During Incorporation Phase...................................................................................... -284 Conclusion ...........................................................................................................................

CHAPTER EIGHT: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.

o .o e ...

Introduction

-285

o~e~ee~~o~oee~o~~

286

Limitations of the Design ......................................................................................................

286

The Survey Data: Transfomational Leadership...................................................................

-288

Qualitative Results ...............................................................................................................

288

Forms of Socialization that Contributed to the Development of Transformational Leaders .............................................................................. 288 Gender Based Differences in Socialization ............................................................... 292 Relationship of Gender Based Differences to the Types of Leadership

. .

Developed by Principals.......................................................................... .....-295 The Contribution of Study to Future Research......................................................................

298

The Contribution of Study to Practice ............................................................................... 299 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................

302

............O.. APPENDICES ........

. o . o o . o . o . . o . . o . o . o ~ . o o . o . o . o . o o . o o . ~ o o . . o . o . .

304

......o.oo.ooo.ooo.o..ooooooo.ooooooo~oo~ooooo..ooo.oo.o~....~oooo.ooooo...o...o.oooo...o.ooooo..o..oo..o..

327

REFERENCES

Appendix A: Individual Professional Socialization Interview Format ...................... 327 Appendix B: Transformational Leadership Dimensions ........................................... 331

xii

LIST OF TABLES Table 1

Teacher Ratings of Principals' Transformational Leadership

Table 2

The Reasons the Women and Men gave for Becoming a Teacher

Table 3

The Time in Their Lives when Women and Men made Decision

to Become Teachers Table 4

Forma1 Educational Experiences of Women and Men

Table 5

The Contribution of the Formai Educational Experiences of Women

and Men to Their Practice as Teachers Table 6

The Positive Experiences Women and Men had in Schools as

Begiming Teachers Table 7

The Negative Experiences Women and Men had as Teachers

Table 8

The Leadership Activities of Women and Men Before They Accepted Formal Leadership Roles

TabIe 9

The Family Responsibilities and Accomplishments that had a Negative or Positive impact on how Principals Performed their Roles

...

Xlll

CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM Introduction In recent years a large body of research has concentrated on school leader effects.

Most of this research has adopted "instructional leadership" as a conception of effective practice (Greenfield. 1987; Louis and Miles, 1990; Smith and Andrews, 1989; Wilson and Corcoran, 1988). Current attention to the cultural and symbolic aspects of leadership warrant efforts to find a more compelling conception (Bolman and Deal,1990; Louis and Miles, 1 990; Sashkin and Sashkin, 1990). Transformational leadership has begun to emerge as such a conception (Leithwood, 1992; Leithwood, 1994; Leithwood and Jantzi, 1990; Leithwood,

Jantzi and Dart. 199 1; Leithwood and Steinbach, 1991; Sergiovanni, 1990).

The concept of transformational leadership was developed by Follett (1 924, 194 1, 1 949) and Burns (1978) and extended considerably by Bass and his associates (Bass, 1985;

Bass & Avolio, 1989; Bass and Avolio, 1996; Bass, Waldrnan, Avolio & Babb, 1987 ). Bass et al. identified five characteristics of transfomational leadership. These were: idealized attributes, idealized behavioe, inspirational motivation, intellectd stimulation, and individualized consideration. Leaders who had idealized attributes had the respect, trust, and faith of their associates. Idealized behaviors were shown in the leaders living their ideals. They encouraged their associates to share their cornmon visions and goals, to identiQ with their leader, and to develop high levels of t m t . Inspirational motivation represented the appeal of challenging but simple words, symbols, and metaphors and the ability, enthusiasm, and optimism to envisage the future. htellectuai stimulation portrayed the rational aspects of

2

leadership. Leaders enlarged the perspective used by associates to understand problems. Through individualized consideration leaders placed emphasis on treating each associate as a unique individual. Leithwood and his associates conducted research on transformational leadership in school settings. They identified eight dimensions of transformational ieadership. Transformational leaders develop a widely shared vision for the school, build consensus about school goals and pnonties, hold high performance expectations, provide individudized support. provide intellectual stimulation, mode1 good professional practice, use the school

structure to share power and responsibility with others and to support collaborative work, and engage in culture building (Leithwood, 1994). As yet, we have limited knowledge of what the concept of transformationai leadership means in education and litile about how it evolves. This study aims to develop a better

understanding of the professionai sociaiization experiences of those secondary principals who are considered to be transformational. It aiso aims to M e r our understanding of the

influence of gender in t!!e development of transformational leadership practices.

Justification for the Study A promising avenue for research on how principal practices develop is the professional socidization experiences they undergo. A better understanding of these experiences is worthwhile in its own right. And on a more practical level, such an understanding seems foundational in efforts to assist future leaders to make more productive use of their pre-entry experiences.

3

The concept of adult socialization refers to the process through which an individual acquires the knowledge. skills, and dispositions needed to adequately perform a social role (Brim and Wheeler. 1966), in this case the school principalship. Socialization processes for the principalship fall into two broad categones: formal and informa1 experiences. Formal socialization usually consists of university training and in-service sessions. Infornial socialization includes the many on-the-job and broader life experiences that orient the person to the role of principal. The development of an administrative perspective begins as soon as

the person starts to senously consider becoming a member of that group (Greenfield, 1985). This process may begin at the point at which the teacher enters the profession, after several

years in the classroom, or after a number of years in the field. Evidence suggests that some individuals enter their fint administrative position with a more completely developed perspective than others. no doubt due in part to the nature of their sociaiization. This is in line with socialization theory which predicts that newcomers take the role as given (Becker and Carper. 1956). If this is indeed m e , then there are implications for any effort to improve or change the strategies, activities or practices of the administrative role in order to make it

substantially different or to redefine the basic ends served by the role. A number of school leaders do manage to maintain an innovative orientation to administration. The fact that such deviations from the n o m exist implies that there may be certain formal andlor informal socialization processes and conditions associated with such a response to the role. One other aspect of socialization requires attention. There are several studies which suggest that socialization of women into the administrative role is different in many respects than that of men (Adkison, 1981;Cunnison, 1989; Marshall and Mitchell, 1989). Specific

4

concentration on this issue may provide us with the rasons for differences in practices observed among male and female principals (Leithwood, Begley and Cousins, 1990).

Sumrnary and Research Questions

A large body of research on effective principal practices is now available; very little of it as yet has adopted a transformational leadership perspective. Little is known about the

development of principals' practices. This study concentrates on providing knowledge on how principals' transformational practices develop by examinhg the formal and informal socialization expenences men and women undenvent as they were oriented to the administrative role. The following questions guided this research. 1.

Which forms of socialization contribute to the development of transformational

leaders in education? 2.

Are there gender based differences in the socialization of secondary school

principals? If so, what are they? Are they related to the types of leadership developed by these principals? This study will show the extent to which the teachers in their schools perceived ten secondary school pnncipals employed transformational leadership practices. It will also examine the socialization of these ten principals that preceded their use of transformational practices in the principalship. Further, it will identify the gender based differences in the socialization of the five female and five male principals in this study and their relationship to the types of leadership they developed.

Biographical Information My entire schooling and career in education took place outside the province of Ontario where this study was conducted. My secondary school experience was quite different from that of the women and men 1 interviewed. 1 obtained my secondary school education in an d l erade "

school where there were two grades in each classroom and al1 subjects were taught by

the same teacher. My knowledge of secondary schools, prior to undertaking this study, came

partly from my interactions with secondary school staffs as the mother of five daughters. They attended smail secondary schools in Newfoundland, the same province where 1 was educated. Their schools had student populations of approximately five hundred with less than forty teachers and two administrators on staff. My first experience as an administrator was a

one-year appointment as principal of an dl-grade school. I was an e l e m e n w school administrator for a number of years working in schools with student populations ranging from less than two hundred to nine hundred. The number of teachers on staffranged f?om ten to sixty with two administrators as the nom. 1 gained additional knowledge about the work

of secondary schools administrators through my professional interactions with colleagues during my years as administrator. My interest in research in the area of gender and leadership began when 1 reflected on my own career. After being a principal for a number of years, 1 came to the realization that my espenences were different fiom those of my male colleagues. My own educational history played a role in shaping the perspective I brought to my study. 1 was a female elementary school principal, long experienced in the role, and had moved into the role during a period close to the time the people who are the subjects of this

6 thesis becarne secondary school principals. However, 1 had limited knowledge of secondary schools in Ontario and the secondary school principalship in that province. I found 1 learnt a great deal about the role of the secondary school principalship and how secondary schools in Ontario operated fiom the participants in the study. The rovelty of their experiences helped keep me focused on the perspectives of the principals 1 studied.

Limitations of the Study There are several limitations to this study. The sample used is small in relation to the toial population of secondary school principals and the study yields results which are tentative and exploratory in nature. The qualitative part of the research depends to a large extent on the quality of the interview questions, the ski11 of the interviewer in eliciting responses to questions and the subjective interpretations of the researcher in the selection of themes and the provision of meanings to sequences of responses and events.

Overview of the Study The study is presented in eight chapters. This chapter gives a definition of

transformational leadership and outlines the reasons for undertaking a study of such leadership. Chapter two is comprised of a review of the literature pertinent to the study. The methodology and design used in the study constitutes chapter three. Chapter four gives the results of the survey and answers the question on the extent to which teachers perceived their principals as transformational. The interview data covering

the teen years of the women and men in the study, their teacher preparation years and their

beginning years in the teaching profession are also presented in this chapter. Data fiom the period when they began to consider entering administration is contained in chapter five. At that time they held positions of added responsibility. They were in the roles of either assistant department head, department head, or coordinator. The formal educational

studies they undertook while considering a move into administration are examined, as we11 as their reasons for seeking an administrative position. The timing of their decisions are

discussed in this chapter, as are the obstacles encountered in separating fiom the tacher role. Chapter six examines the formal and informal preparation for the administrative role the wornen and men underwent once they decided to become administrators. The positions of

responsibility they held while seeking to become administrators are noted. A discussion of role models is contained in this chapter. The process by which they obtained the credentials required for administration is presented, and with it a discussion of the graduate studies they engaged in whiie preparing for their administrative positions. How these women and men managed the board process for becoming an administrator is discussed. The appointment of the women and men to the role of vice principal and principal is dealt with in chapter seven. The practices engaged in while in the role of vice principal and

principal are presented. The challenges encountered, the support these administrators received, and opportunities for continual development of their skills are also addressed in this chapter. Chapter eight provides a summary of the study. It considers the contribution of the study to future research, and the contribution it can make to practice.

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction

This chapter is organized into four sections. The study is grounded in socialization theory, thus the theoretical literature on sociaiization is presented first. Nexf trends in the representation of women and men in educational administration and their formal and informal socialization into the profession are docurnented. Trends in the proportion of fernale and male school administrators are recounted to indicate whether there have been changes

over time and where the profession now stands in ternis of gender equity. This part of the review also examines the literature on the forma1 and informa1 socialization of women and men into the profession. The opportunity structure of the career environment is looked at to determine what motivates women and men to become administrators and to detennine the risks. sacrifices and supports that are attached to the administrative career.

The literature on transformational and transactional leadership is addressed in the third section. This form of leadership is examined for the promise it holds in school improvement and school effectiveness. The origins, development, and utility of this theory are traced in the literature.

Section four contains the research on the relationship of gender to leadership style. Educational administration has been overwhelmingly dominated by men. The recent equity agenda has resulted in more women taking on administrative roles. The question of possible differences in leadership styles of women and men continues to surface and begs an examination of the research in that area. Such knowledge c m be helpfùl in developing and

affirming the leadership strengths of women and men that are conducive to school improvement and school effectiveness.

The Meaning of Socialization The definition of socialization used in this study refers to the process through which an individual acquires the knowledge. skills and dispositions needed t adequately perform a

social role. in this case the secondary school principalship (Brim and Wheeler, 1966). This study was guided by a combination of two conceptual fiameworks. They are van Gennep's ( 19O9/ 1960) three stages of socialization fiamework and Becker, Geer, Hughes and Strauss's ( 1 96 1) mode1 explaining the shift in perspective that occurs in the adult socialization process.

search b e d On Van Ge-'s

Frwwork

Arnold van Gennep (1 873- 1957) was a French folklorist and ethnologist who had a tremendous influence on the development of both of these disciplines (Belmont, 1979: Zumwalt, 1988). He evaluated the scholarship, the scope and depth of both fields and merged the strength of the two into his work. A dedicated researcher and prolific writer, his work was greztly aided by his remarkable facility with languages (Belmont, 1979; Zumwalt, 1988). His

most well known work is Rites de -D

(l909/196O). It was written only &er a great deal

of stmggle. study, and reflection on the current problems in his field, and became the bIueprint on which his future work into French ethnography was based. Van Gennep (1 909/1960) was interested in studies and theories of religious belief and ceremonialism. His

unique contribution in this area was the analysis of the ceremonies which accompany an

10

individual's life crises, ceremonies which van Gennep called "rites of passage". Van Gennep described the rites of passage in this fashion: The Iife of an individual in any society is a series of passages fiom one age to another and fiom one occupation to another... progress fiom one group to the next is accompanied by special acts, like those that make up apprenticeship...Transitions fiom group to group and fiom one social situation to the next are looked upon as implicit in the very fact of existence, so that a man's Iife cornes to be made of a succession of stages with similar ends and beginnings. (p.3) Van Gennep pointed out that when the activities associated with rites of passage were

esamined in terms of their order and content, it was possible to distinguish three major stages. First, there are rites of separation in which the individual physically or psychologically

leaves his or her existing social statu. Then follows a transition period in which the individual is given some special knowledge, is able to p a s certain tests, or is in some way physically changed. In the h d stage the individual is incorporated into a new status by some

public symbolic event or change. Van Gennep was chiefly interested in the essential signïficance of the rites and their relative positions within ceremoniai wholes, that is, their order. He found that the underlying

arrangement is always the same. It is the pattern of the rites of passage. That pattem begins with the rites of separation, continues to transition rites, and ends with the rites of incorporation. A second finding he made is the existence of transitionai periods that sometimes acquire a certain autonomy. In the ceremonid patterns where the transitional

period is sufficiently elaborated to constitute an independent state, the arrangement is dupiicated. That is, within this transitional period, rites of separation, transition rites, and rites of incorporation are found.

11

Van Gennep's third point was the relationship between the actual spatial passage and the change in social position. The passage from one social position to another is identified with a temtonai passage, such as the entrance into a village or house. The spatial separation

of distinct groups is an aspect of social organization. Van Gennep cornmented on the

disturbances which changes in status produced in the individual, and he saw rites of passage as devices which incorporated an individuai into a new status in a group (Belmont, 1979; van

Gennep. 19O9/1 960; Zumwalt, 1988). Van Gennep's framework of separation, transition, and incorporation has been widely used in the social sciences.

Three studies using that framework focused on the socialization of the schooi principal. Blood (1 966) was concemed with the h c t i o n and dysfùnction of the teaching experience as socialization for the role of school principal. The questions he posed required first and second year principals to recall their experiences as teachers and administrative candidates and. therefore, elicited data most appropriate to the separation phase of transition. For analysis. cornments made by the subjects were classitied according to the tirne period

with which each was dealing. The time periods in which the subjects were occupying the teacher role, administration candidate role and new principai role were taken to correspond to the separation, transition, and incorporation phases respectively. Blood found that for administrative candidates the teaching years were a time of intense learning about the principalship. The bulk of the principals interviewed were actively engaged in the process of becoming a principal fiom a very eariy time in their teaching careers. The candidates engaged in a pattern which gained the attention of their superiors and gave them access to the work world of the principal. Blood concluded that the prime preparatory phase of the principalship

12

occurred during the teaching years. A study by Valverde (1974) was concemed with the sponsor role in the socialization

of educational administrators. His primary interest was in the sponsorship oppominities for

ethnic minorities and women, or people who were in some way different from the sponsors. He concentrated most of his attention on the phase of transition. There was strong evidence of the cornparison of self with others during the separation phase. Incorporation was achieved

afier the protégé displayed an appropriate administrative perspective. Marshall ( 1979) intewiewed twenty-five female administrators with varying amounts of administrative experience. Her purpose was to discover what factors facilitated or hindered women in their career development as administrators. She found thee phases that women moved through as they entered administrative roles. First, the women tended to be culturally defined. then to pass through a transition phase, and finally to become self-defined. in the culturally defined phase women were taught and rewarded for dependence, devotion to helping others, child orientation, and attractiveness to men. Culturally defined wornen's organizational roies were in a r e s and ranks which fitted societal assurnptions for their characteristics. In school organizations, women's culturally defined role was that of teacher. Their motivations and rewards centered around their child orientation and the opportunity to serve others in a job, while at the same time fulfilling the roles of wife, mother, and

comrnunity woman, al1 of which society rewarded. During transition the change processes were powerfùl and deep-seated. These changes involved breaking away fiom rewarding patterns, devaluing old beliefs, and searching for and creating new patterns. These women

becarne self-defined. Self-defined women had self-sent roles that emerged fiom a creative,

13

individualized process. They dealt with k i n g both homemaker and a professional, the career ro le strain of whic h entailed decisions about their involvement with children, their

relationship to the community, and their relationship with their husbands. A second component of career-role strain was sexuality. They dealt with their feminine identity and male-female relationships. Their behaviors and attitudes were purposefuily chosen and defined for and by themselves. Their self-images were derived fiom self-assessments of performance on self-detennined criteria. Their rewards came fiom within, when they experienced the cornfort and satisfaction of meeting their own expectations. Selfdefined women's organizational roles were in areas and ranks which they sought and where they defined their own criteria of success. in school organizations women's self-deflned roles were in areas they chose, given open access and freedom fkom career role strain. These categories can be compared to van Gennep's separation, transition, and incorporation phases. Studies using van Gennep's fiamework have been conducted on other populations. Eddy (1 969) studied thirteen elementary and nine junior hi& teachers as they made their passage to professional status. They went through the three phases of separation, transition, and incorporation. The formal graduation ceremony and the awarding of the college degree

symbolically expressed their separation fiom the student role and the beginning of transition to the teacher role. Of the three phases, that of transition was the most insecure and anxious

time for the individuals and those associated with them. During transition they were gradudly but firmly taught the responsibilities and activities appropriate to their new role. Several groups in the school (including administrators, specialists, fellow teachers, and pupils) reached out to the new teachers. The transition period was marked by a number of ceremonid

14

activities which ritually expressed the several phases of this period, as well as the meaning of teaching. B e g i ~ i n gwith the initial formal orientation to the school,the new teachers went through an intensive formai and informal training period in which the culture of the school, wi th its long history, was transmitted to them. A few teachers were quickly incorporated into

teacher status. others were more slowly accepted by supervisors, still others narrowly escaped rejection. Iannaccone and Button (1 964) provided data on the experiences of student teachers. The majority of the data were taken fiom students' personal journals. Comments made during their first to fourth week of practice teaching were considered as the separation phase, those made corn the fourth to ninth week were considered the transition phase, and those made from the tenth to thirteenth week were considered the incorporation phase. Iannaccone and

Button concluded that student teachers undenvent a change in their thinking during their student teaching. They developed a perspective which differed significantly fkom what they had gained in their on-campus courses. The change occurred in response to the problems they encountered as they moved fiom helping individual students, to teaching small groups of students, to teaching a whole class. Three factors created problematic situations for them: the limited amount of time, the potentially vast universe of learning for pupils, and the different stages of child development within the same classroom. Cooperating teachers fhctioned as models and sources of advice. They helped student teachers define these factors as the schedule, the lessons to be covered and the class. Student teachers learned to [email protected] the lessons to the current performance of the students, reduce discussion and questions, and coerce students when necessary, in order to move the class through the planned lessons in the

15

schedule. Student teachers saw that this approach worked. Their anxiety was reduced and their self-images as teachers were strengthened. This change in thinking and behavior was essential to their passing student teaching. The student teacher who continued to think in terms of the needs of individual students found herself having to follow the advice of her university program adviser and outwardly comply in order to pass student teaching. Ladd (1 992) used a multiple case study approach to investigate the pattern of experience in career transitions. The participants were five men and five women who had compieted a career change. The participants represented a variety of occupations. A cornparison of individual accounts revealed a pattern of experience common to al1 ten cases. It was a three phase process, with each phase involving a distinctive character, and each

subsequent phase building on the preceding one. The common pattern bore a remarkable resemblance to van Gennep's rites of passage process of separation, transition, and incorporation. Schrier & Mulcahy (1988) showed how the social organization of a business

socialized its middle level managers causing them to acquire many of the characteristics of classically transitional characters. Middle managers had separated fiom the social structure of line workers and their union representatives and had not entered the ranks of top management where the real power lay. They were in a transitional state. This was a disturbing and stressfûl position in which initiates were neither "here nor there". Since they were between statuses, they had no social role with its previously leamed structure to guide their behavior or to shape their expectations. They worked out a shared system of values which included selfreliance, fair play, individuaiity, restraint, action and mistrust of hierarchy. Sponsorship was

16

necessary for a middle manager to gain admittance to top management. Those who did not gain a sponsor continued in a transitional state until retirement. Women in medicd training were the focus of a study by Ortiz (1972). She found three types of expectations arnong her subjects. These were identified and described by her as roletaker in pediatrics. role-taker with role-breaker expectations in the outpatient clinic, and role-

breaker in surgery. Each of these reflected variations similar to separation, transition, and incorporation. Cox (1 980) and McCadden (1 995) investigated the student role and kindergarten as a rite of passage. Cox (1980) identified the three stages of van Gennep's ntes of passage, separation, transition, and incorporation within the yearly cycle of events that took place in the kindergarten. At the beginning the children were non-students, during the year they becarne quasi-students, and at the end of the year as they made the transition to first grade they becarne students. McCadden (1 995) studied twenty-five kindergarten students and the changes involved in becoming a student when a five or six year old moves in identity from child to student. Three stages within transition were identified. A series of rituals was used by the teacher to help the children shed their home roles, transition them to school roles, and

reaggregate them as students. The children learned to be good students, not in the academic sense, but in a social identity sense. They made the transition to school, learning the proper behavior of a student, behavior which included k i n g quiet, orderly, attentive and independent. Each day the children had a reaggregation ritual, consisting of an end-ofkiay recap of what was learned. In this way school n o m s were acquired over the course of the school year.

17

Ronkowski (1985) and Boyle (1 986) studied doctoral degree candidates. Ronkowski (1 985) interviewed first year doctoral students for the purpose of i d e n t i m g factors that enhanced or hindered students' adaptation to their f m year of graduate studiesIn the data analysis, students were placed into three categories of adaptation: difficult,

moderate and easy. These categones of adaptation corresponded to the three phases of separation. transition, and incorporation. Students in the low satisfaction group, for whom adaptation was dificult, were at the separation stage. They were separating h m their old peer group and redefining themselves in terms of their new peer group and their new social status and role as graduate students. Students in the moderately satisfied group, for whom adaptation was moderately dificult, evidenced transition. These students were closer to faculty and had increased their social status and self-concept. Students in the hi& satisfaction group, for whom adaptation was relatively easy. were at the incorporation stage. Students in this group had a sense of where they were going. They took responsibility for their academic

performance and showed more independence fiom faculty. They were friendly with faculty members and saw themselves as sharing the work of projects with them. Boyle (1986) studied doctoral degree candidates in a support group setting who were in a transition stage. They faced institutional and personal obstacles. Care and support for one another developed

in the group. They used humor to help deal with the hstrations built into the dissertation

process. The three women identified strongIy with one another during the transition period as they tried to succeed in the dissertation process, a process which was clearly a maie tradition and foreign to the life experiences of women. Certain actions which the men took in stride were seen by the women as at least uncalled for, and at worst intentionally sadistic. They did

18

not find an acceptable place to be emotionally expressive. The women were a h i d that, if they expressed emotion, they would be seen as weak and lose the respect of faculty and

advisors. An understanding of the essential humanity and persona1 agendas of advisors and cornmittee members developed in the group. Anecdotes h m their everyday experiences were shared within the group setting. These helped to remind the members that they had persona1 lives entwined with their iives as doctoral candidates.

Banks (1 987) determined that police mobility could also be considered as consisting of three stages. Three distinguishable patterns for locating one's self in transition were identified. The detective position, the tirst step in upward mobility, corresponded to the separation phase. The sergeant was seen as the transition phase, and the captain as the incorporation phase. Banks concluded that the organizational socialization processes, within the para-militaristic structure of the police department. were the same socialization processes

espected in any complex organization. The police department did not hoid a separate place in society in spite of the exclusive and distinct nature of the profession.

Nineteen married women with children, who returned to college for a baccalaureate degree, were the subjects of Redding's (1 990) study. The women passed through the three stages as defined in van Gennep's rites of passage: separation, transition, and incorporation.

The women were motivated by interna1 drives for self- fuifilment. The major finding in the srudy was that in order for successfül transition to occur, every member of the family,

including the woman herself, had to believe that her role consisted of more than spouse and

mother and her happiness found in more than self-sacrifice to her family. Most were employed and found their jobs a significant factor in their transition. In her new combined

19

role of student, wife, mother, and, in some cases worker, the achievement of her educational goals had be given a high pnority by the family. The entrance of students to university has k e n the subject of several studies. A study describing and interpreting the transition of nine members of a fieshman class into a state university was done by Draper (1991). The researcher drew upon van Gennep's theory. Draper's interpretation focussed on the transitional stage and how fieshmen coped with the demands of their new physical, social, and ideological environrnents. Separation was characterized by redefining relationships with family and high school &ends. Transition was defined as coping with academic workload and cornpetition for grades. incorporation was defined as constmcting new social networks. A study by Shere (1993) examined the student culture within a five week summer enrichment prograrn. This prograrn was designed to assist with the transitional processes high school students experienced as they entered higher

education. Again the scope of the prograrn was exarnined through the lem of van Gennep's rites of passage theory. The findings suggested that ail sixty-five program participants, regardless of race, class. culture, or gender, moved through separation, transition, and incorporation in the surnmer enrichment program. However, the participants spent varying arnounts of time at each stage. Durnil (1 997) studied student affairs professionals who advocated for the proper treatment of HIV/AiDS issues in higher education. These professionals went through separation. transition, and incorporation during their movement fiom student flairs professionals to student &airs professionals who advocated for HIV/AIDS issues. The student affairs advocates separated fiom their families and began to test, within an unfmiliar

20

group, the values leamed at home. The separation stage also accentuated experiences of integration into, and interaction with,multiple communities and the personal attitudes of responsibility and altmism. They functioned on the fringes of HIV/AIDS advocacy by attending lectures, reading books or helping with research fund raising. The transition phase was marked by a pivotal experience, a personal comection of some kind to HIV/AIDS. The

persona1 comection was a niming point in the advocates' development. This phase was typically marked by an induction experience, a nurturing work environment, and the development of personal attitudes of empathetic supposition and inclusiveness. The incorporation stage was marked by an understanding that advocacy was more than wearing "red ribbons". The student affairs professionals were involved in several advocacy actions for students including mentoring, developing peer advocacy, and lobbying for change in institutional policy. Research based on van Gennep's conceptualization of the socialization process has led to the conclusion that his pattern of "rites of passage"is very useful in studying changes in the professional status of individuals since the underlying arrangement of those changes is

always the same. That pattern begins with the rites of separation, continues to m i t i o n rites and ends with the rites of incorporation.

RR~as_eéonw~ramework

Howard Becker is a sociologist located in the symbolic interactionkt tradition who has made a major contribution to his field of study (Burgess, 1995). In his work, the way in which meanings arise out of social interaction is stressed and the way in which these

meanings are modified on the basis of interpretation by individuals interacting with each

other is studied. in an early study Becker, working with a number of colleagues, applied aspects of interactionism to a study of medical education (Becker et al., 1961). The model developed by Becker and his colleagues in this study of medical students adopts a perspective concept of socialization. Perspective is defined as an individuai's perception of, and plans of action for. problematic situations. A coordinated set of ideas and actions a person uses in dealing with some problematic situation ... a person's ordinary way of thinking about and acting in such a situation.

These thoughts and actions are coordinated in the sense that actions flow reasonably fiom the actor's perspective, fkom the ideas contained in the perspective. Similady, the ideas which might form the underlying rationale for the person's action and are seen by the actor as providing a justification for the acting he does. (p.34) The model explains the dynamics of the process as the individual s h i h from an initial perspective to more socialized career and work-related perspectives in the adult socialization process. Because perspectives shift, the socialization process is ofien traumatic and such esperiences are referred to as life crises or problematic situations. The relationship between perspectives and problematic situations is explained by Becker and his colleagues (1961). Let us explain what we mean by a "problematic situation" and what we see as the relationship between problematic situations and perspectives. A person develops and maintains a perspective when he faces a situation calling for action which is not given by his own pnor beliefs or by situational imperatives. ln other words, perspectives arise when people face choice points .... Clearly, a situation will not present the sarne problem to al1 people. Some will have a way to act in the situation so that it calls for no thought at d l ; the situation is not problematic for them. Others will perceive the situation differently, depending on their pnor perspectives .... In short, the irnmediate situation is problematic only in terms of the perspective the individual brings to bear upon it. (p.35)

In their study Becker et al. (1 96 1 ) used the concept "perspective" to andyze the collective actions of groups. The perspectives they studied were the CO-ordinatedpatterns of

22 ideas and actions that the students developed in attempting to solve the problems they saw in their new environment. Perspectives come into existence when group members share a common goal in a situation. Becker et al. (1 96 1) were interested in the characteristics of prolonged professional training of young people. During the time these young people are adults, they are undergoing a prolonged adolescence of a sort, a time in which they are asked to show aduit competence

and learning without k i n g given adult responsibility. Through the snidy of medicai students, Becker and his colleagues developed a mode1 of identity change (Becker et al., 1961). There were few women or minorities among the students they studied. The majonty of the sixtytwo students were young, white, Protestant, married and residents of rural communities or small towns. The authors pointed out that the process for becoming a member of the medical profession involved a long course of professional instruction and supervised practice. Although during training for medicine great emphasis is laid upon the basic sciences and

their application in the diagnosis and treatment of the sick, science and ski11 do not make a doctor. The person must be initiated into the status of a physician. The transition fiom young layman aspiring to be a doctor to a skilled and confident physician is slow and halting. The

young man finds out very early that he must first l e m to be a medical student. Becker and

his colleagues observed closely the way in which students, at various points in their progress through medical school, saw and solved the irnmediate problems of dealing with their teachers and the tasks they assigned. In their study, the researchers discovered that the students of medicine saw their world in a moving perspective. Their immediate attention was given over to coping with the day-to-day problems of medical school.

23 Becker et al. (1 96 1) found that medical students had attitudes towards medicine and the medical profession, which the researchers named a long-range perspective. This longrange perspective was both unspecific and idealistic. The students believed medicine was the best of al1 professions and they saw themselves, in their future pmctices, as helping people and as having enjoyable and satisfjmg work while upholding medical ideals. The

development of situational perspectives received most of the researchers' attention. These perspectives consisted of the students' definition of their situation, the gods they set for themselves in it, and the activities they undertook. Becker and his colleagues divided their analysis of the fieshrnan year into three parts. The initial perspective was characteristic of the period fiom the begiming of school until shortly before the first major examinations. The provisional perspective described the period just before and during the examinations. A final perspective was in use for the remainder of the year. The three perspectives were successive attempts to solve one central and persistent problem, that of the proper level and direction of effort in academic work. Even though they were studying a professional school, the researchers did not anticipate that the fieshmen's major problem would be their academic work, and that their concern about studying would be so great as to overshadow al1 other problems.

The initial perspective of the students was that al1 information about medicine was important and so they directed their academic effort toward learning everything presented to them. As the students continued in medical school, they found that they did not have sufficient time to leam everything. During this sarne period the fieshmen began to get to know each other and developed a group perspective that solved this problem.

This was

termed the provisional perspective because it was the bridge between the students' initial perspective and their final views. During this period the fieshmen neither became a unified group nor attained a final perspective on their work. While al1 students agreed in the provisional phase that there was more than they couid learn in the time available to them, and that they must therefore select what was important and study that, they did not agree on the proper criterion to use in deciding what was important. Some students studied what they saw as important to medical practice; others gave up the idedistic notion that everything taught

them in medical school would be relevant to practice and began to study what might appear

on examinations. The final perspective developed as the class become a cohesive group. This

perspective predominated in the second half of the first semester and for the remainder of the freshman year. Students carried over the practice of hard work fiom their initial perspective, and the necessity of selection and use of the most economical ways of learning fiom the

provisional perspective. Their criterion for selecting what was important becarne whether it would appear on examinations. They developed techniques to discover what material they would need to master for the purposes of such examinations. In developing the perspective,

students found a solution to the overload problem that for the rest of the year reduced the strain they were experiencing. They also discovered a CO-operativeway of behaving that drew the class together in an effort to predict and fulfill the requirements of the faculty. Becker and his colleagues made only b i e f observations on the sophomore year. They

concluded that much of what the students did was a continuation of the perspectives formed during the freshman year. Anything new represented the beginning of the perspectives which became dominant during the clinical years.

25

The clinical years were studied extensively. Though students spent some of this time

in academic halls and classrooms, the bulk of their work was carried out in the hospital's wards and clinics. The students continued to be a cohesive group and again developed situationally-based perspectives in order to deal with the problems they faced as clinical students. The concept of perspective shifi developed by Becker and his colleagues has been used in a number of other studies. Yunker (1 977) and Atkinson (198 1) used both the van Gennep framework and the Becker et al. model. Yunker's (1977) study of police trainees

provided examples of the perspective shifts which were made in self-cornparisons as individuals moved through the three phases of the transition stage. Fim, self was compared with others. Next, the task role performance was emphasized. Finally, self was used as the critenon. The comparison was made between what the attitude of police trainees used to be and what it became. Atkinson (1 98 1) examined the clinical experience of students in a British

medical school. Bedside experience was regarded as having the most status in clinical training. Exposure to this world constituted the core of the extended "rite de passage" of the medical student. The majority of students welcomed their separation fiom the preclinical, and the beginning of their clinicai work. They viewed it as a particularly critical status passage in the course of their training. Many for the first time felt themselves gripped and absorbed by the world of "real" medicine. Yet they were in a "liminal" stage, neither fully comptent experts nor still laymen. During this period each student was assigned to a group. in these groups students developed a certain perspective as they negotiated their cornmon views of shared problems, or debated their differences of opinion. They were preoccupied with the

26 arnount of work and effort demanded of them, and the type of tasks they were assigned. They realized the importance of sponsorship to their future careers and worked to create a favorable impression. hept performances caused distress. Problerns of incompetence were, however. sometimes d i f i e d by humor. Experience, personal knowledge, and the way medicine was practiced in the institution were al1 stressed by the clinicians as k i n g important. Several other studies used the Becker et al. framework. A study by Mascaro (1976) was concerned with first-year principals. Several hypotheses developed fiom the study related

to the initial perspective of these principals, the major problematic situations they encountered. and the new perspective towards which they moved during the k t year. The study indicated that this change in perspective was effected primarily by the requirements of the job itself rather than by interaction with other role occupants. Herrity (1989) interviewed selected students at a two year institution to gain insight

into the student perspective toward the academic side of college and the importance grades played in that perspective. The study indicated that grades were the major force in student

behavior for those students actively seeking a degree in college. The grade point average perspective was a very practical and efficient set of ideas by which students assisted themselves in realizing the end result of going to college, getting a good job, and having a cornfortable life. Wroblewski's (1987) subjects were experienced nurses. Her emphasis was on the noms and practices that reversed the usud professional roles in the interaction between

nurses and physicians. The nurses were in the incorporation phase. A combination of

27 professional competence, occupation of the formal roles appropriate to those skills, and professional self-definition led to success in reversing authority roles in their interactions with doctors at times when they perceived the situation required it. The purpose of Dickman's (1 995) study was to develop a theoretical understanding of the perspectives that emerge fiom assistant principals' organizational socidization

experiences. The concept of perspective used was modeled on that of Becker et al. (1 96 1). The results of the study suggested that assistant principals developed a comrnon set of perspectives in response to a comrnon set of problematic situations. These perspectives included: "it takes time to leam", working for the principal, working with other assistant principals. doing tasks. working effective1y with teachers. and a perspective which integrated several of these. Assistant principals appeared to develop these perspectives using a

situational adjustment process that included assessing the requirements of problematic situations, experimenting with ideas and actions to determine how to behave, and choosing strategies that enabled them to respond successfidiy to situational requirements. Ronkowski and Iannaccone (1 989) analyzed ten of the empirical studies of the adult socialization experiences. These studies used Becker's mode1 of perspective shifi a d o r van Gennep's three stage socialization framework. The studies they analyzed were Blood (1 966), Valverde ( 1974), Marshail (1 979), Iannaccone and Button (1 964), Ortiz (1 972), Ronkowski (1 985), Banks (1 987), Yunker (1977), Mascaro (1W6), and Wroblewski (1987). Six of these

studies came fiom the field of education, and the remainder fiom medicine and law enforcement. While Ronkowski and Iannaccone did not seek to conduct a rninority education or equity study, their data bases drew most heavily on the aspects of socialization relevant to

women and minorities in those careers. The studies were anaiyzed for common patterns that would add to the empirical and

theoreticaI base of the Becker et aL(1961) and van Gennep (1909/60) models. The Becker mode1 helped in examining the socialization crises that people underwent in organizations and their shifi in perspectives as they dealt with thexn. However, in adding to the empiricd

and theoretical base, van Gennep's three stage concept used as phases within the transitional

stage was the most helpful. The studies provided empirical evidence to support van Gennep's notion of the three stages of separation, transition, and incorporation occurring within the transition stage when that stage takes place over a prolonged period of tirne, as in the case of the professional socialization examples examined in these studies. Ronkowski and Iannaccone (1 989) used the concept of the three phase sequence as a structure for a deeper analysis of four of the ten studies. These four studies were concerned with the socialization experiences of various populations within the education field. They found three distinguishable patterns to the manner in which individuals located and assessed themselves in the transition stage. The three patterns of self-location were: comparison of oneself with

others; comparison of oneself especidly job related performance with the role requirements; comparison of oneself with one's self in the temporal sense of past, present, and future. These three self-cornparisons were found to Vary in degrees of importance at each phase of the transition stage. Concerns about, and self-cornparisons with, others were most prominent in the separation phase. Concems and cornparisons based on task and role performance were emphasized in the transition phase. Cornparisons between former and present self were only of major importance during the incorporation phase.

29 The general movement fiom self-identity being defined by others to self-identity

being self-defined is a progression fiom a reliance on external definitions to reliance on internal ones. Ronkowski and Iannaccone (1989) believed this movement was of particular importance for minorities and women. The two groups must redefine and self-define their professional identities. At the same time they may need to redefine and, more specifically, to self-define their cultural and gender roles and identities. This makes the process more

difficult for minorities and women. It takes more stamina determination, reflection, and selfexarnination to change both personal and professional identity at the same time. Nonminority males do not have to change their personal identities. The vast majority of people presently occupying the role are non-minority males. The personal characteristics nonminority male candidates are believed to possess because of their mernbership in their culture and gender group are seen to be the ones needed in their new role. The situation faced by

minorities and women raises several questions. What support systems are needed for women and minorities above and beyond those required for mainstream individuais? How can these

be provided? What culnual changes need to be addressed? Does a re-conceptualization of the role need to occur so that strengths of al1 people can be utilized?

Summarv Van Gennep's (1909/1960) theoretical framework was discussed in this study because it provides a potential structure for understanding the process and experiences that a teacher may move through in becoming a school administrator. The orientation towards school

administration develops over a period of time and results fiom personally relevant

30 experiences that lead them in that direction. Van Gennep's rites of passage may provide a useful conceptualization of the order and process i,i which those experiences fit. The concept of a passage with the three major phases of separation, transition and incorporation provides a usefuI framework for the present study. It offers a foundation upon which the meaning of experiences can be compared and fixed. Van Gennep's theory also discusses the way in which an individual can gain hl1 admission into a different culture without having to belong initially to that culture. Studies using van Gennep's theoretical fiamework were reviewed to show the range of use of the framework and to demonstrate its utiiity in studying career paths

particularly in the field of education. The socialization study of Becker and his associates (1 961) offers concepts that are

usefùl for studying the adult socialization process. Their definitions of perspective and problematic situations are helpful. Perspective is an individual's perception of, and plans of action for, problematic situations. These crises or problematic situations occur when individuals face situations that cal1 for actions that are not dictated by prior beliefs or by situational imperatives. The theory suggests that individuals, ofien as members of a group, actively choose to adapt their behavior to respond to their perception of the demands of the social situation.

The Becker et al. (1961) model was used by a number of researchers to look closely at the socialization crises that peaple undenuent in different organizations and their shift in

perspectives as they dealt with problematic situations. Becker et al.'s model was chosen for this study of administrators' career paths because administrators face problematic situations

during their socialization into the role and must then find ways of responding to these

Sociaiization, Gender and Educational Administration

Trends in P

r

o

p

i

.

e Schml a t r a t -

The data compiled by various agencies indicate that conditions for women are changing in some parts of North Arnerica. These changes include an increase in the

percentage of women in the positions of secondary vice pnncipal and secondary principal. Statistics fiom the Ontario Ministry of Education ( 1 992) on secondary teachers in Ontario showed an increase of females in the positions of secondary vice principal and secondary principal in the Public School Boards fiom 1978 to 1991. The proportion of females in the position of secondary vice principal went fiom 7.2% in 1978 to 26.3% in 1991 and in the position of secondary principal fiom 2.9% in 1978 to 14.1% in 1991. The Roman Catholic School Boards showed a different pattern. Ln the position of vice principal the representation of women increased fiom 19.3% in 1985 to 30.5% in 1991, while for the position of principal it declined from 23.3% in 1985 to 16.6% in 1991. Women were more likely to occupy the

positions of vice principal and pnncipal in elementary schools than in secondary schools. The Public School Boards reported an increase in the percentage of elementary vice principals who were women from 15.5% in 1978 to 44.6% in 199 1. The corresponding figures for

principals were 6.7% and 24.5%. In the Roman Catholic School Boards, women's share of elernentary vice principalships rose fiom 28.8% in 1985 to 4 1.1% in 1991 and for principals from 20.9% to 29.6%. The steady gains for women in the positions of vice principal and principal were attributed to affirmative action and employment equity initiatives on the part

of the Ontario Governrnent which began with a Green Paper in 1973 and led to a

Policy/Prograrn Memorandum in 1990 setting the goal of 50 per cent representation of women in the occupational categories of vice principal and principal by the year 2000. This memorandum also required school boards to develop and put in place employment equity policies with respect to the employment and promotion of women, to submit details on their em ployment equity policies and prograrns and provide annual progress reports to the Ministry

of Education (Ontario Ministry of Education, 1992).

The Federation of Women Teachers' Associations of Ontario (FWTAO, 1996) extracted information tiom the statistics educator database of the Ministry of Education and published statistics for males and females in the public elementary and secondary school vice

principalship and principalship from 1980 to 1996 and in the Roman Catholic elementary and secondary school vice principalship and principalship fiom 1987 to 1996. This study supports the earlier Ministry of Education study and includes more recent data. The figures for 1996 in

public secondary schools showed 34.2% of the vice principals and 27.1%of the principals were women. During the year 1996 the total academic staff consisted of 54% men and 46%

wornen. The percentage of women in the position of vice principal in the Roman Catholic secondary schools for 1996 was 34.1% and in the position of principal 24.1%. The data show a recovery from an earlier decline in the percentage of women in the position of principal.

During that school year 5 1.4% of the academic staff were men and 48.6% of the staff were women. The FWTAO (1996) statistics also reported gains for women at the elementary level. The percentage of administrators in the position of vice principal in the public elementary

33

schools in 1996 who were women was 55.7% and in the position of principal 37.6%. For that same year. in the public elementary schools 24.6% of the acadernic staff were men and 75.4% of the staff were women. The percentage of administrators in the position of vice

principal in the Roman Catholic elementary schools who were women was 52.1% and for the position of pnncipal 35.8% in 1996. In the Roman Catholic elernentary schools in 1996, 20.7% of the academic staff were men and 79.3% of the staff were women. While the steady

increases and recovery are encouraging, the rate of increase, and the percentage of women who are vice principal or principal, as compared to the percentage of women on the total teaching staff, show that work on closing the gap needs to continue in Ontario. The Canadian Education Statistics Council(1996) gave statistics for the nation as a whole and the authors concluded that gender equity may be gaining ground in the teaching profession in Canada. Although a majority of the administrative positions were still held by men, female educators made slow but steady gains fiom 1982 to 1993. These administrative positions included principals and vice principals in elementary and secondary schools. While women occupied 14.5% of the combined administrative positions at the school level in 1982, they held 28.5% of these positions in 1993. A further breakdown by position revealed that in the position of vice principal, female teachers occupied 16.8% of vice principal positions in 1983 and had increased their share to 34.8% in 1993. Women occupied 13.2% of

principalships in 1982 and 24.1 % in 1993. The aüthors of this national study were cautiously optimistic, concluding that although gains had k e n made, there was a great deal of work yet to be done, since women constituted 61% of al1 fùli-time educators in Canada in 1993 (Canadian Education Statistics Council, 1996).

34

The proportion of women in administrative positions for 1993 was published for each Canadian province (Statistics Canada, 1996). These administrative positions included principals and vice principals in elementary and secondary schools. Women occupied 30.4%

of the combined administrative positions at the school Ievel. A breakdown by eiementary and secondary schools revealed a greater representation of women at the elementary than at the secondary level. The proportion of vice principals at the elementary level who were women was 42.8 % and at the secondary leve122.9 %. Of the people holding the position of principal at the elementary level 27.6 % were women and at the secondary level 12.9 %. (Statistics Canada. 1996). The two trends seen in the overall picture in Ontario were also apparent at the national level in Canada. There have been increases in the percentage of women in administration over time both at the elementary and secondary levels and the greatest increase has been at the elementary level.

The entry of women into administration in the United States has shown a similar pattern to that in Canada. A study by Montenegro (1993), which included statistics fiom elementary and secondary schools in the United States, showed that the percentage of principals who were women had risen from 13% in 1977 to 34% in 1993 with most of these principals at the elementary level. Statistics published by the National School Boards Association for the years 1989 to 1996 were broken down to show separately secondary school principals, junior highlmiddle school principals, and elementary school principals (Leadership, 1990-1991; Leadership, 1993-1995; Saks, 1992; School leaders, 1996). The greatest representation of wornen in administration was at the elementary level, followed by junior higwmiddle school and then the secondary level. During the years from 1989 to 1996

35 there were certain years when there were slight gains for females and other years when there were losses. In 1989, of the principals in the elementary schools in the United States, 40.9% were women with a decrease to 37.2% in 1991. There was a recovery and increase to 43.1 % in 1993 and a slight decrease to 43% in 1996. The figures for junior higidmiddle schools

were lower. In 1989, of the principals in junior hi&/ middle schools, 18.9% were wornen, with an increase to 23% in 1991, There was a decrease to 20.8% in 1993 and a recovery and

increase to 24.8% in 1996. The percentage of principais in secondary schools who were women was the lowest of the three groups. in 1989 principals in secondary schools who were women cornpnsed 10% of the total with a decline to 7.6% in 1991. a recovery and slight increase to 10.9% in 1993 and a decrease to 9.9% in 1996. The uneven pattem of the entry of women into administration in the United States and the slow rate of increase is surprising when one takes into account the work of the women's rights movements, the passing of e q d

opportunity legislation, and the implementation of affirmative action programs. The data show that, while more women are entering administration in Ontario,

Canada and the United States, the pattem has been uneven and the rate of entry slow particularly at the secondary level. Ontario, the province where this study was canducted, has made the greatest gains at the secondary level and has the largest representation of women occupying the positions of secondary school vice principal and principal.

School administrators begin their socialization into the profession as both teachers and students. Goodlad's ( 1990) five year study of teacher training programs at six types of

36

colleges and unir-cïsities found that aspiring teachers were not socialized into teaching as a profession during their years in tacher training programs. They were socialized into teaching by their peers when they entered the field. The influence of colleagues on new teachers was very powerful (Goodlad, 1990; Harris & Collay, 1990). Their experiences ranged fiom total professional isolation to a high degree of professional interaction and collaboration (Rosenholtz, 1989). Their workplace conditions may have included task autonomy and discretion, leamhg opportunities, and psychic rewards, or these conditions may have been totally absent. McCall's (1 995) study of seven female elementary education majors and their in-SCho01 experiences as student teachers underscored the difficulties of teaching in a school where the power was divided almost completely dong gender lines. in various ways the principals reminded the student teachers and cooperating teachers of their limited power and respect as teachers and as women. Restrictions were placed on the

curriculum, participatory teaching styles were criticized, teachen were tdked down to and they had to cope with sexist, degrading treaûnent. It was made clear that critena for hiring teachers included appearance and that women had to please male adrninistrators in order to gei and keep a good teaching position (McCall, 1995). Effective teaching, that is, teaching which met instructional goals and student needs, depended significantly on the context within which teachers worked (McLaughlin, Talbert & Bascia, 1990). The manner in which teachers were socialized as teachers had implications for the manner in which those fiom their numben who became adrninistrators envisaged their role as leaders in the school setting. The contexts in which teachers worked varied greatly. They carried out their duties as teachers in isolated or collaborative cultures. At the same

37 time they sought out leadership opportunities beyond the classroom. It was in this context that they began to think about the role of the adrninistrator.

The information gathered during intensive interviews with administrative candidates and administrators led Adkison (198 1) to the conclusion that this p e n d of anticipatory

socialization was very important. During this tirne the individual became oriented towards the role before occupying it. He or she sought out opportunities to interact with administrators and to leam and demonstrate administrative skills (Adkison, 198 1;Greenfield, 1985 ; Marshall, 1992). If the candidate received the attention of superiors and gained a sponsor, that sponsor appointed the protégé to committees, to quasi-administrative assignments, and to temporary administrative positions. The sponsor. usually the building principal, directed learning experiences, gave guidance, provided access to other administrators, and helped to move the teacher fiom the classroom to an administrative position (Adkison, 1981;Greenfield, 1977; 1985; Valverde, 1980; Marshall, 1992).

F

. . . d S(wdlzamn mp&IAas

A number of researchers have examined the forma1 socialization experiences of

school administrators. Pitner (1987) drew her data fiom the opinions and perceptions of people personally involved in the s ~ d and y practice of school administration, fiom literature reviews. and fiom questionnaire surveys of scholars, practitioners, professors, and recently

graduated students of educational administration. AI1 pre-service education was the responsibility of universities, while other agencies (including school districts, professional associations and state departments of education, as well as universities) provided in-service

38

education for SCho01 administrators. There were three levels of school adrninistrator graduate training. The programs were very similar in terms of methods of instruction, types of learning activities and content of instruction. Graduate programs tended to be very parochial (Pitner. 1987). They focused on local or state concerns and the vast majority of their students Iived within one hundred miles of the university. As a group, educational administrators stated that university training did not prepare graduates to face the probtems of practitioners.

Murphy and Hallinger ( 1987), Daresh and Laplant ( 1985) reported similar findings.

Several programs were designed to augment or replace traditional graduate training.

Non-residential universities offered doctoral programs in educational administration. They did so without any faculty in residence, research libraries, or campuses. Candidates attended classes for several weeks in the summer and met monthly with small groups of administrators

in their areas to work on their practica (Pitner, 1987). These programs appealed to some practitioners but were not highly regarded by the academic cornmunity. Clinical training programs were based on the medical mode1 and emphasized the diagnosis of problems in the

operational areas of administrative responsibility and the establishment of specific objectives in response to this problem analysis. Scho01 administrators approved of this approach. Inservice opportunities for school administraton were available fiom many different sources and were organized in a variety of ways. The leaniing activities provided quick answers to problems arising in the daily lives of administraton. The researchea concluded that improvement in training for administrators was badly needed. Based on evidence colIected in the mid 1980s, Leithwood and Avery (1 987) pointed out that serious shortcomings were evident in the preparation of school administrators in

39

Canada. Their professional education was sponsored by universities, specialized in-service agencies. teacher and tnistee associations, provincial governrnents, and school systems. The majority of Canadian provinces did not mdce provision for formai preparation courses as a prerequisite for becoming a p ~ c i p d .Their range of job expenences was generaiiy very narrow. The typicai career route for principals was fiom teacher to vice principal to principal. The survey study of one hundred and twenty nine randomly sampled school systems by Leithwood and Avery (1987) suggested that principal in-service education was highly

valued. A large proportion of Canadian school systems offered in-service to principals. Furthemore. the general directions of the in-service. the way in which the participants' needs were determined, the variety of instructional techniques used, and the moral and symbolic support provided by school systems for the in-service, were in iine with recommendations fiom research on effective in-service programs. However, when a large number of formai education programs were examined, a great variation in the quality and impact of the programs was evident (Leithwood & Avery, 1987). Fullan (199 1) aiso noted the absence of the kind of leadership programs that would enable administrators to become the perpetual leamers Bernis and Nanus (1985) found highly effective leaders to be. Trends over time were evident in the forma1 socialization of female administrators. In the past women were not encouraged to pursue higher education ( S h a k e s h a 1989). As a result fewer women than men had participated in certification, doctoral, o r internship programs (Schmuck, 1975; Shakeshaft, 1989). More recent work (Edson, 1995) indicated that this barrier was gradually k i n g overcome as more women participated in internships,

40

received administrative certification, and eamed doctoral degrees. A membership survey by the Ontario English Catholic Teachers Association, for example, showed that woman teachers were somewhat more likely than men to pursue M e r education (Ontario English Catholic Teachers Association, 1987). The general consensus among the women in Edson's ( 1995)

longitudinal study was that having a doctorate would make a difference in a woman's

administrative career. At the end of the ten year mark, 32 of the 142 women who responded to the q u e s t i o ~ a i r eheld doctorates. This represented 23% of the total, an increase fiom 8% in 1979-80 and 17% in 1984-85. Two others were complethg their dissertations. Of the 32 women holding a Ph.D, 26 had achieved a principalship or higher position. A number of studies conducted during the 1970s and 1980s showed that the

experiences of the women in administrative programs were different fiom those of the men. Women who went to college to acquire administrative degrees were less likely than men to find a supportive atrnosphere (Schmuck. 1975; Shakeshaft. 1989; Edson, 1988). Professon

in educational administration were largely male (Edson, 1988). Male students closely resembled their professors. Female students who came to graduate school were unusual people who overcame many obstacles in order to pursue graduate work. The matenal they read was sexist (Nagle, Garden, Levine & Wolf, 1982; Schmuck, Butrnan & Person, 1982; Shakesh&& Hanson, 1986).

The theory and research underlying the disciplines that

informed the study of educational administration were male-based (Eichler, 1980; Smith, 1979; Shakeshaft, 1989; Spender, 1981).

Williams ( 1982) concluded, from his study of 119 programs in educational administration, that most departments did little to serve their women and minonty students.

41

Marshall ( 1984) reached the sarne conclusion. Edson (1 988) found fernale educational administration graduate students faced unique challenges in universities. A major concern was how to balance the student role with other roles as employee, wife, and mother. The long

distance many of them had to commute to attend accredited programs was another concem. In Edson's study, some women found financing their graduate education difficult. The lack of female faculty members, the treatment they received fiom male faculty, and problems with their male peers, presented real challenges to other women. Severai women contemplated Ieaving graduate school because of the negative experiences they had with male professors. On the positive side. women who began programs at the tirne the number of females

increased. found that the larger numbers of women students in administration was important to them. Sharing with other women improved the climate in graduate school. Many women

had positive experiences with male professors. These men made extra efforts to ensure equality of treatrnent in course content. as well as in classroom environment (Edson, 1988). Studies conducted in the 1990s indicate that the conditions for women in programs that lead to the principaiship have improved. A requirement for those aspiring to become a vice principal or principal in Ontario is the completion of a two part course which is offered by faculties of education on behalf of the Ministry of Education. Worrall(1995) used her

own experiences as a basis for research on the selection procedure for vice principal. She found that most of those taking the principal course were women and most of those teaching the course were men. In the first part of the course Worrall received excellent, practical advice while learning the theory and regulations. In the second part of the course she received inept instruction disguised as collegiality. Al1 the men she met in the course had a career

42

plan that would lead them on an upward path. Worrall(1995), like the women in Grant's (1 989) study and Acker's (1995) study, sought promotion to meet her own needs, not

promotion for its own sake. A report completed for the Govemmënt of Canada in 1992 reached the conclusion that most of the women who were part of the study painted a very

positive picture of the programs they were in or had just completed. However, there were deterrents which made the educational administration programs a little more difficult for women than for men. Women outnumbered the men in the educational administration programs studied (Govemment of Canada, 1992). Epp (1 995) studied fifteen Canadian institutions granting M.Ed. degrees in Educationai Administration. The respondents in her study reported experiences similar to those in the G o v e r n e n t of Canada (1992) report.

Positive remarks about the educational process were ofien tempered by reports of incidents or comrnents which made female students feel uncornfortable or unwelcome. These usually centered around a male oriented competitive culture, gender bias in texts, materials or traditions, and unequal distribution of resources. There has k e n progress over time in the numbers of women in programs designed for administrators and in the quality of theû experiences in these programs; however, problems still remain.

. . .

0C-E-

The main entry position for administrative career is the vice principalship (Marshall,

l985a; 1992; Ortiz, 1982; Weindling & Earley, 1987). Marshall (1 98Sa) found that new administrators encountered "professionai shock" as they separated fiom the tacher culture and sought to be accepted as administrators. In a later study Marshall (1992) saw very little

evidence of conflict between adrninistrators and teachers and few instances where administrators gave indications of a sense of separateness. These adrninistrators spoke of their entry into administration as a flowing process, without abrupt exits and entrance from one culture to another. They shared values and goals with teachers, had a love of teaching, and saw teachers as colleagues. They valued people in general and teachers in particular. Earlier studies showed that the experiences of male and female teachers who expressed interest in administration were quite different. Men who expressed administrative aspirations were considered to be acting naturally. Women who expressed interest in administration risked negative sanctions. In general women in teaching were granted tenure with relative ease. If, however, there was some indication that they were considering a move

into administration the granting of tenure became problematic. In a study by Ortiz (1 982) thirty out of fifty-five aspiring female administrators related some dificulty in obtaïning tenure. The women learned that if they wanted to obtain tenure in a school district they had

to suppress their aspirations regarding administration. If they wished to obtain credentials and an advanced degree they did so without alerting anyone to their long range plans. In her study of 25 women Marshall (1 979) found that women aspiring to school administration had limited access to socialization structures. Men had access to these structures to support them in transition. Women were forced to seek replacement socialization. They had to expend extra time and energy but these experiences did not equal the career and emotional support, the guidance and the entree that their sponsorship system

gave to men. Marshall (1993) identified a pattern of women and minority administrators'

denial and belittlement of the impact of exclusion and tokenism on their careers. In the

44

Southem urban district she studied, school leadership positions remained dominated by white males through the eras of desegregation and affirmative action. Women and rninorities who attained administrative positions leamed to keep a low profile. A11 of the women in the study spoke of ways their gender affected their ability to fit in comfortably. Yet these administrators persistently denied that their race or gender affected their careers. In the microand macro-political context of their administrative careers race and gender confiicts were

present but suppressed. Women were taught that they should keep quiet and avoid embarrassing confrontations and situations that emanate fiom k i n g different. The women leamed to downplay isolation and sexism. Bell and Chase (1993) reported the percentage of superintendents in the United States who were women over a span of ninety-three years. The percentage went from 0.9% in 1899

to 5.6% in 1992. They also sumrnarized the research and pointed to the processes that hindered wornen's integration into educational administration. First, gender stratification in schools was maintained by differential opportunities for advancement. Administrators were chosen fiom the ranks of teachers. While 87% of teachers in the elementary schools were female, they were less likely than secondary teachers, who were 52% female, to have access

to opportunities through which vertical promotion occurred. Elementary principalships, 37% of which were held by women, rarely led to M e r promotion. High school principalships, which were frequently a stepping Stone to higher positions, were held by women at a rate of 7.6%. Second, the gatekeepers, that is, those who were recognized as having influence in the

hiring and evaiuation of school administrators, were predominately white men.Third, subtle and blatant forms of sex discrimination and impediments to women's integration into

45

administration penisted. These ranged fiom the relatively benign behavior of not k i n g given help in finding internships or king ignored during their graduate education, to blatantly sexist attitudes and overt discrimination in hiring. Fourth, public policy trends had an eflect

on equity. Attention to equity was replaced by a focus on excellence after 1980 and the debate virtually ignored equity issues. This shift away fiom equity issues carried over into the 1990s and continued to shape women's access to and expenences in the educational system in the United States (Bell and Chase, 1993). Russell interviewed 21 women and 22 men who were middle managea in school systems or the public service in Canada (Russell, 1995). Overall the women interviewed, while recognizing that there were significant barriers to the career advancement of women, remained optimistic about their own career prospects. Edson (1 995) conducted her study in three phases. At the end of phase one in 1979-

80. Edson found that women were determined to push the limits of administration to allow women leadership roles in public schools. They were quite realistic about the obstacles facing

them as female aspirants and they did not see their goals as easily attainable. They felt strongly that they had the necessary skills, credentials, expenences, and the desire to serve children. They believed they could overcome the obstacles and make a difference in schools. Phase two of this study was completed in 1984-85. At this five-year mark, one third

of the women had become principals, one third were in positions advancing their careers from their first interviews, though they were not yet principals, and one third were still in the sarne positions. Among the women advancing in their careers, several issues had become apparent in the first five years of the study. Women aspiring to become principals at the

46

elementary level were more likely to have become principals than those at the secondary level. Advanced degrees were important to some female aspirants in their promotions in traditionally male-dominated professions but not to other aspirants. A quarter of those moving to new positions had doctorates. However, six of the eight women who already held doctorates at the beginning of the study still had not reached a principalship at the five year update. At this stage a distinctly different picture of female aspirants emerged. instances of discrimination and immediate farnily concerns were more apparent at the five year update. The optimism noted in earlier stages was tempered. Many found combining careers and

families problematic. The juggling of these roles was increasingly difficuit as they ûied to move up the career ladder. Some questioned whether they were as willing to pursue a career geared to helping other people's children at the expense of their own. As they moved up the career ladder in education, many found they could advance to a certain level but that the next steps were beyond their reach. Otder non-minority males retired but not as many of these positions were filled by women as the women had expected at the beginning of the study. Despite their concems, most remained optimistic that they would succeed in some field of leadership. if not in education. They still displayed the need for professional stimulation and growth evident at the begiming of the study. Although they were more knowledgeable about the difficulties facing women in education, they still encouraged dedicated women to pursue

administrative careers. At the ten year mark, the end of phase three (1989-90), 92% of the subjects were

traced. The last positions held by 131 of the 142 women were docurnented, including four who had died over the course of the study. In the ten years, a total of 58% of the women had

47

reached or surpassed their goals. Eighty-six of the original group returned questionnaires. Forty-two of these women no longer considered themselves active aspirants in administration. The literature identifies certain socidization processes which are helpful to educators who are moving towards administrative positions. Among these processes are networks. role models, mentors, organizations and on-the job leadership experiences. Networks serve as a source of support and encouragement for those planning to enter administration and for coping with the demands of the job once they are appointed. Role models provide a standard of excellence that aspiring administraton or those new to the position seek to imitate. The fûnction of a mentor is primarily to make introductions or to train a person to move effectively through the system. Organizations serve to support the entry and advancement of those aspiring to. or who are already in, school administration. On-

the- job leadership expenences take place when teachers are aspiring to be administrators or occur when people are in one administrative position and are seeking to move on to another. Each of these processes is important to career advancement in administration.

Networks Networks have traditionally been recognized as effectively serving men in administration (Mikios, 1988). As women recognized the value of networks to career advancement they began to band together in networks of support and encouragement (Edson, 1988; Shakeshafi, 1989).

Schmuck (1 986) documented the establishment of networks for women aspiring to

48

administration. Principals extended rewards in the form of leadership training sessions, conferences and speciai meetings. These contributed to a sense of effectiveness, increased motivation and public visibility and heiped teachers move into administration. Wheatiey (1 979) found that male administrators were more likely to extend these rewards to other men

than to women. There were strong pressures on women to conform to predominant male ideas about appearance, attraction, and charm. If they did not conform their promotion and

career prospects were undermined (Evetts, 1990; Joyce, 1987). W o d l ( 1 9 9 5 ) experienced this same pressure before she applied for a vice principalship. Although she was always

neatly dressed, a female superintendent pointed out that the way she dressed was too casual for a potential vice principal. The woman in Taylor's (1995) study initially received encouragement fiom male administrators and then later from a support group of women colleagues. The women in Gill's (1995) study saw networking as giving wornen who held administrative positions or were interested in becoming administraton an opportunity to meet otlier women with similar interests. A number of men and women in Russeil's (1995) study acknowledged the importance of women's neiworks for their nurturing quaiities. Yet they expressed the view that these networks did not make up for the fact that women are still excluded fiom the more p o w e h l male networks where information critical to the organization was shared.

RoIe Models The lack of role models created another obstacle to women's anticipatory socialization (Estler 1975; Schrnuck, 1975). Rimmer and Davies (1985) found that the expectations about

ways schools should be run were tied to the male style of leadership. This presented problems for the women in the study. Yet several studies did document the expenences of women who found role models. Some women in Russell's ( 1995) study saw role models as allowing them to take control of their fate rather than waiting for someone to chose to mentor them. One woman who benefitted fiom having a female adrninistrator as a role model learned how to do the same for others (Russell, 1995). The women in Hajnal's (1 995) study descnbed specific role models, both male and femaie, who had inspired them to become leaders in their work. family and cornmunity.

Mentors Jeruchim and Shapiro's (1 992) research, which involved 106 protégés from eight professions. scores of female and male menton. and a number of experts concluded that while women do advance professionally without menton, many of the women interviewed

would not have achieved their prestigious positions without their male mentors. They also found that mentors who were of the opposite gender complicated the relationship. In many instances the male model did not bring an understanding of the contemporary woman's needs or of her place in the work force. In their model a women did not having one traditional male mentor for her lifetime. Instead she had a nwnber of mentors spanning her career, including both men and women. Acker documented the moral and practical assistance the head in her study gave to teachers in helping them obtain administrative positions (Acker, 1995). Females experienced difficulty in finding menton (Pounder, 1987; Federation of Women Teachers of Ontario, 1992). Valverde (1980) and Kanter (1977) stated that mentors

50

subconsciously selected protégés who most resembled themselves both in terms of administrative skills and sex. Nolf discovered that although most respondents found having a mentor of the sarne gender was irrelevant, more women than men felt having a mentor of the same gender was helpfûl (Pence, 1995). Pence and Nolf, in their studies of administrators

from the Confederation of Oregon School Administrators, found that mentors can be very valuable to both aspiring and neophyte administrators (Pence, 1995). They observed that the relationship aspect of having mentors and protégés were most important. The factors they identified were trust, mutuai respect, fiiendship, cornmitment, and communication. The level of those factors determined the level of success that the mentors and protégés experienced and influenced everything else b a t occurred. The other factors that afTected mentor

relationships were educational philosophy, phy sical proximity, gender matching, and goals. Mentors and protégés reported that these factors either positively or negatively affected the success of the mentor relationship. The women in Edson's (1995) longitudinal study indicated the importance of mentors to

advancement in women's careers. In 1979,68% of the women acknowledged having

mentors, typically a male principal. Of those who identified mentors, 42% or 59 women held principalships or higher positions at the end of ten years, whereas only 17% or 24 women who did not have mentors were able to advance. Pence (1995) quoted statistics which indicated that the number of wornen in administrative positions was still low. Only 7.6% of high school principals were femaie. She observed that having a mentor played an important role in increasing the number of women in administration. She also saw a danger in that

veteran administrators pass down common practices tather than encourage novice educators

51

to be innovative. Her belief was that a good foundation in theory and practice would give protégés the confidence to take risks and try new practices. Building satisfactory mentor relationships was identified as one way of helping to develop a solid foundation in educational leadership.

Advocacv Organizations Schmuck (1 995) researched the role of advocacy organizations for women school administrators in the United States between 1977 and 1993. The growth of organizations during that sixteen year period was phenomenal. These organizations sought to define and overcome o b s ~ c l e to s women's entrance to and advancement in educational administration (Schmuck, 1995). Progress was made in this area though their agenda was not fûlly realized. Organizations were formed to assist women in finding administrative positions, to motivate women to enter administration, and to counteract the male bias of existing administrator organizations. They provided a meeting place for women who were excluded from the male administrators' informa1 groups, promoted sex equity in school administration. and prepared women to enter and advance in the educational bureaucracy. Conferences, workshops on

résumé writing, seminars on interview skills, sessions on leadership, and meetings of support groups dominated the calendars and the consciousness of the leaders of women school administrator groups. Advocacy groups wrote affirmative action policies, clearly stating procedures for hinng. These actions resuited in public notices and screening cornmittees replacing the more informai systems of administrative hiring. As the stnictures which had discriminated against women changed, a large number of women sought administrative

52

positions. Women' s organizations created job banks which matched women candidates with openings and sent lists of al1 the women applying for administrative positions to districts with openings. The law was used very sparingly in confionting school districts with discriminatory practices. Since women wanted to enter the system, organizations generally did not see filing a prievance or a suit against a district as a good strategy (Schrnuck, 1995).

In Ontario a study on barriers to women's promotion in education was conducted for the Federation of Women Teachers' Associations of Ontario (1 992). This research project

included personai interviews and over 2 IO0 mailed surveys. interview and survey respondents identified the leadership training and the personal and professional support provided by the Federation of Women Teachers' Associations of Ontario as the most helpful source of encouragement and support for women seeking promotions.

On-the-Job L e a d e r s h i b r i e n c e s

The importance of on-the-job learning for those aspiring to be managea as opposed to learning acquired fiom courses and books is stressed in the literature (Bass, 1990;McCall, Lombardo and Morrison, 1988;Mintzberg, 1990).There can be a wide variety in the kind and amount of leadership oppomuiities available to different people. Russe11 (1995) found that women were less likely than men to gain these experiences, especially early in their careers. A 1988 swvey documented assistant principals' tasks and compared them with

assistant principal's tasks in 1965 (Pellicer, Anderson, Keefe, Kelly, & McLeary, 1988). Most

of the duties were the sarne. Those added were instnictional methods, graduation activities, teacher incentives and motivation, and staff in-service.

53

Marshall and Mitchell (1989) examined the way twenty men and women were socialized into the administrative culture as they filled the role of secondary vice principal. They discovered there was little variation in the job between schools. The tasks and expectations included attending to details on time, observing teachers, maintainhg order and keeping staffs reasonably happy. The women and men were given a full range of tasks to perform in the vice p ~ c i p a k h i p .In order to be considered for promotion they had to demonstrate proficiency in the discipline fùnction. Demonstration of instructional expertise was secondary. Al1 vice principals handled both minor problems and serious incidents that

involved drugs, gangs and assaults (Marshall & Mitchell 1989). A survey of vice p ~ c i p a l in s Ontario painted a similar picture (Wiles, 1983). The ten most fiequently demanded fûnctions focused on routine school building administration. It

appears that most vice principals in Canada and the United States find themselves prïmarily responsible for routine school maintenance tasks. These tasks need to be mastered but they are only remotely comected to the experiences needed to become an effective principal (Leithwood. I989).

Stereotypes and G

a

Kanter (1977) in her classic work found that women who were tokens stood out as individuals in the organization. These women were in groups where there was a large preponderance of males over fernales. They lost their individuality and sense of self because they were pressured into taking stereotypical roles. Women who confonned to stereotypes

implicitly accepted k i n g treated as though they had been given natural modes of behavior as

54

mothers, virgins, seductresses, and mascots (Kanter, 1977). Research conducted by Powell (1 988) found that both males and females described the ideal manager in masculine terms.

Gray ( 1987) detected problems of leadership for men in pnmary schools with the schools'

ferninine culture and problerns for wornen leaders in the secondary schools with the schools' masculine culture. Marshall and Mitchell (1989) explored the approaches the male and fernale vice principals used in defining and solving problems and exercising authonty in the vice principalship. They gathered data through formal and informai interviewing, shadowing of the vice principals, examining documents, and recording and counting activities in a Mintzberg (1 973) style structured observation. The data showed that there were some deep gender differences as well as some striking similarities in the expenences of women and men Women and men had similar motives for entenng administration and both groups either had or were close to having their administrative certification. The wornen in the study expenenced discrimination. Statements were made to the effect that the woman got the job because she was a woman. A woman was seen as a sex object. An expectation of control problems by females was evident. Men engaged in flirtatious teasing and gave ambiguous

messages to women. One woman administrator's orders were ignored and subordinates waited to see what would happen. Women were isolated and given the sense of k i n g tokens. Their intellectual achievement was negated as men irnplied that the women's test scores were artificially raised. They found themselves k i n g punished for childbearing. Outright enmity and expectations of failure were evident. The majority of female vice principais and several males with cowiseling expenence showed a deep comrnitrnent to a counseling style of

55

discipline. The majority of men imposed the hierarchical order to solve confïict. Taylor ( 1995) reported

similar findings.

Female and male administrators were found to use similar techniques in dealing with adults. A study by Marshall (1985b) showed assistant principals studying the mobility system to find out whether they could fit themselves into the values, behaviors, and image of administrators. The socialization of an assistant principal in hisher particular school setting was very strong and narrowed the activities or creative solutions the assistant principal could

utilize unless he/she was supported by the principal or the district hierarchy (Marshall & Mitchell, 1989). Baudoux (1995) found that employer's roles in the public sphere were linked to the stereotypes of women's roles in the private sphere. It was the figure of the mother that predominated at al1 educationai levels, most notably at the secondary level. This was symbolic rnaternity, exercised with students or wiîh teaching personnel. Women teachers who were also mothers were not recruited for administrative positions. in fact, there was a certain taboo in schools with respect to family. Women were not supposed to b

~ their g

family cares to work and they were recruited less often for positions of authority. At the elementary and college level the other extremely common stereotype was that of the virgin (Baudoux, 1995). Researchers found the image of an effective school administrator followed the male n o m of strict disciplinarian (Gi11, 1995; Grant, 1989; Taylor, 1995).

Schmuck (1995) concluded, fiom her study of advocacy organizations for women school administrators, that a new cal1 for administrative leadership had taken hold concurrently with the push for gender equity. The type of leadership valued was in line with

56

the positive stereotype of women. This new form of leadership included engagement,

participation in decisions, paying attention to the human side of organizations, and raising the place of individual efficacy over organizational efficiency. The restructuring movement called for empowerment of teachers, site-based management, and decentralization of authority. She saw the theory, practice, and culture of administrative practice change as the proportion of women in educational administration increased (Schmuck, 1995). Cunnison (1 989) spent three months observing the staff of a mixed-sex senior comprehensive school. The data were analyzed to determine the role played by gender joking in maintaining the comparative success of men and the failure of women in obtaining promotion within the school management hierarchies. The male teachers continually defined female teachers in sexual, domestic, or maternai terms in order to detract fkom their image as professionals and lessen their prospects for promotion. In Edson's (1995) longitudinal study. women aspinng to be principals faced overt and subtle forms of discrimination. initially, many in the study were reluctant to recognize the impact of sex discrimination on their

careers, believing they had the experience and skills to overcome such prejudice. Over time, however. more and more aspirants noted the instances of discrimination they faced. Even at the end of the ten year penod, some women seemed genuinely puzzled that their careers stalled. As in the earlier phases of this research, these women were reluctant to believe that discrimination existed. They looked only to their own skills and credentials, believing these would be suficient to achieve a position. Traditional sex role stereotyping continued to be a major problem for females trying to move into school administration (Edson, 1995; Pounder, 1 987; Rimrner and Davies. 1985; Whitaker and Lane, 1990).

SelectionPr=esses The experiences of women and men during the selection process had many similarities in the various provinces of Canada, and in the United States. In the Province of New Brunswick women tended to do better than men on the National Association of Secondary School Principal's Assessrnent Program for educational leadership yet faced more obstacles during the selection process (Gill, 1995). Worrall(1995) created a text for research (Aiken & Mildon 1991) based on her own experiences in Ontario and analyzed it for themes. She examined her board's selection procedure for vice principals. By participating in the process she became aware that the process was geared towards men. She believed it was solidly based on male principles of competition and career advancement despite the board's insistence to the contrary. To al1 outward appearances she was successfûl. She was in line for a promotion yet questioned the process and the definition of success. in order to cal1 her

move into administration a promotion. she had to accept the classroom teacher as the least important member of the educationai community. It also meant accepting the hierarchical education structure as k i n g equally acceptable to the lives of both men and women. The process proved to be very stresshl for her. She struggled to be true to her personal beliefs and not to play games that compromised her own values. She prepared carefully for each part of the process and was successhil in becoming eligible for promotion to vice principal. She did her job, tried to maintain visibility with the supenntendents, took charge of the school in the absence of the principal and vice principal and upheld the board's priorities and mission statements. Eight people were placed on the list, four men and four women. M e r nearly a year, the four men were appointed and the four women were passed over.

58

Worrall (1 995) considered the negative effects the whole process had on her and withdrew her name fiom the shortlist. The negative eEects resulted fiom the emphasis placed on winning and losing and making it through to the next round. She disliked the cornpetition

and the jealous eyeing of one another. She resented having to change the way she dressed to fit the accepted image of an administrator. The use of militaristic language in the training for

vice principal bothered her. Being pûwerless and silenced and becoming desensitized to the

pain of others were sources of stress for her. She becarne convinced that the board was not

interested in challenges to the male establishment and drew a parallel between what has happened in business and what happened in the board. Although the trend in general management literature was towards a more collaborative organizational culture, little of this was m s l a t e d into practicai action and the possible contribution of women

in building this

new culture was ignored. Women who were chosen were those who could be promoted at

some future date to help satisfi the Ontario goverment directive of fifiy per cent representation by females in administration by the year 2000 without causing any loss of male power (Worrall, 1995). Women in Edson's (1 995) sîudy in the United States were aware of the negative and positive aspects of the administrative work. On the negative side they descnbed the increased demands, stress, paperwork, and need for discipline, coupled with declining fûnds and weakened public support for education. On the positive side were increased efforts for more

school-based govemance and more emphasis on instructional leadership and teamwork. They believed they could make a positive contribution as administrators and wanted to take on the role. As the study progressed, the women who were unsuccessfùl became discouraged. At the

59

five year update nearly one quarter of the original respondents in Edson's (1995) study

considered leaving education or completely abandoning their administrative goals. Many women felt undervalued and were hopeful that other professions, such as business. might offer them better oppomuiities. At the beginning of the study, none of the women mentioned

fields of interest other than education. Among the women in the study who did not advance, their explanations varied. Younger aspirants mentioned deferring their careers while raising

young children. For women who did not have children at the beginning of the study, motherhood brought changes they did not anticipate. Several older women cited f.nistration with discrimination, others noted that economic conditions reduced the number of

administrative openings. Severd aspirants in rural areas expressed concerns about the lack of opportunities they faced in their small districts, where few mentors existed, limited kinds of experiences were available, and gender discrimination persisted. Women aspinng to be principals faced overt and subtle forms of discrimination. Initidly, many in the sîudy were reluctant to recognize the impact of sex discrimination on their careers, believing they had the experience and skills to overcome such prejudice. Over time, however, more and more aspirants noted the instances of discrimination they faced. Even at the end of the ten year period, some women seemed genuinely puzzled that their careers stalled. As in the earlier phases of this research, these women were reluctant to believe that discrimination existed. They believed their own skills and credentials would be suficient to achieve a position. In Quebec, Baudoux (1 995) f o n d that the characteristics associated with the ferninine gender were valued in women during the selection process. Those who were relatively silent and who considered it their job to be indirect rather than direct were

60 appreciated. The confinement of women to stereotyped roles was one of the reasons for their lack of success during recruitment (Baudoux, 1995). Men, in contrast to women, had the advantage of being able to count on their masculine traits as well as their ferninine traits in being selected for administrative positions. They realized the value of their ferninine traits through their study of theories of management and used these to their advantage (Baudoux, 1995). Studies have shown that visibility is very important for career advancement (Blood, 1966; Marshall, l979/92; Valverde, 1974). Knowledge of this fact, and awareness of the kinds of experiences which best provided visibility, enabled an aspirant to be in a better

position for advancement. Men appeared to have recognized early in their careers that

visibility was important and were better at knowing how to be noticed (Femandez, 1991). Only two women in Russell's (1 995) study of 2 1 females and 22 males expressed an

awareness of the importance of visibility to career advancement. Baudoux (1 995) found a veritable fear of career-oriented women in her study of educational administrators in Quebec. She also found that just as many women as men applied for administrative positions. This finding was contrary to the opinion of school

administrators, both male and female, and university professors who had been on selection cornmittees. Female candidates were elirninated mainly during preselection, when it was determined who would be called in for an interview. Taylor (1995) observed that the enforcement of the employment equity policy, as directed by the Ontario MinistIy of Education, resulted in a backlash from males in the system. Men did not want them to work because they did not want to give up the power they had. Women were blarned for the

61

disappointment experienced by male aspirants. Apple (1 986) referred to this as the tendency to blame women who are entenng the labor market for their difficulties, rather than examining the dominant mode of economic organization. The image of how an administrator looked and behaved was powerfully male in the minds of hiring cornmittees and staff (Acker, 1989).

Summarv The literature indicates that gender equity is gaining ground in the teaching profession in Canada. Although a majority of the administrative positions are still held by men, female educators are making slow but steady gains. Arnong the provinces, Ontario has the highest percentage of female vice principals and principals at the secondary level. in the United States the rate of enûy of women into administration indicated somewhat slower progress than in Ontario.

The literature showed that aspiring teachers were socialized into teachhg by their peers, not by teacher training programs. The way in which they were socialized placed women in a disadvantageous position both in articulating their roles as teachers and in gaining the experience that led to advancement. Women encountered more difficulty in being identified as having leadership potential and in building leadership skills. Their socialization as teachers meant that fewer women than men considered school administration as a career

option. The socialization of school administrators was divided into formal and informal

experiences. Formal pre-service education was the responsibility of universities, and fonnal

62 in-service education was given by school districts, professional associations, state departments of education and universities. Weaknesses were identified in graduate programs. Female students were particularly disadvantaged. Although changes were evident, female educational administration graduate students still faced unique challenges in universities. Principal in-service education was highly valued but a great variation in the quality and impact of the prograrns was evident. The researchers concluded that improvement in training for administrators was badly needed. The absence of the kind of leadership programs that

would enable administrators to become the highly effective leaders was apparent. Research on the informal socialization of school administrators saw women facing significant barriers to their career advancement. Attention to equity issues helped women. However. a shifi away fiom equity issues towards excellence in education after 1980 was viewed as having a negative effect on women's access to and experiences in the educational system in the United States. Some researchers saw hope in that a new cal1 for administrative leadership had taken hold concurrently with the push for gender equity. The type of leadership valued was in line with the positive stereotype of women. Networks were identified as important to both women and men but they served a different purpose for each gender. Men's networks were more powerful in terms of access to information and to those in positions of power; women's were important as a means of peer support. Role models and expectations about the ways schools should be run were tied to the male style of leadership. Some women did find role models. Mentors and advocacy organizations were important to the advancement of women in school administration. On-thejob learning was identified as important for those aspiring to be managers. Women were less

63

likely than men to gain these experiences, especially early in their careers. Research showed that women faced more difficulties than men during the selection process. The weaknesses of administrative socialization at the vice principal Ievel were evident in the literature. Vice principals were primarily responsible for routine school maintenance ta&.

The role was

confining and the expenences needed to become an effective principal were absent.

Leadership Types: Transformational and Transactional The styles of leadership we have corne to know as transformational and transactional (e-g. Bass, 1985) were evident in the work of Mary Parker Follett (1868- 1933) when she

srudied, wrote?and lectured on organizations at the tum of the century. She believed that the role of a transformational leader was to energize a group, to encourage initiative, to draw from al1 that each had to give (Follett, 194 1; Graham, 1987). Follett objected to any authontanan organization that operated on the basis of "power over". She believed that

"power' was the ability to make things happen. The authority or power of every person at every place in the organization Follett maintained, belongs to that person because of his knowledge and because of the opportunities for action that his situation presents. Follett's leadership theories were seen in action in her work as chairman of the Committee for Extended Use of School Buildings in Boston. Under her leadership two important services were provided to the community. Evening centers were established to serve the needs of young people who were spending their time on the Street and placement bureaus for school "drop-outs" became part of the Boston school system. Burns (1 978) shared with Follett a similar conception of leadership. He believed that

64

tranformational leadership was a collective process. Leaders, in responding to their own motives. appealed to the motives of potentid followers. As followers responded, a symbiotic relationship developed that bound leader and follower together into a social and political collective. The result of the interactive process was a change in leaders' and followers' motives and goals that afTected relations and institutions. The transforming leader tapped the needs. raised the aspirations and helped shape the values, hence he mobilized the potential of folIowers. Transforming leadership was elevating. It was moral but not moraiistic. Leaders engaged with followers, but fiom higher levels of morality. in the enmeshing of goals and values both leaders and followers were raised to more principled levels of judgment. Transactional leadership focused on basic and largeiy extrinsic motives and needs; transformative on higher order. intrinsic. and, ultimately, moral motives and needs. The leadership theory espoused by Follett (1 924, 1941, 1949) and Burns (1978) was extended considerably by Bass and his associates (e.g. Bass, 1985; Bass & Avolio, 1989; Bass, Waldman, Avolio & Babb, 1987). They viewed transactional leadership as contingent reinforcement. It was dependent upon the subordinate's perception that the leader could reinforce the subordinate for the work that was successfitlly completed. The transactional leader helped subordinates recognize what the role and task requirements were in order to reach the desired outcorne. Subordinates l e m e d what they had to do to gain rewards and they avoided reprimands through an exchange process with their superior. The two relevant factors in this mode1 were contingent reward and management-by-exception. The contingent reward factor was evident when the leader fiequently told subordinates what to do in order to achieve a desired reward for their efforts. The

65

management-by-exception factor was apparent when the leader avoided giving directions if the old ways were working and intervened only if standards were not met. The weakness of the transactional leadership approach was that it only captured a portion of the leadersubordinate relationship (Avolio & Bass, 1988). It could be effective in bringing about lower order change. In order to effect higher order change, Avolio and Bass (1988) added transformational leadership. The additional factors that are present in transformational leadership included charisma, individualized consideration. and intellectual stimulation. The leader's charisma instiiled pride, faith, and respect in followers. He/she had a gift for seeing what was really important and had a sense of mission or vision which was effectively articulated. The factor of individualized consideration was evident in the leader's delegation of projects in order to

stimulate and create leaming experiences. Each follower received personal attention, was treated with respect, and as an individual. intellectual stimulation was seen when the leader provided ideas that resulted in a rethinking of existing ways, and enabled followers to look at problems fiom many angles and to resolve problerns that were at a standstill. Transformational leadership skills were not effective if they stood aione. Transforming leaders had to also effectively manage the day-to-day mundane events which required transactional leadership skills, for without them even the most awe-inspiring transformational leader failed to accomplish her/his mission. A further expansion and explanation of transformational leadership by Bass and

Avolio (1 996) listed five characteristics. They were: idealized attributes, idealized behaviors, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Leaders

66

who had idealized attributes had the respect, trust, and faith of their associates. There was tùll identification of the associates with their leaders and the leaders' use of this identification in the constructive development of their associates. Such leaders were authentic and had a high

degree of credibility with their followers. Ideaiized behaviors were shown in the leaders living their ideals. They encouraged their associates to share their comrnon visions and goals, to identim with their leader, and to develop high levels of trust. Those leaders showed a strong sense of purpose and perseverence to achieve the most difficult objectives. They expressed confidence in actions and purpose that helped insure the success of the group. Inspirational motivation represented the appeal of challenging but simple words, syrnbols, metaphors and the ability, enthusiasm, and optimism to envisage the fùture. intellectual stimulation portrayed the rational aspects of leadership. Leaders approached problems by questioning assumptions that had previously been used to address problems. They enlarged the perspective used by associates to understand problems. They made mistakes a constructive part of the leaming process. Through individuaiized consideration leaders placed emphasis on treating each associate as a unique individual. They were aware of their associates' requirements for M e r development and designed appropriate strategies to satisfy as well as elevate their associates to higher levels of motivation, potential, and performance (Bass & Avolio , 1996). Podsakoff, MacKenzie and Morman (1 990) examined the impact of transformational and transactional leader behavioa on organizational citizenship behaviors. The six measures of transformational leader behaviors identified were: articulating a vision; providing an

appropriate mode1; fostering the acceptance of group goals; high performance expectations;

67 individudized support; intellectuai stimulation. The one mesure of transactional leader behavior identified was contingent reward. Recently, systematic attempts to explore the meaning and usefulness of conceptualizing leadership in educational organizations as transformationai and transactional has begun. Sergiovanni (1 990) applied transactional and transformationai leadership to

school improvement. The transactional leader and those k i n g led exchanged needs and services in order to accomplish independent objectives. Leaders and followers assumed they did not share a common stake in the enterprise and thus anived at some kind of agreement.

The wants and needs of followea were traded against the wants and needs of the leader. Positive reinforcement was exchanged for good work, merit pay for increased performance, promotion for increased persistence. a feeling of belonging for cooperation. Sergiovanni (1990) termed this leadership by bartering. He saw transformational leadership as moving through three stages. Leadership by building focused on arousing human potential, satisfjhg

higher order needs, and raising both the leader and follower to higher levels of cornmitment and performance. Leadership by bonding occurred when school goals and purposes were

elevated to the level of a shared covenant that bonded together leader and follower in a mord cornmitment. Purpose, meaning, and significance was found in the work each did. Leadership by banking was evident when school improvements were routinized, thus conserving hurnan energy and effort for new projects and initiatives. Of the four approaches, leadership by bonding was seen as the comerstone of an effective long-term leadership strategy for schools because it had the power to help schools rise above cornpetence to excellence by inspiring extraordinary cornmitment and performance.

68

Leithwood and Jantzi (1 990). Leithwood and Steinbach (1 99 1), and Leithwood, Jantzi and Dart (1 99 1) employed a conception of transformational leadership similar to that of

Podsakoff et al. (1 990). They identified specific practices of school principals as evidence of these leadership styles. Leithwwd and Steinbach (1 99 1) provided evidence that transformational principals worked with teachers in groups in order to: develop better soIutions to imrnediate problems; stimulate greater cornmitment to a shared set of defensible goals regarding the implementation of such solutions; contribute to long terni growth in the prvblem solving capacities of teachers. A second study identified principals' strategies which are transformational in effect

(Leithwood and Jantzi, 1990). These strategies were: strengthening the school's culture; using bureaucratie mechanisms to stimulate and reinforce change; fostering staff development; engaging in fiequent and direct communication; sharing power and responsibility; using rituals and symbols to express cultural values. Another part of a pattern of practice termed transformational leadership was identified by Leithwood, Jantzi and Dart ( 1 99 1).

These dimensions of transformational leadership contribute significantly to the

motivation of and the opportunities for teacher development. Riey were: collaborating with teachers in developing a vision for the school that has staff and community support; assisting teachers in [email protected] goals that helped move toward a vision for the school; developing structures that could be used to monitor and plan school and individual growth goals; ensuring that adequate resources were available to support teacher development; helping teachers access their own need for growth; sharing and distributing the responsibility for teacher development broadly throughout the school. The results of these studies highlighted

69

the promise for school improvement and school effectiveness held in the conceptualization of school leadership as transformational and pointed to the need for M e r study in this area. The characteristics of the styles of leadership that have corne to be known as

transformational and transactional were evident in the literature as early as 1924. Follett ( 1924.

1941. 1949) studied leaders in the field of political science, industry and business and

applied her beliefs about leadership to her social work. Burns (1 978) developed his conceptions of transformational and transactional leadership by studying political leaders. Bass and his associates (1 985 ; 1996) expanded on these ideas and conducted research in many fields, including education. Other researchers, including Sergiovanni (1 990) and

Leithwood and his associates (1990; 1991 ) have applied them to the study of educational leadership. The results of studies in the field of education show that there is promise for achieving a better understanding of school improvement and school effectiveness in the conceptualizing of school leadership as transformational. The results of these studies suggest this is a Iiuitfid direction for M e r study.

Gender and Leadership Types Research on gender differences in leadership style is both inconsistent and cornplex. The work behavior of school administration is not unlike that in the corporate and public sphere and gender research in that area can be helpfhl in our study of leadership in the school setting. Research at the Center for Creative Leadership did not find differences between males and females in capacity to lead, influence, or motivate, nor differences in understanding, humanitarian approach, or capacity to reduce interpersonal friction (Momson,

70

White & Van Velsor, 1987). Kouzes and Posner's (1987) research on gender differences involved an examination of five fbndamental practices that enabled leaders to get extraordinary tasks accomplished. They included what the researchers tenned: challenging processes, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, modeling the way, and encouraging the heart. There was one significant difference found between the male and female managers. Female managers were assessed as engaging in encouraging the heart behaviors significantly more than did male managers. They gave encouragement by recognizing and celebrating the contributions of both individuais and groups. A study of one hundred and twenty-eight graduate students in a Master's of Business Administration program at the University of Texas, Austin, was designed to analyze the degree to which men and wornen behave differently in leadership roles (Ely, 1988). Participants were classified as

either liberal or conservative in their attitudes toward women's roles in society. The only significant and meaningfùl leader-gender effects showed that male leaders were more involved than female leaders in directing the process by which the group reached its decision, whereas participation was highest in liberal groups led by women.

In a cornprehensive study of managers dong several dimensions of behavior Domeil and Hall (1980) found that female and male managers did not differ in task-oriented or

people- oriented behavior toward subordinates. Josefowitz (1 980) conducted a study of managers and found that female managea were twice as accessible to othen as their male counterparts. Results of several studies show that male and fernale leaders did not differ in the amount of initiative they took in their jobs or the amount of consideration they showed their subordinates (Bass, 1985; Dobbins & Paltz, 1986). An early exhaustive review of

71

research on sex differences by Maccoby and Jacklin (1 974) and a more recent study by Snodgrass (1 985) led researchers to conclude that men and women do not differ in their sensitivity to others.

Helgesen (1990) researched the strategies and organizational theories of four successful female leaders.

In her study, she used Mintzberg's (1973) method of following

executives through their days, keeping a minute-by-minute record of their activities. She pointed out that some of the divergences between her findings and Mintzberg's reflect the different decades in which their studies were undertaken more than any differences in how men and women manage. Female leaders in the late nineteen eighties were k i n g compared to male leaders in the early nineteen seventies. However, she stated that other discrepancies are so striking and so reflective of differences in male and female psychology noted by researchers like Gilligan (1982) and Miller (1976) that they seem to indicate a basic difference of approach. Among the patterns of similarity and dissirnilarity Helgesen (1990) found between the women she studied and Mintzberg's (1973) men were Pace of work. For men the Pace was unrelenting, with no breaks in activity during the day. The women worked at a steady pace, but had small breaks scheduled in throughout the day. The women were more accessible and spent considerable time ensuring good relationships in the organization. The women did not allow business responsibilities to infnnge on family or personal time, whereas the men spared little time for activities not related to their work. While both men and women preferred live action; the men spent little time dealing with mail, whereas the women viewed written communication as important and scheduled t h e for answering mail. Both women and men maintained a complex network of relationships with people outside the

72 organization. The men tended to become overly absorbed in the day-to-day tasks of management. and so rarely had time to contemplate the long range. The women kept the long range in constant focus. They related decisions to their larger effect upon the role of the

family, the American educational system, the environment, and world peace. The women scheduled time for sharing information whereas the men tended to hoard information. The men identified themselves totally with their careers. The women viewed their jobs as just one

element of who they were. Problems remain in these cornparisons given that the male and female business leaders in Helgeson's study were separated by twenty-five years. Several studies using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to measure transfomational and transactional leadership have included both women and men in their sarnpies (Avolio & Bass, 1988). in one study, a female graduate shident received close to the highest transformational leadership factor score of al1 leaders rated so far. Another study conducted during a workshop for twenty-four managers in a high-tech f i m , half of whom were women, found that the four described as most charismatic by their subordinates were women (Avolio & Bass, 1988).

Studies examining the contribution of gender to variation in transformational leadership practices among leaders in school systems have been conducted. Several of these studies did not find a significant difference in females and males in leadership behaviors.

Buck (1 989), Orr (1990), and Smith (1989) studied superintendents. Again no significant relationships were reported between women and men's use of transformational practices. However, very few female superintendents were induded in these studies.

One study which exarnined the contribution of gender to variation in transformational

73

leadership scores found a difference. Darling (1990) studied elementary school principals. The female elementary principals ranked higher than males on al1 transformational leadership indices. Kendrick (1988) and Skalbeck (1991) provided detailed case studies of individual female principals. Roberts (1985) made an extensive study of one femaie school superintendent. These studies described female leaders as making extensive use of transformational leadership practices. While they did not provide comparative data on gender, they did help make the case that females certainly are capable of engaging in such leadership practices. Bass (1 985) studied New Zealand central administrators and reported a significant positive relationship between contingent reward, one measure of transactional leader behavior, and female gender. The starting point of a study by Jantzi and Leithwood (1 996) was an interest in

determining whether women leaders were perceived as more transformational than men in their leadership. The sample of teachen in the study did rate women leaders higher than men. However, the authon pointed out that as they examined the data more closely, it became clear to them that there were many hypotheses competing with gender differences to explain the results. The women leaders in the study were found more fiequently in small elementary schools with high proportions of women teachers. The female leaders were also generally younger than the male leaders. Jantzi and Leithwood stated that their results should be viewed as a caution to those conducting studies with a focus on gender. An additional number of investigations have contrasted the leadership styles of male

and female school administrators. Levinson (1982) in his study of secondary principals found that regardless of gender, principals who had taught in elementary schools emphasized

instruction whereas principals who had taught in secondary schools emphasized administrative tasks like budgeting and school plant management. Several studies have reported that women school administrators contribute to higher teacher performance and student achievement (Tibbetts, 1980; Wheatley, 198 1). Charters and Jovick (1 98 1) and Berman (1982) found that more participatory decision making appeared in female managed

schools. In the area of conflict resolution, Hughes and Robertson (1980) found that women were evaluated as more effective at resolving conflict among staff members. Women

administrators spent more time comrnunicating with others, more time in scheduled and unscheduled meetings and making phone cails, than male principals (Kmetz and Willower, 1 982; Martin and Willower, 1981;Berman, 1982). Smith and Andrews (1 989) found that

female principals spent more time in educational program improvernent activities than did males. Marshall & Mitchell (1989) reported studies which showed that women were more attuned to curriculum issues, instructional leadership, teachers' concerns, parent involvement,

staff development, collaborative planning strategies, and comrnunity building. As a group women were more likely to evidence behaviors associated with effective leadership (Fullan, 1 99 1). The results in a study by Lee, Smith and Cioci (1993) showed that the relationship

between gender and leader perceptions was statistically significant. Fernale teachers felt

empowered when working in schools headed by female principals. Male teachers considered thernselves less powerful when working in those circumstances. The authors did not indicate how much of the total variation in teacher leader perceptions was explained by gender.

The literature on gender differences in leadership style is highly inconsistent and cornpiex. This is shown in the research in the corporate and public sphere, as well as in the

75 field of education. A partial explanation for the present state of research is that the number of studies conducted in the area of gender and leadership styles is relatively small, the approaches used in the studies varied, and the methods employed in at least one study are open to question. While a number of studies found no difference in leadership styles, othea recorded differences. In several studies where differences were found cautions were issued by the researchers. This inconsistency and complexity was also evident in studies focusing

speci fically on transformational leadership. Further research in this area can provide the knowledge base for the development and utilization of the leadership strengths of both women and men in improving schools and making them more effective.

Overall Summary School improvement and school effectiveness continue to be the focus of educator efforts as we move into the next century. The literature indicates that the kind of leadership we have come to know as transformational is promising in addressing school improvement and school effectiveness issues. Several studies have identified practices used by principals

that are transformational in their effects. However we have littie knowiedge of how these practices developed. One avenue for research into how the practices of principals develop is examination of their professional socialization. Although research has been conducted on transformational leadership in educational settings, very linle of this research concentrated on the socialization experiences of the women and men who were considered to be

transformational as compared to those who were considered not to be transformational leaders. This study examines the formal and informal professional socialization expenences

of women and men who were considered to be transformational.

Further, research indicates that there may be gender based differences in the socialization of secondary school principals. While the display of transformational leadership

behaviors has been researched, the development of transformational leadership practices bas not received attention. A second aim of this study is to determine whether gender based differences do occur in the development of transformational leadership practices, and to identify them. If they do exist the relationship these differences have to the types of leadership developed by secondary school principals will be examined. The work of van Gennep and Becker provides a h e w o r k for this study. In summary, this study concentrates on providing knowledge of how principals' transformationai practices develop by exarnining the formal and infonnd socialization experiences of men and women as they are oriented to the administrative role. The specific questions investigated are: 1. Which forms of socialization contribute to the development of transformational

leaders? 2. Are there gender based differences in the socialization of secondary xhool

principals? If so, what are they? Are they related to the types of leadership developed by these principals?

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY Research Design The research traditions used by social researchers fa11 under the broad categones of

qualitative and quantitative research. The differences between these two approaches have been identified by numerous researchers (Becker, 1996; Bogdan & Bikien, 1992; Bouma &

Atkinson, 1995; Bryman, 1988, 1992; Crestwell, 1994; Hammersley, 1992; Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995; Mason, 1996; Miles & Huberman, 1984; Neuman, 199 1;Palys, 1997). These di fferences include: 1. Qualitative research has been infiuenced by an epistemological position that rejects

the appropnateness of a natural science approach to the study of humans. This position h d s its expression in such theoretical strands as phenomenology and syrnbolic interactionism.

Quantitative research has been uifluenced by the natural science mode1 of research, and its positivist fonn in particular. 2. Qualitative research questions are provisional and are formulated to investigate

topics in al1 their complexity, in context. No variables are ruled out. intemal percepnial variables are expressly considered. Quantitative research emphasizes observable variables that are external to the individual. Quantitative studies are more precise, explicit, and predetermined and assume that the relevant variables can be identified in advance and validly measured. 3. Qualitative studies rely on data collection sites, people to interview, and things to

observe. Research is conducted in natural settings. The researcher is the key instrument.

78

Fidelity to the phenomena under study is maintained. Valid data cornes fkom closeness and extended contact with research participants. The researchen assume less in advance, including which variables are relevant, and are more open-ended, sensitive to context, and likely to be focused on the intentions, explanations, and judgrnents of participants. The data collected is rich in description of people, places, and conversations, and not easily handled by statistical procedures. in quantitative research the methods used for collecting the facts are regarded as theory neutral. Objectivity is achieved through social distance and a detached, analytical stance. Every attempt is made to eliminate the effect of the observer by developing an explicit, standardized set of data collection procedures. This allows replication by others so that an assessrnent of the reliability of the fmdings can be made. Through the exercise of

physical and statistical control of variables and their rigorous measurement, they seek to produce a body of knowledge whose validity is conclusive. 4. Qualitative researchers accumulate a large quantity of data when conducting a

study. They do not seek to control either the amount or the nature of the data in presenting their data qualitative researchers use mainly words to give as complete a picture as possible of the phenomena being studied. Quantitative researchers are concemed about c a d i t y ,

measurement and the ability to generalize. They prefer measures that are precise and amenable to mathematical analysis. Contml over variables is exercised through physical contro1, as in expenments, or through statistical analysis of large number of cases, as in survey research. The analysis is carried out in order to determine whether predictions based on theory c m be confmed. 5 . In qualitative research there is sensitivity to process which include perceptions and

79

their meanings and how these emerge and change. Quantitative research emphasizes causes and effects. It is concerned with what goes in, and how it comes out.

6. Qualitative researchers have an attitude of respect or appreciation towards the social world being studied. The way people make sense out of their lives is of essential concem to them. Social settings are studied in such a way as to gain access to the meanings that guide their behavior. In the quantitative approach the criteria for understanding are the ability to predict statistically significant associations between variables. 7. Qualitative researchers tend to analyze their data inductively. They start with

observation and allow grounded theory to emerge. Quantitative researchers prefer a deductive approach. They start with theory and create situations in which to test hypotheses. While there is general agreement among social researchers on the value of both qualitative and quantitative research, they do not agree on whether the two approaches should be combined in a single study. Some emphasize the differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches and advise against mixing these methods (Bogden & Biklen, 1992). Othen, while recognizing the distinctiveness of qualitative and quantitative research, believe there is much to be gained in combining the two approaches. The latter make their arguments either by showing the overlap between the two positions or noting the strengths and weakness of each approach to the conduct of social research and the ways in which they complement each other (Brannen, 1992; Bryman, 1988; 1992; Datta, 1994; Fielding and Fielding, 1986;

Greene, Caracelli, & Graham, 1989; Hammersley, 1992; Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995;

Hedrick, 1994; Miles and Huberman, 1984; Newman & Benz, 1998; Reichardt, & Rallis, 1994; Rowe. 1988).

80

In this study both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. However, quantitative methods were used only for the purpose of sample selection, whereas qualitative methods were used to answer al1 of the research questions.

Sample Jnterviewg This study, addressing the gender issue, was part of a larger study on Leadershipfor Change headed by Dr. K. A. Leithwood involving ten secondary schools in Ontario. Al1

interview data used in this study, however, were designed, collected, and analyzed independently by the author of this study. Ten secondary xhool principals, five female and five male, participated in this study. They were fkom one large urban school system. At least two central office administrators nominated each of them as particularly effective school leaders who were actively engaged in significant school improvement efforts.

Survev As part of the larger study, staff members in nine secondary schools (fiom which the

ten principals interviewed were selected) participated in a two-stage survey about their perceptions concerning the conditions affecting the school improvement projects, in which they were involved, including the leadership behaviors perceived by teachers as k i n g of

consequence in the change process. One principal was i n t e ~ e w e dbut chose not to have her staff involved in the s w e y part of the study. The reason given was tirne constraints. A letter to each staff member was attached to the survey. The population surveyed consisted of al1

81

the teachers in four large schools with more than a hundred teachers, three medium size schools with less than a hundred teachers, and two small schools with less than sixty teachers. A total of 37.6% of the teachers responded to part one of the survey and 21.5% of the teachers responded to both part one and part two of the survey. The principal who did not ask her teachers to fil1 out the survey cited the heavy work loads of secondary teachers.

Heavy work loads may have been the reason that in the participating schools many teachers did not fil1 out the survey. Survey results were used as a secondary source of information, to confirm the central office administrators' nomination of the principals as particularly effective (exercising transfomational leadership practices).

Data CoUection Jnterview~ Information on the professional socialization of the principals was collected through semi-structured interviews (Appendix A). The length of each of the interviews was approximately two hours. These interviews, though forma1 in the sense that they were arranged and an interview schedule was used, were relatively open-ended. The interviewer attempted to establish trust and rapport by answering any questions the principals had about the study, by showing a genuine interest in their work, and by k i n g an active listener.

Permission for the use of a tape recorder was obtained fiom the principals prior to the interviews. This allowed the interviewer to capture the fullness and faithfiilness of words and idiom and allowed complete concentration on an active follow up with probes as needed.

82 Prompts included questions on their reasons for entering the teaching profession, the training they received prior to beginning in the profession, their classroom experiences and the

working conditions in the schools in which they taught, their reasons for becoming an administrator, and their roles as vice principal and as principal.

Field Noles Field notes were taken during the waiting period in the school building prïor to the begiming of the interview and immediately following the interview. During the waiting period in the main office, notes were taken on the exchanges between the people who passed through the office (e.g. "Teachen in and out checking mailboxes. Pleasant exchanges with each other and with secretaries at desks. Quietly peaceful.") While waiting in the principal's office, notes were taken on the layout and decor of the office (e.g. "Computer work area, desk. coffee table. two couches, and armchair grouped around coffee table. Pictures of wildlife, rural old building, framed poster of different cultures, winning basketball team.") Following the interview, notes were taken on other conversations and observations (e.g. "Walk about prior to settling down to tape. Stopped to talk to students. One young man artsy

-

dress, long hair articulated what he had Iearned fiom a visiting drama master how to communicate using your body and no speech. One group of young men playing cards quietly in the hallway. Dropped in on class doing body movement - by visiting master. Drama teacher who arranged visit observed in back of room. One boy sat quietly wasn't participating. Met two girls in hallway whorn principal realized imrnediately by their body language that they did not belong to this school. Principal introduced herself to the girls,

explained the procedure for visiton - they were to report to the main office and would get help there. She directed them to the main office which was on the second floor of the school. When we came down another flight of stairs checked and pleasantly made sure they went to the main office. Mentioned that she had to teach one of her new vice principals several years ago how to read body language so he could recognize non-student body members who rnight corne into the school and wander the comdors etc.")

Survev Responses to only one section of the larger survey administered to teachers were relevant to this study. These responses were to 40 items in part one of the s w e y (Appendix

B) measuring six transformational leadership dimensions (Podsakoff et al. 1990; Leithwood & Jantzi 1 990). These were as follows:

i) Provides vision/inspiration: Behavior on the part of the leader aimed at identifLing new opportunities for his or her school and developing, articulating, and inspiring others with his

or her vision of the future. ii) Provides an appropriate model: Behavior on the part of the leader that sets an example for staff members consistent with the values the leader espouses.

iii) Fosters the acceptance of group goals: Behavior on the part of the leader aimed at promoting cooperation among staff members and assisting them to work together toward common goals. iv) Provides individualized support: Behavior on the part of the leader that indicates respect for staff members and concem about their persona1 feelings and needs.

V)

Holds hi& performance expectations: Behavior that demonstrates the leader's

expectations for excellence, quality, and high performance on the part of the staff. vi) Provides intellectual stimulation: Behavior on the part of the leader that challenges staff

members to reexamine some of the assumptions about their work and rethink how it can be performed.

Data Analysis

Survev Survey data were entered, cleaned and a data file was compiled of responses to the survey. Responses to the survey questionnaire were summarized (using the Statistical

Package for the Social Sciences Computer Program) in the form of means, standard deviations. percentages, and correlation coefficients. The intemal reliability (Cronbachs Alpha) of the scales measuring each dimension of transformational leadership were calculated. Related T-tests were calculated to compare the total mean scores of each transformational leadership dimension for the females as a group and the males as a group.

Field Notes The contents of the field notes were analyzed in relation to the themes emerging fiom the interviews. The data were a supplement to that obtained in the intenriews and directed the

researcher to several additional themes.

terviews Pseudonyms were chosen for the ten principals who were interviewed for this shidy to ensure anonymity. The names given to the five women were Rebekah, Jessie, Molly, Ina and Nicole. The names chosen for the five men were Kevin, C d , Nathan, Roland and Joshua. The tape recorded interviews were transcribed and content analyzed. The analysis followed

four stages. 1. The interview protocol pointed the way toward certain issues. They were:

(a) decision to go into teaching; (b) schools where teaching experience was acquired; (c) decision to seek administrative position; (d) preparation for administration; (e) administrators who were role models; (0 own experiences as a vice principal; (g) own

experiences as a principal; (h) Iife outside school. 2. The m a s of data was classified, categorized and ordered. Data fiom the ten

interviews were placed in categories. As additional themes emerged new categories were created. The categories became: (a) bac kgroundhiographical characteristics; (b) career path; (c) decision to go into teaching; (d) ethos/culture of schools in which teaching experience

acquired; (e) decision to seek administrative position; ( f ) deliberate preparatory experiences; (g) sponsoring/mentoring; (h) principal's support system; (i) formal educational experiences; (j) experience of those in the role of vice principal (role models); (k) own practice in the role

of vice principal; (1) experience of those in the role of principal (role models); (m) own practice of the role of principal. Subheadings were also created under the categories Le. decision to go into teaching was subdivided into (i) reasons for becoming a teacher and (ii) the timing of the decision to

86

become a teacher; ethos/culture of schools in which teaching experience acquired became (i )

teaching experience pnor to accepting a position of responsibility and (ii) teaching

experience while holding a position of responsibility; decision to seek administrative position became (i) influences on decision to seek administrative position and (ii) timing of decision; forma1 educational experiences were subdivided into (i) formd educational studies early in

teaching career (ii) credentids required for administrative positions (iii) graduate studies while preparing for administrative positions. Tables 2 to 9 were created in order to compare the expenences of the women with those of the men,

3. Themes emerged fiom the categories. In certain instances the category formed a theme i.e. the role of the principal. In some, several themes came fiom the same category, i.e. (a) positive experiences teachers had prior to accepting positions of added responsibility; (b) negative experiences teachers had p i o r to accepting positions of added responsibili~, (c) own practice in the role of assistant department head and (d) own practice in the role of

department head came fiom the category ethos/cuIture of schools in which teaching expenence acquired. In other cases the theme came fiom a number of çategones Le. (a) humor, (b) obstacles encountered and (c) lifelong leamers.

4. The data were held against related theory to see which parts of the data, if any, the theory supported, which the theory opposed. When the data were held against van Gennep's ( 190911960) theory of separation, transition and incorporation, most of the themes fitted

into this fiarnework. The themes remaining came from the time period before the first of van

Gennep's three phases. A pre-separation phase was created and the data placed into that phase.

87

The themes in the pre-separation phase are: (a) formative experiences; (b) teaching experiences prior to employment with present board; (c) personal experiences impacting on development as leaders; (d) reasons for becoming teachers; (e) timing of decision to become teachers; ( i j contribution of formal educational experiences to their practice as teachers; (g) positive experiences teachers had prior to accepting positions of added responsibility;

(h) negative experiences teachers had prior to accepting positions of added responsibility; (i) the leadership activities of females and males before they accepted formal leadership

roles; 6) farnily responsibilities that had an impact on teaching career. The themes in the separation phase are: (a) own practice in the role of assistant department head; (b)own practice in the role of department head; (c) the role of coordinator; (d) forma1 educational studies early in teaching career; (e) obstacles in separating fiom the

teacher role; (f) reasons for seeking administrative position; (g) timing of decision to become an adrninistrator.

The themes in the transition phase are: (a) contact with the vice principal in the school (role rnodels); (b) role of principal (role models); (c) negative practices used by administrators; (d) exceptional leaders as role models; (e) credentials requùed for administrative positions; (f) graduate studies while preparing for administrative positions; (g) positions of responsibility held while seeking to become administrators; (h)board process

for becoming administrators. The themes in the incorporation phase are: (a) the role of vice principal; (b) the role of principal; (c) lifelong learners; (d) sense of humour; (e) relationship with the board; (f) central office administrative positions; (g) professional and personal identity;

88

(h) adrninistrator support systems.

Becker, Geer, Hughes, and Strauss's (1961) mode1 explaining the shift in perspectives that occurs in the adult socialization process was held agauist the data and it was found that

this theory provided an explanation for the shifi in perspective which occurred when the women and men encountered problematic situations during their careers. The data were held against transformational leadership theory (Leithwood, 1992;

Leithwood, 1994; Leithwood and Jantzi, 1990; Leithwood, Jantzi and Dart, 1991;Leithwood and Steinbach. 1991). Certain of the leadership practices which emerged fiom the data were

the sarne as those that were identified by Leithwood and his associates, Le. having a vision

for the school, providing individualized support, and providing intellectual stimulation.

Leadership practices emerged which had been identified in other literature, Le. having a sense of humor (Kanter, 1977).

CHAPTER 4 SURVEY DATA AND PRE-SEPARATION PHASE The Survey Data: Transformational Leadership Table 1 compares teachers' ratings of principals' transfomationai leadership across the nine schools. These ratings range fiom a low of 3.35 (school 1 1) to a high of 3.74 (school 8). a fairly narrow range with a grand mean of 3.54. The standard deviations of the ratings are also within a fairly narrow range (.55 to .76)and not large, indicating a relatively high leve1 of consensus among teachers in their ratings. The internai reliability of the 6 scales m e a s d g

each dimension of transformational leadership ranged fiom -90 to .94, al1 high and quite acceptable. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was run on the teacher ratings to compare school means. There were no statistically significant differences among the school ratings. In sum then, the sample of principals selected for this study was perceived by central office staff as k i n g exceptionally strong leaders and by the teachers who responded to the survey as only moderately transformational in their leadership.

Qualitative Data The qualitative data in this study were used to answer two basic questions: 1. Which forms of socialization contribute to the development of transformational

leaders? 2. Are there gender based differences in the sociaiization of secondary school

principals? If so, what are they? Are they related to the types of leadership developed by these principals?

Table 1

Teacher Ratings of Principals' Transformational Leadership (N=293)

Standard Deviation

% of population

School3

-76

52

School4

-58

36

School5

.59

34

School6

-55

74

School7

-70

33

School8

-59

24

School9

-65

39

School 10

-69

34

School 1 1

.59

91

Van Gennep's (1 909/1960) three phases of socialization and Becker et aL's (1961)

perspective concept of socialization were used to guide analyses of the data. Van Gennep's (1 909/1960) three phases of socialization are the separation phase, the transitional phase, and the incorporation phase. In addition there is a block of data representing a period before these

phases began which 1 have designated as the pre-separation phase. The pre-separation phase

included the years before the candidates began to consider becoming administrators. These were their teen years, their teacher preparation years, and the years they concentrated on their

classroom teaching. The separation phase was the period when the candidates separated fiom the teacher role. While they were not always deliberately separating fiom this role, their

experiences served that purpose. The transitional phase placed the subjects in a special situation for a period of time. They wavered between the world of the teacher and the world of the administrator. Confùsion, insecurïty and anxiety were evident at this time, since the

individuals were losing their identity as teachers but had not yet incorporated a new identity as administrators. The incorporation phase was the final phase. During the incorporation phase individuals becarne full members of the administrative group. They physically

intermingled with mernbers of the administrative group and struggled for acceptance by that group.

In Becker et al.3 (1 96 1) perspective concept of socialization, perspective is defined as an individual's perception of, and plans of action for, problematic situations. Becker's

medical students saw and solved the immediate problems of dealing with their teachers and the tasks they assigned so that they would get through medical school. At the same tirne they

maintained their Iong range perspective that medicine was the best of al1 professions and saw

92 themselves, in their hture practices, as helping people and as having enjoyable and satisfying work while upholding medical ideals. The women and men in my study used a perspective shifi in coping with difficult situations in their professional lives.

Pre-Separation Phase

The pre-separation phase included the teen years of the women and men. their teacher preparation years and their beginning years in the teaching profession. They faced challenges during their teen years and fouad ways to cope with these challenges. The responsibilities they had as teenagers and during their young adult yean helped in the development of their leadership skills and in viewing themselves as leaders. Their own schooling, the teachers and administrators they encountered, al1 aided in their decision to become educators. During the time spent preparing for teaching and their beginning years in the profession, they formed a vision of what schools should be. For some. their teaching experiences in other countries,

provinces and with other boards broadened their perspective. Finding solutions to issues around family life and career began early in their teaching careers.

Formative Ezrperienca The background of the women and men in this study contained shilarities as well as differences. Female principals ranged in age fiom early forties to early fifties and male principals mid forties to mid fifiies. The time period during which they matured and entered the work force was similar. The men and women were al1 Caucasian. Molly was educated in Roman Catholic schools, al1 others were educated in public schwls. Four of the women and

93 two of the men grew up in cities. One woman and three men grew up in small t o m s or rural areas. Two of them were immigrants from the United Kingdom. Molly immigrated to Canada as a young child and Nathan immigrated as a young adult to do graduate work. Both were

from working class families and settled in the province of Ontario. Nicole and Roland grew up in a Westem province in Canada. The other eight were from Ontario.

T e a c h i a r i e n ç e s Prior to Emdovment with Present Board

The major part of the careers in education of these participants was spent with their present board; however, several had teaching experience elsewhere. One man and one woman taught in another country for two years. One man and one woman taught in a Western province for two years. In addition to the out of country and out of province teaching experiences of some, three women and one man taught in high schools with other Ontario boards. The three women taught a total of 12.5 years with other boards in Ontario. The man

taught 2 years with another board in Ontario. In total the women spent 16.5 years teaching outside their present board and the men spent 6 years teaching outside their present board.

Two women and two men spent their entire careers in education with their present board.

Two men saw the extra responsibilities they had during their youth as having a positive effect on their leadership development. Roland was given a great deal of responsibility during his teenage years. He and his two brothers helped their father grow carnations as a cash crop to supplement the family income. He also held a variety ofjobs at

94

night and during the summer. He worked at various jobs in the sawmill where his father was employed. For a period of time while Roland was in hi& school he worked with a cleaning Company and had the keys of al1 the public buildings, taking on these responsibilities gave hirn confidence. He failed his final year of high school and began to apprentice for a trade. An older worker gave him confidence in his intellectual abilities and directed hirn back to

finish high school. While attending university, Car1 was given the responsibility of making presentations and speeches for the town sports team on which he played. Only two of the team members had gone to university and the rest of the tearn looked up to those who had a post secondary education. Joshua recounted intense personal experiences that had impacted on him. These were interactions with negative people and they were significant in his development as an educator. He found himself wondenng why certain people ever went into the teaching profession. He encountered some negative, hard-nosed, mean-spirited people

whom he would like to have seen them dismissed from the teaching profession. Three of the women recounted intense personal experiences that impacted on their professional lives. Molly was the oldest of six children in an immigrant family. Her parents transferred her from the academic to the commercial Stream when she was in grade ten. Her teachers were upset because she was so bright, though she never held it against her parents. They believed they were right in giving her an education where she could fmd employment immediately after high school. They were not told that there was a teacher shortage and that she could have gone to summer school and become a teacher. Later she went to university as a mature student. Molly's experiences at university and her struggles there gave her special empathy with students and the problems they encountered.

Ina was involved extensively in track and field when she was in high school. She contracted polio when she was thirteen. Her stay in hospital lasted for six months and kept her out of ail activities for that period of time. This illness had quite an impact on her life in terms of developing self determination. It led her to believe in herself, to work towards and to reach her professionai goals. She enjoyed working with people and during the summer worked as a ward aide and nursing assistant at several hospitals.

Nicole taught in a foreign country for two years at an dl-girls school where she was the only foreign teacher. That experience had a profound influence on her. It changed her

direction professionally because she was forced to be an observer of student life in the school since she had a limited knowledge of the language. She only leamed to converse in the language rather than have a deep facility at using the language to discuss ideas. It allowed her to appreciate students from a different perspective. In that particular country students were

under a lot of pressure to achieve because it was their only way out to a better life. Families invested a lot of money in their children's education since there was no fiee public education in that country in the sixties. The aspect of student life she became interested in at that time was how the students dealt with stress and ernotional issues. Her interest in this area led her to do a master's degree in guidance and to continue her work with the emotional and personal side of student life and its impact on student achievement. A second period of personal change occurred when she did not get a position of responsibility because she was a woman. A period of intense persona1 growth through the avenue of psychotherapy followed. She

became an activist in the women's movement and helped found a provincial organization which brought about some fairly profound collective bargaining changes.

asons for Becom School administrators begin their socialization into the profession as teachers. The reasons why they entered the profession (shown in table 2) give an indication of their valuing of the profession and the impact this has on their articulation of the roles which they subsequently fill. The women and men in this study had a number of reasons for making their decision to go into teaching. Role models were important for both women and men. Six of the participants, three women and three men, spoke very highly of one or more of their teachers. For two of the women a particular teacher really stood out. Molly had a very positive expefience with an exceptional teacher. When 1 was in grade seven or eight 1 had probably one of the finest teachers I've ever had in my career and 1 loved this woman. 1 wanted to be a teacher. 1wanted to be a teacher so much to be like Mrs. Thomas. (Molly) Ina had a teacher in hi& school who developed in her a love of chemisûy and a love of

the teaching profession. She also had an aunt who was an elementary school principal. One of the men was impressed by several of his physical education teachers in high school and the other men saw a number of teachers and professors as role models.

When 1 was in hi& school myself 1 was involved in a lot of sports and athletics. 1 really enjoyed that part of my life and the role models 1 had as teachers and coaches. 1 was quite comected to and quite impressed by them. (Joshua) One man also had a mother who had been a teacher. In addition to the positive role models,

one man and one woman received some of their motivation for entering the field &er observing weaknesses in the practices of certain high school teachers. They believed they could do better. The staff in the high school where the woman was a student did not connect

Table 2 The Reasons the Women and Men gave for Becorning a Teacher MALE ( n = 9 ( 1)

role models (family, teachers)

XXX

XXX

(2) observing negative role models

(experience of poor teachers)

1 (3) encouragement of others

XXX

(4) dissatisfaction with career path

( 5 ) successfùl out of school experience (6) contribution to society "to make a difference" (7) "fell into it"

(8) liked working with people

-

-

(9) loved school and school type

activities

XXX

with kids. They were excellent at the content and produced a large nurnber of Ontario

Scholars but many of the interactions that she observed between teachers and students were negative. By the end of high school she came to the conclusion that there was a better way of teaching high school students. 1 would Say generally the staff in the high school in which 1 was a student infiuenced

me because that staff in that particular high school, I'm generalizhg okay, many of the teachers that 1 had through my high school career 1 did not believe liked kids. They were excellent at the content and I mean they produced, or we produced Ontario Scholars left, right and center at this high school okay but many of the expenences, not that 1 had personally, but that I observed between teachers and kids 1 thought were less than positive interactions. 1 guess 1 observed this throughout my high school career and by the end of high school saying, "Boy there's a better way of doing this. There's a bener way of doing this." So it was kind of coming at it negatively. (Rebekah) For the man, one teacher in particular stood out. He did not get dong with that teacher and thought that he himself would handle situations with students differently.

Encouragement of others was a strong factor for three of the men. Only one women stated that encouragement of others was a factor in her decision to enter teaching. It was one of two professions her mother encouraged her to enter, the other k i n g nursing. Both of these

were traditional female professions. One man was encouraged by his mother to go to university and to think about a career in physical education. His father owned a business but his mother was determined that he would not end up working in the business. While he was going through high school it was not his goal to go to university. His mother pointed out that he was totally involved in sports and should consider a career in physical education. He

followed her direction. Another man was encouraged by his family to be a teacher because it was a secure job. He grew up in a coal mining, steel working community with fi*

percent

99

chronic unernployment. A professional job with stability and security was clearly desirable. A third working class man who had dificulty finishing high school was encouraged to enter

teaching by a rninister. Three of the women had initially chosen different career paths. They became

dissatisfied with their chosen career and changed to teaching. Two were accepted into medical school. One had preliminary acceptance after high school but never acted on it. The other spent one day in medical school and decided that medical school was not for ber. The latter grew up in a home with parents who were highly educated. Her mother had her Ph.D. and her father was a medical doctor. At one time in her life her mother had tried teaching and had corne away from the experience with very bad feelings about it. So part of her wanted to

fo1Iow the direction of her mother and a part of her wanted to emulate her father. The third woman worked in business with a well known company for seven and a half years but wasn't content. She attributed her dissatisfaction to women only k i n g rewarded for their contribution to the household. The concept of a career for women outside the home did not exist. When she began to work at the company there was a policy that women leave when they married.

Other reasons for entering the teaching profession were cited. One man decided to go into teaching primarily because of his experiences in summer camp, where he acted in a teaching capacity and provided leadership as a camp counselor. He was successfùl at it and enjoyed it. One man and one woman went into teaching to "make a difference". The woman observed negative expenences between teachers and students while she was in high school and believed that there was a better way to teach. She believed that many of the teachers she

1O0

had through her high school career did not like children. She liked young people and thought she could make a difference for them. The man was heavily involved in sports and athletics in high school. It was something he enjoyed very much and while still a hi& school student decided that was the kind of contribution he would like to make. One woman was seventeen when she graduated fiom high school and applied to be trained as a nurse. She was too young to be accepted so she decided to go to university. She got caught up in her university experience and just kept going, giving up the idea of nursing totally. At the end of university she decided to go to the Ontario College of Education, since it was the last time teacher training was being offered as a surnrner program. She planned to go for the six weeks and then decide what she really wanted to do. This woman reflected on why she went into teaching, how easy it was for her to "fall into it", and how little thought she gave to what the job actually meant, compared to the thought people give to their choice of teaching as a career nowadays. She was certain that she would not be going into teaching now. One man and one womm liked working with people. One woman loved school and school type

activities. Another woman discovered that she was a high achieving scholar who needed to apply what she leamed, and teaching allowed her to do this.

. . The timing of their decisions to become teachers (table 3) was more diverse for women than for men. The five men decided to enter teaching while in their teens. Three of these decided on physical education and two on social studies. Ina said education had always been her focus since about age three, when she was growing up on a farm and she had not

Table 3 The Tirne in Their Lives when Women and Men made Decision to become Teachers

MALE h = 5 ) ( 1 ) pre-teen

XXXXX

I

( 3 ) early university years

(4) while working in another job

XXX

102 deviated seriously fiom that focus. Three of the women decided to enter teaching during their early university years. Two were accepted into the faculty of medicine and changed their

minds. Jessie began university because she was too young to enter nursing and then drified into teaching. Molly decided to become a teacher while in another career. For her it was the

fulfilment of a dream. Though she was an excellent student, she was the eldest of seven children in a working class, immigrant family and had to finish school at grade twelve to

enter the work force for economic reasons. In her twenties, after seven and a half years working in business she discovered that she could enter university as a mature student. Untii that time she didn't think she had the academic background since she had gone through the

business track in high school. So she went back to university, obtained her degree, and became a teacher. She was very happy with her chosen profession.

Formal Educational Experiences of W-

Merl

There was some diversity in the formal educationai experiences of the women and men in the study and in the locations where their programs were completed (table 4). Four women and three men received their first degree from a university in Ontario. Two of the

men received a Bachelor of Physical Education degree and the other five subjects received a BacheIor of Arts degree. Of these seven people two women and two men followed this with a year at a faculty of education at a university in Ontario. Three others. two women and one

man, did their teachers' training at the Faculty of Education, University of Toronto under a program offered during the sumrner. Nicole and Roland received their degrees and teachers' training in another Canadian province. Nicole did a Bachelor of Arts degree followed by a

Table 4

Forma1 Educational Expenences of Women and Men

MALE (n=5) ( 1 ) degree fiom a university in Ontario and teacher training summer program at FEUT

(2) degree from a university in

Ontario and a year teacher training at FEUT (3) degree and teacher training

outside province (4) degree and teacher training outside country

104

year in a faculty of education. Roland did a Bachelor of Education degree. M e r teaching for two years he moved to Ontario and completed a Bacheior of Arts Honors degree. Ian

received a Bachelor of Arts Honors and a Diploma in Education from a university in another country.

The value people place on their early university and teacher training experiences indicate where certain of their practices originate. The subjects recollected their early

university experiences and teacher training (table 5). Four women and four men found aspects of their undergraduate work at university and their teachers' training helptùl in different ways. Of these eight subjects one woman and two men were very positive about their whole university and teacher training experience. Al1 three were the first members of their families to go to University and they greatly appreciated the experience and what they gained from it. The woman went to university as a mature student. The opportunity of going to university was like ""mannafiom heaven". She had a great appreciation of the whole

process of learning. It was, according to her, one of the best times in her life. As the eight subjects reflected on how their early University experience and teacher

training impacted on their practice as teachers, they found it helpful in different ways. Two women and three men found course work aided in teaching content. For one woman this was true of only her fourth year in university which she completed after she taught for a year and had developed a different perspective on the importance of the course content. That was probably my best year. I'd been away and 1 had a different perspective. 1

Table 5 Contribution of Formal Educational Experiences of Women and Men to their Practice as Teachers

MALE (n=5)

FEMALE (n=5) ( I ) aspects of undergraduate and teacher training helpfiil

XXXX

(2) entire university and teacher training program helpfùl

X

-- -

-

- --

p p

-

-

(3) courses helpfiil in teaching content

XXXX

-

IXx

- -

XXX -

(4) working in schools helpfùl

XXX

(practice teaching, internship, special supply teaching) (5) particular people helpfùl (mentors, role rnodels, source of inspiration) (6) helpful in development of professional perspective

X

-

XXX

-

-

worked really hard and got good grades. But 1 did it in English and when 1 look back now it's not a subject that 1 have a lot of love for. 1 was determined to get some good marks that year. 1 taught English then for the next four and a half years. It was the study of literature, Canadian literature. 1 did a Canadian literature course and another Shakespeare course. So that helped because 1 went into a very traditional school. (Jessie) Three men found the work in the school that was part of their tacher training helpful. Kevin recalled his practice teaching and that he was aiso excused fiom classes for a couple of weeks in order to supply teach. He looked upon it as an opportunity to practice teach and found the experience helpful. 1 got opportunities in different settings. 1 also did some supply teaching when 1 was at the faculty, which you weren't really supposed to do, and then 1 remember I got a job for a couple of weeks through the faculty and got excused fiom classes to go and supply teach. In some ways that was just another opportunity to quote "practice teach and 1 found that helpfûi. (Kevin)

Three of the men also found that the professors and CO-operatingteachers were mentors or role models or were a source of inspiration. Joshua changed his goals while in university. He was the first person in his family to go to university and he found it temfic. While he had been impressed by certain members of staff and some of the work his high school teachers did, this was doubly so for iiniversity. The work he did on assignrnents opened his eyes to the whole world. He decided at that point that he would like to work at the university level. Roland was inspired by professors and attended lectures that were not part of his program just because he liked the professors. He could even remember their names. He had a brother who was doing a Ph.D. at the time and had some tremendous lechwrs and this

man used to go to his brother's classes as well as his own. He was a self directed learner and gained a great deai from university due to his own effort.

Two women found the university expenence helped in the development of theü professionai perspective. Both were bright, high achieving students. Nicole leamed to appreciate her own leaming style and Molly gained a strong empathy with students fiom her own stnrggles as a student. Her high school experience in a commercial Stream did not

prepare her for university. 1 have a different appreciation for the whole role and what it means and the kind of stmggles as well that a student has because my background in high schwl didn't prepare me for University. 1 never had to write an exam. 1 was always exempted and so you came up against the first three hour extravaganza in university ... I didn't know how to do it. 1 literaily did not know how to do it. My marks went down a grade much to the surprise of ail of my lecturers, but 1just didn't know how to write an exarn. Like that's just one example. So there was a lot of things 1had to struggle with and 1 think it gave me an appreciation for what students go through when they're in the high school even though 1 was at a different age. (Molly)

One professor stood out for Jessie. This younger fernale professor taught a course which she really enjoyed. The professor sparked an interest in the subject which intluenced her teaching.

Positive Ex~eriences-Pnor

d

'

t

..

P o a n s of Added Re-

.

. *

These men and women taught in a number of schools pnor to accepting their first position of added responsibility . They spoke highly of certain of these expenences and were very critical of others. The schools in which they found personai and professional fulfillment had some features in common (table 6). They liked schools where the staff was cohesive. In

these schools they appreciated the support of their colleagues in their professional lives. They found immense satisfaction in working in schools where the administration gave them extra responsibilities, allowed them to initiate projects or bnng in new programs and gave them

Table 6 The Positive Experiences Women and Men had in Schools as Beginning Teachers -

--

XXXXX

XXXXX

(3) opportcnities to gain SC hoolwide perspective

XXX

XXX

(3) personal and professional life

XXX

XXX

XXXXX

XXXXX

( 1 ) working together at departmental level -

-

intertwined (4) focus on students and prograrns

for students (5) active role in extra-curricular sports program

XXXX

(6) emphasis on professional devetopment

(7) mentoring relationship

(8) strong positive reIationship with

parents/cornmunity (9) students demonstrated loyalty to

their school ( 10) working conditions excellent

( 1 1 ) abundance of resources

YXX

1O9

material and moral support in seeing these initiatives through. These women and men found being members of active, involved staffs very stimulating. They liked k i n g in schools where a lot of things were happening and a wide variety of programs were offered to students. At

the same time they appreciated having a manageable workload. The schools they taught in where teachers were heavily involved in professionai development were comrnended by these men and women. Another aspect of school life they praised was a strong focus on students. These schools usually had a diverse student population, the students were highly motivated and had a positive attitude toward school. There was a positive relationship with the cornmunity. As teachers in these schools, they felt needed and believed they made a worthwhile contribution. The subjects of the study experienced teamwork within their own department. The department was their major source of identity and teachers saw themselves as department members first and then as mernbers of the staff. Six of them, three men and three women, held positions which also required that they work with staff membea in other departments. One of the women was a special education resource person, another woman and a man were guidance counselors and two men and a woman taught in more than one department. These experiences of working with a cross section of staff enabled them to gain a wider perspective. Three of the women and three of the men worked in schools where their personal and professional lives intertwined. These experiences took place early in their teaching careers. They attnbuted working hard and playing hard together as partly but not totally due to their age. This was an early stage in their careers and they did not have family responsibilities.

They spent a great deal of tirne together, apart from professional activities even with a staff of

over a hundred members. There was cohesiveness and a team feeling. On the whole this had a very positive effect on their work with students. Jessie worked in a school where practically

al1 teachers were newly hired. She felt that in this situation, though they worked together and helped each other, the staff did not adequately meet the needs of the students. Kevin experienced a much greater sense of cohesiveness in one of his schools than the other. in his second school they had good times togethe- laughed together, and worked well together. In the schools they really liked there was a sense that teachers had a good time doing worthwhile things for students. The relationship of al1 these men and women with their students was very important for them. They liked students and worked very hard for their benefit. One woman disliked the short period she was engaged in supply teaching because it was impossible to build up a relationship with students. They developed rapport with their students and empathized with those who experienced dificulties. Al1 of these men and women worked in at least one school with a number of members of a staff who strongly focused on students and programs for students. They valued working with colleayes who had a strong liking for students and were professional in their approach to their work. The stability came into the school and the school provided that. They provided a focus for the students and hope for the future and al1 kinds of good things, and 1 can remember to this day the students from 1967 who still write to me. (Roland) One women and four men took an active role in the strong extra-curricular sports program that was provided for students. We spent a lot of time. We lived at the school practicaliy, between our curricular responsibilities and our extra-curricular activities with students. A lot of people were coaching. I'd Say the majority of people were coaching teams or were in some extra-

ctmicular activity. But it wasn't really at the urging of the principal. I mean we did this because we wanted to do it and we got a lot of satisfaction from it as well as seeing the students really benefit from it. ( h a ) Four subjects, two women and two men, worked in schools where there was emphasis on professional development. Both of the men worked in schools where professional

development was practically non-existent and then moved to a new board where professional development was oEered. They greatly appreciated the amount of professional development that became available when they changed boards and they took full advantage of the professional development offered by the board. There was support for people becoming involved in staff development because 1 remernber in the early seventies, there was sorne new ideas coming out in geography and 1 wanted to go to some workshops and 1 had full support. 1 think one workshop that 1 went to was five days and 1 couldn't believe it ... a whole week off to go and leam how to develop some new strategies in terms of teaching certain areas of the subject. (Nathan) Joshua experienced a strong mentor relationship with the two other people in his department. They nurtured him and he learned. He felt that this gave him an incredible start in teaching. Later he mentored a new teacher on staff. Molly and Roland worked in schools where there was a strong positive relationship with the parents and other rnembers of the community. In one of these schools, open house activities were extremely well attended. In the other, the school was used as a community center. However, the principal in that school did not receive the support of the community for the changes he made. The school-comrnunity relationships in the other schools ranged fiom

a non-existent relationship to antagonistic. Three women and three men worked in schools where the students expressed their

112

loyalty to the school and appreciated what the school gave them. Rebekah experienced this

appreciation in the night school where she taught while she was having her children. The students were mainly adults. However, some adolescents would also sneak into the night school prograrn. The experience was overpowering because the students were so open in expressing their appreciation, particularly the adult students. I'd never taught adults before and 1 think it was overpowenng, that particdar expenence, because the adults were so appreciative. So were the adolescents but they don't Say it as often as these adults said it. They would thank you for everything almost with tears. I remember when we had our final party after the course was over. I'm a pretty, pretty exuberant person, you know, pretty physical but they were hugging, kissing and stuff. It was just unbelievable. That was my fïrst experience teaching Adult Education. Now that was special. (Rebekah) Nathan spoke of the working conditions in his first teaching position in Canada. The salary was high, there was a beautiful campus. the atmosphere was like a country club, there was time to do tbings and he did not feel ovenvorked or stressed. In addition, teaching resources were current and plentifûl. This was in sharp contrast to his previous school. Two women also cornmented on the abundance of resources.

Negative Ey~eriencesTeachers had Prior

ed

. ..

These women and men encountered negative experiences in certain schools (table 7). They did not like being on a staff where there was division and friction. This resulted in professional isolation which they found dificult. Cynicism, disenchantment, negativisrn and unhappiness were other qualities in staff members that created a working environment these teachers disliked. Schools in which the administration did not involve the staff in the decision making process and did not allow staff members to take initiative or make changes were

Table 7 The Negative Experiences W o m e n and Men had as Teachers

MALE (n=5) ( 1 ) lack of cohesion and

professionalism among staff

I

(2) problems with working

relationships at departmental level (3) students not given the heip they

needed

I

I

(4) regimentation resulting in staff cynicism and disenchantment

(5) high degree of pressure

(6) gender issues a source of

fmstration

( (7) principal source of the problern (8) parents/cornmunity members and staff members source of problem (9) coped by getting involved with

students ( 10) coped by working with like-

minded colleagues ( 1 1 ) took steps to leave schools that

gave them little professional satisfaction

X

114

disliked by these men and women. Professional development and discussion of curriculum were valued by these professionals and they did not enjoy schools where these were absent. They did not like k i n g in schools where the workload was so heavy that it was burdensome.

Neither did they appreciate k i n g in schools where gender issues interfered with their work as professionals. These men and women were disturbed by the behavior of the administration

and s t a f f in schools where degrading remarks were made about femaie students, where discipline was rigid, where students were neglected and where members of staffwere generally inhumane in their dealings with students. They also did not like schools where the main focus was either operations or reaction to crises. Two women and five men recalled negative experiences in the schools where they taught prior to accepting a position of added responsibility. These experiences ranged from

three men who had negative experiences but who said overall the balance was towards the positive side, to two men and two women who gave accounts of very negative experiences early in their teaching careen. Three of the men saw weaknesses, though overall the balance

was towards the positive. Roland worked in a school where teachers barely communicated with people outside their department. Kevin recalled the lack of cohesion and professionalism among the whole staff in one school . He worked as a physicai education teacher where the members of his department tned to work together but were not successful.

In his first school Car1 disliked the defeatist attitude of the department head towards the vocational students who were in a program nicknamed "two year terminais".

Nathan worked in a school that was very regimented. There was very linle flexibility or humanity for either staff or students in the school. Staff were not involved in the decision

making. In that repressive environment there was a strong sense of cynicism and disenchantment on the part of the staff. Joshua taught in a school that was very high presswd but the pressure came fiom the parents. They had very high expectations for their children and their manner of trying to get what they wanted was to pressure both snidents and teachers. There was a great deal of inner emotional upset on the part of the students. At the same time there was pressure fiom a cornmunity group which was advising students to create anarchy and take over the school. During the first day of this man's teaching career the student council president denigrated the school and the administration at the assembly. Ln this school the principal was loved and respected by the staff. The chef librarian was particularly disliked by the students. He was very arbitrary, autocratic, and tyrannical. The students targeted him for reprisal. On one occasion they released chickens in the library and on another they lined up to check massive nurnbers of books out at one time and thus choke the system. The school was a very inhumane place for both teachers and students. Two women worked in schools where students experiencing problems were not given the kind of help they needed. The treatment of these students ranged fiom neglect to repression. 1 remembered they developed what they called a well, they called it the dungeon

which was a punishment for students who were skipping class or coming late. Kids were scheduled for a day or two days downstairs in the basement in what had been at one time the rifle range in this school so it was a fairly low ceiling. You could stand up, the ceiling was low and long, lots of fluorescent lights, and al1 of the phone lines to the school came into the building through this room, so there was a constant hum and hum of these lights and students were scheduled in there. They brought their books and they could read and they could do work. They couldn't talk and they couldn't put their head down on the desk. The teachers were scheduled through every thirty-five minutes to sit there and supervise them. It was a very painhi thing to watch these kids kept in here under these circumstances which were very nerve wracking to

them, unable to talk, unable to escape really from the Iights which always had a little flicker to them and these electrical wires coming in. So it's true very few students ever repeated a session down there but they just disappeared. (Nicole) Nicole also worked in an dl-girls school in another country where the students were under a lot of pressure fiom their families to achieve since it was their only way out to a better fùture.

As a result she encountered students dealing with stress and emotional issues sunounding that stress. This experience led her to change her direction in teaching. When she retumed to Canada she did a master's degree in guidance. Jessie noted the neglect of native Canadian students in her first school where they were bussed long distances and the curriculum had little relevance to their lives. She also worked in a department at another school where the teachers worked closely together. This included team teaching, and she fomed strong personal and professional fiiendships, though the male assistant head and the head were isolated fiom the group. The younger teachers felt they were fighting the older ones who would not make any changes and they attempted to bring them into the gmup by involving the Ontario Secondary School Teachers' Federation. Gender issues were a source of deep discontent in schools for two of the women and one of the men. Nathan was disturbed by the attitude towards the lone femaie teacher on staff and by the reprimand he received for going to the all-girls school to consult with a teacher

who was teaching the same subject. This school was a mirror image of his own school. Jessie

worked in a school where the fernale teachers were not allowed to take any initiative and she found this very fnlstrating. She also worked in a school where the male administrators made degrading, sexist remarks about female students. Nicole worked in a school which had a predominately athletic focus. The teachers were keen on sports and paid most of their

117

attention to the male students. The female students did not relate to this and felt left out. The principal was identified as the source of the problems in three schools. The s t a f f was considered the source in three other schools and a combination of parents, community and staff members in another. These men and women found ways of coping even in very

difficult circurnstances. The three men who found some negatives but who felt that overall the school was a positive place to work made moderate adjustments. The two women and two

men in very negative teaching environrnents had to work particularly hard to make their

experiences positive. Two of them became very involved with their students. Nathan found an outlet in getting heavily involved in coaching students. He was quite young at the tirne, not much older than his students. Since he was involved with sports he had very few disciplinary problems. That was not the case for some of the older and more experienced teachers on staff who were not involved in sports. They had to deal with a lot of discipline problems. Nicole was in guidance and spent her time helping students with their problems. Jessie and Joshua found a group of like-minded colleagues in their department and worked closely with them. Nicole, Jessie and Nathan took steps to leave the schools which gave them little professional satisfaction. The board took action in the school where Joshua was teaching. The principal. who was very well liked by the staff but not supported by the board, asked to be transferred. Several teachers were also transferred and the incoming principal made certain demands on the board and was given the support he needed to improve the situation. By this time the board had a better understanding of what was happening in the school.

The LeadershipS

'v'

'

g

p

t

e

d F o w Le&&ip

in their years of teaching prior to being in a position of added responsibility, these men and women were either given leadership responsibilities or took the initiative thernselves

and engaged in leadership activities (table 8). These activities were either in school or out of school but directly linked to what was happening in school. Four of the five men developed their leadership skills through their involvement with sports. 1 mean for anyone to take a group of kids, and in this case be their coach for a sports activity, this is an issue of leadership. You have to have some expertise not only in the sport but you have to have some organizational skills, you have to have the confidence of your students, they have to be followers in that sense, you have to have some degree of knowledge of how to get the best out of people to work together effectively. A lot of those kinds of things. So 1 had lots of oppomuùties for that. 1 also convened and coordinated sports for the whole system, at different times. So to me it's the same issues, just a different level. You were still organinng and you were still meeting others. You had a group working with you, a group of coaches fiom across the system as opposed to a group of students. (Kevin)

Roland developed his leadership through general involvement in the life of the school including designing a new building. The four areas where women exercised leadership were

sports, the work of bringing about fundamental changes in the treatrnent of women in the education system, student services and curriculum. h a was very involved in coaching teams. Rebekah worked with the student council and also introduced an intensive program for students doing poorly in mathematics and English. She talked to the principal about her proposa1 and with his permission took it to the heads. They voted for it and the staff accepted it. ï h e prograrn had very positive outcornes for students.

I was a classroom teacher at that time. 1 didn't have a position of responsibility but 1

Table 8 The Leadership Activities of Women and Men Before They Accepted Forrnal Leadership Roles

( 1 ) coached tearns and organized sports' events (2) invoived in the numerous school act ivities including helping design a new building (3) worked with student council

- --

(4) introduced intensive program

for students weak in English and Math (5) introduced tearn teaching

(6) introduced recognition and awards ceremony for students (7) worked at changing the way women were treated on staff

(8) worked with four other women

to found a provincial women's organization (9) chaired cornmittees

went there as the f h t Special Ed. person that had ever been in the school. So 1 irnplemented a resource withdrawal program in the secondary. And then we had kids that were doing really badly in math and English so 1 went to the administration and 1 said, "We need an intensive program here like the other school 1 had". They said, "Okay, do it", and 1 did it. I mean 1 took it to the heads and they voted for it and the staff bought it. It was a tremendous success. (Rebekah) Molly started a special recognition and awards ceremony for students taking secretarial courses in the business program. She was successful in getting support for her project fiom teachers both inside and outside her department. Jessie was involved in introducing team teaching into her department and in changing the way women were treated on staff by their male colleagues. She was also involved in bringing the Ontario Secondary School Teachers' Federation as a mediator between teachers in their department and the head. The head had refused to talk to the teachers about courses they were to teach the following year. He wouid just assign the courses. She was involved in women's issues and tried to change attitudes and practices at the school. Nicole was one of the five founders of a provincial women's

. ...

IV Res-mnsibilities that had an I The women experienced the competing demands of family and work responsibilities as teachers even before accepting positions of added responsibility (table 9). Three of the

women and one man made career decisions based on family needs. Rebekah [email protected] night school while having her family. Nicole took maternity leave for a year each time she had a child and delayed taking a position of responsi bili ty because of family responsibilities. Molly became involved in setting up a daycare at the school partly because she needed to have

Table 9 The Family Responsibilities and Accomplishments that had a Negative or Positive Impact on how Principals Performed their Roles

FEMALE (n=5) ( 1) parental responsibilities for

XXXX

children (2) stress and guilt because of

XXXX

competing demands of farnily and work (3) worWfarnily stress experienced when promoted to school administrator (4) stress involved in purchase of

new family home -

--

( 5 ) concem o f financing children's

education -

- -

( 6 ) career adjustments giving

family priority -

-

--

(7) parenting d e giving skills for

XXXX

professional role (8) proud of accornplishments of

children (9) proud of accomplishments of

spouse

XXX

MALE (n=5)

XXXXX

122 access to the facility for her own son. Nathan \vas offered time and financiai help to finish his doctoral program and to take a position at a university . While he very much enjoyed university teaching, he decided to leave and take a teaching position in a secondary school.

He had just rnarried and believed that if he stayed in the same t o m as his in-laws, differences in religious and ethnic background would destroy the marriage. Nathan also tumed a famiiy

concem into a professional asset. Of his two sons, the older had a leamuig disability and the younger was gified. He pursued extra studies in the area of special education which helped him with his own children and his teaching.

Summary and Discussion The Pre-Sepration Phase

The pre-separation phase was important in the development of these women and men. This phase included their teen years, their teacher preparation years and their beginning years

in the teaching profession. Eddy (1969) found that important learning about school took place whiie young people attended school. She also found that the experiences of students at university gave them specific expectations about the nature of school and the types of human relationships and activities that were appropriate in schools (Eddy, 1969). The conclusion reached by Goodfad (1990) was that teachers were socialized into the profession by their peers. Blood (1966) provided an understanding of the fùnction of experience in the teacher role for performance in the principalship. He concluded that even when teachers were not anticipating becoming administrators, their years in the teaching role did impact on the process of socialization for their later role as principal. Socialization occurred during the pre-

123

separation phase which contributed to the development of transfonnational leaders. An examination of the experiences of the women and men in this study revealed that they gained important knowledge about schools and those who worked in them during this phase. A number of dimensions of transfonnational leadership were evident during the pre-separation phase which impacted on the development of these principals.

Transformational Practices Durinn P r e - S e ~ Pe

h

B m s (1 978) and Bass and his associates (e-g. Bass, 1985; Bass & Avolio, 1989; Bass, Waldrnan, Avolio & Bebb, 1987) identified individual consideration as a dimension of transformational leadership. Building on their work Podsakoff et al. (1990), and Leithwood (1 994) identified the provision of suppon as a dimension of transformational leadership

found in school settings. Individualized support was evident in the respect shown for people and concern about their personal feelings and needs. During their teen and early adult years

these women and men were on the receiving end of individual consideration and support. They came to know fiom personal expenence how important these qualities were in leaders. As teens they were given responsibilities usually reserved for adults and provided with the

support needed to be successful in their endeavors. This support was present for those who faced crises as teenagers. While at univenity they found support and consideration for their

individual needs. During their early years as teachers they worked with administrators who gave them extra responsibilities, allowed them to initiate projects, develop or bring in new

programs and provided them with the material and moral support to see these initiatives through.

124

Individual consideration and support was also evident in the dealings of the staffwith the student population. Students were important to these women and men. They experienced

great satisfaction while working in schools where the focus was on the needs of students. These needs were met by providing a wide variety of programs, providing help for personal problems, and making provision for students with special needs. These women and men were involved in activities in addition to those of a curricular nature. As active, involved members of staff they found great satisfaction in initiating and participating in extra curricular student activities. In these schools they felt needed and believed they made worthwhile contributions. Students responded to the attention paid to them by showing hi& motivation, appreciation, Ioyalty and a positive attitude towards school. Appropriate role models was a second dimension identified by Podsakoff et al (1 990) and Leithwood (1 994). People provided an appropriate mode1 by behaving in a way that set

an example for others to follow. The behavior of those who were role models was consistent with the values they espoused. Role models were important to these women and men. As

students they had exceptional teacher role models and because of them these women and men saw teaching as an attractive, important profession. It was viewed as a place to make a contribution to society or to better their economic circumstances. Those who encountered high schooi teachers who engaged in poor practices believed there were better ways to

articulate the role. Role models continued to be important during their university and teacher training years. Professors and CO-operatingteachers were mentors, role models, and sources of inspiration. A third dimension identified by Podsakoff et al. (1990) and Leithwood (1994) was the

fostenng of group goals. Group goals were fostered as they promoted cooperation among staff and assisted them in working together towards common goals. These women and men expenenced their greatest satisfaction working in schools where the stafT was cohesive. Their experiences included working together both at the departmental and whole school levels. Intellectual stimulation as identified by Podsakoff et al. (1990) and Leithwood (1994) came in the form of challenges to staff to reexamine some of the assumptions about their work and to rethink how it could be performed. An important part of this was the continued attention that was paid to professional development. The importance these women and men attached to using their intellect was evident during their university and teacher training years and their early years in the teaching profession. At university and during teacher training they experienced the joy of learning and the opportunity to develop the technical skills they would later use in the classroorn. During their early years in the profession, prior to accepting a position of added responsibility, these women and men were heavily involved in professiond development. They appreciated being in schools where they were able to keep current and gain the expertise they needed for their work in the classroom.

The importance of vision to transformational leadership is prominent in the literature

(Bass, 1985; Burns, 1978; Rouche, Baker & Rose, 1989; Tichy & Devanna, 1986). Podsakoff et al. (1990) and Leithwood (1994) included that dimension in their work. The vision these women and men formed of what schools should be like were overwhelrningly influenced by their own personal experiences and the transformational practices evident in schools. Through their experiences they came to know and appreciate the value of individual consideration and support, role models, collaboration, and intellectual stimulation. The

126

importance of these practices was funher confirmed by their experiences in schools where these practices were not evident. They were very critical of schools where transformationai dimensions were absent. They disliked working with staffs where there was division, fiction, professional isolation, cynicism, disenchantment, negativism, and unhappiness. Administrators who did not allow staff members to take initiative, make changes, or engage in risk-taking activities were not appreciated. The absence of professional development and lack of attention to cumculwn was keenly felt by these professionais. Schools where the main focus of attention was operations or reaction to crises were viewed as undesirable places to work. Unprofessional, unfair and degrading treatment of students was condemned. Neglect of academic and ernotional needs of students was denounced. They developed an intense empathy with these students. The behavior towards students in these schools was directly opposite to the individual consideration and support found in schools with transformational practices. In schools where transfonnational practices were not evident the women and men coped by working with like-minded colleagues. and involving a professional organization in an attempt to bring about change. They focused their energy on involvement with students,

saw the situations from the students' perspective, and found avenues to help students with problems. Since schools of this nature gave h e m little professional satisfaction, they took the initiative in leaving them.

Gender Based Differences in Socialization Durine P r e - S e e n P

b

There were gender based differences in the socialization of the women and men

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during the pre-separation phase. An examination of the total experiences of the women during the pre-separation phase revealed the influence of gender during this tirne. It was the ovemding factor in setting the direct ion of their careers. Gender served to limit their career choices. One bright woman fiom a large immigrant family was placed in a commercial rather than acadernic Stream at high school over the protest of her teacher. This led her to the typical female occupation of secretary and delayed her entry into teaching for a number of years. Two women were directed towards nursing or teaching. These were professions seen as appropriate for women. Two intelligent. high achieving women were accepted into medical school. These highly socialized women were unwilling to make sacrifices which they believed jeopardized their female identity. They changed their direction and becarne teachers. The research shows that females entering the medical profession in the sixties, the time when

these women changed their plans, faced many dificulties (OrtiL, 1972). In order to be successful doctors, women had to deal with constraints and make concessions because they were entering a male dominated profession. The time these women spent at university and in teacher training involved personal struggle and resulted in the development of empathy for students and a professional perspective. Gender issues were a pan of their early teaching experiences. These expenences included encountering male administrators who made degrading, sexist remarks about female students and working in a school which had a predominately athletic focus with most of the attention directed to the male students, causing the girls to be left out. The women themselves faced blatant discrimination in schools. Obstacles to doing their work effectively were placed in their way. These obstacles included male leaders deliberately isolating themselves h m the

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fernale teachers and not allowing the femaie teachers to take any initiative. Male colleagues resisted the attempts women made to introduce new programs. The programs they opposed were designed to bnng a balanced female and male perspective into the curriculum. Their attempts to make changes met with minimal success. The student teachers in McCall's (1995) study received similar treatment from their male principals. These men used various fonns of oppressive treatment in dealing with them as teachers and as women. Gender issues figured prominently in the career moves of several women in my study. They lefi boards where they expenenced discrimination as female teachers and moved to a board that had a reputation of empowering women.

The effects of gender were evident during the pre-separation phase for the men. Being male was an advantage in advancing in their careers. They were expected to succeed in the public dornain and were given the opponunity to develop skills and confidence in their own ability. The men were given a great deal of responsibility during their teenage and young adult years. Their responsibilities included working to supplement the family income, acting in a teaching capacity, providing leadership as a camp counselor, making presentations and speeches, and providing leadership in sports. The men received a great deal of affirmation during these years. Even the man who failed his final year of high school was given confidence in his intellectual abilities and directed back to finish hi& school. The men received strong encouragement to become teachers. It was seen as a good profession for upwardly mobile working class males of that generation. Support and encouragement was evident during the years the men spent at university, in teacher training, and during their early years as teachers. The men found that the

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professors. cooperating teachers. and colleagues were mentors or role models or were sources of inspiration. The work in the school that was part of their teacher training was a vahable learning experience for the men. Opportunities for early entrance into teaching and teaching at university were given to men. Gender had a negative connotation in only one instance. One man was reprimanded for visiting an al1 girls school for professional consultation with a female teacher. The exercise of leadership \vas different for the women than the men in this study. The women had to push for leadership opportunities and the scope of the women's leadership was wider. One exercised leadership in the a r a of sports. The others were involved in

bringing about fundamental changes in the treatment of women in the education system, introducing new programs, recognizing student achievement, providing special senices to students and changing instructional techniques. The men were encouraged to exercise leadership. Four of the five men developed their leadership skills through their involvement with sports. The fifth developed leadership through general involvement in the life of the school, including designing a new building. The men responded to their positive expenences, and the encouragement, support and mentoring they received by setting goals and movhg ahead in their careers. The experience of family \vas different for the women and the men. The women

experienced stress around the demands of family and career. They made adjustments to accommodate both. These included taking time out to give birth, opting for extended matemity teave, teaching night school to accommodate children, and setting up a daycare to provide for care of her own child. These adjustments meant loss of career oppoctunities.

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Family concems directly impacted on only one man's career. He changed his career plans when he married and later channeled his sons' special needs into a career asset. It is clear that a different set of mles operated for the women than the men. The messages the women were given served to limit their career options and direct them into a profession considered to be suitabls for females. Attempts were made to keep them in their places once they entered the profession. Several not only experienced discrimination themselves during their sarly years as teachers. but observed the inequity female students endured. in the face of opposition they strived to bring about change and exert a measure of control over their work lives. The birth of children required women to make adjustments to accommodate their persona1 and professional responsibilities. The men were given the support and skills to move upward. This was evident during their teen years, while in university and teacher training. and throughout their early years in the classroom.

Problematic Situations Resulting in Perspective Shift Durine P

r

e

-

S

v

These women and men worked with staffs where there was division, friction, professional isolation. cynicism, disenchantment, negativism, and unhappiness. Certain administrators did not allow staff members to take initiative, make changes, or engage in risk-taking activities. Professional development and attention to curriculum were absent in some schools. The main focus of attention in certain schools was operations or reaction to crises. Unprofessional, unfair, and degrad ing treatrnent of students was prevalent in several schools. The academic and emotional needs of students were neglected in other schools. They taught in schools where the workload was so heavy that it was burdensome and there

was no consideration of individual needs. Gender issues interfered with their work as

professionals in certain schools. Degrading remarks were made about fernale students, the needs of femaie students were neglected and the staff was split dong gender lines.

in schools where problematic situations existed, the wornen and men coped by forming a perspective to deal with them. Becker et al. (1 96 1). as stated in chapter two, showed how such a perspective was developed. The women and men in this study worked

with like minded colleagues to get them through this dificult period. They involved their professional organization in an attempt to bring about change. They focused their energy on involvement with students, developed empathy with students, and found avenues outside the officially sanctioned structure to help students with problems. Since schools of this nature gave them little professional satisfaction. they took the initiative in leaving them. Through al1 these negative experiences they maintained their long range perspective that schools should

be places where the staff worked together. where the focus was on students and teachers, and where the administration was attuned to their needs. They believed schools should be institutions where professionaI development \vas a pnority and where teachers would find support and affirmation. They envisioned schools where females and males, advantaged and disadvantaged, bright and special needs students were valued and their needs met.

Conclusion

The women and men in this study were strong leaders. The convictions they held with regards to how schools should operate were fonned from their own experiences both inside and outside schools. They were encouraged and supported as teenagers, while at university,

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and early in their teaching careers. During this time they were given extra responsibilities and allowed to exercise initiative. They were provided with the material and moral support to see their initiatives through. These experirnces built their confidence, developed their determination, and intensified their empathy with other people. They had good role models. The focus in schools was on students. The staff were collaborative and professional

development received attention. They faced situations where undesirable conditions existed in schools and reacted either by finding like-minded colleagues and working with them, or by leaving these schools. The women encountered more obstacles and received less support than the men during their teenage years and their b e g i ~ i n gyears teaching. However, both women and men acquired the knowledge and skills necessary to be successfül in the teaching

profession, to exercise leadership. and to have a positive impact in the schools where they taught.

CHAPTER 5 SEPARATION PHASE Introduction Each candidate went through a period of separation from the teacher role. While they were not always deliberately separating from this role. their experiences served that purpose.

The tasks they engaged in and the formal roles they occupied gave them a different perspective. Their experiences provided opportunities to exercise leadership and l e m administrative skills. During this timc they interacted with superordinates and their visibility enabled sponsors to identir them. Tliey confronted and overcame persona1 and organizational obstacles that were barriers to separation from the teacher rols.

Own Practice in the Role of Assistant Department Head Three persons. two women and a man occupied the position o f assistant department head. MolIy occupied the position of assistant head for a year and Nicole was assistant head

for two years. Roland was assistant head for eight years. For Molly the job was almost indistinguishable from that of head. She held the position for one year before being promoted to head. Her curriculum responsibilities included being in charge of particular courses to make sure that they were being implemented properly, working with the teachers on course reviews and revisions. and being the liaison person that people would corne to for specific courses of study. She also requisitioned materials and prepared the budget. There was no clear demarcation between her role and the department head's role. He allowed her the freedom to take responsibilities in al1 areas. It was a period of time where she learned many

administrative skills. Her major job was still teaching and taking charge of the secretarial end of the prograrn since that was her specialty area. Accounting and secretarial were both in the business department. This was a change from the traditionai arrangement where they were separate. Well my responsibilities were really to run the deparunent ... I'm trying to think of soms of the things 1 did. 1 would be in charge of particular courses to make sure that they were being implemented properly. So you'd work with the teachers and you'd go over it. And so you would have the responsibility then of doing the course reviews and revisions. You would be the liaison person that people would come to for those specific courses of study. I also did a lot of the work in terms of requisitioning and the kind of budgetary things. the managing. There wasn't a clearly defined line down which you could put sort of my role and the department head's role. His leadership style again was allowing me the freedom to do what 1 wanted. to initiate what 1 wanted. 1 mean it was just a year, so it was really like a period of time where 1 was getting my feet wet. My major job was stilI teaching and taking charge of the secretarial end of the program because that was my specialty area. It was a single departrnent which was fairIy unique â t the time too. Business departments at that time were traditionally set up so there was an accounting department and then there \vas a secretarial department. This was a single department which 1 really. realiy like. So 1 would say that it was curriculum responsibility. some of the management. or any other things that he would feel we would want to work on together and that 1 would take some responsibility for. (Molly) Roland went from geography teacher to assistant head in the geography department. It !vas a large department with approximately forty-five sections. The department had its own

offices and operated as a separate entity within the school. The staff of the departrnent had little interaction with the rest of the school. Department staff worked in their offices. taught in classrooms adjoining their offices. and ofien ate lunch with department rnernbers. There was good interaction within the department. Staff were supportive of one another and

focused on helping improve teaching skills. One rnethod used to do this was to design and follow a departmental evaluation program. They observed each other teach and wrote

evaluations of a non- threatening nature on one another. 1 moved to (narne of school) in Ontario. It became very rnuch departmentaiized. And 1 wouldn't have even known members of the other department. You stayed within

your department. We had a department of45 sections or so. whatever the numbrr of teachers that is. We had our own office or offices sometimes because we were too big for one room. upon occasion. we'd come into that office in the morning, we wouid teach in classrooms that were adjoining that office, actually had doors from the office into the classroom. we wouldn't even have to go into the hallway and you may not go into the hailway and some department members wou1dn1teven take their lunch downstairs. They'd sit there. They'd work at their desk. They'd go to their classroom. There wasn't that much interaction. Thsre was good interaction within the department. Oh really good! 1 mean we watched each other's lessons. We wote evaluations on one another and said. "Here's what I just watched." This was something we had decided to do as a group of people because we were very keen on improving what we were doing and so we sat in. As a matter of fact 1 became the assistant department head in the particular department and 1. we had a program that said every teacher in the department saw every other teacher in the department teach. Now we didn't write a forma1 evaluation that was going to go in to anyone. But I would Say here's what I observed and it would be a non-threatening. "Thank you very rnuch 1 appreciate that". (laugh) sort of situation. (Roland)

Own Practice in the Role of Department Head

Al1 of the participants filled the position of department head. The number of years women were heads of departments ranged from a low of two years to a high of eleven years. The range among the men was a low of three years and a high of five years. Women on

average spent a longer time as department head than the men. The position of department head was very important to these men and women. It provided a great learning experience and enabled them to develop and exercise their leadership skills. As heads they still had teaching duties. This kept them close to the students and involved in delivering the curriculum, whiie giving them leadership opportunities and enabling them to leam

136 administrative skills. There were aspects o f the role that gave them great satisfaction. These men and women thnved on the intense involvement in the life of the school and the great diversity that the role entailed. They liked m i n g things, making decisions. and advising the administration. Their involvement in the C

U ~ C U gave ~ U ~them

great professional

satisfaction. They enjoyed being involved in developing courses of study. in improving and ini tiating programs. They liked supporting teachers by providing the materials they needed and getting them involved in professional development. Their in-service involvement, both developing the content and presenting the sessions gave them satisfaction. The contact with other agencies and educators and work with other departments expanded their horizons and provided professional stimulation. They applauded the collaboration and cooperation among the adults involved in sducation. The focus of al1 these endeavors was the students and this they found very gratiQing. The departments in which five of them. three o f the women and two of the men, held a headship were ones that addressed the problems of high needs students. These departments

provided special alternative programs for students who had failed or were experiencing diftïculty with the regular course of studies. The programs offered were basic level. study

skills. and a modified academic program for students in a vocational school. There were also general Ievel programs and guidance programs for high risk students. These women and men were strong advocates for their students. They were successful in having staff hired with their needs in mind. in working with social agencies to address student needs. and in scheduling courses to the students' advantage. Another woman was successful in enabling a nurnber of less advantaged bright girls to go on to community college or university. They found great

satisfaction in helping disadvantaged students. It was seen as the worst school in the system. It was seen as the lowest of the Iow. These were modified kids. It wasn't even basic. So he asked me if I'd apply to go there as the academic head. There were two major heads in vocational schools. One was tech director and the other was academic director. So 1 applied and was accepted and went there in 1982 and that was the best move I ever made. 1 finally got into a school where people were stniggiing to do something with kids. The community was struggling, the kids were. It was predominantly black. It was a dumping ground for iIliterate biack kids and it was just the most exciting thing I'd ever done, (Jessie)

One man was also head of history during the second year he was teaching. This appointment was for one year and took place in a srna11 high school. Of the remaining five. two men were head of physical education departments? another man was head of geography, one woman was head of science in a junior high and chemistry in a high school. and another head of business in a primarily academic school. Of the ten. only two people. one woman and one man. held a headship for a period of time in the academic areas uaditionally awarded high

status. Ina was head of a chemistry department and Nathan was head of a geography department. Four of the participants. t w women and two men. identified the personal growth they e'rperienced during their headship. Jessie was brought to an awareness of the purpose of a Ieadership role in education. Her awareness included what could be done for students and staff in a leadership role. She worked with the staff in lifting morale. The staff becarne excited and motivated and were able to accomplish a great deal for students. Rebekah gained confidence in her own leadership ability afier managing a complex department. Kevin saw it as a time when his horizons were expanded. Joshua was able to trace the evolution in his own thinking and way of leading through three definits stages. He moved from making most of the decisions and doing al1 the work, to orchestrating decisions, to tnisting others to be fully

involvsd in the decision making process. Four women and two men identified the heads as the major decision making group in the school.

The school was one where the heads. for example. had their own association and the administration came to their meetings as guests and had tirne on the agenda. It meant that the ownership of what went on in the school had to be bedded widely both through the heads and the schools. but once it was done you tended to get a high degree of energy and CO-operationdirected totvards the common cause. (Nicole) While ail heads were responsible for running their own departments. certain heads took leadership roles with other department heads. Three women and one man assumed leadership roles in heads' meetings and in projects the heads initiated. Ina was convener for the science heads in the board. This experience enabled her to gain a tvider educationai perspective. Al1 of the women and men were involved in the operations aspects of the school. These included time-tabling. budgeting. staffing of the department. ordering of supplies. keeping an inventory of al1 of the equipment. providing resources. and updating and keeping courses of study on file. Al1 were leaders in curriculum areas. They took leadership in the development of courses of study. writing courses. pilot testing of new program guidelines. creating programs. and bringing new courses into the school. They were involved in putting together booklets of teaching strategies. introducing new teaching techniques and putting cumcular and extra curricular programs in place in a new school. Some of this work was cross curricular in nature. 1 was involved in setting up a course that was really interesting in the late seventies because what I did with two teachers. one in biology and one in chemistry. We started

talking in about '76 about environmental issues and environmental awareness. It's al1 bounced back again. We talked about how we could develop a really worthwhile course for students in that area. We designed and planned an experimental course, grade thirteen course in environmental studies. It was a course that would be taught by al1 three of us from the geographic, biological and chemical perspectives. issues based, team teaching, project based. The first year we ran this we had four classes.

four classes of grade thirteens. So it was a real handful, but it was great fun. We ran that for two years. If you were to ask me as a teacher what curriculum initiative I was most proud of. that would be it. Because 1 did initiate it and 1 did successfuIIy work with other people. We w-orked together as a team and 1 think we did something really successful and really worthwhile. (Nathan) The prograrns they brought in included computer education. daycare. adult education. cooperative education, and work study, Four women and two men took leadership in professional development for the heads. They arranged professional development for staff in their particular area and promoted the involvement of staff in professional development. They provided support materiais, information materials. and educational issues materiais. and arranged for staff to go out on courses. They saw this as an important part of their role. One woman also became involved in arranging Ontario-wide conferences in science. Three women and two men saw that one aspect of their role was to provide extensive support to their teachers. They boosted morale. 901 +

teachers escited and motivated. and were mentors to new teachers. They assisted them

with discipline. helped them with teaching strategies. acknowledged the strength of diverse cifts. and sought unity without conformity among members of their departments.

C

One of the things that I was really satisfied with was the working reiationship that we had within the department. I had a group of very strong individuals who definitely had a style al1 their o ~ m but . 1 loved that in terms of their strength. because they also attracted kids. They were entrepreneurs each one of them. Actually it was interesting. Let me see. one or two others, maybe three, had also corne from another career into business, which I thi& in that particuiar area was a real bonus for the students. So they had connections out in the business comrnunity and they established prograrns and did things with the kids so that out- department was one of the largest in the school. Even though interestingly enough it was primarily what is called an academic school. where students, the majority of them, went to university. And yet our department had one of the largest enrolments in the school. (Molly) The work of these women and men reached beyond their own departrnents. Three

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other women and one man were heads of departments which had responsibilities that were cross curricular in nature. Two men and two women found opportunities to work on cornmittees outside their own department. MoIly and Kevin reached outside their schools. Molly encouraged members of her department to do the same. She set up a practice office. linked with elementary schools in their f m i l y of schools and had secondary students use their newly acquired typing and editing skills to help elementary students. Kevin worked with social agencies to obtain help for students and visited both public and separate schools to sel1 his program. This moving outside their own departments was highly valued and viewed as integral in meeting the needs of students. The role of head presented these men and women with opportunities to exercise leadership and develop administrative skills. They took full advantage of the opportunities the role afforded. It was while in this role that they first gained the attention of superiors and were encouraged to become administrators.

The Role of Coordinator One woman held a position at central office for a year prior to her appointment as vice principal. Her job as coordinator gave her the opportunity to be innovative. New technology was being introduced into schools across the district. She dispelled the tremendous

apprehension teachers were experiencing by giving them the support they needed in learning new skills. Secondary teachers were brought together for full day sessions. On returning to

their schook. they imparted this h o w l e d g e to their colleagues. She became a conduit for teachers to learn from one another. At the elementary level, the help of an outstanding teacher was enlisted to set up a program for teachers to learn new technical skills. Her work with

secondary and elementary teachers gave them the knowledge and confidence to teach these skiIls to their students. This woman received hrther encouragement to enter administration while in the coordinator position. When she began to e'tperience success in bnnging about

changes that positively impacted on students across the district. she realized what administrators could accomplish and decided to become a vice principal. Being in that role that's when Ibegan to see that as an administrator 1 could have the best of everything. 1 could be in the school with the kids and yet 1 could initiate things that could benefit them more than just the classes or the department that I was Ieading ... 1 could influence the environment that they were in as an administrator. 1 could make things better and that was my own view. 1 mean that's my value judgement ... 1 could make it better for kids, more kids. if 1 was an administrator in a school. And so 1 got to appreciate the role of administrator while 1 was a coordinator. And 1 figured that's what I'm gonna do and so 1 did. (Molly)

Formal Educational Studies Eatly in Teaching Coreer The attention certain women and men paid to thsir o u n studies was a factor in their identification as potential administrators. Several were engaged in formal educational experiences shortly after they began teaching. Their studies were o f immediate use to them in their work and also signified a strong commitment to education. Two of them, one wornan and one man. took time out for full-time studies. The woman saw n great need for counseling in high schools in the sixties and in response completed a master's degree in guidance. The

man did a year on a master's program and finished the course work for a Ph-D. He was offered a position at university and tirne to finish but for persona1 reasons decided against it. A second man completed two master3 degrees on a part time basis. He found the course work in his master's programs helpful. In one program he switched from curriculum to applied psycIiology. and took the counseling option. The courses enabled him to be more

effective in counseling students. In his C U ~ C U I studies U~ in the United States. he studied the process of setting iip an interdisciplinary program and used this knowledge to develop a new course along interdisciplinary lines. A course in planned educational change helped in coping with constant change. Other studies with immediate application included a guidance specialist and special education specialist programs completed by a woman. and a B.A. degree by a man.

So I moved to Ontario and was hired into a teaching position where my total teaching load was geography. Now my degree is history: having taught EngIish and law and typing. 1 then becâme a geography teacher. So I went back to university on a part-time basis and did summers and winters and took an honors B.A. in geography. ( Roland)

Obstacles in Separating from the Teacher Role

The process of separation presented different challenges to the various candidates. Al1 of the wornen and one of the men faced obstacles in lsaving the role of teacher and taking on the role of aspiring administrator. Three women faced psychological constrainrs. Though very

qualified academically and with appropriate experience. they did not believe that they were qualified for the job, that they fit the image of an administrator or that it was a role where they could make their best contribution. They also did not have confidence in their own ability to successfully get through the process involved in moving ahead and being promoted.

They were filling roles deemed appropriate for women. When 1 was in my early thirties it wouId have been laughable to discuss being a principal in my lifetime. Nobody, even 1, wouldn't have considered that possible ...Well in my case. and 1 think for most of us, I described myself in a lot of ways as being a highly socialized female that my own sense of value to the school was to be the very. very best school counselor that 1 could be and 1 think I was one of the best. And 1 didn't appreciate that there was a whole other bag of tricks that you

had to lcnow in order to move ahead and be promoted. And the thought that those things could be learned didn't cross my mind. And I remember in the seventies reading a book old now but it served its purpose, Games Your Mother Never Taught You, and realizing there's nothing to this stuff. You just have to look at it as another way of looking at the world. Well. until 1 was able to make that shifi and step out of a pretty tightiy circumscnbed role for me as a woman. a wife. a mother. a counselor. 1 did not see that as possible. (Nicole) There were also organizational barriers. The women waited until certain o f these had been rernoved. One requirement for becoming an administrator in Ontario was courses for principal certification. Potential administrators had to have a recommendation from their superordinates in the system in order to take these courses. Women routinely experienced difficulty obtaining that endorsement. The five women delayed taking the courses until a recommendation from those in authonty in the system was no longer required. School boards. comprised almost entirely of men. rarely appointed women to administrative positions. There were bamers out there in terms of school boards not seeing women as capable and effective. 1 do think that these affirmative action programs have been necessary. That without that legislative change we wouldn't have had anywhere near the chance that we've got today. (Nicole) Four women had to convince themselves that as administrators they could make a difference for students. Molly had problems believing that she could handle one part of the board process. She feared exams and wondered if she could get through the wtitten part.

Jessie and Nicole experienced difficulties in being appointed to assistant headships. Positions of responsibility were essential steps in the path to administration.

Well 1 remember my second last year there the assistant headship in the English department came up and 1 applied for it. And he said to me at the counter, "Well don't apply because we've already chosen who's going to be the assistant head." And 1 said, (laugh) "Well. I'm still going to apply. You're going to have to give me an interview anyway..' And 1 made them go through the interview. 1 mean but it was al1 a sham. (Jessie)

1 had been an assistant head in the sixties at (narne of school), came to (narne of board). didn't take on a POR because of my other responsibilities which 1 think was a mistake now in retrospect, and had been working in the same school for ten or eleven years and an assistant headship came up which 1 was eminently qualified for and apptied for and the administration had a lot of trouble making up their mind over what they were gonna do with this. which didn't help rny frame of mind very much. So when they called me in to tell me they were giving this position to a male because they needed a male counselor in the school at that time. 1 became very angry and hurt and in a sense 1 think my world tumed upside down and 1 realized that it's time that you understood that there's a heck o f a lot going on here professionally that you're not aware of and you're not paying attention to and if you don't smarten up you're going to be working maybe for the rest of your life for people who may be Iess capable than you are. (Nicole)

Jessie lefi after teaching with the board for four and a half years.

I had a friend who ... was a vice principal here in (name of present board), and so in June of '75 1 said "1 just dont think 1 can go on at (narne of school) anymore." 1just felt there was never going to be any changes. 1 was tired o f it. tired of fighting. So 1 said, T a n you get me a job in (narne o f present board)? 1'11 break my contract and corne." So 1 did. (Jessie) Kevin also lefi the sarne board afier teaching for two years. and went to a school where the staff was more professional. He looked for a position of added responsibility and having taught for s i s years. tvas given a headship in another school.

I moved to another school not far from this one and 1 moved completely into something different. 1 moved into a position of responsibiiity. It was a cumculum based position at a subject. a cross curricular position. 1 was head of what we cal1 basic level programs which were students who were taking the majority of their courses at a level of difficulty. You may be familiar with the general and advanced levels of programs in Ontario. So 1 had responsibilities on a cross curricular basis for students whose programs were primarily taken at the basis level of instruction. 1 had been looking. 1 had been looking for something. 1 had not been successful on a few occasions at finding something, (Kevin ) In total three women and three men came to their present board. They made their move partly because it had a reputation of being progressive. Two women believed their farnily responsibilities made it difficult to take on

positions o f added responsibility. They struggled with how this could be accompIished.

I felt at the time 1 was having my children in the late sixties and early seventies that 1 was a pioneer in that regard in t e m s o f raising children and working and 1 didn't have other women on my staff at that time who were doing the same thing. A little bit later it became very common and now it's quite common. So through my thirties 1 was paying attention to the juggling o f those two roles. (Nicole)

Reasons for Seeking Administrative Position There were a number o f reasons why these women and men decided to begin the process required to become administrators. One reason given by al1 of the women and four men was the encouragement they received. This encouragement was a crucial factor for the women in their decision to enter the field of administration. Their aspirations developed as they were encouraged by superiors. colleagues. close friends. and farnily members. Well. there's one administrator. He was a vice principal in a school that 1 was in and he stands out because he was the first one who really encouraged me to look for administration. And 1 fought him for three years on it. but he pressed and he pressed and I'm glad he did. 1 worked with ail of the administrators but he was the first to encourage me to think about seriously not doing this in a half way. going al1 the way. (Rebekah ) Car1 and Joshua were asked to submit their names for vice principal. Both were head of physical education departments. Neither was looking for an administrative position at the

time. They were appointed very quickly. These men were told that they could try administration for a year and if they didn't like it they could go back to teaching. Both enjoyed administration and stayed in that areâ. At the time. an influential physical education CO-ordinatorat the board ievel was promoting male physical education teachers to adrn inistrative positions. Joshua went through a short period o f uncertainty because he thoroughly identified with his role as teacher and was reluctant to leave it.

1 ended up becoming a vice principal afier six years. S o I was teaching for three then

taught for an additional three where 1 was the department head al1 in the same school. The principal at the time who was another one. at this point was my one. two. three. fourth principal. While he was still vice principal at the school. started suggesting to me that 1 should be thinking about administration. And I guess 1 was flattered and seduced. 1 wasn't really that interested. 1 said 1 could be. but a bit later. And the way he used to tell it to me kvas. '-But what you gotta do is." And I remember the phrase. '-Throw your hat in the ring." He Mras mentoring again. "Make yourself known. Make it known that you're interested and serious and you can rn&e application and then you might Cet an appointment in two or three years. But if you delay then you've got this time delay on top o f this again o f another two or three years. So when you decide you're ready why wait another two or ti~ree.File notice now and s o on." And really I didn't really want to. I thought 1 would and he talked me into it and I did apply and then 1 got an appointment and 1 wasn't ready. 1 was really tom because 1 was quite enjoying myself and wanted more time. And I was also still trying to grapple with was 1 ever going to go back to work at the university level. The more things happened here the more 1 got off on another route. Okay. we'l1 give it a try and 1 did. (Joshua) The other two men were particularly influenced by the encouragement they received from their principals. Ali of the women were spotted and encouraged by women and men who held

positions of responsibility within the sducation system. This change to directing wromen into administration was partly a result of the Ministry of Education affirmative action prograrn. The encouragement from another fenlale was particularly important to these women. They were ovenvhelmed by the attention they received from women who were superintendents, principals. and vice principals in the board. This attention was very affirming. Our present Director o f Education was very supportive. She was my vice principal at one point and kind o f harassed me (laugh) about taking the principals' course (laugh). So 1 thought 1'11 get her off my back (laugh). She was very encouraging and supportive and recommended that 1 take the principals' course and see where things went from there. ( h a )

A11 of the women began to consider administration when they came to the realization that they could make a difference for students in the role. As classroom teachers, department

heads. coordinator. and through their involvement in extra-curricular activities. they knew that they were making a difference. However. it took them considerable tirne to be convinced that as administrators they could make a difference to the prograrn. and to the other areas that m.ere important for students. This realization. that there was a student-related purpose for being in a leadership role in education. was crucial to their decisions to become administrators. 1 had to convince myself before 1 went the admin route that as a quote. "formal leader". that 1 was still gonna make the difference for the kids. Because 1 knew 1 could make the difference to the classroom. And 1 knew chat 1 could make a difference

through the extra-cunicular student council stuff. But it took me a while to be convinced and now I know it is a fact. That al1 that stuff and that looks like management stuff? paper stuff. that staffing stuff. that budget stuff. al1 of that sniff is very important to prograrn and that's where it really makes a difference where those resources go. 1 think that afier managing a really complex department that had alternative programs and doing it really successfully for the kids and other staff seeing me. being able to have other staff do it. that was the third year 1 said. "Okay. it's time now". and then I applied. (Rebskah)

Three men cited motives o f self interest. They included health rasons. wanting a position of responsibility and wanting a change frorn classroom teaching. The man who found teaching stressful had not achieved a cornfort level in the role.

I think 1 always experienced some tension in the classroom as a teacher. Some nervousness, some in preparing. 1 liked to be well prepared for class and 1 always did a lot of work preparing my lessons. 1 never liked to go into a class and try to fly by the seat of my pants. 1 didn't like doing that. I wanted to be well prepared and I think 1 spent a lot o f time w o l i n g about that, making sure 1 was well prepared. As a vice principal 1 didn't have that prep at home which I think helped me 1 guess in the matter of health. I found it was easier in that way al1 the tirne I spent doing a lot of prep because you couldn't prepare. You just came in and did the job as vice principal. There were certain things you iiad to take home like maybe the exam schedule on a weekend and work that up because you couldn't get enough time to do it in school. You were always being pulled this way and that way. So 1 think for me I found that was a nice change. And 1 didn't mind the busyness during the day. and you certainly were busy, attending to this thing. teachers' needs, kids' needs and everything else. But 1 didn't have to pian that. It was more reactinç to what had happened. (Carl)

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One women and four men stated that thsir enjoyment of administrative tasks was a factor in their decision.

Timing Of Decisions To Become Administrators The time frame for the identification o f these women and men as potential administrators and their decision to prepare for the role of administrator varied. Four o f the women were teaching for a nurnber of years before making a decision to becorne administrators. The fifih woman made her decision after teaching for three years. was unsuccessful and did not consider administration again until she taught for another sisteen years. By this time women were occupying superordinate positions in the board. These women in positions of authority provided the encouragement needed to consider administration. Certain organizational barriers had also been eliminated. Al1 of the men made their decisions to become administrators relatively early in their careers. Two men separated quickly from the teaching role because they received appointments shortly after making their decisions. One was in his sixth year o f teaching at the

time. three of these as head o f a physical education department. The other w in his eighth year. four of these as head of a physical education department. The position occupied by the women and men at the time they decided to enter administration was the same for al1 but one of the subjects. While al1 were encouraged to enter administration while in the role of department head; nine of them made their decision while in that role. The tenth was a woman who came to appreciate the role of administrator while she was a coordinator. She then entered the process.

Summary and Discussion The Si~nificanceof the Se~arationPhase The separation phase was first identified by van Gennep (1 909/ 1960). During this phase a separation from past familiar patterns of interaction and activity. friends and perceptions of events occurred. To the degree that the individuaI identified himself with another group. he alienated himself from his own group. Van Gennep ( i 9O9/ 1960) noted the intention of making the change as easy as possible. '-Al1 the rites observing departure on a trip or an expedition are intended to make the break gradua1 rather than abrupt" (p.36). This phase dunng which women and men left their esisting social status and entered a new one has been singled out in a number of studies using vanous population and life experiences (Atkinson. 1981 : Banks. 1987: Blood. 1966: Boyle. 1986: Cox. 1980: Draper. 199 1 : Durnil. 1997: Eddy. 1969: Iannaccone and Bunon. 1964; Ladd. 1993,: MarshaIl, 1979: McCadden. 1995: Ortiz, 1972: Redding. 1990; Ronkowski. 1985: Schrier & Mulcahy. 1988: Shere. 1993: Valt~erde.1974: Yunker. 1977). The women and men in this srudy lefi the tracher role. The wornen were part of the minority that research shows successfülly separated from the role of

teacher and become secondary school administrators (Bell and Chase, 1993; Canadian Education Statistics Council. 1996: Federation of Women Teachers' Associations of Ontario. 1996: Ontario Ministry of Education. 1992; School leaders. 1996; Statistics Canada, 1996). While the women and men in this study were not always deliberately separating from the teacher role, their experiences served that purpose.

Transformational Leadershi!, Practices Dun ne the Se~arationPhase During the separation phase these women and men held formal leadership positions as assistant department heads. department heads. and coordinator. Transformational leadership practices were evident while they occupied those roles. The concept o f transformational leadership was reviewed in chapters two and four. The practices identified in a school setting \vere providing a vision or inspiration. providing an appropriate model. fostering group goals. providing support. holding high performance expectations and providing intetIectua1 stimulation. Five of these six transformational practices were identified during the separation phase of these women and men.

In school settings. providing a vision or inspiration was identified as important. These women and men were active in building a vision and inspiring other members of staff. During the separation phase they had the positions of assistant department head. department head. and coordinator. In these roles they were involved in lifting morale and inspiring staff

members. Under their leadership the staff becarne excited and rnotivated and were able to accomplish a great deal for students. They were very enthusiastic about their work and al1 thsy were able to accomplish in those roles. Their involvement in the curriculum gave them great professional satisfaction. They were innovative and spearheaded the development of courses of study: they improved and initiated prograrns. Leaders are seen as providing an appropriate model when they behave in ways that set an example for others to follow. Their behavior is consistent with the values they espouse. As assistant depart rnent heads. departrnent heads. and coordinator these women and men were intensely involved in the life of the school. They thrived on the great diversity that the role

entai Ied. Group goals are fostered as leaders promote cooperation among staff and assist them in working together towards common goals. Their positions as assistant department heads. department heads. and coordinator gave these women and men an immediate group to work with on a collaborative basis. They sought cooperation without requiring conforrni ty among members of their departments. They also reached outside this group and fostered collaboration with other agencies, educators, and with other departrnents. Individualized support is present when respect is shown for individuals and concern about their personal feelings and needs. These women and men saw providing extensive suppon to their teachers as an important and enjoyable part of their role. In several cases their support to teachers took the form of a mentoring relationship. They provided the materials teachers needed and encouragement to be h l l y involved in the life of the schooI. They assisted teachers with discipline. helped them with teaching strategies and encouraged them to use their diverse gifts. Their support to students was also evident. They were strong advocates for their students and worked hard to provide the best for them. These women and men were aIso on the receiving end of support and encouragement as they considered becoming administrators. Intellectual stimulation is evident when staff members are challenged to reexamine some of their assumptions about their work and to rethink how it can be perfornied. An important part of this in schools is the attention paid to professional development. These men and women enabled their staff members to be involved in professional development. Their involvement included providing the time' developing the content and giving the

152

professional development sessions. They sought to give teachers knowledge and confidence. They were aIso cognizant of their own intellectual growth during this time. Their contact with professionals in other agencies and educators outside tlieir schools and their work with other departments expanded their horizons and provided professional stimulation for them. Their university studies kept them currcnt. extended their interactions with educators from other boards. provinces and countries. and indicated their cornmitment to education. The anention these women and men paid to their own intellectual growth was a factor in their identification as potentiaI administrators. This work at the school. district. and provincial level allowed these wornen and men to esercise leadership. taught them skills. gave them confidence. and made them visible. Although they were not consciously seeking attention. the extra work these women and men undenook and the way in which they esercised leadership had to be noticed by peers and superordinates. Their ongoing studies gave them knowledge. enabled them to rneet other educators and indicated their commitrnenr to education to their supenors. When women and men were needed to fil1 administrative positions. they were obvious candidates.

Gender Based Differences in Socialization During Se~arationPhase Gender based differences in socialization were evident during the separation phase. The process of separation was longer and more difficult for the wornen than for the men. The women taught for double the amount of time as the men before deciding on becoming a vice principal. They were comfortable in the teaching role. found fulfillment and purpose in that role and were very reluctant to leave it. Blood (1966)' Eddy (1 969), and Valverde (1974)

found similar reluctance on the part of those who spent a long time in a particular role. Marshall (1979) found that women ofien had no guidance and no delineated patterns to follo\v in their path to administration. A number of factors that were different frorn those of the men influenced the decision

of these women to separate from the teaching role and enter administration. First. they began to examine their roles as spouse and mother in relation to their careers and make decisions to accommodate both. This examination of roles during separation was found in several studies. Draper's ( 1 99 1 ) freshmen and Shere's (1 993) students in a summer program for university bound graduates reexarnined their roles within the family and found that changes were inevitable. Reexarnination of family roles were a part of separation for Marshall's ( 1 979) female administrators. The women in this study decided that with some adj ustments the role of adrninistrator could be combined with the roles of spouse and mother. Their decisionmaking process was similar to that of Redding's (1990) female returnees to university who made mental adjustments and physical accommodations for their families during the separation period when they made plans to return to university as mature students. The women in this stiidy did not face the problems of stereotyping and the taboos around family that created problems for Baudoux's ( 1 995) subjects. Second. they waited until the removal of organizational barriers made it easier for women to become administrators. Several women were active in women's groups that helped rernove these barriers. The positions of assistant department head and department head had been open to women for a considerable period of time. They were prerequisites to administrative positions. Sponsorship was no longer required to take the courses required for

154

principal certification. The women did not have to take on the task of looking for sponsorship with the stress of possible rejection in order to take the courses. The board included women as well as men as members of selection tearns for administrative positions. Central office administrators. trustees. parents. and schooI based administrators provided diverse points of view. ensured that women were considered for administrative positions. and kept the tearns focused on professional cornpetence. Third. they delayed their decision until they saw that the administrative role could be articulated to make a difference for students. The women cited the opportunity to make a difference for students as a compelling reason for their decision to enter administration. They came to the realization that the administrative role was one that could be performed to make a difference for students. The women's motive was service to others. which was in line with wornen's culturally defined roIe (Marshall. 1979). Female socialization in Marshall's ( 1979) study of administrators taught and rewarded these women for devotion to helping others and for child orientation. Rather than buy into the male career reasons totally. the women redefined the role of administrator to fit cultural expectations for women. They saw the position of administrator as one where they could be of service to al1 students in the school. Fourth. they waited until there were females in positions of authority in the education system who provided encouragement and support. The importance of advocates who are in positions to help advance the careers of women during this period of separation is shown in the literature. Valverde (1974) saw both subconscious and conscious factors involved in the

identification of possible candidates for administration during separation. Identification entailed two efforts by the sponsor. one was subconscious. the other conscious. First they

155

were subconsciously identified as possible candidates because of traits they possessed which were similar to. if not the sarne as. the sponsor's professional qualities. Following this subconscious identification. conscious identiling took place. The sponsor proceeded to locate possibIe candidates based on professional criteria. The professional criteria used by the sponsor was the same as the sponsor's administrative strengths. In my study. this pattern was evident in the appointment of the two physical education males who were identified early in

their careers by the coordinator responsible for physical education. Valverde ( 1974) showed that in addition to not being seen as possessing the desired traits. ethnic minorities and women were perceived to have some defective persona1 qualities. These factors made it difficult for women and ethnic minorities to be identified as potential candidates (Valverde. 1974). It was only when pressure was exerted to have women and rninorities identified that

mernbers of these groups were included in the selection process (Vatverde. 1974). in the eighties the educational climate changed in Ontario and women were recruited into administration. The sponsorship system began to work for them. Women were in positions where they were able to advocate for candidates. While potential female candidates were identified by both women and men. the sponsorship of other women was particularly important. They shared more common traits with women advocating on their behalf than with the men who were involved in the identification process. The consistent use of the sponsorship pattern as elucidated by Valverde (1974) was still evident in those identified Iater in their careers. However. women were now identified as well as men. In five of the schools

the focus o f the administration was on improving the education of disadvantaged students. The administrators wanted specially designed prograrns to meet the needs o f thesr students in

a changing society and the prospective candidates spearheaded the introduction of these

programs. Professional development was a priority of administrators and six of the potential candidates were leaders in this area. They had also followed the established route in their career path from teacher to assistant head to department head. The encouragement of females in positions of responsibility was particularly important to the women when they be,Dan to consider taking on administrative roles. Women wrre being recruited for administrative positions to meet govenunent targeting requirements. In addition to the benefits of having women in superordinate positions advocate for them, the encouragement from these women in administrative positions helped overcome the psychological barriers of lack of confidence and belief that they did not fit the image of administrator. Fifth. the women received a tremendous amount of encouragement before they decided to separate from the teacher role and become administrators. The amount of encouragement they received before making a decision to enter administration far esceeded that of the men. The excessive amount of encouragement needed was a direct result o f the difficulties they encountered as teachers. They had worked within a system which for years had given women the message of unsuitability for the role of administrator. Their confidence

in their own administrative ability had been shaken. Leithwood. Begley & Cousins ( 1 992) esaminrd five studies which had women and men in their sarnples and found that women expressed much less confidence than men in their readiness to assume an administrative roIe.

The women in my study had added the role of teacher to that of spouse and mother. a change that was only endorsed by the education community and society in general during the course of their teaching careers. Though this arrangement entailed occupational limitations, they

were reluctant to embrace the stress that hrther change required in order to become administrators. The men separated more easiiy from the role of teacher. Two o f the men went through the separation phase early in their careers. Like the early initiates in Blood's (1966) study they separated easily. Blood (1 966) identified early and late initiates. In his study the early

initiates separated imrnediately and easily from the teacher role since they had not h l l y assumed the role identity of a teacher. The three other men began to consider administration relatively early in their reaching careers. A number of factors influenced the decision of the men to becorne administrators that were different from those of the women. First. they wanted a change frorn the classroom teaching that was an integral part o f the responsibilities o f department head. Second, they enjoyed administrative tasks. Third. they saw the vice principal role as the nert logical step in their careers. The motives of self interest on the part o f men were in line with society's expectations for males. They were expected to pay attention to their careers and move up in the hierarchical education system. The element of logical career moves was not present in the decisions of the wornen. Like those in several research studies ( Acker. 1995: Grant. 1989: Wornll. 1995). the women in this study sought promotion to meet their own needs not promotion for its own sake. The women and men had acquired sorne of the skills necessary for administration through their work as assistant department heads. department heads, and CO-ordinator. Success in these roles aIso gave thern confidence that they could handle administrative duties. Researc h indicates that certain experïences in previous roles give people ski11s and confidence when they contemplate new roles. Eddy (1969) found that important leaming

about teaching occurred during student teaching which gave thern confidence as they separated from that role and anticipated their role as teachers. B d s (1987) in his study of police officers in the separation phase found them looking at their previous experiences and believing they had acquired the skills necessary to fil1 the role of officer in the next higher

rank.

Problematic Situations Rrsulting in Perspective Shift Durine Separation Phase During the separation phase the candidates faced problematic situations and found

wsys of dealing with them. When these women and one man encountered problematic

situations they coped by forming a perspective as defined by Becker et al. (1 96 1 ). The theory

of perspective which Becker et al. developed was explained in chapter two. This perspective is defined as an individual's perception o f and plans o f action for problematic situations. The women and the man in this study reacted similarly to problematic situations. The process of separation presented different problematic situations to the various candidates. AI1 of the women and one of the men faced problematic situations in leaving the role of teacher and taking on the role of aspiring administrator. Women faced psychological crises. Though very qualified academically and with appropriate experience. they did not believe that they were qualified for the job, that they fit the image of an administrator or that

it was a role where they could make their best contribution. They also did not have confidence in their own ability to successfully get through the process involved in moving ahead and being promoted. The roles to which they aspired were deemed inappropriate for women by many educators.

159 There were also organizational barriers. Women experienced difficulties in being appointed as assistant department heads or department heads even though they had many years of successful teaching experience. They were informed that their gender was the reason they were not selected. These positions of responsibility were essential steps in the path to administration. One man esperienced sorne difficulty in obtaining his first department headship. However. he first attempted to obtain a headship afier teaching for only two years. A requirement for becoming an administrator was the principal certification courses.

Potential administrators had to have a recommendation from their superordinates in the system in order to take the courses. Women routinely experienced difficulty obtaining that endorsement. School boards rarely appointed women to administrative position in high schools. Members of school boards did not see women as capable and effective in these roles. These organizational obstacles helped create the psychological barriers that the women also had to surmount.

The Lvomen and one man who faced problematic situations during the separation phase developed a perception of. and plans of action for, these problematic situations. The women and man kept trying until they were appointed as assistant department heads or department heads. The women realized that without action on their part less capable men would continue to be placed in positions of responsibility over them. n i e y became politicized and joined women's groups to obtain support and learn how to move ahead and be promoted. Several women and the man changed boards in order to place themselves in a more favorable position for advancement. The wornen who were wives and mothers redefined their roles to include taking on more responsibility in their professional lives. They began to look at

160 administration from a different perspective and saw it as a place where they could make a difference for students. With support they came to redize that they were quite capable of leaming and Futfilling the administrative role. They took the extra time needed to build up their self confidence. The wornen were part of the affirmative action movement. They worked for legislative changes and waited until they were in effect. The result was that certain organizational barriers were removed and the process was more fernale friendly when they fùlfilled the requirements for entering administration.

Conclusion

The women and men in this study occupied the forma1 leadership positions of assistant department heads. department heads. and coordinator during the separation phase of their careers. Their esperiences show how important these positions are in leaming administrative skills. exercising leadership and in positioning teachers for advancement into administration. Their organizational. personnel. and curricuiurn responsibilities allowed them to be intensely involved in the life of the school. They acquired administrative skills by managing their own departments. Their role enabled them to serve as advisors to the administration and as a support to teachers. They provided leadership in curriculum areas. developed courses of study. improved and initiated prograrns. These positions put them in contact with other agencies and educators. Their work with other departments provided professional stimulation and expanded their horizons. They continued to pursue studies that were of immediate use to them in their work. The focus of al1 their endeavors was the students. The quality of their work, the manner in which they worked with adults, their

attention to their own development and their dedication to students brought them t o the attention of superiors. The positive Iight in which they were seen resulted in their receiving encouragement to become administrators.

The decision to enter administration was a difficdt one for the

\\.amen.

The

encouragement they received particularly from females in positions of authority helped them overcome bamers and see the possibilities for helping students in the role of administrator. They eventually made the decision to begin the process for becoming an adrninistrator. The men made the decision more easily on the b a i s of their o w n needs.

CHAPTER 6

TRANSITION PHASE Introduction The transition phase was very important to the candidates. It began when they decided to become administrators. During this time they thought about administration. observed administrators' activities. behaviors. and attitudes. considered the demands of the role. and obtained the necessary credentials. In addition to their roles as department heads. they carried out administrative duties in the positions of administrative assistants, acting vice principals. and principal of night school. They engaged in both forma1 and informal preparation for the

administrative role. This transition period was short for the two men appointed in the sixties. It began in the spnng and concluded with their appointment to a vice principalship in

September. The three remaining men went through a longer period of transition. Their transition phase ranged from three to seven years before they received appointments as vice principal, On average the transition phase for the five women kvas shorter than for these three men. It ranged from one to three years.

Contact with the Vice Principal in the School (Role .Models) The women and men recalled their experiences with the vice principals who worked in the schools where they taught pnor to becoming administrators. With the exception of two men. who themselves became vice principals early in their teaching careers. these men and

women had minimal contact with the vice principals during their beginning years as classroom teachers. Several believed they did noi have a good appreciaiion for the role prior

163 to going into administration. They did. however. become more aware of the role once they decided to become administrators. Each found vice principals whose articulation of the role they admired. SeveraI reflected on vice principals whose methods they disliked. One wornan observed that some vice principals definitely were head and shoulders over others. Each of them experienced vice principals whose role was in operating the school. The area of operations included student discipline. time-tabling. scheduling. student attendance. textbook distribution and budgeting. Three men worked in schools where the vice principals were given total responsibility for the day to day operation of the school. Al1 vice principals were involved in discipline. time-tabling. and attendance. In two schools the women saw discipline as a difficult and time-consuming task. Vice principals brought in the parents o f students who were in difficulty and talked to hem pers on al!^ about their children. In another school. a woman observed that the key to promotion was success at discipline. The vice principals were al1 males and not very open-minded. The really successful ones were given the job of dealing with the tough students. The harsher the vice principal was on the students the more he was admired.

The really successful ones were given the disciplinary function. dealing with the tough kids and the tougher the VP was on the kids. the more admiration there was for him. So he went on. in fact. up in (name) region and becarne quite a successful educator. (Nicole) The strong focus on discipline and the way it was handled, which these women witnessed early in their teaching careers. made the role of vice principal very unattractive to thern. jessie was very aware of the point in her career when the system began moving away from the idea that al1 that vice principals did \vas discipline. Vice principals became more involved

in the decision making and leadership in the schools. They chaired committees. initiated projects. and involved teachers in new ventures. She viewed this time as the begiming of teachers and administrators working together. and so the role became more attractive. That was the time now as 1 look back that they were starting to move away from the idea that al1 that vice principals did was discipline. They got involved in a lot more things and ran committees and took on projects and got people going. So it was the beginning 1 thi& o f breaking down the walls between the school and the office and they were much more involved in things and much more cornmittee work. I think at that time thcre was a rnove to involve more people in decision making. leadership in the schools. (Jessie) Time-tabling and scheduling were other responsibilities o f vice principals. One man always remembered the master timetable as godlike. At the time it was hand done and most people did not understand how it worked. It always seemed a bit of magic when people created a timetable. A woman recalled howr narrow the role \vas for one of the three maie vice principals in one o f the schools where she worked. This man worked al1 year on time-tabling. He had a l i ttIe room with hooks on the wall. He used to stick these tickets on these hooks and if anybody slammed the door his tickets would fa11 off. In another school a man observed that

the vice principal delegated the job of creating the timetable to a member o f staff who had expertise in this area. He was given time for the task. and the work proceeded under the supenlision of the vice principal. The third area of work for al1 vice principals was attendance and attendance counseling. This task either came directly under the vice principal or it was delegated to members of the staff with the vice principal having overall responsibility. In certain schools vice principals were given responsibilities for student activities. Three women and three men experienced vice principals who were very involved with the students. They arranged for assemblies, promoted activities to raise the self esteem of

students. and organized estra-curricular activities. A woman recalled the work of the two vice principals in her first school. One man was very visible in the school and had a close relationship with the students. Among his duties was arranging Christmas and end of year assemblies. These assemblies were very popular. since the staff added a great deal of humor with their performance on stage. While the other man was more involved in the operations of the school. he was also well liked. The work they each did was equally valued by the staff. Curriculum and program responsibilities gradually becarne part of the role of vice principal. One man and two women talked about vice principals who did work in this area. They were very aware of when that shift took place and one of the women was aware of the status of the areas of responsi bility. The vice principals who were really success ful in most of the schools where she taught were given the job of discipline and the ones not quite so successful were given the time-tabling or curriculum portfolio. Afier experiencing vice principals who were involved in areas other than school operations. she saw that even at the vice principal level. which was a very constraining role at the s e c o n d q , Ievel. the vice principal could do some outstanding work for the school and for program. As I'm talking I'm realizing much of what we do here reflects that influence on my life. In thar school the vice principals and the principal had clear portfolios so the definition between what the principal did and what the VPs did \vas not so hierarchical but they would lay out what they were responsible for and you would go to whichever one had that kind of responsibility. So a VP there could be in charge of a major issue like an evaluation or student evaluation - review how we were doing it. how we should be doing it, what are the gaps and so on. So they had cross school portfolios as well as the day-to- day stuff having to do with attendance and discipline and scheduling and that's reflected here. I hadn't realized that influence. At that time I was aspiring to administration. It gave me some very clear models to look at to see that even at the VP level, which I think in some ways may be one of the most constraining roles at the Secondary School, the VP could do some outstanding stuff for the school and for the progrm. (Nicole)

Kevin's first expenence o f a vice principal's involvement in cumculum made a big impression on him.

Up to that time, his experience of the role of the vice principal had only

been in the area o f operations. He remembered discussing some cumculum and course development issues with the first female vice principal in that particular school. Afler her retirement. he hired her to help him with staff development in his school. 1 can remember discussing with one person who was a woman who was probably the first woman that school had as a vice principal. 1 c m remember discussing some curriculum issues and concems with her and some course development which had never been my experience before. She and 1 have talked about that since. She eventually went on to become a staff development person in our system. She has since retired and 1 have hired her to help me with some staff development issues in this school. We've chatted about that from time to time. (Kevin)

Jessie observed her vice principals working on prograrn and improving the cumculum. The female vice principal brought in a fashion show which was unheard of at the tirne. She also arranged an open house. She was doing stuff around program. She was doing curriculum stuff, trying to get better stuff into the curriculum. more appropriate. Like she brought in a fashion show which was unheard of at that time and worked on those kinds of things and an open house for the school. really worked on it. Having kids think well of themselves and what was going on in the school and promoting the activities. (Jessie) The male vice principal worked on improving the physical education prograrn, making it more modem and putting in things students requested. He also worked at upgrading the library and bringing in reading marerials that were more appropriate for adolescents. In contrast to this direct involvement in prograrn and curriculum. another man observed that in one of the scliools where he taught the vice principal depended on his department heads to run the curricuIum aspects of the departments. The vice principal was not very close to the curriculum and did not know the areas. except for science, which was his own background.

This lack of involvement in cumculurn and program was partially due to the fact that there was only one vice principai in the school.

Additional areas of responsibility were given to vice principals. Student evaluation and decisions on promotion. supervision of staff (including visiting classes to observe

teachers teaching) Iiaising with department heads. working on cornmittees. and budgethg were other responsibilities of vice principals. A vice principal also worked with the principal in arranging social events. The purpose of these gatherings was to make the staff cohesive. Molly was impressed with a vice principal who improved communication with the departments in the school. M e n she first became a vice principal, she followed his mode1 of handling esamination schedules and the opening and closing of school.

I'm thinking of one particularly who. in terms of pulling the school together around more effective communication to the departments. One of the models that I took with me when 1 first became a VP was around examination schedules. about opening the school. about closing the school. And every year you'd get you know at least fifieen or twenty memos and you'd think where's that memo about this and where is it about that. 1 remember as a department head being so impressed because he pulled everything together so it made our job easier in the classroom. At the end of the year you got a duo tang with everything that y o ~ needed i to know right from locker clean out. exam schedules. evaluation. promotion meetings. the last day of school about handing your keys in. I remember thinking. god this is temfic. (Molly)

He introduced other practices in the area of effective communication which made the life of the teacher in the classroom easier and helped them ro do their job more effectively. Through

his efforts the relationship between the administration and the teaching staff in the school was greatly improved . The operating styles of certain of their vice principals made a vivid impression on three of the women and two of the men. The three women between them recalled their experiences with nine males and two fernales. Four of the male vice principals with whom

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these women worked did not relate well to staff and students. The women were positive in their assessment of the working styles of the other five male vice principals and the two females with whom they worked. Jessie recalled her relationship with a vice principal whom she found very difficult. This man was very domineering. One day she confronted him. and after that he \vas professional in his interactions with her. She believed he was the old style of leader who thought the appropriate way of asserting authority was to raise your voice. Male administrators of that period were on a power trip and liad no sense of collaboration or shared decision making. according to her. She attributed this to the lack of appropriate role models. This man used the same leadership style when he became principal. She succeeded him. and members o f the staff told stories of his intimidation of thern. Jessie also worked with a female vice principal who supported her and challenged her to plan her career. Nicole worked with tliree males who had very closed minds and were rigid in their ways of operating. They refused to change until they were forced to do so. The school in which they worked was the last school in the province to move to the credit system. Molly worked with a male vice principal who was pleasant but not very strong. The remaining vice principals worked well with both students and teachers and. because of this. accomplished a great deal for students.

The women had a tremendous respect for these vice principals and learned skills they were able to use when they themselves became vice principals. Nathan and Joshua recalled with

admiration the working styles of two of the male vice principals with whom they worked. These vice principals did most of the administrative work in their schools. In one case the man was very ovenvorked since he taught half-time and was responsible for the day-to-day

169 operation of the school. The other man worked hard and kvas appreciated by both teachers and students.

Role of Principal (Role 1Models) These women and men recalled the principals with whom they worked prior to taking on the role of principal themselves. While many of the principals whose qualities and practices they valued operated schools close to the time they decided to enter administration. there were exceptions. Two women and a man admired certain aspects of their first principal's style of operation, and one man worked with a principal for whorn he had tremendous admiration. Although he was onIy at the school for the first two years of his teaching career. he looked to his experience with this principal when he began to prepare for administration. There were certain practices these subjects clearly valued in the principals with whom the). workrd. These practices included sharing their vision with the staff. defining and

working towards goals. taking risks. and concentrating on student needs. They liked principals who promoted and were involved in staff development, were concerned with being learners. worked cooperatively with staff. showed their support for teachers. and made staff aware of their high expectations. The habit of being visible in the school and being involved

in what was happening in the school was praised. They commended principals who displayed high moral standards. showed a sense of humor. cornmunicated effectively. and were politicaliy aware. These women and men worked under at least one principal who had a philosophy. or

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vision. for the school. Two women and one man saw the school board's move into school planning as a force in establishing a vision. They saw a definite rnove from preserving the status quo. to dealing with the whole issue of meeting student needs. It became very much a topic of discussion in schools. In the beginning. they did not speak of a vision for the school. but they questioned what they were trying to do and the reasons they were doing it in a certain way. The five women saw the vision of their principals as concerned with the students as people. The women spoke o f equity. self-esteem. well-bsing o f the students. giving them every opportunity for success. and being supportive of them. Rebekah worked with a principal whose vision was to ensure fàirness for students. Well. the first principal. my first principal there. her vision would centre around the equity issue for the students in the school. A highly multicu1tural school. high needs students. adult and adolescent. So her vision would be equity for the student population. Very difficult. that would be. (Rebekah) Jessie worked with a principal whose first prionty was to make the students believe in themselves. He showed his staff how to accornplish this and confronted staff members who were not doing the best for the students. Molly had two principals. one male and one female. who had similar visions. The students in the school came from middle class and welfare homes. This man wanted the students to have every opportunity for success. His priority was to make sure teachers were aware of this. and to provide every opportunity for their

professional growth. The vision of the female principal k v a s to create an environment where every student was cornfortable and successful. regardless o f their economic, racial. or cultural background. Ina appreciated working with a principal whose vision centered around staff members and their impact on students. He envisioned teachers working together to provide the very best for students. His formal route for communicating his vision was by speaking

eloquently about it at committee. department head. and staff meetings. He also spoke informally to individuals and small groups. in the halls and staff room. Teachers were affirmed in what they were doing and told how their work fit into his hopes and drearns. Another of her principals had a vision of having students reach their potential. Nicole worked with a very liberal-minded. fair principal who was very concemed about student welfare. His vision centered around the well being of students. He set goals with his administrative team and shared his performance objectives ~viththe staff. This was long before the board pressured schools to do this. Three of the men worked with principals whose philosophy was to meet student needs. and have students do as well as they could academically. n i e other two men worked with principals whose actions showed that they had a vision for the school. In Roland's first school the principal was intensely inïolved in al1 aspects of school life. He created a farnily environment in a school of one thousand students. The prograrns that he introduced met the needs of the poverty-stricken students in the school. and gave them hope for the future. Joshua worked \vith a principal who had a vision for reclaiming and renewing a school that had been taken over by radical student and community power groups. Using a task force approach to school renewal. he regained control. Each of the women and men worked with the principals who were initiators of change and took some risks in their jobs. However. the amount of risk-taking and the type of risktaking activities varied considerabiy. One risk-taking activity was giving the staff a great deal of autonomy over their roles. A second \vas initiating a heads' committee and giving decision making powers to the committee. Introducing the semester system to a school when

172 the concept was new was a third. Starting programs that were cross-cumcular. in the days when everything was rigidly departmentalized. and introducing new and creative programs to meet student needs were other risk-taking initiatives. Particular community needs were addressed. A daycare center was established in one school. In another the school becarne the community center. and students in a c h e f s training course provided a catering service to groups in the community. New ventures faced strong opposition in one community. Jessie and Roland worked with principals who were very change oriented and took risks that transformed the school. Jessie worked under a principal who took over a school that was seen as the worst in the system. The principal hired staff who were change oriented. He

initiated large scale changes. and becarne involved in every aspect of school life. By the time he lefi. he had improved the image of the school to such an estent that teachers wanted to go there. At his first schooI Roland had a principal who was an incredible risk taker. The school was situated near a large community fiiled with poverty. alcoholism. and instability. High unsmployment resulted in a strong reliance on government support. He was detemined to infuse hope into the lives o f the students. Their personal and social. as a-el1as their academic lives. received attention fiorn him. Students were given responsibility and the staff was involved in making decisions. Numerous programs were introduced. While the community intensely opposed the introduction of certain programs. the staff and students supported him. Eventual ly he gained acceptance from the community. Student needs were the focus for a number o f principals. Eight o f the subjects. five wonien and three men worked with principals who were very close to students. They were visible in the school and spent time with students in large groups, small groups, and on a one-

to- one basis. It was a rural community. He'd do things like graduation night. h s literally opened his

house. He opened the upstairs to the staff and the basement to the students. And you knotv a lot of kids didn't have dates and they had nowhere to go and yet he didn't want graduation night not to be a memorable expenence for them. so they came there. They liked him so rnuch that after they went out on their dates and went to their parties and did whatever. his house was open and they knew it was open for breakfast as welt. so they came in and he'd make breakfast for them. It's not that it was that small a school. We had. oh 1 don't know how many people. 43 staff. so whatever that might translate into. There were 1.000 students in the school so there would be a big graduation class. There would be about 100 or 150 or so in a graduating class. So the place was booming. Part of that was because of his own children their age and they were available. But it was a very nice kind of a family environment that he had created. He went out of his way to support the students in the school. (Roland) Students admired principals tvho becmie so involved with them. These women and men also appreciated working with principals who created very student-centered schools. There was an obvious increase in the arnount and kind of professional development offered over the years. from the board-initiated professional development and prokssional organization conferences in the late sixties. to the shift in the eighties towards school based staff development. Thsse changes affected the way principals perfonned their roles. With t exception of ~

W O women

and one man. the involvement of their principals was limited to

advertising the board prokssional development initiatives. and the conferences offered by professional developrnent associations. and encouraging teachers to apply and attend. The staff development that occurred in the schools originated with the department heads. The principals encouraged and supported their professional development initiatives. Ina and Jessie worked with principals who arranged for professional development, brought facilitators in and had professional development at staff meetings. Nathan worked with a principal who conducted a number of staff development workshops for the board. This principal encouraged

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liis staff to become involved. initiated professional development in his own school. and brought people in to work with his staff. Support for staff was viewed as important. Seven of the participants. four women and three men, worksd with principals who were particularly supportive. They were very aware and appreciative of the support of their principals for the work they were doing for students. and for the protèssional decisions and judgements they made. This support took different forms. One was upholding a teacher in his decision to discipline students for their destructive behavior while on a field trip. Another \vas supporting the curriculum initiatives of fernale teachers. A third was allowing teachers to take risks and proceed with innovative plans even while feeling uncomfortable about new initiatives. Dropping in on meetings and writing notes to commend teachers for their work were other ways of showing support. Allowing teachers to proceed with plans. even though he had strong reservations about their decision. was another forrn of support. The four women had strong professional interests and

motivations. They appreciated the support of principals when they began new ventures to meet the needs of students. They were involved in improving curriculum and introducing new prograrns. Jessie found it exciting to work with a principal who admired strong women and supported them. Nicole worked with a principal who was forthright in giving support and criticism. This approach forced them to stand up for their own ideas. Two of the men appreciated the support they received for their professional decisions. Joshua had a camping trip planned for twelve students of both sexes. A report came in that a family had been murdered. and a rumor started that the person responsible had been seen in the area where they were going to camp. A meeting was hastily callsd prior to their departure. White the

principal wanted to cancel the trip. the teachers voted to go. The principal allowed the teachers' decision to stand. but laid down strict niles to be followed on the trip. Al1 o f these women and men worked with at least one principal who comrnunicated v e q well with the staff. Memos were a standard form of communication. but were used estensiveiy by one principal. Staff meetings were used for free flowing dialogue. In addition to these traditional kinds of communication. two wornen and two men worked with principals

who had frequent contact with individual teachers or small groups on staff. Teachers liked

this method of communication and appreciated being asked for their input on school issues. Two men also worked with principals who kept the comrnunity informed of what was happening in the school. This was accomplished through newsletters. and sessions when groups of parents were invited into the school for coffee and dialogue. In schools where

L

principals comrnunicated well and consulted widely teachers influenced what happened in the school. Three women and two men worked with principals who invested a great deal of time and energy into having staff work together. These principals worked with and through the staff to develop ownership for what was going on in the school. Connections were made between departments. and the staff was encouraged to take responsibility for what was happening in the whole school, as opposed to operating in departments isolated from the group. Eight participants, five women and t h e e men, worked with principals who had. as a feature of their leadership style, high visibility within the school. These principals spent a great deal of time with teachers and students. and consequently they knew what was happening in the school. Their visibility had a very positive effect on the staff and students.

Two women and a man appreciated the [email protected] expectations of a principal with whom they

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worked. These male principals demanded a lot of their staffs but supported them. As a result they were very productive. Three participants. two women and one man. worked under principals who were politically astute. These male principals understood the politics of education. They remembered everything that went on and pulled it ail together. This was viewed as a positive trait in these principals. Nathan and Roland worked under principals concerned with having a rigidly controlled learning environment. which they believed was conducive to good teaching. One sought to do this by concentrating o n having a ciean and orderly school building. The other ensured that supervision of students. discipline. and attendance were given priority. Six participants. three wornen and three men. worked with male principals who were congenial. This trait was viewed positively by two women and a man. Their principals were very kind. warm and relaved in their manner, but nevertheless

were strong decision makers and accomplished a tremendous amount. There were other qualities and actions these women and men admired in the principals under whom they worked. Individual women found they appreciated working with a principal who \vas very good at following up on problems. was very aware of what was happening in the school. and quickly leamed the way the staff operated. A sense of humor

and a positive attitude were seen as valuable assets. Fairness in deahng with staff, and an attitude that allowed for professional disagreements while maintaining respect for the person were commended. Taking on tough situations o r facing down incompetent teachers were actions that were admired. Modeling how discipline should be done and demonstrating a knowledge of good teaching was praised. They also comrnended the practices o f reading widely, encouraging teachers to do the same, intellectually stimulating teachers by planting

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ideas. and developing the leadership skills of teachers. lndividual men appreciated specific qualities in principals. Honesty and authenticity were valued. A brusque. formal manner was admired. The ability to gather relevant information and make definite decisions was cornmended. Defining a job for himself and making the staff aware of the principal's responsibilities was viewed as very professional. Openness and inventiveness were appreciated.

Negative Practices Used by Administrators

There were principal practices that were detrimental to learning and those they were determined not to emulate. These practices included using an authontarian. repressive approach in their dealings with staff and students. concentrating mainly on routine tasks. being indecisive. and playing favorites. Isolating themselves from the staff and students. maintaining the status quo. abdicating responsibilities in order to be congenial. and constantly reacting to crises were other practices they disliked. They also condemned the practices of discriminating against female staff and students of different races. engaging in sexist talk. and being narrow and dogrnatic. Three women and five men worked with principals who maintained a distance from their staff. Two wornen and two men worked under principals who canied out the role in a very autocratic fashion. There was Iittle flexibility or humanity. and a definite gulf between

the principal and the rest of the staff. When they met as a staff. the teachers were spoken down to and given orders. Control was a very important issue, and teachers and students knew their place in the hierarchy.

h4ethods used by other principals for maintaining a distance from the staff were never coming out of the principal's office, pfaying the role of philosopher king. dispensing advice and wisdom at will o r at request. maintaining adversarial relationship with the staff (so tèachers uvereafraid to approach the principal) and leaving the work to the staff. Only one person worked with a female principal who was not close to the staff. She was very bright and articulate' but spent a great deal of time outside the school in board-centered projects. He

believed the staff would have felt more connected had she spent more tims in the school. Three of the autocratic principals had been in the military and the experience had carried over into their way of operating in the schools. He was a person who spent some time in the N a w . So he really ran the school under Navy rules. And ... there was a regular succession of' bells at strange times like 1 :5 1. end of the period afier lunch. School ended at 3: 1 8 ... there were rules rather than guideline. Yes. thatfsa good way to put it. And the rules existed not just for students but for staff. There was very little flesibility or humanity in the whole thing. And even though Ifd grown up in a system which perhaps tends to be more like that in some ways. 1 think it was overly regimented. (Nathan) Another principal had been in the role for a long time. was tired, and did not want to be involved. A third found a management style that was comfortable for him. The women and men spoke negatively of this isolation on the pan ofprincipals. They believed this type of leadership was detrimental to the school and created many problems for the staff and students. Among the problems esperienced in these schools were ovenvorked vice principals.

a negative atmosphere. stressed and unhappy teachers. and the exodus of many students and teachers. Two female teachers and a male delibrrately lefi schools where principals used this f o m of leadership. Four of them- two men and two women, worked under principals whose only purpose was to rnaintain the status quo and who became nervous around staff who

pressed for change. They were in the business of doing what had always been done. Three participants. one woman and two men. disliked working with principals who

Lvere indecisive. The parameters kept changing and this had a negative effect within the school. Sometimes it was a case of a principal deciding on a course of action and then changing his mind when someone lobbied him. At other times. consensus on a direction for

the school was achieved at a meeting. and then the principal reworked the whole plan.

He sat on the committee. 1 chaired it but we had a working group of staff. we al1 worked through certain things and he argued for some things and against some things while working in the cornmittee and then when we al1 finished he went and reworked the thing and that was much to the horror of al1 the people who'd been working on it. And I guess the thing that bothered us at the time was that how could somebody participate in it. fight at that level and then go away and rework. You know in sorting out who had the right to do what and what's the role o f the principal in what situations and that was really informative. I thought that was not correct to do it that way. (Joshua) There were other qualities and actions these women and men disliked in the principals under whom they worked. Individual women found they disliked working with a principal who reacted to whatever came to his attention. was unfair. or was very consen;ative. They did not like working with a principal who was confused. was unable to pull the school together. or played favorites. They found it difficult to work with a principal who was repressive towards students generally. minorities in particular, or was sssist. 1 think his vision was a 1950's. middle class. WASP (White, Anglo-saxon. Protestant) hope for the future. Their kicis was his hope and anybody who didn't fit into that was not gonna be there very long at that school. (Nicole)

Individual men found they disliked working with a principal who did not support their decisions, did not take a fair share of the workload. did not alIow them to set their own agenda. or made unreasonable demands on their time. Congenial principals were viewed

negatively if they used undesirable methods of operation.

Exceptional Leaders as Role Models Al1 ten spoke of people who had been role models. However, six of them. four women and two men. identified one or more individuals who had a tremendous impact on them. Their role models were administrators in the schools. professors. and a physical education and heaith coordinator. They saw these individuals as strong leaders. and people whose leadership practices had an enonnous influence in the field of education. The women had exceptional female and male role models. There were rnany quatities they admired in these individuals. A high level of integrity was comrnended. Kindness. kvarrnth. gregariousness. and sincerity were appreciated. Good communication skills were considered an asset. Risk-taking. trying controversial approaches, and being innovative were lauded. Faimess in dealing with staff. a positive attitude. liberal mindedness. and being open to new ideas were appreciated. Being willing to take strong stands and make decisions were admired. Having a strong philosophy of education and a clear vision were praised. They believed the way these people operated created an atmosphere that enabled teachers and studsnts to do their best. The principals sought input from staff on the direction they should move in and encouraged teachers to extend themselves. Intellectual stimulation was provided by recommending readings in areas of teacher interest and expertise and constantly presenting new ideas. The strengths and interests of the staff were known and taken into consideration as they worked closely with them. Goals were set and performance objectives were shared with the staff. New teachers were nurtured and professional

development activities were arranged for the whole staff. The students were the prioriw in the school. Teachers who wanted to initiate projects for the benetit of students were hired. They ~enuinelyliked students, showed concern. and were actively involved with them. They

C

tackled difficult problems and celebrated school successes. A farnily environment was created as they made themselves available. and got to know students and their families. They reached out and made connections with other schools. 1 remember her well. She's one of my role models (laugh). She was an excellent. excellent principal: she's a superintendent now. Very much a people person and a rrood listener. Covered a lot of bases again. Made people feel that they were supported and encouraged them to be involved. always to do more than they were doing. And she \vas ais0 very good at routing material to people. She got to know the people well. their interests and strengths, and routed material to them Say. "1 thought you might be interested in this." She really got her staff using the library a whole lot more. We used to subscribe to professional magazines and route these to staff as well. (Ina) LI

He would have been the first principal 1 ever had who shared his performance objectives with the whole staff. He also would have had goals set with the administrative team which were general overall goals for the school and would have been articulated as the things that we wouid be working on at that time. Not necessarily as goals for the school. but he would have set that up and started that long before we ever had senior staff pressure to do it. (Nicole) Professors chailenged the thinking of the women and provided inspiration and support. He was fantastic. He was just an excellent teacher and he had just begun some interesting research on the role of directors in Ontario. Interesting, currrnt. interesting stuff. The first of its kind research 1 think. (name) was staunchly an affirmative action. not just for women. I'm sure he would have been for minority people as well. And he taught me to trust myself even when 1 am in the minority. (Rebekah) The two men who identified specific individuals as role model identified a man. Probably a person who was not a school administrator. He was the coordinator of physical and health education here. He passed on a few years ago. 1 think he had a great influence on a lot of phys. ed. people. This board was known at one time for promoting a lot of phys. ed. males into administration. I think part of that reason was the role model that he presented as a person, just the way he carried out his duties, extraordinaire, which we al1 appreciated and thought he was you know the greatest

person. A vecy high level of integrity always ths notion of sharing of things amongst people and always doing the best for his students. ( C d ) The principal was just a tremendous person who. 1 imagine. we al1 learned a tremendous arnount from. He was very. very supportive. He went out of his Wray to support the students in the school. He had some very strong philosophies of education which actually ran a little bit counter to the community. He stuck up for what he believed in and he stood up for the students and they appreciated that. We opened a neuvschool in the days of moving walls out of schools and we tried a number of very controversial. in that community. (Roland)

Crçdentials Required for Administrative Positions

The principal certification courses were a requirement for ail administrators in Ontario. The two men who were encouraged to go into administration early in their careers were appointed to administrative positions at the end of the school year in June. for the start of the school year in September. They took the first part of the principal certification program the summer prior to beginning their job. The second part was taken after being a vice principal for one or two years. This was in the late sixties. The five women and rernaining three men finished the principal certification courses before being appointed as administrators. Three of the women and one man took the courses as pan of their professional development. prior to their decision to enter administration. The five women took the principal certification courses afier the Ministry of Education discontinued the requi rement of sponsorship.

The experiences of the women and men varied. The content and format of the principal certification courses changed over time and varied depending on the institution offering it. There was also a difference between the first and second parts of the program. Three women and three men had high praise for part one. They described it as helpful, very

lielpful. great. and fabulous. In speaking about part one they recalled the current professional development. the contacts they made which they still maintained. learning from each other. the excitement and the discussions around issues. There were opportunities to dialogue and exchange ideas and the group ieaders were sensitive to adult learners. They benefitted from the ~resentationsthey made and from hearing the presentations made by others. The messages given by knowledgeable and inspirational speakers proved to be helpful. The first year was fabulous. The person who was in charge of what we called our home groups was an elementary principal from the city of Toronto who kvas absolutely a fabulous educator. Certainly was very sensitive to the needs of adult learners and ... it was a wonderful group. 1 lsarnt so much in terms of leadership. esamining different issues. and I found it really. really interesting. (Mo11y)

Part two was disappointing for the rnajority of women and men. The format and focus \vas very similar but the groups were not as interesting and it was not as well planned. The escitement and cornmitment were missing. 1 took part tw-O 1 guess the nest year and it was disappointing. 1 think we'd had enough by then. It was just sort of going through the motions. It wasn't as much fun. wasn't as exciting. 1 don't know why. And that's how most part two people feel even now and little more jaded. They dont want to do it. (laugh) Part one is great. 1 taught part one last year. It was wonderful. God it was like beinp a kid again. The people were like sponges. They just thought everythins you said was wonderful. (laugh). Gee that's what we must have been like. (Jessie)

Roland found both parts of the program helpful which he attributed to the arnount of work he put into the courses. Nicole and C a l found components of the courses helpful but thought the overall experience was not of great help to thern.

Graduate Studies While Preparing for Administrative Positions Graduate work was part of the leaming experiencrs of these women and men. Four of

the women and three men were engaged in their studies while preparing for administrative positions. They found the content o f the courses. the professors who taught these courses. and their interactions with their classrnates helpful. Three of the women had high praise for certain professors. These professors were a source of knowtedge. inspiration. and affirmation for the women. There was one professor. there were two of them. actually there were three of them. One who taught me two courses. one of them \vas in law. the other was an introductory program and he ended up being my advisor on my thesis. my project. And he was excellent. he had a really good vision and kvas very dow-n to earth in t e m s of the role of the administrator and the whole issue of education generally. The other person was a man ... God he was like a researchers' dream 1 guess ... the way he conducted his course. It was one of the summer ones 1 took. We did the work and the way he structures his course tvas absolutely fabulous. He challenged us. We had some of the most exciting discussions in his class. He was absolutely wonderful. really wonderful. you know. The other was a woman that 1 had who was teaching me. And 1 liked her approach because it was far different from mine. But 1 respected the way she did things. She was really a detail person and 1 must admit there are some things about details that 1 ignore. And 1 need to have people around me who spend time doing that. It's not that 1 ignore details but some people love to get into them. 1 don't love to get into them (laugh). I'm. you know. the large picture and 1 love doing the steps but the little bitsy things. She forced me back into doing some things Iike that. that 1 thinlc was really helpful for me. (Molly) The women gaincd confidence through thrir graduate work. Rebekah espressed appreciation for a number of her professors. One of her male professors took a strong stand on affirmative action and targeting. He spent a lot of time in his course talking about affirmative action. Number targets were just coming to the fore and the class held a lot of males who were seeking promotion and dealing with the targeting issue. They were very upset but the professor was staunchly affirmative action and taught her to trust herself even when she was in the minority and overwhelmingly outnumbered by males. A second professor who was elitist further solidified her philosophy. He believed twenty percent of the

185 students in schools were never going to learn and teachers should spend their time on the more productive students. There was a great deal of discussion in that course around equity and eiitism. She read his writings and participated in the discussion. Her stand was totally

opposite to his and her experiences in the course enabled her to articulate her strong belief in equity and non-elitism. A third course dealt with the legal aspects of education and because of her success in this area and her liking for it she knew she would do her supervisory

officer's papers. Another professor helped her realize that she was good at the political side of education. Rebekah made close professional friends in the process of completing her master's degree. She worked with a srnail group that went through a lot of the same courses together and in this small group situation was able to express herself and gain more professional

confidence. She was still working on expressing herself forcefully in a large group situation. The two courses Jessie completed pnor to beginning her first principalship were a

great help. She went back to that professor's book on the principalship every couple of months during her first year as principal. She was in a smalI school and a k o found the second course very helpful. The other courses she found helpfuI were those taken outside educational administration. These courses were filled with people who were a lot more interesting; usually they were practicing teachers. They were fun to listen to and talk to. They kept her fresh in knowing and understanding what was going on in the classroom. whereas she found that the people in educationat administration did not want to talk about classroom issues and struggles. Ina had a mixed reaction to the courses she had already taken. Her first course dealt with the history of education in Ontario and Canada and did not seem relevant to her. She did

not have a strong interest in history and thought that the professor was temble. The politics course she finished was very good. While she found some of the courses useful. they did not contribute greatly to her preparation for administration. She was an avid reader of educational books and joumals and believed that she gained more from them than from her graduate courses. The three men worked iren;hard and found their graduate work increased their knowledge. 1 did an M.Ed. in the seventies and my M.Ed. is not in administration. It's in educational planning and curriculum. because 1 thought the admin courses were a tvaste of time at (name of university) and most of thern were ver). good. Not the curriculum courses that I took in the M.Ed.. but certainly the planning courses. because they gave a rounding out of the picture. 1 mean one of the courses 1 took was the planning and development of educational systems in developing nations. 1 found that fascinating. I found it useful. I found it helpfül. I found Ieaming more about systems and how to set up systems and how to operate systems kaas really helpful to me in my day-to-day job because what it had enabled me to do is to become a better planner. And a lot of the things I've been involved in here and will be involved in again. It's more than management. It's more than CO-ordination.It's actual planning and the process of planning and working with others in terms of setting goals and directions and so o n and caming thern through. So 1 found a Iot of the M.Ed. program really valuable in the broad educational sense to me and aIso useful in terrns of maybe perhaps expanding my own ski11 repertoire as an educator. (Nathan)

Joshua found a direct relationship between what he was studying and what was happening in his school. The professor focused on community turmoil in her class. His newly appointed

principal. who was reclaiming his school from the chaos created by special interest groups, was a resource person for the class. The issue was new to everybody and thep found dealing with the real life issue helpful. The readings he was able to do were enlightening, enjoyable. and broadening. and helped prepare him for an administrative role. He found his professors were for the most part sincere. capable professionals. There were a couple of professors he

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did not get along with. but he still benefitted from the work. Organizational development and human relations were topics he found helphl. One professor had a radically different style and he quite enjoyed his courses. A professor. on exchange from another country. required a

tremendous arnount of work from the students. As a result he learned an esceptional amount while in the course. The professor who taught a human relations course was quite different but the course was helpfbl. The work assignrnents from another course were helpful. though he did not find the classes themselves of any use. While he operated very individually. he did learn some things from his classmates. Their esperiences with other boards were quite

different. Roland worked hard. appreciated what he learned from his professors and received excellent grades. His graduate work was particularly affirming.

Positions of Responsibility Held While Seeking to Become Administrators Two of the women and two of the men spoke of their time as administrative assistants. The duties of an administrative assistant were assigned to them while they were teachers and department heads in their schools. This esperience was very helpful in preparing them for the work ihey had to do once they becarne vice principals. Their duties ranged from anendance. textbook distribut ion, scheduling. grade reporting, promotion meetings. schoo1 openings. and school closings to tasks with hemy responsibilities. Kevin was given staff supervision and hiring of teachers. At that time. selection procedures were restricted to oneon-one interviews with applicants. Kevin noted that he was surprised to be given this responsibility but never gave it much thought until afierwards. Later he realized the magnitude of responsibility he was given. and the risk that his principal took in assigning

188 him the task. since he did hire a number of teachers. He was pleased at the confidence placed in him. In fact the last year 1 was at that school. one of the vice principals was on a leave half time. So 1 was given part of his responsibilities to assume as an administrative assistant. They gave me a number of things and 1 can remember quite specifically 1 was given some staff supervision which really 1 shouldn't have been given. in the sense that 1 was simply department head in a school. 1 was given some responsibility around scheduling in the school and 1 was given some responsibiliq in terrns of hiring teachers and 1 actually did hire a number of teachers towards the end of that school year. (Kevin) Jessie found doing administrative tasks helped her l e m i n g even though the vice principals under whom she worked did not provide support. One vice principal took a hands off approach and the other was really difficult to work with. but she found that by then she had become skilled in dealing with troublesorne people. Nathan and Roland served as acting vice principaIs. Their jobs included operational tasks and these were helpful in preparing them for their role as vice principals. 1 had been working in an acting capacity half time as an unofficial vice principal at (name of school) for the last two years I'd been there. And 1 had been time-tabling for years. And 1 knew how you set up a system and how you made it work. timetable. exarn schedule or presiding schedule or whatever. that sort of thing. (Nathan)

Ke\.in became the principal of a very large continuing education night school program. The enrolment in that prograrn at any given time was close to five thousand. 1 was involved in the continuing education night school program and actually then became the principal of that night school prograrn urhich was a very large night school program. It's still probably one of the largest in the city of (nanie). 1 was allowed to d o that. The h c t that 1 was successful at it was a form of encouragement. 1 think Our enrolment at any given time was close to five thousand. One of the innovative things we did is we started classes in the daytime for adults in continuing education prograrns. This goes back about ten years ago and that was rather unique and that was the beginnings of a lot of adults in day schools. (Kevin)

This influx of aduIts into day schools was a valuable experience for him. It increased his

confidence. provided him with new skifls. and made hirn visible to superordinates.

Board Process For Becorning An Administrator The school board had a process which these candidates were required to go through order to become administrators. This process changed over time and the change \vas seen in the esperiences of the candidates. Two of the men who became administrators in the late sisties and early seventies. Joshua and Car1 appiied in the spring and were appointed for

Septernber. They received strong encouragement to apply and one was guaranteed that if he did not like administration he could go back to a physical education position. Ina received strong encouragement from her principal. also applied in the Iate sixties and was unsuccessfül. She viewed her experience of the process in a positive rnanner. Though the board conducted '-hot seat" type interviews in the sixties. she viewed her interview as supportive. The reason Ina gave for the positive tone of the interview was that they did not take her seriously. She went tluough the process again in the eighties. Eight candidates were appointed in the eighties and the process for them was longer and. as a whole. stressful. The women had the additional stress of coping with their roles as wives and mothers. Well, they're s o stressful those processes because you put yourself on the line. 1 mean s o you try to do the really mature thing and Say. "I'm going to look on this as a professional growth experience." Meanwhile the reality is that you are doing your old job at the same time, you're managing your own kids and your own home life at the sarne time and then you've got this really, this process that is demanding, as it should be 1 guess, time consuming for each o f the specific parts of the process as well as enduring because it went over several months. So although you're trying to convince yourself, I remember a colleague going through it with me, keeps trying to Say to one another. "This is a professional growth experience." What it was really was the bottom line was very stressful. So you tried to keep your sanity through al1 of that.

Sometimes 1 think if you can make it through the process successfully, you can manage (laugh) rnost any kind of stress in the whole worid. If you can make it through this lengthy. time consurning. high stress process successfully. or with some degree of grace (laugh). even it you're unsuccessfùl. so then you know you can handle andything (laugh). (Rebe kah) The first step for the candidate was to become an administrative intern. The process for becoming an intem included a recornmendation by your principal and superîntendent, a written application with a covering letter. a wrinen assignment. an oral presentation. and an intenien-. Then the candidate \vas placed in the administrative intern pool and from there applied for the vice principal short list. The candidate was interviewed and if successful was placed on a short list. The appointment to a vice principal position was made frorn this list. There was a variation on that process experienced by the men. They began the process in the late seventies. Once accepted into the pool. direct application was made to a position in a particular school and the candidate was interviewed for that position by a school tearn. Profession development was provided for the administrative interns. A group of people who \vere elected by the interns were responsible for ananging professional development sessions based on the needs of the group. Various people came in from the board to talk to the group. They addressed the interns on broad issues like multi-culturalism. expectations at board level and special education. Principals and vice principals spoke to the group and retated their experiences. The reaction of the candidates to this process varied. Alt felt the pressure and found the process as a whole stressful. In spite of this. [na. who chose to enter the process in the eighties afier being unsuccessfùl in the late sixties. was very positive about the whole process. She believed that the board moved from a very informal process in the late sixties,

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to a good solid process in the eighties for determining who would be the leaders in their schools. Ina praised the emphasis on written and oral communication and believed the process gave the board members a chance to not only check with the candidate's superordinates but also to see what the person could do under pressure. She viewed the interview for vice principal as supportive. The interview team was composed of a mixture of people in ternis of gender. panels (elementary. junior high. secondarv). trustees, and senior officiais frorn the board. Ina liked the questions asked. They were visionas.. in-basket.

organizational. and based on what the intetviewee had done in the past. These involved organizational skills. interpersonal skills. and questions that delved into the interviewee's knodedge of board issues and board policies. Five candidates. two women and three men. believed they performed well in some parts and poorly in others. Thsy were critical of certain aspects of the process. Two women were faced with opposition at the recommendation stage of the selection process. The male superintendents in both situations were not supportive of women and were reluctant to recommend them. In one instance the superintendent was new and not very visible within the school. During her intewiew with this superintendent. he expressed apprehension about her becoming a vice principal and tried to discourage her. He devalued her accomplishments and leadership qualities. She was a coordinator at the tirne and he thought she should return to a school for more experience. The evaluation he gave her was not as positive as those given by previous evaluators. One of the items on the evaluation put the rest of it in perspective for her. There was a section about having a sense of humor. One of the things he put on my evaluation which sort of put the rest of it into perspective. It was okay but it wasn't the kind of report I'd corne to expect for myself.

There was a section on there about my sense of humour and he put down that 1 didn't have a very good sense of humour. Well. it shows you what that man knows is zip. And when 1 showed it to friends and said it to them 1 mean they went into hysterics. you know. because 1 know that about myself. 1 mean 1 can be very serious and I take myself very seriously sometimes. but also 1 like to laugh and 1 like to have a good time because you know. what's the point if you're not enjoying what you're doing. But that was probably the only negative that 1 had. And 1 didn't really take it too seriously. because 1 had so much support from every place else. including the superintendent in the curriculum department where 1 was working. who was very supportive. So 1 thought. -'Oh well. that doesn't count." (Molly) The women had tremendous support from their principals and other superintendents. This offset the lack of support from these particular superintendents. The written assignment was particularly stressful for Molly. She lacked confidence in her skills in this area and had to be persuaded that she could complete that part satisfactorily.

The process for leadership began in the fall. in November. And at that point already 1 thought this is it. It didn't take me long to tigure out where 1 wanted to go. And 1 went through the process. And I was scared stiff. 1 thought? .-Oh my God. am 1 really going to be able to make this." There was a component that you had to go though that was a witten component, and my fear o f exarns was still there. 1 rernember the superintendent coming in to me. and she said. -'Weil you can write can't you?" And 1 said. "Yes." And she said. "Do you read English?" 1 said. -'Yes." So she said. "What's the problem?" (laugh). She sort o f made me sit back. but 1 was really afraid. (Molly) Writing was an area of great strength for Nathan and that part was easy for him. He believed the reason the board required the writing was to see how people could respond to a situation. how they could develop and describe a process. and how sound that process would be. Yet he did not see this written requirement as being particularly useful. Roland and Nathan found the oral presentation quite strange. Each candidate was given five minutes to present and ten minutes to respond to questions from the group. The four persons who were evaluating the candidates sat in the four corners of the room. Both of these men did well in the situation and thought there might be some value in it, though

Roland was shy and found it quite stressful. Two women and three men elaborated on their unsuccessful interviews. Ina attribüted her lack of success in her first interview to her otw deficiencies. This interview took place in the late sixties. Jessie attributed her lack o f success in her first interview partly to her own deficiencies. She believed that she kvas a terrible interviewee at that time. She also attributed her lack of success to problems with the way the interview was conducted. While one man did not know whether he was polished at interviews. al1 three men attributed their lack of success in being appointed after their first interviews to problems with the way the interviews were conducted. The number o f people on the interview team and the physical conditions under which they were conducted created a stressfui situation for one man. There was something iike twelve people on the interview tearn: a trustee, a parent and representatives o f a whole variety of groups. superintendency. principal groups and so on. It was the rnost difficult interview situation I've ever been in because the waiting room was a darkened room. There were no windows. One was ted in for one's intervietv. The people in the large. long room sat along the long wall with their backs to the window. So w-hen 1 went in this room to sit facing the window 1 couldn't see properly. My eyes took a while to focus. very uncornfortable. just blinded by the light. 1 found it a very stressful experience. very, very artificial in terms of what it did to me and how it conditioned my reaction to questions and so on. It wasn't a good experience. I'm not sure if it was a situation that would create good assessrnent value either. (Nathan)

In spite of the tension involved, t ~ v oof the women had high praise for the manner in which they were conducted and believed they themselves performed well in their interviews. The three men were interviewed at the time when candidates applied for a vice principalship in a particular school. They went through a number of interviews before being appointed. Kevin went through five or six interviews. There was a great variation in the manner in which interviews were conducted. They ranged from the "hot seat" type interview where the

candidate felt v e q much like he was being interrogated and was not sure whether they were detennining the knowledge of the candidate or whether he could stand the interrogation, to ones where the questions were hard but those conducting the interview were interested in w-hat the person had to contributs. Sponsorship was a factor in the appointment process. The wornen and two men did not deliberately seek sponsoring. Three men let people know and requested their support. A typical situation for the rest was to be spotted because of the extra duties they assumed. Aber being encouraged to enter administration. they spoke to administrators in the system in order to gain knowledge o f role expectations and problems. 1 definitely spoke to fernale administrators in the system. sorne at their initiation and some at mine in terms of discussing the role and expectations and the problems so it would help to foresee what kind of things 1 would be coming up against, what kind of resolution there were to problems. (Ina)

The women and men were provided with varying degrees of sponsorship. The wornen were aware of being promoted by their principals and superintendents. There were women in eacli of these positions. Nicole credited a fernale superintendent with spotting her. bringing her into administration and. through her influence, moving her quickly through two vice principal positions to a principalship. Rebekah had high praise for the principal who helped her gain acceptance into the process for becorning an administrator. He had to fil1 out an evaluation on her but insisted that they work on the form together and that it be filled out in a manner that cvould help her gain acceptance.

My principal had to fil1 in an evaluation of me. A multi-paged evaluation and 1 remember meeting with him. "You should do this, there's no question this is you and this is what you should be doing." he said. "So 1 want y u to work with me on what I've written and if you think anything has to be changed or blah. blah. blah. blah. So we wilI do it together to ensure that you will get acceptance into the process." So he

was wonderful. But what I rernember about that coupIe of hours that we spent together working the form together. 1 mean he'd done most of the writing and 1 didn't have to change anything. 1 mean it was glowing. He looked at me and said. -'I want you to know 1 didn't check everything in the outstanding category. because if 1 check everything in the outstanding categos they won't believe me." (laugh) 1 rernember him saying that. 1 remember saying. "He knows how to play this garne. he knows how." ( Rebekah)

The women were also aware of situations where sponsorship did not work in their favor. 1 think a lot of stuff was going on behind the scenes in terms of people promoting. lobbying for. and that was also a change between sort of the old guys. They were involved and they didn't know the younger women. Then they left and then a whole new-. you know it \vas sort of. everything was moving. (Jessis)

Strong sponsorship helped two physical education men gain entrance into administration early in their careers. 1 think he had a great influence on a lot of phys. ed. people. The board was known at one tirne for promoting a lot of phys. ed. males into administration. He would use supporting. with the director and people like that saying. "This person is a great person." Unknown to us I'm sure he was giving us support. (Cari)

Nathan becarne interested in administration in the Iate seventies. He had excellent support once he reached the point o f declaring his interest and applied for the short list. The other two men cited sponsoring by principals and superintendents.

Once the women made their decision to begin the process they were a~pointed relatively quickly. The amount of time ranged from one to three years. For two men appointed in the eighties a considerable amount of tirne lapsed between their decision to become administrators and their actual appointments. Their reactions to the delays in their appointments varied. I can honestly Say, and I've said this to other people, 1 may have been impatient and discouraged at a particular tirne, but as 1 take from this point and look back, 1 cm honestly say I don't really have any misgivings or feeling of resentrnent in terms of how things worked themselves out and the length of time it took to get from A to B.

Some people move very fast and quickly and that's what they wanna do, and others don't. Some never move. 1 just seem to have kind of systematicalIy plodded along. 1 have no concerns about that. (Kevin) I'm a very quiet person. very shy. And 1 guess that my criticism of it would be that 1 think that there were too many administrative stereotypes. They were looking for a stereotypical administrator and 1 sat on a short list for six years after that. by the w a y because 1 don't think 1 fit the stereotype. 1 made it through the process and someone obviously said this person has some skills or some talents. but I'm not sure that he is the kind of person we want as an administrator. because administrators have to be A B. C. D. and E, and this guy's F. (Roland)

Summary and Discussion

The Significance of the Transition Phase Van Gennep (1909/1960) described the transitional phase as a time when those

passing from one social position to another were in a special situation for a penod o f time. They wavered between two worlds. The transitional phase of the rites of passage was also called "liminal" by van Gennep. Liminal means things. places. persons. and words that don't fit. They are marginal. narneless. shapeless. betwixt and between. Van Gennep pointed out

that '-a suspension of the usual rules of living constituted an essential element o f this phase". The person was in limbo, no longer living the old existence. but not established in a new one. Transition was s h o w to be a time laden with confusion. insecurity. and anxiety for the individual and for those associated with herhim. Separated from former meaningful reiationships. this was the time when the individual was most in danger of losing al1 significant connections with others as a result of herhis own actions or those o f others. A number of studies using van Gennep's frarnework show persons in transition determined to learn their way and be successful (Blood. 1966; Boyle, 1986; Draper, 199 1 ; Eddy, 1969;

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I a ~ a c c o n e& Button. 1964: Ladd. 1992; Marshall. 1979: Redding. 1990: Schrier & Mulcahy. 1 988; Shere. 1993).

The women and men in this study began to distance themselves from the teaching role but had not yet become administrators. The transition phase \vas very intense for them. They took on the added responsibilities required in order to gain entrance into administration. This active orientation towards the role of administration has been shown in the literature f Adkison. 198 1 : GreenfÏeld, 1985; Marshall. 1992: Valverde. 1980). These women and men

completed the principal certification courses. worked on requirements for graduate degrees. worked closely with administrators as administrative assistants and acting vice principals. and completed the board requirements for becoming an administrator while holding a full time job as department head or coordinator. Once the women and men decided to begin the process for becoming an administrator they devoted considerable time to thinking about adniinistrators they worked with over the years and obsenring those in their schools. Both Lvomen and men in this study had role models. Among their role models were both females and maies. This was not the case in early studies by Estler (1975) and Schmuck (1 975) where

Iack of role models created obstacles for women.

Transformational Leadership Practices Durin? the Transition Phase The transition phase was a time when candidates looked to vice principals and principals for their leader role models. They realized that vice principals were heavily engaged in discipline, had time-tabling and scheduling responsibiiities, and were involved in attendance and attendance counseling. Student evaiuation, promotion, and staff supervision

198 were also part of the role. Research shows that these duties had changed little over the years (Marshall. 1992). By the time the women becarne interested in taking the role of vice principal and three of the men were closer to being appointed. the role had broadened and there was more evidence of transformational practices. The practices identified by Leithwood ( 1994) and

Podsakoffet al. (1990) and found to some extent in the vice principals that these

women and men worked with were: (a) energizing teachers to try new ventures for students which has been identified as providing a vision or inspiration; (b) developing collaboration among staff members by working together on projects and being involved in cornmittee w-ork. a part of fostering group goals: (c) working hard on behalf of students. initiating student activities and doing outstanding work for prograrns in the school. that is. providing an appropriate rnodel: (d) bringing in current materials to support programs. making changes that enabled teachers to do their jobs more effectively and promoting activities to raise the self esteem of students. in this way providing support to both teachers and students: (e) promoting professional development which pro~~ided the intellectual stimulation teachers

needed; ( 0 irnproving communication between the administration and teachers. The esperiences of the women and men with principals they admired made the role attractive to them. These role models were very important during their time of transition. Researcli has shown that role models c m be very helpfut to those going through transition (Draper. 199 1 : Eddy. 1969; Ortiz, 1972). The principals whom these women and men considered role models engaged in practices that have been identified as transformational

(Bass. 1985; Bass & Avolio, 1989, 1996: Burns 1978: Leithwood 1994; Podsakoff et al. 1990). The women and men commended the transformational practices of their principals.

199 Their principal role models had a philosophy or vision for the school which they shared ivith their staff. In the research. transformational leaders focused on a vision for the future (Bernis & Nanus. 1985 ;Tichy & Devanna, 1986; Lehr. 1987). Their visions were either centered on the students as people. academic achievement. acquinng of skills and reclaiming control of a school. While they started from different focal points. al1 of these principals were concemed with meeting the needs of students. They were change onented and took some risks. The? were supponive of staff and students. This practice of support for followers by

transformational leaders has been identified in the literature ( Bennis & Nanus .1985; Lehr. 1987: Tichy & Devanna. 1986). Thsir principal role models affirmed teachers in what they

ivere doing and created very student-centered schools. Support for staff \vas viewed as important. They were very aware and appreciative of the support of their principals for the work they were doing for students. and for the professional decisions and judgements they made. The principal role models in this study invested time and energy in having the staff work together and were highly visible in their schools. These practices were identified in the research (Darling. 1990; Lehr, 1987: Sergiovanni. 1990). These principals worked with and through the staffto develop ownership for what was happening in the school. They assumed responsibility for the professional development of their staff. This is one of the practices defined as intellectual stimulation. A study by Leithwood and Jantzi ( 1 990) found that principals took responsibility for the professional development of their

staff. In this study most principal role models confined their involvement to informing

teachers about what \vas available fiom the board and fiom professional deveIopment associations and encouraging them to participate. The practices obsenred Iess frequently were bringing facilitators in. having professional development at staff meetings. and principals conducting staff development workshops. These women and men were themselves being chai lenged intelIectually as they took the principal certification courses. engaged in graduate

studies. Iearned in the school setting as administrative assistants. acting vice principals and principal of night school. The first part of the principal certification prognm \vas very helpfùl to them. The second part was not. Their experience of the courses was similar to that of Worral (1 995) who received excellent practical advice while learning the theory and regulations in the first part of the program. In the second part she found the instruction inept. These women and men found their graduate work helpful. They were more positive in their assessment of their graduate programs than was indicated in the literature (Daresh & Laplant. 1 985: Murphy & Hallinger. 1987: Pitner. 1 987). In-service education was highly valued by

these women and men. This finding is in line with Leithwood and Avery3 (1987) research where principal in-service was posi tivel y assessed.

The experiences of the women and men as administrative assistants. acting vice principals. and principal of night school were v e q helpful in preparing
year. Students found themselves trying on parts of the rote without having al1 the responsi bilities of a doctor. They subjectively experienced thernselves as occupying a

'-1 iminal" position, neither fully competent experts nor still laymen. These women and men

20 1 had an opportunity to try aspects of the role of administrator without al1 the demands that the role entailed. In Valverde's (1974) study the training experiences provided by the principal bvere seen. not in tenns of the knowledge. skills. and cornpetencies learned. but rather the amount of exposure which made the protégé acceptable to significant others. The importance of visibility to career advancement is shown in the literature (Blood, 1 966: Fernandez. 1 99 1 : Marshall. 1979. 1992: Valverde. 1 974). Fernandez ( 199 1 ) observed that early in their careers men appeared to have recognized the importance of visibility and were better at knowing how to be noticed. In Blood's (1 966) study. the activities enabled candidates to gain access to the work-world of the administrator. For the women and men in this study. the value of the work experiences lay both in what they learned while occupying these roles and in the visibility they gained while in the positions. The principals these women and men admired were good communicators. a quality identified in the research on transformational leaders (Bennis & Nanus. 1985; Lehr. 1987: Leithwood and Jantzi. 1990). They kept teachers informed and consulted widely on schooI issues. High visibility within the school was an important part of the way they operated. A consequence of spending a great deal of tirne with teachers and students was that these principals were well infonned and teachers believed they influenced what happened. High expectations. a practice identified by Leithwood and Jantzi (1 990), was not a prominent feature of the way the principals operated. Several candidates did express appreciation for the high expectations of a principal with whom they worked. These male principals demanded a lot of their teachers and supported them. As a result teachers were

very productive.

Other qualities admired by both men and women in their principals were being poli tical 1). astute. and being congenial and effective. These practices and quaIities appealed to the women and men because of the positive effect they had on the education of students. During their transition phase. six administrators encountered very strong leaders whose integrity and leadership practices they totally admired. Their leadership practices had an enormous impact on teachers and students. Among these leaders were administrators in the schools. professors at university. and a coordinator working out of the board office. The wornen and men emphasized the caring way of thinking and acting shown by their exceptional role models. The ethic of care was first described by Gilligan ( 1 982) as a morality built upon the recognition of needs. relation. and response. Noddings (1992) came to the conclusion that relation precedes any engagement with subject matter. Students learn from people who matter to them and to whom they matter. Starratt (1 99 1 ) saw critique. justice. and caring as equally important guides to moral action. Beck (1 992) placed caring at the top of the values hierarchy for educational leaders. The importance of caring relationships in schooIs has been borne out in a number of studies. Regan's ( 1 990) persona1 account of her esperience as an administrator demonstrated the benefits of making caring relationships an integral part of administrative behavior. Beck ( 1994b) described the positive outcornes in the school of the actions and beliefs of a caring administrator she studied. Caring and the nurturing of relationships emerged as dominant themes among the fifiy administrators in the study by Marshall, Patterson, Rogers. and Steele (1996). The s ~ c ~ e s s ffemale ul superintendents in Brumer's ( 1995) study used Follett's ( 194 1 ) ' - p o w r with" mode1 of power that relied on caring relations between and among people. These women

203 superintendents were known for their collaborative styles and good working relationships. The exceptional role models to the women and men in my study dernonstrated a similar expression o f the ethic of care in their schools as found in the research. There were administrative qualities and practices that were detrimental to student Iearning. These practices were the antithesis of the transformational practices the candidates observed in principals they admired. As they anticipated becoming administrators. these women and men looked c~iticallyat these negative practices and qualities and were derermined not to adopt them. Practices and qualities they condemned were: being congenial but ineffective. being autocratie, maintaining the status quo. being indecisive. and maintaining a distance from the staff. Sexism. racism. narrowness and dogmatism were denounced. Like Atkinson's ( 198 1) medical students going through transition who were crushed by clinicians using derogatory language when they made an error. these women and men were very uncomfortable working with adrninistrators who used derogatory language towards teachers or students. Concentrating mainly on routine tasks. playing favorites. and constantlp reacting to crises were also criticized.

Gender Based Differences in Socialization During Transition Phase A number of differences in the socialization esperiences of the women and men

during the transition phase were apparent. They identified differences in the vision or philosophy of the principals who were their role models. The women worked under principals whosc visions were centered on the studsnts as people. The men worked under principals whose vision or philosophy concentrated on academic achievement, acquiring of

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skills. and reclaiming control of a school. The discipline responsibilities made the role of vice principal less attractive to the women early in their careers. The image of an effective school administrator as following the male n o m of strict disciplinarian is present in the research (Gill. 1995: Grant. 1989; Taylor. 1995). The women in this study did not like that image. WhiIe preparing to become administrators. the women had to find ways of dealing with their responsibilities as wives and mothers. The problems related to family life that these women experienced during transition were similar to those identified by Marshall's (1979) and Edson's ( 1 988) aspiring female administrators. Ortiz's ( 1972) female physicians and Redding's ( 1990) fernale returnees to university. The women were at a disad~mtagein terms o f variety of experiences at the school level which were helpful in preparing women and men for administrative work. Only men in this study had the jobs of acting vice principal and principal of night school. These on-the-job leadership experiences wvere stressed in the literature (McCall. Lombardo and Morrison. 1988; Mintzberg, 1990). Bell and Chase ( 1993) and Russell (1995) found that women were Iess Iikely to get these experiences. The esperiences of the wornen and men who were engaged in graduate studies while preparing for administrative positions were different. While both women and men found the content of the courses. the professors who taught these courses? and their interactions with their classrnates helpful. a number of women found their professors were particularly helpfut. They provided what Marshall (1979) identified as substitute socialization in the form of feedback. support. recognition. and training in organizational and interpersonal awareness. The women appreciated the knowledge. inspiration. and affirmation they received from their professors. Their positive experiences with professors were similar to the experiences of

205 many of the women in Edson's (1988) study. The problems of lack of support, unwelcome atmosphere. sexist matenats. male-based theory and research. and predominately male professors. as identified in the research (Edson. 1988: Eichler. 1980: Epp. 1995: Governrnent of Canada. 1992: Marshall. 1984: Nagle, Garden. Levine & Wolf. 1982: Schmuck. 1975:

Schmuck, Butman & Person. 1982: Smith.. 1979: Shakeshafi. 1989: Shakeshafi & Hanson. 1986: Spender. 198 1: Williams. 1982) were not cited by these women. The men cornmended the content of courses and the high grades obtained. Grades have been identified as a major concern ~ v i t hundergraduate students (Becker. Geer & Hughes. 1968: Draper. 1991: Shere. 1993). As graduate students during the transition phase the main concern of these women and men was how useful the experience was to their future work. There tvere differences in the experiences of the females and males while going through the forma1 process for becoming an administrator. Tkvo men were appointed early in their careers. They went through the process with ease. The one wornan who applied early was denied e n t y at the interview stage. Five women and three men were appointed in the eighties and the process for them was longer and. as a whole. stressfui. Three men sought sponsoring by declaring their interest in administration. Although the rest of these aspiring administrators did not deliberately seek sponsoring, they were identified and provided with the help they needed to enter administration. Sponsoring has been identified as one of the keys to moving ahead during transition (Atkinson, 1981: Banks. 1987; Draper. 1991 ; Marshall. 1979; Ortiz. 1972: Schrier & Mulcahy. 1988; Shere. 1993; VaIverde. 1974). Lack of sponsorship could exclude certain groups (Marshall, 1979: Valverde, 1974).

206 Getting the attention of superiors (GASing) has been shown to be an important part of the sponsoring process during transition (Banks. 1987: Blood. 1966: Valverde. 1974). CI

Valverde ( 1 974) identified two meùiods for getting the attention of superiors who were in a position to advance a candidate's career. in the first. the person announced her/his candidacy by verbaIly expressing her/his intention to the principal of the school. The second occurred when the person undertook additional tasks beyond the normal classroom duties. Three men in this study declared their interest in administration and the remaining men and the women Lvere spotted because o f their invohement in work outside their regular duties. Valverde ( 1 974) found that assuming extra work \vas the most effective way of gaining adoption. It

showed willingness. which was equated with commitment and acceptability. and which dernonstrated that the person was acceptable to fellow teachers (Valverde. 1974). In\!olvement beyond the classroorn forrned an integral part of the work lives of the wornen. They were not intentionally GASing and were not identified eariy in their careers. even though they were very active in the life of schools. However. when the system changed to include women as prospective administrators. their work beyond the classroom made them highly visible and brought them to the attention of superiors. The two men who were spotted early in their careers were not intentionally GASing but were identified because of their innovations in physical education. promotion of physical education teachers by an influential physical education coordinator. and the visibility that involvement in sports provided. The three other men, while involved in activities outside their regular duties. were viewed as potential candidates for administration once they declared their interest. In the literature sponsorship is shown to be interrelated with the official promotional

process (Banks, 1987: Blood. 1966; Valverde, 1974). Admittance to the principal certification courses, which was a requirement in Ontario. presented a sponsorship problern for women. They solved this by waiting untiI sponsorship was no longer required before taking the courses. Two women also faced opposition from male superintendents at the recornmendation stage and another at the interview stage. Research identified discrimination in hiring as one of the hindrances to women's integration into educational administration (Acker. 1989: Apple. 1986: Baudoux. 1995; Bell and Chase. 1993; Edson, 1995: Gill. 1995: Taylor. 1995: Worrall. 1995). The women in this study were particularly aware of the sponsorship they received from women who were their superordinates. They acknowledged that their appointments were also aided by affirmative action and the targets set by the Ministry of Education for the admittance of women into administration. Once they finished the process the women were appointed to a vice principal position relatively quickly. Bell

and Chase ( 1 993) identified the shift away from equity issues in the 1990s and the negative effect this public policy trend had on women-s access to and expenences in the educational system in the United States. A sirnilar shifi in Canada couId prove detrimental to the entrance of women into administration in Canada. Two men had to wait for a considerabie length time before receiving an appointment. They continued to express their interest in administration and remained active candidates. Afier cornpleting al1 the requirements. one man was held in the administrative pool for six years. He did not possess the typical characteristics of an administrator. His entry into administration was aided by the entrance of women. School

boards were forced to reexamine the characteristics they looked for in leaders once women were appointed. It became apparent that administrators with different qualities and skills

208 could provide strong leadership in schools. Men who formerly had less chance of becoming administrators were appointed.

Problematic Situations Resulting in Perspective Shift dur in^ Transition Phase

The women and men faced problematic situations during the transition phase. The. coped b ~de\*sloping . a perspective as used in the Beckrr et al. ( 1 96 1 ) mode]. Becker and his associates (196:) discovered that every group has choices and decisions to make in a new environment. In some situations the new situation is similar to the old one and previously learned behavior \vil1 suffice. At other tirnes. the ne\v environment is so different that new understandings are necessary. The perspectives Becker and his colleagues studied were the CO-ordinatedpatterns o f ideas and actions that students developed in attempting to solve the problems the. saw in their new environment. The Lvomen and men in this study were coping with situations during transition which were so different that new understandings were necessary. The transition phase was a time of reflection for the women and men in this study. During this phase they formed a clear picture of how the role o f vice principal should be articulated. They encountered vice principals who engaged in repressive practices. They worked with these vice principals prior to and dunng the transition phase. Among them were vice principals who used harsh disciplinary measures, those who used an authoritarian approach in dealing with both teachers and students. and those who had ver). closed minds and were rigid in their ways of operating. They confronted, tolerated, or avoided vice principals who operated in this manner and rejecied them as role models.

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The m e n and men observed practices of principals during the transition phase or reflected on principal practices they observed earlier in their careers that were detrimental to learning. These practices included using an authoritarian. repressive approach in their deatings with staff and students. concentrating mainly on routine tmks. being indecisive. and playing favorites. tsolating themselves from the staff and students. maintaining the status quo. abdicating responsibilities in order to be congenial. and constantly reacting to crises were practices of these principals. Other practices were discriminating against female staff and students of different races. engaging in sexist talk. and being narrow and dogrnatic. Their

weaknesses also included the inability to have the staff \vork together. not supporting staff decisions. not taking a fair share of the workload. not allowing staff to set their own agenda. and making unreasonable demands on staff time. They minimized the effects of these principals on their work by finding support elsewhere on staff. waiting until a new principal was appointed. or taking steps to leave the school. Occasionally they confronted these

principals but had very little success in changing their practices. These women and men were determined not to copy the practices of principals who were poor role models. While preparing to become administrators. the women had to find ways of dealing with their multiple responsibilities. They held full time jobs. took graduate courses. completed the principal certification courses. fulfilled additional board requirements for becoming an administrator. and filled their roles as wives and mothers. The reduction in the amount of time with their children was the greatest source of stress and guilt. They coped with their responsibilities by networking with colleagues going through the same process and

by forming the perspective that this inordinate arnount of work would corne to an end afier a

reasonable period of time, allowing them more time with their families. The women who experienced diftlculties with sponsorship during the process worked around the opposition they encountered with superordinates. They acknowledged and used the support that was available. They named the problem as men who were attempting to keep women out of administrative positions. With support from colleagues. they dismissed individual objections and affimed their own worth as potential administrators. The men wha spent a long time as candidates blamed the process itself. They persisted and were eventually appointed as vice principals.

Conctusion The transition phase highlights the tremendous demands placed on aspiring administrators. the judgements they have to make. and the ways in which they tap into availabte resources in order to successfully negotiate this period. The women and men in this study fulfilled their responsibilities as department heads. administrative assistants, acting vice principals and principal of night school. At the same time they engaged in both formal and informal preparation for the administrative role. They observed administrators' activities. behaviors. and attitudes. considered the demands of the role. and obtained the necessary credentials. Their duties as administrative assistants. acting vice principals and principal of night school gave tliem esperience and insight into the administrative role. These women and men appreciated the changes that occurred over time in the areas o f responsibilities for vice principals. The role expanded to include areas other than school operations. Vice principals became more involved in the decision making and leadership in the schools.

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RoIe models are important when women and men decide to enter administration. Aspiring administrators consciously choose their role models. The women and men in this study rejected as role models vice principals and principals who used inappropriate and repressive practices. They selected educators who were supportive of staff and strong advocates for students as their role models. The majority of their role models were school adminisrrators. Female role models were particularly helpful to the women. The leadership practices of their role models appealed to these prospective administrators because of the positive results they had in the school comrnunity. A number of these practices have been identified as transformational in their effects. These practices are having and sharing a vision. detining and working towards goals. taking risks and supporting people. They also included workine cooperatively. communicating effectively. being visible. and ensuring that al1 C

members of the school comrnunity were constantly learning. Other qualities valued were integrity. a sense of humor. and political awareness. The growth and development of potential administrators during the transition stage is very important. The women and men in this study engaged in graduate studies and took the principal certification courses while preparing for administrative positions. They sought knowledge and skills that wouid help them in administrative roles. Part one of the principal certification program îûlfilled that purpose. The candidates pointed out many weaknesses in pari two and identified the need for changes in that part of the program. Their graduate studies added to their administrative knowledge and skills. There were gender differences in the experiences of aspiring administrators. The visions of principals whom the women admired were different from those of the men. The

212 tvomen were uncomfortable with the way discipline was handled in many schools and the fact that the role o f vice principal was almost entirely disciplinary. Family responsibilities for the women kvere greater than those of the men and added to the workload and stress. The women faced discrimination. They were given less variety in their experiences at the school level than the men. These expenences are valuable preparation for administrative work. Superordinates blocked or delayed their entrance into administration. The women placed greater emphasis on the help they received from professors in their graduate courses. They acquired knowledge and skills in a supportive setting. The affimation they received frorn professors was particularly appreciated since it compensated for the opposition they faced from certain administrators in the school systern. Early entry into administration was given to men but denied to women. The board process for wornen and men who entered administration in the 80s was long and stressful. The men attributed any difficulties the? faced to the process itseIf. The women assumed some of the responsibility for the problems they encountered while going through the process. The encouragement and sponsorship women received frorn other female administrators while going through the process uras particularly valued. The men appointed in the 1980s sought entry by declaring their interest in administration. The women appointed

in the 1980s were sponed because of their work and encouraged to become administrators. The manner in which these women entered administration was similar to the men who were sponed and appointed early in their careers. In the 1960s young men were appointed quickly because the board was looking for young white males. In the 1980s women were appointed relatively quickly because the board was seeking women. In each instance the board found

capable administrators in the group they had targeted. The entry of females into administration changed the administrative profile and enabled males who did not fit the conventional image of administrator to be considered for administrative positions. Several of the men in this study fit that category. The changes in the education system. together with hard work and support. had positive results for the women and m e n in this study. They

overcarne obstacles. gained the knowledge and skills necessary for leadership in schools. and were appointed to administrative positions.

CHAPTER 7 INCORPORATION PHASE Introduction The incorporation phase for these women and men began when they were appointed vice principal. Teachers and other administrators within the school played an important part in the incorporation process. The culture of the schoo 1 and comrnunity. the assigned duties.

the arnount of stability. aqd length of time in the roie influenced the ease. rate. and thoroughness of incorporation.

The Role of Vice Principal The women in the study on average spent 3.2 years as vice principal as compared to 6.8 for the men. Explanations given by the three men who spent the longest time as vice

principal were that they were not arnbitious and that administrators rarely moved out of the system. and consequently there were few promotions. The women also worked as vice

principal in a smaller number of schools than the men. The average nwnber of schools the cteomenworked in was 1 -4 and the average for men kvas 2.4. Al1 of the women and men were intensely involved with the management and daily operations of the school. They were responsible for school budget and office management. Student registration was a task they were given. Time-tabling. exarn scheduling. grade reporting, and promotion were aiso arnong their duties. They organized sporting activities and fieid trips and arranged buses for these and other out-of-school events. Early morning calls of

teacher absences were directed to them. They brought in replacements and made the

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arrangements necessary when teachers were released to coach tearns. School opening and closing and the announcements to be made to the student body were delegated to them. They i n t e n k v e d teachers and made decisions on staffing. When it became obvious that changes were needed in student evaluation. they examined the process in place and recommended changes. The production of the school year book was under their supervision.

These men and women were closely involved with student issues. They supervised the halls. disciplined students. and resolved student conflicts. They checked attendance and

dealt with students who were late for class. Counseling students was another task that was delegated to them. This included helping students with personal problems and giving guidance when their behavior was inappropriate. They arranged student ernployment. Many

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of their responsibilities involved the staff members with whom they interacted frequently.

Teacher supervision and evaluation was assigned to them. They were responsible for discipIining teachers and resoiving staff conflicts. Their communication with staff mernbers \vas ongoing. Teachers brought their concems and had them addressed. Attendance at heads' meetings kept them in close contact with teachers and was one of the avenues they used to keep teachers informed about what was happening in the school. They were also involved with the community and set up meetings with parents. There were aspects o f the role of vice principal that these wornen and men found very [email protected] These included improving instruction. implementing new prograrns to rneei student needs. and phasing out programs that were no longer appropriate for students. They enjoyed working with students in extra cumcular programs and helping them run the student council. Their Iiaison with specific departments. which enabled them to work with teachers in

improving and developing curriculum. was gratifjing. They found cheir work in staff development provided professional satisfaction. Visionary activities. which included finding ways to keep the school population up and introducing adult daytime programs to rneet the need of a growing immigrant population. gave them a sense of accomplishrnent. They liked working as a team as they supponed students and teachers and made a difference for staff. In certain schools the duties of the vice principal \vere set down. and in others the vice principal had input into what herhis responsibilities would be. Negotiations took place when there was more than one vice principal. or when the principal believed in a team approach to decision making. However. if a person were appointed part way through the year. even if there were more than one vice principal, the duties of the new vice principal were set prior to herhis arriva1 at the school. In schools where there \vas consultation. the principal and vice principals met at the end of the school year and decided on their duties for the following year. Tasks such as attendance. discipline- and hall supervision were unpopular with the majority of vice principals though they accepted them as part of the role. 0 t h duties such as the curriculum council and work with programs were sought afier. since they provided more persona1 satisfaction. AH of the subjects encountered discipline and behavior responsibilities in their role

as vice principal. The way in which these duties were allocated varied from school to school.

There were four different patterns used. The first was one in which the vice principal was responsible for al1 the discipline in a school. These schools had one or more vice principals. The second had two or more vice principals responsible for discipline. In the third the

principal and one or more vice principals disciplined the students. In the fourth the principal.

vice principals and teachers shared the discipline. For most of the vice principals this aspect of the job \vas not as satiseing as other responsibilities. Jessie and Nicole had disturbing esperiences in connection with their disciplinary responsibilities. They were distressed by the ovenvhelming amount of discipline they were responsible for. by the way it was articulatedand how it was viewed in the school. Jessie found the discipIine aspect of the job very stressfui. Al1 the discipline, disciplining kids was just incredible. And the abuse you had to take from kids was really hard. very hard. It's always nice to have the VP behind you to Iook after that but to have to learn how to deal with that is incredibly hard. (Jessie) In Jessie-s case the other vice principal and the principal served as role models. They handled the discipline well. and she found working with thern invaluable. The disciphne responsibilities were shared by the two vice principals. and while the principal did not have discipline as one of his responsibilities. he dealt with incidents when they arose. ffer reading and professional development helped her understand the culture and the body language of the large body of minority students in the school.

The discornfort Nicote experienced around the whole issue of discipline was the driving force in her decision to move on to become a principaI. The punitive flavor of the discipline deeply disturbed her. The tougher the vice principal was on the students. the better the vice principal was perceived to be by the staff. While she gained great satisfaction from

her portfolio of student affairs. the accolades went to the vice principals who were tough disciplinarians. MoIly had discipline as a major part of her responsibilities. She shared the discipline with two other vice principals. Most of her time was spent dealing with students

who were experiencing difficulties. These difficulties included discipline issues. She did not

mind spending her time with students addressing their problems. Of the two rernaining women. Rebekah thoroughly disliked the job of disciplining students. Ina was positive about thjs task. In a schooi where she worked. the discipline was shared among al1 the vice principals and the principal. The staff were encouraged to handle discipline problems. The administration in that school provided the opportunity for teachers to learn appropriate strategies for managing student behavior. Joshua disliked the discipline part o f the role. particularly in his first position as vice principal. He was disturbed by the stereotypical attitude which resulted in his being responsible for al1 the discipline, and his female colleague exempted fiom that responsibility.

He considered the plan demeaning to his female colleague. even though she was partly responsible for the arrangement. Handling al1 the discipline created turbulent situations as large numbers of students waited to see him. He did not have any partjcular training in this area and \vas forced to learn on- the-job without guidance. Well. it was pretty chaotic. 1 had a line up there you know that would put to sharne the fastest moving dentist. 1 tell you. 1 had people in chairs here and in holding tanks there. You know 1 hadn't had anp particular training. it was really learning by hands on. The whole program. Nothing was cohesive in the place at the time. How d o we liandle things as a group \vas never dealt with. What-s the expectations of the teacher was never dealt with. It was just going through the motions. It kvas not good education. (Joshua) Car1 spent most of his time on student punctuality. attendance. and discipline in both o f his positions as vice principal. In one school seventy percent o f his time urasspent on attendance and discipline because the students needzd close supervision. Teachers had to deal with numerous behavior problems and expected the support of the vice principals. They wanted an environment conducive to good teaching and volunteered their help in setting up a

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discip1ina1-y program o f a preventativs nature. As Car1 gained experience in the role of vice principal. he felt more cornfortable with his disciplinary responsibilities. The remaining men saw their disciplining of students as part of the role. Roland was responsibk for reprimanding

teachers u-ho committed serious offenses. He found this a difficult part o f the job. Vice principals were responsible for attendance. Once the teachers found that nothing was working in spite o f their counseling and phone calls. they rrferred the student to the vice

principal. The vice principals used every avenue open to them to try to get the student to attend school on a regular basis. This included meeting with the parents and enlisting their help in solvincg the problem. Ail of the subjects valued wvorking with others dunng their time as vice principal.

i-Iou.ever. the people they worked with and the amount of cooperation they received varied. Tlieir patterns of working together took one of three forms. In the first. the vice principal had a close working relationship with part of the administrative group. usually the vice principals. The second situation involved the principal and vice principals working together as a team.

The third and most desirable arrangement had the whole staff working toward cornmon goals. In those schools teachers were supportive of administrators and particularly helpful to newly appointed vice principals. These women and men had different experiences depending on the school they were in or the particular principal in the school at that time. A change o f principal sometimes meant more working together and sometimes less. The workload as vice principal was heavy. and they appreciated sharing the many tasks that had to be completed. Several encountered situations where the principal did not operate as a member of a team. In one such school, the two male vice principals worked cIosely together to keep the school

running smoothly. They cross referenced continually. as much as five or six times a day. In another school factions developed. and the potential of the staff was not used. The staff was working with difficult kids and did not cooperate as effectively as they could have. making the role of the vice principal difficult. They weren't the greatest. There was a lot of abiiity there as a staff but they weren't that cohesive and they didn't get along that well together. There were a lot of factions 1 guess arnong the staff. A Iot of people who had worked together for a number of years. The? were working with difficult kids. In many cases they didn't cooperate as effectively as they could have in working with those kids over time, So that was hard to cvork n-ith in some ways. (Kevin)

In contrast to this. in the next two schools where Kevin worked the staffs were cohesive.

Two male vice principals had the experience of working alone and being responsible for just about s ~ r e ~ h i in n gthe day-to-da\. operations of the school. In one school. a second vice principal in her last year limited her responsibilities to arranging buses for field trips and other tasks of that nature. As the single vice principal in his next school, he was responsible for the daily operation of the school. This esperience was followed by one where he and another vice principal worked together. but the principal often went against their decisions and undermined their authority. AI1 of the women worked with at least one other vice principal. In tàcing difficult situations. the women had the support of other administrators. A s the only woman on the administrative team. Nicole was very appreciative of the way the male vice principals treated ber. They were very generous, taught her a great deal. and never demeaned her. These men. with whom she still continued to associate, viewed her as very capable. They were not aware that she was struggling with the reality of being the only woman on the tearn.

Eight of the subjects. five women and three men. related their involvement in curriculum and program while they were vice principals. Carl. who spent eleven years in the role of vice principal. was in his third vice principalship when he was given curriculum responsibilities. Until that time. he did not see the cumculum responsibilities as part of the role of an administrator. Half of the departments in the school were placcd under his guidance. The eight vice principals who spoke of their involvernent in curriculum and program liaised with depanments. developed or articulated particular programs to serve students. or rewrote and improved existing curricuiurn. They found a great deal of satisfaction in this work.

I think my favorite thing when I went there in the first year was that 1 somehow ended up doing (and 1 can't remember how it was decided) that 1 would take over this Upward Bound Program liaison. which was a program that was there but was sort of floundering. and it was to try to heIp kids upgrade. They were studying at one level and they should be upgraded to another level. So I sort of picked that up. And 1 guess the satisfaction I had with that program over the three years was seeing it ciosed. Because what that rneans is that we were placing kids better when they corne into the Second- School. So 1 think it operated for tu-Oyears. and then in consultation with thé stafiand student sewices and the administration. I recommended that the pro,oram close. because we were doing a better job with placing kids. Anyway what's happening in Ontario is that kids are placing themselves in programs that they want anyway. which are of the more advanced level. So parents and kids are de-streaming themselves. (Rebekah) Three of these vice principals. two women and a man. were involved in bringing adult day

school programs on Stream. The courses offered in the prograrns included English as a second language, business education. cornputer studies. and upgrading. These endeavors were undertaken partly as a response to a declining teenage student population. resulting from thé granting of full funding to Separate Schools in Ontario. Nathan was fmstrated with how little

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time he had available to spend working with teachers in rewriting and improving the

curriculum. In his nest school he was one of four vice principals and he was pleased to have more time to focus on the departments that were his responsibility. In the department of special education. Nathan was abie to improve the diagnosis of student needs and set up structures and resources to meet those needs. Four Lvomen and three men spoke of their invoIvement in staff growth. This took the

form of encouraging staff members to attend workshops. setting up sessions to meet particular needs. conducting in-service sessions. and providing administrative experiences for members of staff. Wliile the role of the men was one of encouraging staff members to attend in-service sessions. the women were also involved in the actuaI cielivery of in-service to the staff. Rebekah arranged a professional development session on attendance. She brought the \%,holestaff together with a facilitator and sought solutions to attendance issues in the school. 1 remember doing a whole PD session around attendance for the staff. where 1 brought the whole staff together with a facilitator. and we discussed attendance issues in the school. 1 was already thinking and knowing there were issues you had to take outside of departments. outside of implementing science guidelines within a science department. You know what I'm saying. that there were issues larger to the school. (Rebekah)

Molly placed teachers on interviewing teams. The team went through a very thorough process in setting up an interview. The members decided on the questions. how they were going to evaluate. the kinds of things they were looking for and the structure of the interview itsetf. This experience gave staff members the opportunity to see the school from another perspective. During her time as vice principal. Rebekah found many new initiatives came from the Ministry of Education. These were implemented by the vice principals and coordinators. Other topics covered at the school or board level included race reiations,

conflict management. and maintaining the health of staff mernbers. There were also inservice sessions on integration of courses. cooperative learning. language across the curriculum. computers across the curriculum. special education. and classroom management. Six of the subjects. three women and three men. were involved in btinging in changes while in the role of vice principal. They tvere innovative- always looking for new and better ways of doing what had to be done. Thep took nsks and brought about changes as needs

emerged. These changes included finding ways of keeping the school population up, introducing a day school progratn for adults. and espanding course offerings to adolescents. Departments were reorganized. the diagnosis of student needs was improved. new structures

to deal with those needs were set up. and the required resources found. The process for promotion was changed. a full daycare center was created. and the entire depanment head structure altered.

The women and men with an orientation towards change were either given the freedorn to be innovative or they persuaded the principal to allow them to rnake changes. Ina worked with a principal who was very flexible and encouraged his vice principals to get involved in visionary activities. They could initiate change as long as they kept him infonned. and it fitted into the general philosophy of the school. Molly was given the freedorn to implement changes by her tirst principal. a femaie. She understood the process of change. and only made small changes the first year. until the staff had time to get to know her. at which time she made major changes. When she began to work with her second principal, she observed that lier initiatives made him nervous. until he saw the first few projects she had initiated successfully completed.

It was his first appointment as principal. He was very good. He was not as much of a risk-taker. He was very conservative and I think there were times when 1 made him nervous because he would want to go with me and he tmsted me but he was also very nervous. until he saw the first few projects that 1 had initiated corne to fmition and be Lrery successfùl. Then. when 1 was leaving. he was really upset because he saw that 1 was taking with me some of the things that were helping make that school. And it's not tliat you're irreplaceable. but 1 think after a little while. working with him. he began to appreciate the strength that 1 had which was different from his. He had a whole host of other strengths that made him and make him an excellent principal. (h4011y) Jessie \vas a vice principal when change \vas ihrust upon her school. The new femals principal and new vice principal came in after the Christmas break. and the school went through a period of turmoil. The students could not handle al1 the changes. She had to enlisi the help of the heads in working through the problerns and came to appreciate the importance of the heads. This proved to be a valuable but difficult learning esperience for her. She requested a transfer. using the excuse that if she \{.as eventually to become a principal. she nseded an esperience in another schooi. Al1 vice principals had responsibilities for invoiving the community. particularly the

parents of the students. in the life of the school. For six of them. four women and two men. their contact with parents occurred only when problems arose around attendance. discipline and negative pupikeacher interactions. One women and three men were also involved with parents in a different manner. In one school. where the relationship with the community was

cIoss to non-existent, the female vice principal and her colleagues made a concerted effort to involve the parents in the life of the school. The school was in an area where there was a whole range of people from the working class and people on welfare, to those who were wealthy. The administration tried to develop a strong parentheacher association. The vice

principals sent out newsletters. phoned parents to get them to attend meetings, and thanked thern for attending. They experimented with having meetings on different days o f the week. and different times during the day. Their efforts met with limited success. They did not have many cornplaints from the neighborhood. but neither did they have the degree o f active involvement they desired. Parents would phone from time to time and a small number would turn out for parents' night twice a year. Evenrually the school began an aduit day school program. and the student population changed to include a significant number o f adults, In another school the male vice principal found that the community was very demanding in what they wanted the school to do. A large percentage of these parents had a post secondary education. primarily university. Two other male vice principals had a great deal of interaction with parents and the community. One found that eighty percent of the people were very positi\.e about the school and attendsd school sponsored events. At another school. links with the community were made through the schooi trustee and morning sessions with parents. The principal and male vice principal attended these sessions. They were used to making the administration aware of issues that were o f concern to the parents and cornrnunity. to assure both parents and the community that their concerns would be addressed. and to identify people to serve on committees. We had a good working relationship with the trustee at that point. One o f the things the principal instituted were community rap sessions o r something. A terrible name, now sounds hokey, but called "coffee and conversation". sornething like that. Every Wednesday morning he'd meet with six o r seven parents, chosen at random by one of the secretaries and invited to corne in. and that was by design. It was intended to have no one be able to say to the school. "The people are saying." And we kept notes. 1 used to hate the sessions because they went the same round and around. I just hated them. But 1 would be the first to say they were the right move and they were hugely beneficial. So we established personal connections. We kept notes on who said what. criticisms or concerns. We'd get back to the people. Positive, sharp thinkers, we'd

keep the names and draft them for cornmittees and things like that. That was our main community link. And over the three years I was there. we then had quite a bank o f people that we were able to say that we had direct connections to. And we were able to say that we'd had more extensive connections than anybody else. including the trustee. and she knew it. And she also appreciated the open style both of us had. And people came to know that if there was a problem. we-d try to deal with it. It may not always be the way you want it. at l e s t something would be done. (Joshua) Two women and two men received shocks when they becarne vice principals. For them the move from department head to vice principal was a major one. The- were not aware of a11 the problems that they would encountsr as vice principal. Jessie suddeniy became aware o f the conflict going on amongst members of staff and the expectation that as vice principal she was going to help solve their problems. The amount of discipline and the abuse she received from students also shocked her. Rebekah became vice principal at a school that had a Iiigh needs student population and a high needs staff. There were a lot o f administrative changes and the staff were angry at al1 the changes that had occurred. She found the first four or five months very difficult. The problems she encountered were attributed to the circumstances in which she was placed. rather than the change o f role. One o f the shocks the

man received \vas that teachers treated him differently when he moved fiom classroom teaching to administration. While he believed he had not changed. he found that the role was different. He found it difficult to discipline teachers who had senously stepped out of line wi th another teacher or student.

Weil 1 went from teacher to administrator in the same school. And there were some shocks in doing that. Surprisingly enough some of the shocks. one of the shocks to me was that teachers assumed I was somebody else. I had teachers that 1 had known for ten years stop calling me by my first name. Now it didn't last very long but they had this picture of administrators and didn't recognize that when 1 rnoved from a classroom teacher to administrator 1 didn't change. 1 was still. and 1 walked there being the same person. I walked in and the next day it was Mr. you know and that was a little bit difficult. The other difficulty was in disciplining teachers who had stepped

out of Iine very seriously with another teacher or with a student because the relationship is different. The roIe is different. 1 am no longer exactiy at the same status. When you have a teacher that you've known for ten years sitting in your oftice in tears and the parents and the l a v e r and the OSSTF sitting in the other chairs you know your role has changed and you have to do the right thing. And that took a little bit of leaming. Itosnot something that 1 d o n t mind doing (laugh). (Roland) Joshua was still in his twenties when he became a vice principal and was disturbed by the attitudes of some o f the older male teachers who had difficulty with a young man coming in and bringing new ideas. In addition. he had corne tkom a collegiate to a vocational school and they were not prepared to take any direction from him. The vice principal role enabled

these women and men to see across the whole school. Jessie and Joshua became quite indignant at teachers who were just going through the motions in their teaching. They were also able to appreciate teachers from other departments who were doing outstanding jobs with students. and the teachers who did the extra cunicular activities. These teachers were seen as terrific professionals. The view these wornen and men had of the role of vice principal varied. Two women and one man had a generally negative view of the role. For them. the move from department Iiead to vice principal meant taking on a role with many tasks that did not provide

professional satisfaction. The aspects of the job they disliked were dealing with conflict among staff members. heaky involvement in discipline. and unrealistic time lines to complete tasks. Nicole also struggled with her own insecurities as the oniy female administrator at her school. Nathan found that being a vice principal was so demanding that there was never any time to reflect. The only part he liked was working with teachers and students for the benefit of the school.

The only part I liked was being able to facilitate and support teachers and students and

228 help make things more successful. 1 don't think there was anything else in the job to like. It was either very task oriented with ofien short or unrealistic time lines. dealing with conflict, dealing with issues. picking up al1 the pieces. And there were always too many pieces to pick up. There was never any time to reflect. but just to keep going. A very demanding job. You just keep going and plugging away at eveqzhing that comes in your direction. And trying to manage it as effectively as possible in terms of time and trying to pnoritize the time. Prioritizing was okay. you may have done the most important thing first. but you still had al1 the other things to do anyway. because it was impossible to discard things. (Nathan) The womsn who had overall negative view of the role of the vice principal also related somr positive experiences in that role. Both women had positive experiences at the b e g i ~ i n gof their administrative career. where they went from being part of the teaching staff. to a vice principalship in the same school. Jessie \vas delighted to be working with a principal n.ho was her mentor. Nicole Ioved the school she was in and was able to begin an adult education program at the school. This accomplishment gave her great satisfaction. The

pleasant experience only lasted four months for each of them. In Jessie's school a new principal and a ne\v vice principal ivere appointed and the school experienced problems. Nicole was moved to another school where she \vas not known. She moved in the middle of the year. and the fact of having no easing-in time added to her insecurity. Both women were aware of using their knowledge of the system to be successful vice principals. They found out the forma1 and informal power structure. made contacts. and worked through the power structure. Three of the women and four of the men had a generally positive view of the role. Two women held the position of vice principal in only one school and found the job of vice principal very satisQing. There was a great deal of cooperation and their principals were supportive. The job involved a balance of visionary activities. program development,

229 curriculum involvement and management tasks. Ina became vice principal in the school where she had been on staff for a number of years and where she had found great satisfaction. Molly came to the position from central office and was only known by teachers in her curriculum area. While she underwent a great deal of testing during her first year. she did not tind that difficult. and loved being a vice principal. Rebekah found the first few months of her first position as vice principal very difficult. She attributed this to the state of affairs at

her school. There had been a complete change of administration within a five month period.

The student population had a great many needs and the staff were angry about al1 the changes that had occurred. It \vas a difficult school to administer. and she believed it remained that wa? In spite of this she spoke positively of her experience as vice principal and al1 she was

able to accompIish in that role. The four men related both negative and positive experiences in their role as vice principals. They had a large number of negative esperiences. Joshua had verbal battles with staff members in his first position as vice principal. He was young and the older men were not prepared to take any professional direction from him. In that school he was responsibie for al1 the discipline. In a second school he had to sit in on sessions with groups of parents where the same issues continued to be discussed. In a third school he had strong professional disagreements with the principal. Carl disliked being interrupted in the midst of one task. and required to help in an area where he had no prior training or experience. The amount of discipline he encountered in another school was ovenvhelming. This was combined with a teacher morale probtem because the school had gone from an academically strong to an academically weak student population. Kevin disliked working with a staff that was not

230 cohesive and as such did not work as effectively as they could have worked for the students. The principal also caused problems for the vice principals. He ofien changed his mind on a previousiy agreed to course of action. then left them to deal with the consequences. Roland had difficult esperiences trying to resolve staff problems. The men reported positive esperiences in the role. These included being given the opportunity to handIe al1 the operations aspects of the role. working closely with other administrators. and working with a cohesive staff. The? also arranged professional development for staff and worked on cumculum and programming. These four men had a positive assessrnent of their roles as vice principal. They accepted the negatives as part of the roIe and spoke of each of their esperiences as a good experience.

The Role of Principal One woman and four of the men were each into their second school as principal at the time of the study. Four women and one man were in their first principalship. The average number of years in the principalship was 3.7 for the women and 5.6 for the men. Their schooIs varied in tenns of the student population. The five women and four men were principals in schools with adolescent student populations only. In addition four men senred as principals in schools with a combination of adult and adolescent students. In their most recent schools the five women had adolescent student populations. Three men were in schools with adolescent student populations and two men were in schools with a combination of adolescent and adult student populations, with the majority of students being adults. The students in these schools were from many different cultures. In one of the schools 75

23 1

countries oforigin were represented and 45 languages spoken. There had been a conscious effort to hire teachers from groups represented in the student population. with particular attention bsing paid to visible minorities. A balance of females and males had been achieved on the teaching staff. Fernales were present on every administrative team and minorities on a

number of teams. The physical space occupied by four of the women and five of the men revealed a degree of standardization. with added persona1 touches. The furniture in each principal's

office consisted of a desk with computer work station. couch and easy chairs arranged around a coffee table. The four women and one man displayed farnily photographs. Two of the

women displayed student art work. Sports mementos were on display in the offices of three of the men. One man had a frarned persona1 award on his desk. One woman had a display of china in a cabinet. Two women and two men had plants or flowers in their offices. Three women and two men had framed art reproductions. The atmosphere in the general office of the four women and three men was warm and friendly. lnterac tions with students were pleasant. The interactions with staff in the general offices of the other two remaining male principals were amicable. One principal was more businesslike in his interactions with students. A student was observed asking to taik with the principal. The principal explained that he had an appointment and that the student was supposed to see the vice principal. The student Ieft the office obviously dispieased. Al1 participants articulated the vision for the schools in which they were principal. Their visions were not static. Four of the women had persona1 visions towards which they were moving the staff. The other six principals had moved towards collective visions. Several

were building on visions that had been developed prior to their arriva1 at the school. One lvoman. while working to incorporate her vision into the collective vision of her staff. discovered that the larger the staff. the more groundwork had to be done in developing a vision. S h e appointed teachers she believed had foresight to key committees. and in this way buik a network.

In their visions. four of the female principals highlighted the importance of developing the whole person. empowering students. valuing each student. and creating an affinning and equitable environment. These women aimed to have students supported and challenged to leam academically. and to l e m in their attitudes. values. and feelings how to bc contributing. positive citizens in their various communities. They figured out ways of

helping them become responsible for their decisions. allowed them to negotiate curriculum. and treated them as individuals. In addition to being concemed about academic achievement. students were encouraged to care about each other. to give o f their resources and time to help other people. and to develop responsible attitudes toward the environment. They believsd secondary schools were too content driven and sought to create a balance. Their goal was to meet the needs of each student. whether these students were high academic achievers or experiencing a great deal of difficulty. They worked to create an environment where every student was comfortable and academically successful. regardless o f their economic, racial. or cultural background. 1 think the situation that existed in this school when the war broke out in the East and we have students ... from every one of the countries that was involved directly with that conflict. Some of them had relatives who were fighting on one of the sides or the other. some who had relatives in the country. In that, throughout that whole conflict the kids in this school feIt comfortable enough to express their concern but there was never conflict within the building, that they felt supported. that they were able to

express their concems either individually o r through announcements that we wouId make ,.. One kid 1 think captured it. He said to one of teachers he said he felt safe in this school. (Molly) Equity \sas a prime focus of these women. both racial equity and gender equity. They provided role models on the teaching staff reflecting the various ethnic backgrounds. ran anti-racist awareness seminars and payed particular attention to meeting the needs of femals students. These principals modeled this behavior in their interaction with the young people and staff in their schools. Students were affirmed in many \vays. Adminisuators took time to congratulate them. cal1 them or send them a note when they did exemplary work. They took steps to find out how students felt they were treated in school. what they liked. what they did

not like. and how they saw the adults. Teachers who were pro-active in meeting the needs of students were hired. They were affirmed in the work they did for students and attention was paid to their personal needs. Program improvement was central to the vision of four male principals. While program irnpro~zmentwas chiefly directed at meeting the academic needs of students. there were programs designed to meet the personal needs of students. The prograrns designed to meet the academic needs included language and communications, critical thinking skills, problem solving. and cornputer and technology programs. Cooperative education \vas the focus for several principals. They created partnerships programs with business, banks and communi ty col leges. Programs to meet the persona1 needs of students induded sel f-esteem prograrnsl anti racist awareness programs. student support services programs. and leadership development prograrns. These men had taken different approaches to improving programs. They improved programs by expanding physical facilities and using existing facilities more

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effectively. They changed the structure of the school year or school day. involved the staff in program planning as members of steering cornmittees. working groups. and task forces. The? were also involved in de-streaming prograrns. reviewing existing programs in terms o f how they were packaged, sequenced, and delivered. They created new prograrns. examined and changed processes and procedures for receiving students into existing programs. They set up a procedure for referring students to other agencies if they could not be accommodated in

the programs in their school. Their concentration on program was partly driven by the espectations of the board. The new director mandated program planning two years previously. Of the two remaining principals. Rrbekah's vision was of high expectations of staff and students with high degrees o f support for staff. Roland's vision was to have al1 staff members engaged in the process of developing a student- centered vision. He emphasized process more than product since he believed the boundaries were always changing. Three females and a male tvere conscious of the need to articulate their vision.

You c m have a very strong vision and 1 think it's critical that you do have a strong vision and that you communicate that vision. You get nowhere if you have a vision and you don't talk to anyone about it. 1 think it's very important to work with your staff and make sure you develop that common goal and that everyone knows, that the staff al1 know. that the students al1 know what you're about. And you keep that focus in whatever you do. ( h a ) They communicated their vision by telling students, parents and staff both in public

and private. In that way, they built a network of support. Each school was required by the

board to develop a school plan. This requirement on the part o f the board ensured that al1 schools in the board were involved in school planning. and pointed the staff towards the development o f a vision. In one school the principal had to put building and articulating a vision on hold fiom November until March because o f disruptions. The schools in the area

235 had a probiem with violence and difficulty in managing both the behaviour of students and intruders. The appointment of a f i f i vice principal gave them more resources to control the inappropriate behaviour of students and to identim and deal with intniders who came into the building and caused problems. This allowed the principal to concentrate on building and articulating a vision. Ail principals in the study were risk-takers and had initiated major changes in their schools. They had knowledge about the process of change. Several had taken courses and attended workshops on the change process. In teaching the principals' course. one woman had the process of change as her focus. These principals were creative. innovative.

and had seized and made opportunities. They believed the changes they had made impacted positively on students. The changes they initiated incl uded reaching out to the community. welcoming people into the school. getting parents involved. and changing the way the parents communicated with the school. Making good links with feeder schools and increasing student enrollment were other changes. Replacing the evaluation system in the school and bringing in new programs to meet student needs were among their innovations. The new programs included cooperative education. gifted education. entrepreneurial courses. communications technology. international studies. and a new foreign language. They also involved changing the way prograrns were delivered. i.e. making them interdisciplinq. restructuring esisting programs, modifjGng processes and procedures for admitting students. revising school policies. and drawing up codes of behavior for students. Their changes reached into the hiring practices of the schools. Staff members were hired to bring a different cultural perspective to the school. to deliver curriculum effectively to a multi-cultural student population, and to provide role models for these students. They

236 hired with the goal of achieving a balance of females and males on the staff. placing more females and visible minorities in leadership roles. including administrative positions. Other changes included de-streaming. changing staff attitudes toward students. improving communication. increasing the number of staff meetings. and giving the staff meetings a professional d e ~ d o p m e n focus. t They helped department heads to assume more of a leadership role in the school. achieved a balance of male and female heads. and facilitated more teacher involvement in the life of the school. One change noted and supponed by al1 participants was the entrance of females into administration at the secondary level. They saw the early 1980s as the tirne when this movement began. Two of the women were in the forefront of the srniggle to have women placed in leadership positions. Although two men and one woman were critical of one female administrator they worked with. al1 other

esperiences urere positive. They credited womrn u-ith bringing a curriculum focus. personal support. female role models. and a different viewpoint. Other groups credited with bringing women into administrative positions were the board and the Ministry of Education. The majority of principals faced resistance from certain staff members when they drst attempted to make changes in the schools. They were partially able to overcome these problerns by either changing the attitudes and actions of the existing staff- or by bringing in new staff who were willing to work for the change they wanted in the school. Changing the

attitudes and actions of staff members who had been at the school for a considerable length of time was the most dificult task. Joshua had major confrontations with several members of his staff when he set about to change the evaluation practices in the first of the two schools where he served as principal. The experience left a bittemess that was still evident. These

principals were aware that bringing about changes took time. and their board gave them the time needed. They were sometimes helped in their endeavour by crises. A number of schools were faced with the task of increasing student enrollment afier the separate schools received full funding. as large numbcrs of students lefi the public schools to attend the separate schools. 1 think 1 was here four years before 1 sensed Queen Mary was turning around. This was a school. at that time there were 640 students. It was what you would cal1 a dying school. At a time when (name of board) was considering ciosing schools this one would have been near the top of the list of the schools that was gonna close. When you get in that situation you have. of course. a very entrenched staff because staffget declared surplus based on seniority. So you had only the oldest lefi. A very complacent school. A little womed about closing, thank Godt because they cenainly weren't womed about program or what uras going on in the school. When the very year 1 came. in January. this school was slated to bring on a program for gified students in September. plus to bring in the grade nines for the first tirne. So we had some common missions we had to deal with. in a way forced on us. We worked very hard at transitioning before transition \vas a word. And also brought the gified program on board. which began to turn this school around. in tsrms of enrolment. And this 1 think allowed the teachers to see that whether they liked me or not. or whether they believed in me or not. this school was turning around and the enrolment started to creep up. So that now we're at maximum, and have been for the last three years. We have a waiting list. Wicole)

Molly found she had to work for three years before the heads agreed to chair their own meetings. Nathan achieved the latter in his first year at the schooi by refusing to chair the heads' meetings. A crisis in t e m s of low enrollment served as a focus for change in several schools. In other buildings a crises meant putting a planned curriculum change on hold. This happened when safe schools became an issue and several schools had to cope with difficult incidents on a daiIy basis. Joshua had to back away from a planned school-wide change because the staff was not ready. Nathan reversed a change that his predecessor had begun because the change was not meeting student needs. Jessie found it difficult to change the

238 perspective o f her math teachers. There \vas a problem in that area with only the needs of the high achieving math students being met. The teachers did not see this and were not open to change. The change in the relationship between the administration and staff was noted by a \voman and man who were experienced administrators. When they staned teaching and during their earlier years in administration. there Las a distinct dividing lins between the two groups. Teachers and administrators had major disagreements and operated as two distinct groups. Later in their careers the administration and staff worked together to give the students the best education they could. Their own efforts in changing the relationship between the administration and teachers were evident. Members of the staff were on a first name basis with the administration. Five o f the women and four of the men talked o f spending a considerable arnount o f time getting to know the staff. listening to them. accepting their ideas. and working with teachers in putting those ideas into action. Teachers and administrators worked on common enterprises. together participated in workshops, and shared their professional expertise. This close working relationship also enablsd teachers to become familiar with. and appreciate the work of. administrators. Joshua was the exception to this talk of being part o f a common enterprise. He had a strained relationship with a number of staff members in his first school as principal. He talked of dealing with tyrannical teaching practices. taking charge. giving orders, handling very difficult problems and facing the issue o f control. In his second school he had a more open administration than many of the other schools where he worked. At the same time he talked of mandating certain school-wide ventures and maintaining a professional retationship

with the staff and most of the vice principals. He had a close persona1 and professional relationship with only one of his vice principals. When Nicole was appointed. she set out to change not only her way of operating. but also the role of the principal. She believed women operated in a different way from men and that changes were needed in order for women to be effective. Ail principals had students as their focus. whether these were adults or adolescents. Five of the women and two of the men devoted considerable time to interacting with students. The? believed it was important to get to know the students who were in their schools and to work with them as individuals. They enjoyed students, and found time to be with them. MoIly expressed her belief that being with studrnts had benefits for adults. She brlieved students kept adults honest and challenged them. She was also escited to see the success some students met because ofsome of the programs that have been created to meei their nreds. Kevin saw working with adults. immigrants and refugees as presenting a new set of chaIIenges. Cari noted the difficulty of getting to students individually in his school with its large student population. and where he had been for only a year. He had not experienced

the same problem in the first school where he was principal. even though the student enrollment was the sarne. Hotvever. at the other school, he began his administration by being ver). involved with the students in the role of student council advisor. Because of his work with the parent council. which he had formed. he also got to know their parents and viewed both students and their home situation positively. The sarne type of relationship with the students and parents had not been built at his second school. Nathan appreciated the experience of serving on a f m i l y of schools planning team for an anti-racist awareness

240

program with the president of his student council. which he came to view as a tremendous esperience for her. Roland deliberately visited. on a daily basis. a class which had students with behavioural difficulties. in order to make friends with the students. Ina went on a six-day canoe trip with some of her students. That contact with the students proved to be a very enjoyable experïence for her. Teachers also brought her exemplary work which the students had done. She either called the students or wrote them a note to tell them how impressed she was with their work . The students had a high degree of involvement in the school. They had 63 clubs and 30 spons teams with a great deal of emphasis on inter-murals. Students came out in large numbers to the clubs to participate. support. and to serve as coaches on school teams. Nicole saw her job as providing students with both the challenge and support they needed. She beIieved some students needed more support than others. Student advocacy was a priority for her. Jessie espressed regret that. in the first school where she served as

principal. she and her vice principal were not as flexible as they could have been. When she began work at her second school and saw al1 the school spirit, she realized that the students at

her first school would have benefited from more freedom. Al1 of the principals had knowledge of program issues and were committed to providing quality programs to students. They received satisfaction from working on such programs. As principals, they spearheaded the development of special programs. Among the programs brought into the school under their leadership were adult day school. English as a Second Language. adult day school upgrading. a daycare prograrn, a media program which served the whole board. a cornputer technology program, an international studies program, anti-racist education prograrns. a continuing education prograrn. cooperative education

34 1 programs. work partnership prograrns. and a program for gified students. One man acknowledged the part played by the board coordinator in encouraging the development of programs for adults. Principals saw good programs as senring several purposes. New programs wsre developed and advertised to fil1 a niche in the market and to increase school enrolment. Others were reviewed and changes made in the packaging. sequencing and delivery to meet student needs. Courses that were deemed not to be meeting student needs were discarded. The major change in the delivery of curriculum was the thrust towards working across disciplines. This interdisciplinq delivery of programs took different forrns in different SC hools.

These included a grade nine cooperative prograrn which had four disciplines

working together: an integrated arts prograrn. which had six different departments working together: and packages of courses for adult students. with four people teaching the package. Interdisciplinq work was evident in the more traditional schools. whic h were strongly subject department oriented. as wel! as the schools which had a broader departmental structure. Breaking down isolationism and total concentration on delivery of the content of a particular subject was not easy. One method used to involve staff in new curriculum ventures \vas to invite those interested in a particular proposa1 to become members of a committee. This group worked on implementing the change. In addition to problems with entrenched staff members who do not want any changes to affect them. principals also faced daily crises that could keep them away from program involvement. The growing number of incidents which had the potential for violence and the searching for ways to continue to provide safe schools were absorbing principals time and energies. Several principals found that their

prograrn initiatives had to be temporarily shelved while they dealt with major problems. Requests for information from groups outside the school absorbed considerable administrative time. One principal gave the results of a sunrey by the secondary schools professional association. The results showed that. during the first nine school days of May. s e c o n d - school principals each received 47 requests. each of which required a response in the forrn of information or action. The size of the school population provided another challenge in staying close to what was happening in the area of curriculum and instruction. Jessie was well-infonned about cuniculum and instruction in her first school. The enrolment at that school was half the size of the enroiment at her second school. This knowledge of curriculum. and delivery of programs she attributed to the greater length of time her generation of principal spent in the classroom.

My generation of principal have spent a lot of time in the classroom. And they're mucli more committed to curriculum and have a much stronger understanding of curriculum and kids than the principals who went before us. .And so 1 know what goss on in rny school. 1 don't know as much here because it's so big and we've dealt with crises. Over the school 1 was at 1 knew what was going on in those classrooms. 1 knew what kind of delivery of prograrn was going on. But most principals haven't the sense ... the principal before me couldn't have told you what the science prograrn was or whether there was CO-operativegroup learning. It's a change. (Jessie) Principals were involved in promoting the growth of their staff. This involvement incruded making staff development a major priority. highlighting and circulating articles to staff members. and directing time. energy. and resources to very specific school based initiatives. Tliey were also involved in promoting professional development at the departmental level. making the most of professional development at staff meetings, and encouraging staff members to take advantage of professional development opportunities. Teachers were approached directly rather than had information on professional development

placed in their mailboses. In addition. staff members were taken on an ovemight professional development retreat and teachers were supported in their involvement in professional de\.eloprnent offered by groups outside the school. A school tearn was taken for intensive training in an area of need. Members of the team shared their knowledge with the rest of the staff members when they returned. Arrangements were made for staff members who had special skills to in-service other staff members, Principals showed how much they valued

professional development by learning new skilis d o n g \spith the rnembers of their staff. Earlier on in the year we ran a course on literacy and called in a lot of very interesting people: elementary, junior high teachers who deat with teaching students how to read. 1 participated in that and so did my staff. We run. within the school. computer \vorkshops. We got enough computer teachers. We don't have to go anywhere because there's always an expert here. So there are people who c m teach you to do virtually anything that you want to. and we have a phenomenal response. This staff is very good. They work very hard at trying to keep themselves curent. Leadership labs, C labs. interview sessions? how to be intewiewed- Those are ail running within the last few weeks. (Roland) While staffs\\-ereinvolved in determining prokssional development and individuais were encouraged to take responsibility for their o n n growth. certain professional development activities were mandated. Jessie defended holding a particular professional development session at the end of the school year. Some staff mernbers believed they were too tired. She pointed out that this session kvas really important. They were facing a nine week hoiiday and she expected them to work a five day week leading up to the holidays. Jessie was also finding that professional development out of context had Iimited value. and was pushing her supervisory officer to bring in school consultants or coaches to work with staff members. The areas chosen by the staff and administration for professional development included critical skills. persona1 skills, self esteem building, and student evaluation. There was also a

concentration on teaching practices, instructional strategies. CO-operativeeducation. intentional learning, and broad based technology. In addition sessions were conducted on anti-racist education. substance abuse. and bereavement. Three of the women and three of the men expressed the importance of teachers feeling good about what they did. knowing they were supported and were happy in their work. They believed it was important that principals understood the concerns and hopes of

the people ~vith~vhornthey were working and took these into consideration in their actions. They were very positive in their assessment of their teachers and made them aware o f their support by being visible, attending functions. dropping in on classes, and taiking to staff members. They encouraged them and recognized what they did by writing letters and notes to staff members. placing notes in the school bulletin. and arranging sessions that directly addressed the persona1 needs of staff members. The administrative team and teachers were also encouraged to thank each other publicly in the schooi bulletin. as well as privately. These principals saw the link betwesn the personai and the professional and believed teachers \\.ho were happy and supported did a better job for their students. There was a strong ethic of

care espressed by two female principals. Molly expressed the surprise of her teachers when she first voiced this belief o f hers at her first staff meeting. We tried to deal with issues that are relevant. not only to the delivery of the curriculum. but to taking ccue of the staff because 1 really think you have to do that. If you don't take care of them then you're not rnodelfing for them what they need to take care of the kids. And 1 beiieve and 1 said that to the staff the first staff meeting 1 went to. And 1 had them coming down here to the office in droves saying, "My God, 1 never heard that before." But what I said to them was that 1 believed, and 1 still believe is. that my main role was to support them, so that they can do the best job that they can in the classroom. And that is rny main role. Because I can't support kids if 1 haven't got teachers who are doing it. (Molly)

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Roland acknowledged that supporting teachers and getting the best from them had a selfish side. If teachers were happy as a result of the support they received. they did a good job and he was seen as a successfûl administrator. The other four principals while they were positive in their assessrnent of most staff members. were negative about others. and identified problems of inertia, complacency. isolation. and inhumanity. Suggested solutions to these problems Lvere to move teachers around. to require them to be more accountable. to remove teachers from the profession. and to hire new teachers. While critical of certain staff members. two women acknowledged that teachers had a tremendous workload and that classroom teaching was the hardest job in education. Al1 principals were committed to having staff work collaboratively and invested a great deal of energy into making this happen. They beIieved this method of working was in the best interest o f the students. A variety of approaches were used to promote collaboration. Special projects involving a number of departments were created. Inter-disciplinary pro,orarns were introduced and school-wide ventures undertaken. Nicole and Kevin made staff collaboration part of their professional development. Rebekah expected people to be professional and cooperate even if they disagreed. She insisted that their focus had to be on working for students. A number of principals found that achieving a hiph degree of collaboration across departmental lines was difficult. Teachers at the secondary leveI saw themselves as department members first and then as members of the staff of the larger school cornples. Nicole was able to use declining enrollment to have her staff work more closely together, as they increased the number of students from approximately six hundred to nearly eleven hundred. Yet she was very concerned with the isolationist behaviour and attitude o f

certain members of her staff. Often they would corne in .take their coats off. go to their classroom. d o their work and leave. Nicole \vas considering changing the staffroom to a professional centre. in the hopes that staff would frequent it and share professional expertise ~vithone another. Joshua found that the size and design of the school building was not conducive to cooperation among staff members. The office was in an inconvenient location and even though staff had been requested to visit the o f i c e at the beginning and end of the day. some did not. There were a large number of vice principals. and they were spread around the school. While he believed they were a group of understanding. accepting. professional educators. blending their operating styles in such a setting presented a challenge. Two principals succeeded in achieving a high degree of collaboration in one school and were working to increase cooperation in their new schools. Nathan found his experience in his first school superb. and attributed that to the almost complete collaboration by staff, as they developed programs and drarnatically increassd the enrollment. He began with less than two hundred students and in three years reached thirteen hundred. His new school had a tremendous amount of cross-cumcular work and school-wide initiatives and he was seeking to increase collaboration further. Certain staff members did not cooperate for a variety of reasons. and he did not believe in wasting a lot of time on these people. since the gains were so minimal for the amount of energy invested. If the majority of staff members had been like that. he believed he would have viewed the situation differently. However, the majority of his staff were very committed to working with each other and with the administration in the school. Jessie was able to develop a collaborative culture in the first school where she was

principal. She attributed her success to it being a small school and the staff having the common mission o f increasing enrollment. In her second school. a much Iarger school with its many crises, she was stniggling with how to achieve that goal. Several succeeded

principals whom they deemed to be very "top down" in administrative approach and were seeking to have their staff work together. No one was satisfied with the degree of collaboration achieved. Al1 of them were tvorking towards more cooperation among staff members. Five wornen and hvo men were convinced of the importance of being highly visible to students and teachers. and in the case of one woman. to parents also. They either spoke of the importance of being highly visible. gave esamples of their high visibiiity. or by their actions showed that they were highly visible. Three of the women and two of the men talked about the importance of being out in the halls and around the school. dropping in on classes and being sure students knew who they were and what the? stood for. Rebekah and Molly began the interview session with the researcher by doing a complete walk about the school. Molly included the parking lot in her walk. She hurried along students who arrived close to bel1 time and insisted they stand quietly beside their lockers during opening exercises. Rebekah talked to students in the corridor and dropped in on a class in progress. These wornen greeted. joked with- gave advice. and listened to both students and teachers. Al1 of the principals were aware of the importance of good communication and worked at communicating with their staff. students. and parents. The group they communicated with most was their staff. Persona1 communication was used frequently. In his

first schooI as principal, Car1 kept his office door open most of the time and made it a

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practice of seeing staff immediately. At lunch times he spent time in the cafeteria with the staff being available and listening. In his second school. he also paid a great deal of attention to communication. He frequently talked with members of his administrative team. Jessie first tc-orked in a small school and found getting out and speaking to people a very effective way of communicating. She struggled to find a way to communicate effectively in her new school. a school which had three times the size of staff. student body and parent population. Joshua

found that in his first school as principal the interaction patterns of the staff alloaed for informal communication which he considered to be very thorough. His second school was smaller. but communication presented more of a challenge. He attributed this partly to the large size of the physical plant. the location of the main oftice and the fact that vice principals' offices were at a distance from his office. Information was passed through the vice principaIs and department heads to teachers. The traditional kinds of communication were used by principals. Memos. bulletins. and rien-sletters were an important part of communication. The principals found a frequent need to get information out immediately. and it was not possible to have daily or even weekly meetings of the whole staff. Nathan took a lot of care in writing memos. He tried to make them short and to the point. making them detailed only where necessary. There were certain standard memos. These dealt with procedures around school opening, examinations, and year end cIosing. Staff were invited to contribute to bulletins and newsletters. Listening to the concerns of staff members was another important part of the communication of principals. Jessie found that when most people came to her with a problem they just wanted to talk it through. When asked wbat they wanted her to do about it. the staff member would frequently

say that they only wanted her to listen. Staff meetings were generally used for dealing with business items. having free and open discussion on issues. and engaging in professional deïelopment. Time was taken to commend staff members Cor their work and to celebrate successes. Staff meetings were also used to articulate expectations and set the future direction of the school. Principals tned to keep the atmosphere positive. They involved the staff in planning and conducting the meetings. In several schools the meetings were totally run by the staff. In others the staff was responsible for the professional development section of the staff meeting. Regular monthly staff meetings and it becarne a standing joke chat when the staff meeting began 1 would stand up and introduce the new staff member o f the month. Because every month there was someone new. at least one. And then 1 would give them a run down on things that had happened. things like. --Oh. 1 know the last newsletter was just produced by the printing department. thanks to Tom Jones for al1 the work of putting it together and organizing it. You'll have a copy in O u r mailboxes tomorrow." and. "We're going to be doing this in terms of marking." There was a free for al1 in the sense that 1 would spend about twenty minutes at the beginning of every staff meeting doing a bit of a monologue about what had happened in the last month. accepting questions and allowing other people to talk about things they were doing too, So there was always constantly this up. positive. well now we've done this and this and now we've done this and this and this kind of atmosphere. And it was really contagious and it worked. and the rest of the staff meeting would be PD. We would have an hour admin followed by an hour PD. And that was organized not by me. but by the staff PD committee. (Nathan) Administrative team meetings. heads' meetings. and committee meetings were very important in communicating with the staff. Principals depended on their administrative team. heads. and committee members to disseminate information to the rest o f the staff and keep the lines of communication open. Joshua found communication with his vice principaIs a major problem which he attributed to the large number of vice principals he had working with him and the fact that they were spread out in the building and did not see each other

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frequently. They had to make an extra effort to check with each other informally, in addition to their regular weekly meetings. Even in the administrative team meetings. he found the sheer number problematic when dealing with a lengthy agenda. Nine principals spoke of their outreach to the communities where they served as principals. The. cited four reasons for reaching out to the community. The first was the drastic decline in enrollment experienced in certain schools. This decline was attributed to full hnding being given to the Roman Catholic Separate School Boards. In order to get the enrollment up. they believed they had to reach out to the community. The second reason was the realization that the needs of students could only be met by creating links with the business community. community colleges and other agencies. The third reason was that certain schoois senred communities with immense social and economic problems. The help of parents and community was necessary to identi9 and address needs and solve problems. The founh reason was in response to affluent parent populations who insisted on a high degree of involvement in their schools. The four principals who were faced with the problem of deciining enrollment worked at filling needs that were not being met and creating a positive school image in the community. Car1 and Nathan found programs and services were needed for adults. Personnel at the board encouraged them in their endeavours. They developed EngIish as a second language programs. offered upgrading programs during the day and night school programs. Daycare services were provided and a media program introduced t o serve the whole board. They worked with immigration and cultural agencies. built up a cornmunity network, provided promotional materials. and marketed their prograrns through the network. Nicole and Jessie were in schools with adolescent student populations. They spent

25 1 considerable time getting to know the parents and promoting the school in the community. In her first school Jessie projected a school with a fairly strict image. partly in an attempt to draw the Roman Catholic kids back to the school. and partly because certain farnilies wanted that kind of stnictured atmosphere. Three male principals worked to form partnerships with business. community colleges. and community institutions. These links were designed to enable students to gain practical experiences. to obtain credit for courses completed, and to obrain help for personal problems. The three men and a woman rvho were in schools which semed communities with immense social and economic problems and uhere the relationship with the parents and community was weak. worked hard to change this situation. They held parent nights. information sessions. parent days. and curriculum dialogues. The two women and a man who worked in schooIs where parents insisted on a high degree of involvement in their schools. provided ways for parental involvement. Joshua set up a system for responding to the concerns o f a very demanding parent population. The teacher and parent were given the chance to work out the problem first. The last line of appeal was the principal. and he also defended the decisions that were made. The two female principals used the quality assurance reviews conducted at their schools to further involve community members and parents. They helped with the needs assessment, establishing goals and making plans for action. Ina was

very pleased with the great deal of contact she had with the community. Principals frequently looked to successful past experiences to find ways to reach out to the cornmunity. The approaches they considered or tried were ones that they had seen other principals use or those they themselves had empioyed in other schools. One thing I'm toying with doing is coffee groups. If 1 can't get anything else why don? 1 go back to that. It worked in quite a different setting for a different reason but

maybe there's a way to do it here. It would be quite different because the racial and cultural groups are diverse. And it would hard to know whether to have homogeneous or heterogeneous groups or what. But that-s a decision point I'm in now. (Joshua) The outcome o f their efforts to reach to the community were mixed. The two female and two male principals who were presented with enrolment problems succeeded in increasing the enrolment. Several achieved dramatic increases. One school went from less than two hundred to thirteen hundred students in three years. Three men succeeded in establishing

links with business, colleges. community institutions. and community agencies in their schools. Students gained experience in the business world. were given community college credit for courses taken at high school. and received the help they needed from community agencies. The three men and woman who worked in schools which served communities with immense social and economic problems had varying degrees of success. In several schools there was sorne progress. Joshua found that there were very difficult issues still being faced at

his school and he came to believe that no matter what strategies he used. it was hard to get parents involved. The two women who worked in schools where parents insisted on a high degree of involvement were pleased with the support the school received. The man believed the parents were too involved. The five women were very enthusiastic about their roles as principal. AI1 of these female principals liked having the opportunity to stay close to students and make changes for their benefit. Four of the men express a great deal of enthusiasm for their role as principal in one school. the other described the job as interesting. They enjoyed the challenge of establishing new prograrns or changing existing prograrns for the benefit of students and found satisfaction in having an impact on colleagues, students, and the comrnunity. Roland

253 did not find the job lonely. though the stress level was high because of the many demands placed on the principal. Even though Joshua had some tough expenences. he truly believed he made a difference.

Lifelong Learners AII participants continued to have their own learning as a focus. They viewed

themselves as serious adult learners and found time amidst their busy schedules as administrators to continue to leam. These intellectual activities contributed to the development of their identities as competent administrators.Their avenues for acquiring knowledge varied. They included graduate work. additional undergraduate degrees. attending professional developrnent events. reading. and teaching or developing courses. Nathan completed two masters' degrees and the course work for a doctorate. Kevin finished two masters' programs. Roland. Joshua, Rebekah, Molly and Nicole had masters' degrees. Ina was working on a master's prograrn in administration and Jessie in history and philosophy. Nathan and Carl completed additional bachelor's degrees afier becoming administrators. Nathan wanted to acquire knowledge needed in his administrative work. Carl had a bachelor of physical education: he decided to complete the four courses he needsd to obtain his bachelor of education degree. The professional development events the women and men recalled as being helpful were the vice principals' conferences, teacher perceiver program, administrator perceiver process. and leadership labs. Car1 found the vice principals' conferences helpful in dealing with current issues in the school. These conferences were viewed as a break from a heavy faII

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scheduIe. since they were held near the end o f October. They provided an opportunity to talk to colleagues and find out what was happening in other schools. The conference was always built around a specific theme. The interaction with other vice principals \vas seen as the most valuable part of these conferences. Two of the men found the teacher perceiver program helpful in developing the interviewing skills they needed in order to select teachers who were good at working with students. Nicole found the esperience o f going through the administrator perceiver process validating at the time. The strengths of participants were compared to the perceived ideal strengths of administrators. Since then this material has been placed under review. It was created in the 1950s and 1960s using male administrators as the population. Later Nicole had concems that it might be both sexist and out of date. and mighr not pick up effective leaders who were women and came from di fferent l i fe experiences. Four of them. three women and one man rated the leadership labs as excellent. The issues they dealt with included the structure of organizations. conflict management. and the

impiementation of new ideas. Participants were placed into groups where educators interacted with others who held divergent points of view. Some of the participants had very poor interpersonal skills. Watching the facilitator and interacting with the group helped participants learn how to deal with difficult people.

Pro fessional reading was an important avenue for i ncreasing knowledge. Three wornen and two men read extensively. The library at the board was an excellent resource for several of them. Once a month staff at the library sent around a list of the new acquisitions. They borrowed a lot o f books, purchased others. and subscribed to educational journals. Their findings were shared with staff. friends and colleagues. In tum staff members shared

their readings with their principals. There was stiil a certain frustration about not having enough time to do al1 the reading they wouId have liked to do. Four principals were involved in teaching or developing university programs. or the Ontario principal certification courses which were being offered through several of the local faculties of education. Jessie and Nicole taught the principal certification courses. They enjoyed this professional involvement. It kept them current. Two of their areas of focus were the process of change and school improvement theory. Kevin helped plan and develop a joint university-school board program and Nathan taught a university program. These principals also took courses to improve their practice. Roland and Nicole spoke o f their involvement in

a principals' '-refresher course'' offered by the board. over a two year period. Roland appreciated the capable people who came to teach the course. There were inspirational and motivational speakers. Other speakers dealt with schooi budgeting, discipline. and classroom management. Nicole was critical of professional development in Ontario. and did not appreciate programs that presented material to educators with the expectation that some of it might affect their practice. She did however appreciate courses that involved the participants and helped them find solutions to problems in their schools. Nathan continued his own learning by working on a provincial task force on safe schools, serving on a board cornmittee designing professional development on safe schools. and taking responsibi 1ity for the occupational health and safety portfolio in the provincial principals' council. He aiso wrote a resource book on effective leadership and a brochure on occupational health and safety for principals and vice principals in the province. worked as a health and safety instructor himself. and chaired a professional organization. Nathan's position in a professional

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organization gave hirn early access to information from the Ministry. It also gave him the opportunity to debate educational issues of importance with the assistant deputy minister. the deputy minister and sometimes the minister. He considered his professional knowledge and growth to be phenomenal.

Sense of Humour A sense of humour was one of the qualities deemed important by their superordinates.

Four of the women and one of the men displayed a sense of humour during the interviews. The number of times the female principals laughed ranged from fourteen to forty-nine times. The male principal laughed thirty-two tirnes. They laughed or made humorous comments around the immediate situation and about incidents and predicarnents they faced during their careers. The esperiences they found funny included those that were positive as well as some that were negative. They al1 joked about the process they went through in order to become an administrator. the great times they had during their early years in teaching. and their perceptions of certain former principals. They found humour in their various interviews for positions during their careers, their own reactions to interviews, their graduate work. and their own persistence in the face of opposition. in addition. the women were amused at their o\vn assertiveness. their outlook on life in earlier years. and the fact that most people did not want to do the second part of the principal certification program and oniy went through the

motions of doing it. The hysterical reaction of friends when one of them was accused of not having a sense of humour was a source of musement. They joked about the approaches they took to problems which did not prove effective. their own shortcomings. and their own

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response to pressure. Molly saw irony in the fact that. afier leaving a secretarid job that did not give her persona1 satisfaction in order to become a teacher. she found that she was given a teaching job because of the secretarial knowledge she acquired in her previous employment. Roland laughed at the fact that his association with a girl Ied him to rneet a minister who had a fair arnount of influence on his life. He found amusement in the staff assignment in his beginning years in teaching. These included being assigned to teach in areas for which he did not have training, being assigned to teach a subject traditionally taught by women, and the streaming of women into certain areas of the curriculum. His experiences with peer evaluation early in his teaching career were a source of amusement. Roland also joked about the fact that he did not fit the accepted administrative image and was not appointed to an administrative position until six years afier successfully completing the process. He chuckled over his ow-n hiring practices and sats the irony in the fact that his hobby had its roots in work he hated but was required to d o as a teenager. to help the family earn a living.

Relationship with the Board Al1 principals commended their board for the initiatives it had taken. Early in their careers three of them made definite decisions to come to that particular board because they were dissatisfied with the board that employed them and this board had the reputation of being progressive. They liked the cornmitment to staff development the board continued to show during their time with the board. The board had a professional development department. When needs were identified. workshops were offered to meet these needs. Recent board-sponsored in-service sessions that principals highlighted were a principal

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refresher course. a course on effective schools. and a course on anti-racism. This high level of professional development had been the experience of principals from the time they came to the board in the late 1960s. Financial assistance continued to be given. enabling them to attend professional development activities outside the board. The board had an excellent professionaI library. which was used extensively. Other board initiatives receiving praise were the teacher supervision process. the delivery of special education services to students. and the attention to issues related to being head of a department. The board research department. the policies. vision. mission statement. and the direction the board had taken under the leadership of the current director were comrnended. The support of the board for risk takers and the placing of extra administrators in the schools to deal with difficult situations were applauded. The process the board had in place for selecting administrators kvas praised by one woman. She believed the process snabled the board to get the best people and to make few mistakes. They appreciated the commitment of the board to affirmative action for both students and staff. While al1 the women and men acknowledged the shift to more women being appointed as administrators. two women and two men credited the board with creating tliis better male/female balance in administrative positions at the secondary school and district office level. They saw the early 1980s as the begiming of a sharp rise in the number of women being appointed as vice

principals. principals and superintendents. Eight of the board's twenty secondary school principals were women. Carlosperception was that nearly fifty percent of the superintendents with the board were women. although official statistics gave the percentage as thirty. While praising the board for its support of women. Nicole stated that affirmative action programs

had been necessary and without the legislative changes women would not have had the opportunities that were then available to them. Roland and Nicole praised the board for its support of visible minorities. The planning mandated by the new director gave several principals the extra backing they needed to get their staffs moving in that direction. Others were well d o n g in the process pnor to the requirement that schools have school planning as a focus. There wris evidence that several principals were aware of the power board personnel had over the school. [na was pleased that most concerns parents had were addressed at the school level and not too much reached the superintendent. Nicole was pleased that she had a food relationship with the school tnistee. This enabled her to stay at her school longer than any other principal in the board. Nathan received permission from his superintendent to reverse a change that had been started by his predecessor and did not meet the needs of students.

Central Office Administrative Positions Three men had held administrative positions at central office. They were appointed to these positions while administrators in schools and. afier working at central office, retumed to other administrative positions in schools. Car1 felt that physically and mentally he needed a change. The position of principal of summer school programs and CO-operativeeducation becarne available. He applied. and with the support of his superintendent. was given the job. About seventy percent o f his time was spent preparing for summer school. The remainder of

his time was spent with cooperative education. He was responsible for hiring about thirteen hundred summer school teachers and working with the sumrner school principals to set up the

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program for the following year. He met wvith the principals monthly and went through al1 the leadership and administrative tasks that had to be done. The programs offered included the high school credit program. education as a second language. studio arts program. and conservation program. These programs were offered to students from kindergarten to grade thirteen. He learned a great deal about the summer school programs and al1 that was involved in delivering the many programs to students. His role in cooperative education was mainly a supervisory one. He workrd with the person responsible for cooperative education. giving direction and help. This included problems with attendance of staff. budgeting. and policy development. He was in the position for two years and was given the option of going back to a school. He expressed his desire to stay in the position for at least another year in order to

complete the changes he had started. His request was granted. Following a third year in the position. he asked to go back to a school. He missed interacting with students. being responsibIe for a building. and working with a Iarger staff. Nathan spent a year at the central office as administrative assistant to the superintendent of student and community services. At the same time he was responsible for developing an emerging role entitled Supervising Principal of Community Development. He found the job very challenging, but not particularly productive. The politics and the human dynamics at central office were different than he kvas used to and it took him awhile to learn how the board office functioned. He was ready at the end of the first year to start what he thought were exciting new initiatives when he was told that he was moving back to a school.

The reason given for the move was the school system's initiative conceming safe schools and central office staff wanting their experienced principals back in the schools.

26 1 Joshua went into the board office as the administrative assistant to the director. He found that a very worthwhile experience. The director at the time was much loved and respected in the system. His strength was generating or collecting creative ideas fiom others. developing workable initiatives from these ideas and having other people implernent them. This man was given the opportunity to see first hand the operation of central office and the elected board. He saw the politics of it at its various levels and came to understand some o f the strengths and weaknesses o f the senior staff. He managed the operation of the senior staff

esecutive committee. including the compilation o f al1 the materials that went to trustees. He kept track of what projects were undenvay. who was working on them. the progress being made. and their completion times. He was responsible for e v e l h i n g from proof reading papers. through putting together the agenda for the meetings and orchestrating what became the board "package" through the board secretary. The part of this job that he found most enjoyabIe was shadowing the director and keeping the director informed about what was happening in the field. He also worked on some projects with the director in which he gave direct input. The appointment was designed for only one year. On his recommendation they changed it so that his successor could be appointed for up to three years. The success the three men had in these administrative positions. the first hand knowledge of the workings of the board they acquired. and the connections they made with the personnel there further solidified their image as administrators. Roland went to central office as the CO-ordinatoro f Intermediate Senior Education. He did not have a positive experience. His predecessor had created a role for himself and there was an expectation his successor would fil1 that role. While he preferred to work in a coIIegial setting, the job did

262 not have other personnel associated with it. and was not well defined. However. he did l e m how the board functioned and established working relations with many people who worked at the board. Those associations were very beneficial for him after he moved out of that position into a principal's role where he was able to maintain a well-established network tvith the board. blolly was the only woman who worked at central office. Her position as coordinator of business education was not administrative. Hotvever. the job gave her visibility. enabled her to appreciate the role of administntor in meeting the needs o f students. and helped her obtain an administrative position.

Professional and Personal Identity Four of the women and al1 of the men were parents. One woman had one child and the other three each had two children. for a total of seven. Three of the men had two children each. the other t ~ v ohad t h e e children each for a total of t~velvechildren. The children of both the men and women ranged in age from primary school age to young adult.

The four women with children spoke of how important their children were to them. of how much they enjoyed family Iife and their parental responsibilities. Molly said that being a parent was the most important thing she did. These women with children saw their role as parent as impacting on their professional lives. They continued to experience the competing demands of family and work responsibilities as administrators. Ttiere was stress and guilt surrounding the management of home. job. graduate work still in progress. and the extra demands as administrators. The woman without children and the men did not express these frustrations. The woman put aside her hobby-type business when she becarne an

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administrator and concentrated on her job. Al1 of the men cut down on their leisure activities. Two women found it stressfûl when they were first prornoted to school administrator. Jessie had young chiidren. a toddler and a primary school child. She believed she did not devote as rnuch time to them as she should have. Rebekah's first vice principalship corresponded to her daughter's leaving home to attend university. She experienced a bit of the empty nest syndrome. Her daughter had difficulty adjusting to residence life and flew home

frequently. In addition to wonying about her daughter's mental and emotional well being. she also worried about the expense of the fiequent trips home. Her daughter chose to endure her situation for two years in spite of the fact that she was given other options. She then transferred to another university closer to home and was happy in her new situation. This change made Iife less stresshl for both mother and daughter. One woman found that the death of her father had a profound effect on her. It was the first death she ever had to face and it forced her to look at her life differently and to work through some difficulties in her famiiy relationships. This gave her a better understanding of people and the kinds of problems they brought to the workplace. She believed she was able to deal with people more effectively because of that esperience.

One stress experienced by both a woman and a man involved the purchase of a new home. The work surrounding these purchases added to their already crowded agendas. The woman bought a second home and was unable to sel1 the first. The man expenenced difficulties having work completed on his new home. These decisions. made for the well being of their fmilies, created additional stress in their Iives. The four women with children also saw the positive impact their role as parent had on

their job. They believe their expenences with their own children gave thern real empathy with students and their parents. added to their understanding of student needs. and prompted them to get involved in providing special facilities for students and parents. 1 think being a parent gives me a perspective that people who aren't parents don't have. That's not to say everybody who's a parent has the best perspective or every person who isn't has a bad perspective. It's just that. because 1 watched my son go through the middle years. the intermediate years in his school, 1 have a bener

understanding of what kids need. (Jessie) The financing of the post-secondary education for his children concemed Kevin. They were in their preteen and teenage years. He planned to see them through their first degree and thcn negotiate the financing of further education with them. Another connection with their children. made by three of the wornen and two of the men. was in expressing pride in their children's abilities and accomplishments. These included those of an intellectual. scholastic. musical. and athletic nature. and the choice of careers. For the men this pride in accomplishments also extended to their spouses. Two of the

men espressed such pride; both spouses were educators. One had finished her doctorate and was writing books for a pnmary reading program. The other had just moved from a vice principalship to a central office position. Both husband and wife were very busy. While their teenaged children did not understand why their parents were working so hard. this man believed his children would corne to such an understanding when they were older. The support two of the women in the study received frorn their husbands was appreciated and viewed as very important to their careers. Both husbands were in the field of education . An additional connection with the family was in the area of leisure activities. Though they were very busy and found it difficult to fit such activities in. al1 of the principals found

265 time for them. They believed this was essential to their own well being. Their concern with spending time with fàmily ranged from Jessie who. when not at work. was involved solely in the activities and interests of her children. to Roland who said that he had two children who required a Iittle of his attention. Nathan had time only for soccer; though he liked to garden and read. his job took so much time that he did not have time for either. Two women and two men were involved vr;ith their families in activities of mutual interest. Three of the women and four of the men kvere involved in physical activities. The women were involved in individual activi ties. including skiing. wind surfing. canoeing, and aerobics. The men were involved in team sports, including hockey, soccer, lacrosse, and curling. The men had continuous involvement in these sports since high school. Two wornen and two men found time for music or the theater. Ttiree of the wornen and one man loved to travel and did a great deal of it. Two of the women and one of the men found time for gardening. One woman and two men owned cottages and spend considerable tirne there. Joshua and h a read as a leisure time activity. Two men did woodworking and home improvement.

Administrator Support Systems Four of the women and two of the men had mentors once they becarne administrators. These mentors provided access to powertiil and influential people in the school system and to information and resources. There was a very strong degree of identification with the mentor.

The mentor was idealized, particularly during the early stages of the relationship. AH of a sudden 1 saw the purpose of being in a leadership role in education. 1 worked with him four and a half years and he probably had the most profound effect on me in terms of what leadership was and how much you could do in a school. And watching him work it thorough with people and 1 came in there with a group of people, he hired

people who wanted to do stuff. we worked together. It was just wondefil. (Jessie)

I watched him. How would George handle this situation? George. my principal had lefi the system. He'd gone as a SO to another board. 1 spent a lot of time talking to him and he would give me ideas on how 1 should work through the staff. (Jessie) Five of the women and two of the men identified networks. Each of the five women spoke of a strong network that was very important in her role as administrator. A significant part of their individual networks consisted of principals within the board. particularly the female administrators. When a woman become a principal in the board. the other Fernale

principals knew she needed heip such as they themselves had received. and they immediately included her in the network. They met frequently to chat and share experiences and were constantly in touch by telephone. They called each other for advice and support. For each of the women. her network provided help. support. and a sense of security. as weI1 as making

the job more enjoyable. Support comes from other females who are in the role of principal. 1 was the fourth one appointed in this board and as soon as 1 was appointed the other three ... got together ivith me. met with me for coffee. We'd have dinner together. You know. "I'm here. just pick up the phone." And that was very important and we have continued to do that as other women have been appointed. 1 do it also with men who are appointed because 1 think that's where men are still not working to support each other as well, but hopefiilly they will do more of it. (Molly) 1 really do feel that 1 do have a good support system in the board. The other female principals and rnyself. 1 wouldn't want this to be out and the guys to know this. but we

meet quite frequently to chat and share experiences. When I corne across something and I'm not sure how to handle this 1'11 phone and Say, " What do you think of this?" (In4 Two men identified networks. Two other men taiked over issues from tirne to time and the fifih had rnany contacts, but he did not beiieve he had a network in the sense of the women's network.

There are nvo o f my colleagues 1 will call on from time to time if necessary but that happens very rarely certainly. Because of al1 of the various things I've been involved in I've had lots o f contacts. but not really a network. Yes. there's a whole range of people that I can talk to in a variety of ways if I need advice. 1 tend not to do that very ofien and there really isn't a network in the sense of the women's groups in this system. My wife's involved in that. She has a network she c m define. 1 can't define it as a network and how it operates. 1 have friends and acquaintances. two people in the system 1 would call to check things out with: b e p n d that maybe three or four people in the Principals' Council or in the Federation that 1 would check out things with but nothing very well formed at all. (Nathan) Joshua spoke of the network he was part of rarly in his administrative career and elaborated on his present contacts. He showed a certain guardedness about what he uould share with others now. He would not feel free in sharing things that might open up weakness. but he would not hesitate to go to several of his previous principals for a little counsel and had done so on occasion. One of his vice principals was a friend he might talk things over with. but

with the other vice principals he would be more confined and professional. Kevin related an incident that had occurred the previous week when he sought advice from a principal he had worked with previously. They ended up having an argument. Roland and Carl identified net\\-orks thai were supportive and important to their practice. both presently and earlier in their careers. 1 became very. very farniliar with a lot of people who worked then in the board. And

that association has been very beneficial for me. having moved out of that role into a principal's role because now the people that 1 met and people whose roles 1 learned about are now only a phone call away and it's a good network that was established. ( Roland)

So if you have a question. or what are you going to do about this. Those kinds of things we had each other. I don't work in isolation. 1 have so many people that are around to either give advice to or get advice from. 1 think people don? recognize that as well. 1 mean the role is not a loneiy one by any means. (Roland) Eight principals named individuals who were particularly supportive. The three men

named friends. acquaintances. and persons in authority within the education system. The five n-omen identified people within the system including two husbands. one an administrator and one a teacher in the system. Persons in authority in the system were also identified as being particularly supportive. Ina named two friends. one in business and another in the health care s>-stem.The>-contacted each other for advice and affirmation. They shared concems. problems. and accomplishments. Two women saw the Ontario Secondary School Teachers Federation Status of Women Committee as part of their support system. Molly identified her school board as a source o f support. 1 wouldn't want to work for any other board because 1 know that my style is one ... 1 am a risk-taker and 1 don't believe in adhering to processes and procedures that don't

focus on the students and the staff in terrns of success and following them only because they're there. I've never operated that way in my life. If 1 believe something is right I go afier it and this board allows you that freedom. (Molly) The five women placed a very high value on the support they received from their networks. from particular individuals within their networks. and the organizations they were incolved in. They vie~vedthis support as crucial to their practice. Two of the men valued their networks and certain individuals within them almost as highly as did the women. The remaining three men did not. These men found their contacts to be helpful on occasion, but not essential to their practice. They did not consult with others as frequently and there was a reluctancc to share administrative concerns that might make them appear weak. The man who depended most on his support system was the one who encountered the greatest difficulty being appointed.

Summary and Discussion

The Si~nificanceof the Incorporation Phase

The incorporation phase was identified as the final phase by van Gennep ( 1 9091 1960). During the incorporation phase individuals becarne full members of the new group. This phase has been identified in a numbsr of studies (Atkinson. 198 1 : Banks. 1987: Blood. 1966: Boyle, 1986: Cox. 1980; Draper, 1991: Durnil. 1997: Eddy. 1969: Iannaccone and Button. 1964: Ladd. 1992; Marshall. 1979: McCadden. 1995: Ortiz. 1972: Redding, 1990; Ronkowski. 1985: Schrier &= Mulcahy. 1988: Shere. 1993: Valverde. 1974: Yunker. 1977). In primitive societies? as seen in van Gennep's study (1909/60). successful incorporation of the individual into the new group and status ofien meant a reintroduction into the community from which the person came. but with a change of status. activities. and associates. In modern societies it increasingly means an incorporation into new groups by those ~vhoare not farnily. friends. or associates. Even though persons may be physically intermingled ~vithmembers of the new group and may struggle for individual and sociai identification. this cannot be realized unless others accept them. During the time of incorporation for these women and men some of the practices in evidence were those that ha\,e been identified as transformational in the research (Bass, 1985: Bass & Avolio. 1996: Bennis & Nanus. 1985 : Burns. 1978; Fotlstt. 1934. 1941, 1949: Leithwood. 1994; Podsakoff et al. 1990:Tichy & Devanna. 1986). In schools where transfomational practices were in evidence the incorporation into the role of vice principal was easier. For vice principals it meant they were quickly accepted

by the new group. Like the situation described in Marshall's (1992) study, their entry into

administration was a flowing process. w-ithout abrupt exits from one culture and abrupt entrancss into another. They were comfortable in these schools since transformational practices were the kind of practices they valued as teachers and department heads. As principals. any transformational practices already in existence could be built on. which meant they could move forward more easily. During the incorporation phase these wornen and men had to find ways of dealing with the less appealing duties required of vice principals and principals. They did this by developing a perspective as defined by Becker et al. (1 96 1). Perspective is defined by Becker and his associates as an individual's perception of and plans of action for problematic situations. The women and men in this study found ways of coping with the immediate. less inspiring duries of the vice prïncipalship which included discipline. attendance. hall supervision. and teacher absences. School budget. office management. student registration. time-tabling, and exam scheduling were their responsibilities. Grade reporting, bussing. school opening. closing, and announcements came under their jurisdiction. They identified the power structure and worked through it. They worked with unsupportive principais and in

schools where they were not valued while maintaining their long range perspective that administrators could be involved in the practices that the research has labeled transformationai. The opportunities to be involved in some transformational practices rnabled them to see the possibilities in administration and enjoy that aspect of it. As principals there was less need for an immediate perspective since most of the time they were engaged in transformational practices. However, al1 principals had to formulate a perspective for dealing with the requests for information and action from groups outside their schools.

Several principals had to formulate a perspective that forced them to put certain of their transformational practices on hold. This need for an immediate perspective resulted from daily crises in their schools. Incidents with potential for violence were becoming common in their schools.

Transformational leaders hi^ Practices During the Incorporation Phase The practices identified by Leithwood (1 991) and Podsakoff et al. (1990) were found to be important during the incorporation phase of this study. The presence of transformational practices was evident when the women and men in this study were incorporated as vice principals and again as principals. Their practices included imparting a vision. providing an appropriate rnodel. fostering group goals. providing support. holding high performance espectations. and providing intellectual stimulation. The role of vice principal by its very nature set limits on activities of a visionary nature. Nevertheless. three of the women and three of the men were invoIved in such activities whilr in the role of vice principal-They took risks and were innovative. The changes they introduced improved schooling for students. Marshall and Mitchell (1989) found that assistant principals were only able to be involvsd in creative activities if they were supported by the principal or district hierarchy. The women and men in this study had the support of

their principals when engaged in activities of a visionary nature. The role of principal gave them more scope for creating and articulating a vision' or bringing in practices that moved fonvard the vision that had been developed in the school. The importance of vision to transformational leadership has been emphasized in the literature (Bennis & Nanus, 1985 ;

Lehr. 1987: Tichy & Devanna, 1986). The visions of these women and men were similar to those of their principal role models. The work of al1 principals was directed towards meeting the needs of students. The women directed their efforts towards creating an affirming and equitabk learning environment where students developed to their highest potential academicaliy. socially. and emotionally so that they could make a positive contribution to society. The men directed their efforts towards providing programs to meet the academic and persona1 needs of students and to enable them to be productive members of society. Creating and articulating a vision was aided by the direction given by the board. At first. the board encouraged planning and goal setting. but later mandated these practices. The principal. working with the staff and sometimes with the parents. had to decide the direction and content of the goals for a particular school. These women and men were good role nlodeis for the members of their stafTs. They were involved in the total Iife of the school and their cornmitment was shown by their actions. They communicated with. and were visible to. their staff. students and parents. The literature shows that modelling appropriate behaviour is an important leadership practice of transformational leaders (Bennis & Nanus, 1985: Lehr. 1987; Leithwood and Jantzi. I W O ) . Collaboration has been identified as important to transformational leaders (Darling. 1990: Lehr. 1987; Sergiovanni, 1990). Collaboration was important to these women and men in their role as vice principal. However. the people they worked with. and the arnount of

working together. varied. In certain schools the vice principals set goals and worked to achieve these. In other schoois the principal and vice principals worked together as a tearn. supporting each other in reaching their goals. in the schools where these women and men

273 found greatest satisfaction. al1 members of the staff cooperated and worked towards common goals. Cooperation was important to these women and men when they beçan their incorporation into the role o f principal. Al1 were risk-takers and initiated major changes in their schoois. They sought support in articulating the vision for their schools. whether the visions centered around developing the whole person. empowering students. valuing each student. or creating an affirming and equitable environrnent, as in the case of the wornen. or program improvement as in the case of the men. Building support was not aiways an easy task. The majority of principals faced resistance from certain staff members when they firsi attempted to make changes in the schools. They were partially able to overcome these problems by either changing the attitudes and actions of the existing staff. or by bringing in new staff who were willing to work for the changes they wanted in the school. Changing the

attitudes and actions of staff members who had been at the school for a considerable length of time was the most di ficult task. The support these principals received from central office for their initiatives was appreciated. They particularly valued the leadership style of their director. Eddy ( 1 969). in her study of teachers entering the profession. found that the help of teachers. students. and administrators was crucial to successful incorporation of individuals into the new group and status. Fellow teachers gave the most help a s new teachers gradually learned the responsibilities and activities appropriate to their new role (Eddy, 1969). In this study. individual consideration was important to these women and men as they were incorporated into the role o f administntor. Their experiences were similar to those of teachers in Eddy's (1 969) study. Fellow administrators and teachers helped incorporate new

administrators into their role. Incorporation into the role becarne easier as the amount of support increased. Vice principals had different expsriences depending on the school where they worked. or the particular principal in the school at that time. A change of school or principal sometimes meant more supportive working conditions and sometimes less. AI1 of the women and several men were helped in their incorporation by their mentors and

networks. Thcir menton provided guidance. support. and access to the most powerful and influential people in the organization and to information and resources. Nehvorks were a source of practical advice and provided a sense of security in their new roles. During the incorporation phase the women and men placed emphasis on giving individual consideration to teachers and students in the school. Supporting teachers was an important part of the vice principal role for them. From their own esperience they realized the value of support and used it extensively with teachers. They acted on the advice teachers Save for solving problems in the school and affirrned them in the work they did. Their support for teachers was even more apparent when they becarne principals. They noted the importance of teachers feeling good about whai they did. knowing they were supported. and being happy in their work. They understood the concems and hopes of staff members and took these into consideration in their actions. Teachers were made aware of the support of principals by their anendance at school functions. by their presence in classrooms. and by their continuous dialogue with staff members. Principals encouraged their teachers and recognized what they did by promptly acknowledging individual contributions during staff meetings. writing letters to individual teachers, placing notes in school bulletins and newsletters, and arranging sessions that addressed the persona1 needs of staff members. The

275 provision of support extended to students while these womsn and men occupied the role of vice principal and when they became principals. They made time to connect with and acknowledge the work of individual students and to address their concerns. The importance of recognizing the individual needs o f foliowers and providing support to them is prominent

in the research on transformational leadership (Bass & Avolio. 1996; Bernis & Nanus $1985: Lehr. 1987: Tichp & Devanna, 1986). Articulating high expectations for their staff has been identitied by Leithwood and Jantzi ( 1990) as a practice of transformational leaders. Only two principals noted this practice in their dealings with their staff. Leithwood and Jantzi (1 990) found their transformational leaders provided for the professionaI development of their staff. This practice was part of the intellectual stimulation principals deemed important in schools. Bass and Avolio ( 1 996) saw intsliectual stimulation as representing the rational aspect o f leadership. Leaders hel ped make their associates smarter and more creative. The attention the principals in this study gave to pro fessional growth was influenced by the fact that they had been involved in professional development in the roles they prcviously occupied as participants, organizers, and session leaders. They had also valued the involvement o f their principal role models in professional development. They ensured that they themselves were intellectually stimulated. Al1 participants continued to have their own leaming as a focus when they became administrators. They took undergraduate and graduate courses, attended professional development events, read professional materials. and taught o r developed leadership courses. These intellectual activities contributed to their incorporation by developing their identities as competent

administrators.

Gender Based Differences Durino the Incorporation Phase Gender based differences in leadership style have been examined by researchers. In a ~ u m b e of r studies no differences were found between males and females. Among these were the studies discussed in chapter two by Donneil and Hall (1 980). Dobbins and Platz (1986). Maccoby and Jacklin (1974). Morrison. White and Van Velsor (1987). and Snodgrass ( 1985). Other

studies referenced in chapter two identified significant differences in one or

two of many practices (Berman. 1982: Charters & Jovick. 198 1 : Ely. 1988: Hughes & Robertson. 1980; Josefowitz. 1980; Kmetz and Willower. 1983; Kouzes and Posner. 1987; Martin & Willower. 198 1: Rose and Lanvood. 1988: Tibbetts. 1980: Wheatley. 198 1). Teacher performance and student achievement \vas higher in schools managed by women than in those managed by men. The women engaged in participatory decision making to a greater estent than the men. were more effective at resolving conflict among staff members. and spent more time communicating with others. Female principals spent more time in educational program improvement activities than did their male counterparts. They were more attuned to teachers' concerns, parent involvement. staff deveIopment. collaborative planning strateçies. and community building. In a study by Helgesen ( 1990). reviewed in chapter two, male and female business leaders showed many differences. However, questions have been raised about the methodology employed in the study. Fullan ( 1991) concluded that. as a group. women were more likely than men to evidence behaviors associated with effective leadership.

The transformational leadership mode1 has been used in studies addressing the question of gender based differences in leadership style. The content of these studies is discussed in chapter two. No gender differences in leadership practices were found in studies by Buck (1989). Orr (1990). and Smith (1989). Women have been shown to be engaged in

transformational practices to a greater extent than men in studies by Avolio & Bass ( 1 988). Darling ( 1 990). and Jantzi and Leithwood (1 996). In the study by Jantzi and Leithwood ( 1996). the

authors pointed to other possible explanations than gender for the differences

found. Kendrick ( 1988), Roberts (1 985). and Skalbeck (1 99 1 ) provided detailed case studies

of individual female administrators showing high levels of transformational leadership. The gender based differences identified in this study during the incorporation phase included the content of the vision of the women and men. the strength of their support system. and the impact of their role as parents on their professional [ives. Their sense of humor. enthusiasm for the administrative role. and assessment of the discipline facet of the vice principal role also differed. 90th women and men in this study had visions for their schools. I-iowever. the content of the vision of the women was different from that of the men. The women focused heavily o n issues of equity and were very passionate about that aspect of their vision. They highlighted the importance of caring for staff and students. developing the whole person. empowering students. valuing each student. and creating an affirming and equitable environment. They were very concemed about issues of gender. race, class. and intelligence. These women stressed the importance of caring relationships in schools. The ethic of care was first described by Gilligan (1982). She emphasized living together, creating. maintaining. and enhancing positive relations. Noddings (1 992) and Beck (1 994a)

developed a conceptual framework for understanding the place of a caring ethic in educational leadership. Both emphasized the primacy of caring in schools and the intrinsic vaIue of human beings as central to the caring ethic. The women in rny study worked to build nurturing and connected school environments. They saw education as a human enterprise and its purpose as promotion of the fullest growth and development of persons (Beck .l994a: Gilligan. 1982: Noddings. 1992; Sergiovanni. 1987: Starratt. 199 1 ). A number of studies on caring adrninistrators have s h o w the same expressions of care for staff and students as the women in my study (Beck. 1994b; Brumer. 1995: Marshall. Patterson. Rogers & Steele. 1996; Regan. 1990: Regan & Brooks. 1995 ).

Noddings ( 1 992) was concerned with equity issues. She challenged school leaders to adopt an ethic of care to enable schools to become caring communities that nurture ail children. regardless of their race. class or gender. The women in my study had a strong cornmitment to equity in the schools. Their concern grew out of their own experiences. They had been dealing with equity issues in both the personal and professionaI sphere for many years. As teenagers. gender particularly limited their options. Discrimination continued when they became teachers. They observed the difficulties fernales. students from different racial groups. and those from economically depressed sections of society had to face. Obstacles

C

ivere placed in the paths of these women when they decided to become administrators. They saw what a difference attention to equity and the individual made in their own lives.

The problems the women in rny study encountered in enacting caring were similar to those identified by Semak (1998) in her study of a principal, teachers and staff working to create a caring school comrnunity within a traditional, bureaucratic hierarchy based on

279

authority and control. Sernak (1998) noted that schooling involved carïng not only between individuals but for a collection of individuals. She saw power as an integral part o f caring on a collective level. Caring and power were both defined as relationships and she introduced

the idea of caring power. the integration of power and caring. Sernak ( 19%) concluded that schools must be caring places. but within the contest of power relationships and with the intent of transforming those into relationships of caring power. However. she found that although leaders with caring power acknowledge caring as gender-neutral. women primarily discussed schooi reform in terms of caring. while a preponderance of men spoke in terms of power. The women in my study were aware of the power relationships in the education system and like the female administrator in Sernak's (1998) study were using power and caring to make changes for the benefit o f students. The women in rny study appreciated the commitment o f the board to affirmative action. Al1 of these esperiences contributed to the creation of their vision for their schools. They were also influenced by their principal role models whose visions centered around equity. Once they became administrators these women did not perceive that they faced the kind of discrimination found in other research (Marshall & Mitchell, 1989: Shakeshaft

1989: Taylor, 1995).There are several possible explanations for not identifying

discriminatory practices. The discriminatory practices used against these women may have

been so subtle that they were unaware of their existence. The women may not have wanted to admit to problems of discrimination in their current situations. In a study of female administrators. Marshall (1 993) found that women denied the differences between their treatment and that of the males, even while describing situations where they were treated

differently because o f their gender. Colwill (1 993) reviewed studies of women in management and concluded that women denied persona1 discrimination but worked for the rights of women in generai. The women in my study concentrated their energy on the rights

of the students in their schools. They were determined that students would work in schools that were free from discrimination. Program improvemrnt was central to the vision of the male principals. They improved prograrns by concentrating on the physical facilities. changing the structure of the school day or year. and involving the staff in program planning. The work they found most satisQing throughout their professional lives was in the area o f programing. Their principal role models were heavily involved in prograrn issues and had program improvement as central to their vision. By the time o f this study the board had mandated program planning. Al1 of these factors contributed to the focus the men had on prograrn improvement in their vision. Smith and Andrews ( 1 989) had a different finding. In their study female principals spent more time in educational program improvement activities than did males.

The women had a stronger support system and depended on their support system more than the men. They received support from various sources and believed that the encouragement and advice they received was crucial to their practice. They viewed support as flowing both ways and gave heIp to others as well a s receiving it. More of the women than the men had mentors and al1 of the women were heavily involved in networking. The importance o f mentors to the advancement o f women's careers has been documented in a number o f studies (Acker, 1995; Edson. 1995; Jeruchirn & Shapiro, 1992; Pence, L 995; Tabin & Coleman, 1993). Research has identified networks as important to women

administrators (Gill. 1995: Russell. 1995: Schrnuck, 1986: Taylor. 1995). The woman in Semak's (1998) study felt the need for the support a network could provide. As the first female secondary school principal in her board she felt the need to build a network among the female secondary school principals in ihe region to counteract the isolation she experienced.

In my study the women's informal network consisting of al1 the female secondary school principals in their board was particularly important to the participants. They also benefitted from the support given to tvomen by the Ontario Secondary School Teachers' Federation Status of Women Council and their otvn school board. Studies have confirmed the contribution of advocacy organizations to the advancement of women in administration (Federation o f Women Teachers' Associations of Ontario. 1993: Schmuck. 1995). Several factors accounted for the dependance of the women in my study on their support systems and their strong support of peers. They were relativzly new to the administrative roie. They believed that as women they coped with unique challenges in the roIe. The research shows strong pressures on women to conform to male ideas about

appearance. attraction. and charm. Their promotion and career prospects were undermined if they did not conforrn (Evetts. 1990; Joyce. 1987: Worrall. 1995). The women in this study believed that women's leadership was somewhat different from that of men and support from other women was important. A number of women and men in Russell's (1995) study acknouledged the importance of women's networks for their nurturing qualities. Russell found that the traditional socialization processes available to men were not as available to women.

In this study central office positions with administrative responsibilities were held

282

only by men. These positions were important in their socialization during the incorporation phase. They acquired administrative skills. a first hand knowledge of the workings of the board. and connections with the board personnel. The women's mentors and networks provided alternate forrns of socialization. Research supports the finding that mentors and networks are important in the incorporation of women into the principalship (Edson. 1988: Tabin &CoIeman. 1993). The women with children saw their parental role as impacting on incorporation into administration. As administrators they continued to experience the competing demands of family and work responsibilities as administrators. Similarly, the research found that the largest non-professional influence on women's incorporation into administration was their families (Edson. 1988; Tabin & Coleman. 1993). N o m s in administration have developed around the life cycles of men and around outdated assumptions about men's and women's roles in the family and in society (Bell & Chase. 1993: Marshall & Kasten. 1994). These noms. which require administrators to attend many evening events and to work long hours. assume that the administrators can separate their persona1 lives frorn their work lives and control the demands of both. The women in my study experienced stress and guilt around the management of home. job. graduate work still in progress, and the extra demands placed on them as administrators. Gradually the women changed their perspective and designed a set of beliefs and actions to deal with the roles of spouse. mother. and administrator. They saw the positive impact their role as parent had on their job. They believed their experiences with their own children gave them empathy with students and parents. increased their knowledge

of student needs. and involved them in providing special facilities for students and parents.

283 The women displayed a strong sense of hurnor which helped in their incorporation. Kanter (1977) identified humor as a coping mechanism used by those who are in a disadvantageous position in society. The women in my study spent much of their careers in unfavourable positions. They frequently faced blatant o r subtle discrimination while struggling to advance in their profession. The sense o f humor they developed, while overcorning the obstacles they faced prior to their appointment as administrators. became part of their personalities. Barth ( 1990) emphasized the importance of humor in irnproving schools. He saw humor as highly related to learning and the development of inteiligence. and as a powerful tool in helping bond the school community by assisting everyone through tough times. Humour was a quality deemed important by superordinates. and may have been a factor in the selection of these women for administrative positions. The women had greater enthusiasm for the role of administrator than the men. This can be partially esplained by the newness o f a role that presented exceptional opportunities. The initial excitement that often accompanies a new challenge was still present. They were addressing issues that had concerned them throughout their careers in education. Four of the men expressed the same degree of enthusiasm when the role was new to them or they were bringing about changes to which they had a deep commitment. Another possible explanation is found in the research by Schrnuck (1995). She saw the theory. practice. and culture of administration change as the proportion of women in educational administration increased. The type of leadership valued was in line with the positive stereotype of women, thus making leadership of schools more satisfying for women (Schmuck ,1995). The practices she identified were empowerment of teachers, site-based management, and decentralization of

284 authority (Schrnuck .1995). The women in this study possibly enjoyed being administrators for similar reasons. They valued engagement. participation in decisions. and paying attention to the human side of schooling.

Problematic Situations Resultin~in Perspective Shifi During Incorporation Phase During the iiicorporation phase these women and men had to find ways of deal ing with the less appealing duties required o f vice principals and principals. They did this by developing a perception of. and plan o f action for. problematic situations (Becker et al.. 1961). The women and men in this study found ways of coping with the immediate. less

inspiring duties of the vice principalship. including discipline. attendance. hall supervision. teacher absences. school budget. offrce management. student registration. time-tablin,.O exam scheduling. grade reporting. bussing. school opening and ctosing. and announcements. They identified the poLver structure and worked through it. They worked with unsupportive principaIs and in schools where they were not valued. while maintaining their long range perspective that administrators could be involved in the practices which the research has labeled transformational. The opportunities to be involved in some transformational practices snabled them to see the possibilities in administration and find enjoyment in it. As principals there was less need for an irnmediate perspective since most of the time they were engaged in transformational practices. However. ail principals had to formuiate a perspective for dealing with the requests for information and action from groups outside their schools. Several principals had to fornulate a perspective that forced them to put certain of their transformational practices on hold. Every day they dealt with extremely dismptive students

285 and intniders in the school. These principals had to set aside their vision building, centering around instruction. progams. and curriculum and form an imrnediate perspective to deal with their concens for the safety of students and staff. They found it impossible to give their attention to both and the prevention of disruption and violence took precedence. Once the situation stabilized they were able to retum to vision building.

Conclusion The women and men in this study were competent school administrators. Believing, as they did. that the purpose of schooling was to provide the best possible education for students. they focused their attention on student needs. They made the changes they believed were necessary to provide high quality education to students. These principals supported teachers. fostered collegiality. and provided for staff growth They were visible. maintained openness in their communication. and worked to develop good relations with parents and the community. Their effectiveness as leaders came from the h o w l e d g e çained through past experience. their inner strength. and their sense of humor. It was sustained by their constant self renewal through their studies, their pursuit of persona1 interests. and by the support they received frorn superordinates. colleagues. friends. and farnily.

CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Introduction The principals in this study were initially identified as effective leaders by district office administrators. A survey was used as a secondary source of information about the transformational leadership of the principals. The survey. administered to the teachers. asked about the transformational practices of their principals. Results showed that the principals. initially identified by district administrators. were perceived to be exercising only a moderate degree of transformational leadership. The qualitative part of the study was directed. firstly. at discovering how their transformational practices developed and. secondly, at deterrnining \vhether there were gender based differences in the socialization of these secondary school

principals. Gender based differences were identified. The relationship between these gender differsnces and the types o f leadership developed by these secondary school principals were shown. The questions that were answered in this study were:

I . Whic h forms of socialization contributed to the development of transformational leaders?

2. Are there gender based differences in the socialization of secondary school principals? If so. what are they? Are they related to the types of leadership developed by these principals?

Limitations of the Design There are a number of limitations to the design of this study. The response rate to the

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survey wüs low. This low response rate may have been due to time constraints which were a real ity in the lives of these teachers. The teachers who did respond to the survey saw their principals as engaging in transformational leadership practices to only a moderate degree. There is no way to know the extent to which these principals were "exceptionally"

transformational. Their responses may indicate the thinking of a select group of teachers who responded to the survey rather than the overall view of the staff. Those who did take the time to complete the survey may have been teachers who had concems about the innovation in their school and used the survey to evaluate the change they were undergoing. Practical constraints did not permit a cornparison group of non-transformational principals to be used in this study.

There is another possible explanations of the difference between the teachers' reporting of only rnoderate claims of transformational leadership practices by their principals and the principals seeing themselves engaged in transformational pract ices. The di fferences in the teachers' perception of their principals as reponed in the swvey and the principals perception of themselves as recorded in the interviews may have been due to the fact that people tend to see themselves in a more favorable light than others see them. During the interviews the principals may have unconsciously omitted information that might detract from creating a positive impression of their work. Differences identified in this study as related to gender. may have been due to othrr causes (e-g. age) tliat were not addressed in the study. The design of the study does not permit researcher to show causality. The theoretical framework does not build in social change or impact of factors beyond stages or individual

choices. The frarnework does not account for the changes in the occupations and organizations within which careers are made. These include changes in structure and direction of activity and purposes.

The Survey Data: Transformational Leadership The teachers' ratings of transformational leadership dimensions for each school are given in table 1 in chapter four. When the means are rounded off to two decimal points. al1 of the means were 3.40 or higher on a 5 point scale in which 5 indicates strong agreement that

the principal engages in the practice described by an item. This shows only moderate levels of agreement by teachers in al1 schools that the principals were exercising transformational leadership. A one way analysis o f variance (ANOVA) was run on the teacher ratings to compare school means. There were no statistically significant differences among the school ratings. In sum. principals selected for this study were perceived by central office staff as esceptionally strong leaders, and by their teachers as only moderately transformational in their leadership.

Qualitative Results Forms of Socialization that Contributed to the Development of Transformational Leaders Transformational leadership practices can be traced through the four phases of the professional lives of these women and men. Evidence of transformational practices was present in the pre-separation phase in the lives of the women and men in this study. During their teen and early adult years they received individual consideration and support. They

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came to know from personal experience how important these qualities were in leaders. While at university they found support and consideration for their individual needs. EarIy in their

teaching careers they worked with administrators who gave them extra responsibilities. allowed them to initiate projects and develop or bring in new prograrns. and provided them with the material and moral support to see these initiatives through. Individual consideration and support was also evident in the dealings of the staff with the student population. Students were important to these women and men. In these schools they felt needed and believed they made worthwhile contributions. Students responded to the attention paid to them by showing strong motivation. appreciation, Ioyalty and a positive attitude towards school. Role models were important to these women and men. They had exceptional teacher role models and because of them these women and men saw teaching as an attractive. important profession. It was viewed as a place to make a contribution to society or to better their economic circumstances. These women and men experienced their greatest satisfaction

working in schools where the staff worked together towards common goals. They attached

-creat importance to using their intellect during their university and teacher training years and their early years in teaching profession. These women and men fonned a vision of what schools should be Iike during their school years as adolescents. their years of university and teacher training. and their early years in the profession. Through their experiences they came to know and appreciate the value of individual consideration and support, role models, collaboration, and intellectual stimulation.

290 The separation phase provided evidence of transformational practices. During this phase these women and men held formal leadership positions as assistant department heads. department heads and coordinator. Transformational leadership practices were evident while they occupied those roles. In school settings these women and men were active in building a vision. They Iified morale and inspired other members of staff. Under their leadership the staff became escited and motivated and were able to accomplish a great deal for students. As assistant department heads, department heads. and coordinator these women and men behaved in ways that set an example for others to follow. They were involved in activities that improved schooling for students. Group goals were fostered as they sought cooperation without requiring conformity among members of their departments. They also reached outside this group and collaborated with other agencies. educators. and departments. Providing individualized support to their teachers was an important part o f their role. They provided practical assistance and encouraged them to use their diverse gifis for the benefit of the school. Advocacy for their students was a part of their role and they worked hard to provide the best learning environment for them. These women and men were also on the receiving end of support and encouragement as they considered becoming administrators. IntelIectual stimulation was evident in the

attention they paid to professional development. Their staff members were given opportunities to be involved in professional development. As professionals they made provision for their owm intellectual grow-th through their on-the job experiences. in-service activities? and university studies. The transition phase was a time when candidates looked to vice principals and

principals for their leader role models. They realized that vice principals were heavily engaged in activities that allowed only rare occasions for transformational practices. particularly for two men who considered becoming vice principals early in their careers. By the time the women becarne interested in taking the roie of vice principal and three o f the men were closer to being appointed. the role had broadened and there was more evidence of transformational practices in use by their vice principal role models. The women and men spent time during the transition phase reflecting on their esperiences with principals they admired. They commended the transformational practices of their principals. Their principal role models had a philosophy or vision for the school which they shared with their staff. Taking risks and making changes was part of the way they perforrned their duties. They supported teachers and created student-centered schools. The principal roIe models in this study were highly visible in their schools and invested time and energy in having the staff work together. These principals worked with the staff to develop

ownership for what was happening in the school. Their role models provided inteilectual stimulation by assurning responsibility for the professional development of their staff. The kvomen and men in this study also provided for their own intellectual development through taking the courses required for principal certification in Ontario- engaging in graduate studies. and learning in their various roles in the school setting. The principals these women and men

admired were good communicators. Setting high expectations was not a prominent feature of tlie way the principals operated. Several candidates did express appreciation far the high expectations of a principal with whom they worked. These male principals demanded a lot of their teachers and supponed them.

292 These women and men encountered administrators with qualities and practices that were detrimental to student learning. These qualities and practices present during the pre-

separation. separation, and transition phases were the antithesis of the transformational practices the candidates observed in principals they admired. The practices and qualities which had a negative effect on schools were: being congenial but ineffective, being autocratic. rnaintaining the status quo, being indecisive. and maintaining a distance fiom the staff. Sexism. racism. narrowness and dogmatism were denounced. Concentrating on routine tasks. pIaying favorites and constantiy overreacting to crises were also criticized. These women and men forrned a perspective to enable them to work in schools. Where principals displayed such practices and qualities. their coordinated set of ideas and actions enabled them to work in such schools while still holding to their ideals. They confronted. tolerated or avoided these leaders. They minimized the effects of these administrators on their work by finding support elsewhere on staff: working with the leaders who shared their vision. waiting until a new administrator was appointed. or taking steps to Ieave the school. Occasionally they confronted these leaders but had very little success in changing their practices.

Gender Based Differences in Socialization Gender based differences in the socialization of secondary school principals were in evidence during the pre-separation phase. Gender was the ovemding factor in setting the direction of the women's careers. The messages the women were given served to limit their career options and direct them into a profession considered to be suitable for females. The time these women spent at university and in teacher training involved personal stmggle.

293 Gender issues were a part of the women's early teaching experiences. Attempts were made to have them perform within stereotypical roles once they entered the profession. Several not onIy experienced discrimination themselves during their early years as teachers but observed the inequity female students endured. School environments for female students ranged from disadvantageous to hostile. The women themselves faced blatant discrimination in schools. Obstacles to doing their work effectively were placed in their way. Ln the face of opposition they stnved to bnng about change and esert a measure of control over their work lives. Their attempts to make changes met with minimal success. The women had to push for leadership opportunities and they found them in a varie.

of places. Consequently. the scope of the

women's leadership \vas wider than that of the men. The women experienced stress around the demands of f m i l y and career. The birth of children resulted in the women making major adjustments to accommodate their persona1 and professional responsibilities. These adjustments meant loss of career opportunities.

The males in the study found their masculinity to be an advantage in advancing in their careers. They were expected to succeed in the public domain and were given the support. encouragement and opportunity to develop skills and confidence in their own ability. The men were encouraged and given the opportunity to esercise leadership. Support was evident during their teen years, while in university and teacher training and throughout their early years in the classroom. This enabled them to advance in their careers. An esamination of the socialization of the women and men during the separation phase revealed gender diReremes. The women reexarnined their roles as spouse and mother in relation to their careers and then made the decision to become administrators. The removal

of orçanizational barriers for women kvas a second factor in their decision to enter administration. They also delayed their decision until they saw that the administrative role could be articulated in a way that would make a difference for students. They waited until there were females in positions of authority in the education system who provided them with encouragement and support. The men separated more easily from the role of teacher. They wanted a change from the classroom teaching that was an integral part of the responsibilities of department head.

They enjoyed administrative tasks and decided the vice principal role was the next logical step in their careers. A number of differences in the socialization experiences o f the women and men

during the transition phase were apparent. The discipline responsibilities made the role of vice principal unattractive to the women early in their careers. They identified differences in the vision or philosophy of the principals who were their role models. While preparing to become administrators. the women had to find ways of dealing with their responsibilities as wives and mothers and the stress associated with multiple roles. The wornen were at a disadvantage in terrns of variety of experiences available to them at the school level which \vouId be helpful in preparing women and men for administrative work. Only men had the jobs of acting vice principal and principal o f night school. The experiences o f the women and

men who were engaged in graduate studies whiie preparing for administrative positions were different. Several women benefitted greatly from the affirmation and direction given by their pro fessors. There were differences in the experiences of the females and males while going

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through the formal process for becoming an administrator. Several men were identified as potential administrators because of their work outside the classroom. The women who contributed greatly to the Iife of the schoot were not identified until the system changed to include women as prospective administrators. At that point their work beyond the c lassroom brought them to the attention of superiors. Admission to the principal courses (a certification prograrn for the principalship in Ontario) presented a sponsorship problem for women. They solved this by waiting until sponsorship was no longer required before taking the courses. They faced opposition from male superintendents at the recornmendation stage and at the

interview stage. The women were particularly aware of the sponsorship they received from women who were their superordinates. Their appointments were also aided by affirmative action and the targets set by the Ministry of Education for the entrance of women into administration. Once they finished the certification process the women were appointed to a vice principal position relatively quickly. Two men had to wait for a considerable length of time before receiving a vice principalship.

Relationshi~of Gender Based Differences to the Tvpes of leaders hi^ Developed bv Principals Gender based differences were apparent in the types and focus of leadership shown in the incorporation phase. When they became principals the women's vision for their schools was different than that of the men. They focused heavily on issues of equity and were very passionate about that part of their vision. They highlighted the importance of developing the whole person, empowering students, valuing each student and creating an affirming and

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equitable environment. Issues of gender. race. class and intelligence were of great concern to them. The women had been dealing with equity issues both in the persona1 and professional sphere for many years. As teenagers, gender particularly limited their options. Discrimination continued when they became teachers. They observed the difficulties females. students from different racial groups. and those from economically depressed sections of society had to face. Obstacles were placed in the paths of these women when they decided to become

administrators. They saw the difference attention to equity and the individual made in their

own lives. The women appreciated the cornmitment of the board to affirmative action. Al1 of these esperiences contributed to the creation o f their vision for their schools. They were also influenced by their principal role models whose visions centered around equity. Program improvement was central to the vision of the male principals. They improved programs by concentrating on the physical facilities. changing the structure of the school year or day and involving the staff in program planning. The work they had found most satisfjing

throughout their professional lives prior to their principalship had been in the area of prograin. Their principal role models were heavily involved in program issues and had proçram improvement as central to their vision. By the time of their appointment as principal the board had mandated prograrn planning. Al1 o f these factors contributed to the focus the

men gave to prograrn improvement in their vision. The women had a stronger support system and depended on their support system more than the men. They viewed this support as crucial to their practice. More of thern had mentors and al1 were heavily involved in networking. Their wornen's informa1 network, consisting of al1 the female secondary school principals in their board, was particularly

important to them. They also appreciated the support given to women by organizations. Seceral factors accounted for the dependance of the women on their support systems. In dealing with discrimination throughout their teaching careers they had banded together with like-minded professionals. They had enlisted support in overcoming the negatives they had oncountered in their quest to become adminisuators. They were the first women to be appointed as secondaxy principals in their board. Their belief was that. as women, they coped with unique problems in the administrative role. Women's leadership was viewed as being in some ways different from that of men. The role of administrator was relatively new to them. The men had developed a support systern at the board office as a result of having held positions there. Their experiences strengthened their administrative skills. gave them first hand knowledge o f the workings of the board. and connected them to board personnel.

The women with children saw their role as parent as impacting on their articulation of the role of administrator. They continued to experience the competing demands of family and work responsibilities. Stress and guilt surrounded the management of home. job. graduate work still in progress and the extra demands of administration. Gradually the women changed their perspective. designing a set of beliefs and actions to deal with the roles of spouse.

mother and administrator. They saw the positive impact their roles as parents had on their jobs. Their experiences with their own children. they beIieved. gave them a strong empathy with students and their parents. provided an understanding of student needs. and led them to become invoived in providing special îàcilities for students and parents. The women displayed a strong sense of humour. These women spent a great deal of their careers in untàvourable positions. They frequently faced blatant or subtle discrimination

298 while struggling to advance in their careers. Humor was used as a coping mechanism . It was ais0 a quality deemed important by superordinates. The wornen had greater enthusiasm for the role of administrator than the men. This c m be partially explained by the newness of a role that presented great opportunities. The

initia1 escitement that often accompanies a new challenge was still present. They were addressing issues that had concerned them throughout their careers in education. The men expressed the sarne degree of enthusiasm when the role was new to them or when they were bringing about changes to which they had a deep cornmitment.

The Contribution of the Study to Future Research This study shows the utility of van Gennep's and Becker's conceptual framework in guiding future research on the development of transformational practices and gender differences in socialization. The study of transformational leaders and how their practices developed is a fruitfiil avenue for additional research given the commitment of educators to changes in schools that benefit students. the indications that transfomational leaders can effect those changes. and the paucity of research in the area. The study presents evidence that humor plays a role in the development of transformational leaders who have many obstacles to overcome during the development of their transformational practices. Further research in this area is warranted. The principals in my study are now either retired or nearing retirement. Their careers began at a time when women's rights were receiving little attention and covered the period

when their rights came to the fore. A study of a later generation of women and men to

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compare them with the principals in this study would enable us to see what changes if any have occurred. Many changes have taken pIace in the education system in Ontario since the collection of the data in this study. In view of these changes in education is it still possible to engage in transformational leadership? A follow-up study on the women and men in this study tvouId reveal whether they are still viewed as exceptional leaders and whether their transformational leadership practices are still in evidence. A longitudinal study to explore what happens to transformational leaders as they

change positions within the organization would be valuable. When principals move from school to school or to other positions in the organization do they sustain the same set of practices? How important is content?

The Contribution of the Study to Practice This study identified practices that administrators who were strong leaders use in their schools. The practices identified were: having a vision, taking risks, making changes: and ensuring their own intellectual development and that of their staff. Supporting students and staff: working together toward common goals, using the strengths of al1 staff members. and being good role models were practices which were also present.

Administrators develop these practices gradually and are influenced by their own experiences as secondaiy school and university students, as teachers in training, as beginning teachers before being given forma1 roles with added responsibility, and as experienced teachers holding positions of added responsibility. The development of these practices in a

300 school setting is dependent on the opportunities and encouragement individuals receive at each stage in their development as leaders. The interactions young people have with adults and the instruction they receive from teachers during their secondary school years serve to build or weaken their confidence. enhance or delay the development of their leadership skills. give them an image of schools. and broaden or restrict their career choices. This knowledge places great responsibility on the staffs in schools to provide the support, set the exarnple and teach the skills that will enable students to realize their full potential. Universities have the responsibility to appoint professors who are exemplary academics and relate weli to al1 students in their classes. Educators involved in the pre-service education of teachers have an obligation to act as good role rnodels and to provide teachers in training with the expertise they will need in their profession. the confidence to avail themselves of leadership opportunities. and a love and appreciation for the work of being an educator. The practices beginning teachers observe and participate in influence their future work in schools. It is crucial to the development of desirable practices that begiming teachers have esperiences in schools where the practices employed are directed towards meeting the needs of al1 students. The forma1 roles of assistant department head- department head and coordinator are key positions for learning about administration, exercising good leadership, developing practices that create good schools, and ensuring admission to the administrative role. Fernales and males are needed in these roles.

Administrators learn their practices from people in the tield. Excellent administrator role models are very important to teachers who provide leadership in schools and are

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potential administrators. The provision of exemplary vice principal and principal role models is particuiarly important when women and men become candidates for school administration. Boards have the responsibility of fostering good administrative practices. Placing

administrative candidates in schools where exemplary administrator role models are present helps boards to achieve the goal of promoting good administrative practices in schools. Equal access to leadership roles and encouragement to exercise leadership in schools from the beginning of their careers is important for women. The different experiences of

women and men who become administrators cal1 for a proactive approach in eliminating any obstacles to women acquiring the skiils needed for administration. The removal o f al1 organizational barriers to women entering administration is essential. The university has an important role to play in the preparation of school administrators. Graduate school serves a dual purpose for females - affirming them. and thus building their confidence. and providing the knowledge needed to fulfill the role of administrator. Constant evaluation of the principal

certification courses ensures that they are meeting the needs of administrators. In-service offered on an on-going basis keeps administrators current in the field of education. Centrai office positions are important in the acquisition of the knowledge and skills required for administration and in rnaking connections with superordinates who can provide sponsorship and help in articulating administrative roles. Access to these positions are as important to

women as to men.

Family life has a positive impact on those performing an administrative role. The role of parent gives school administrators unique skills in working with parents and students in schools. A balanced lifestyle for administrators ensures that the women and men who are

302 involved parents fulfill their administrative role to the benefit of their students. integrating family and career decisions contributes to the health of the farnily unit. the education system. and society as a whole. Provision of time to candidates to develop administrative skills through university course work. in-service. and on-the job learning experiences helps ensure a manageabie workload. a balanced lifestyle. and more productive administrators. FemaIe networks and mentors are important to women in articulating the role of administrator. The more women occupying administrative positions. the wider their network and the more females available for mentoring and support. Women who are superordinates in the education system are important in sponsoring other women. The presence of women. and men who support women. builds confidence among women at the teaching, candidacy and administrative level. Humor is another valuable tool in helping female administrators cope with difficult situations. The administrative practices identified contribute to the creation of good schools. They enable schools to be places where engaged teaching and learning contribute to the growth and development of al1 members o f the school community. The way in which these

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practices develop provide future direction to al1 those who have influenced their development. Having knowledge of excellent administrative practices and fostering the development of such practices ensure that schools are places where al1 students are well served.

Conclusion Effective administrators are crucial to the creation of good schools. The

administrators in this study were strong leaders. Their joumeys into administration were filled with successes and triumphs over adversities. They engaged in exemplary practices. These practices developed over many years and were focused on meeting the needs of students in schools. The good schools these women and men created were places where: collegiality kvas promoted: students. teachers. and administrators were learners: staff and students were supported: administrators used both power and caring in meeting the needs of students: risktaking was encouraged; change was on-going; effort was expended to ensure appropriate programs were available to students: special attention was paid to equity issues; common goals were set: the strengths of al1 staff members were used; good role models were present:

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and efforts were made to solve each problem that surfaced. e.g. making schools safe for al1 students. The esperiences of these principals. their joumeys into administration, and the way in which they articulated their roles gives reason for optimism about the future of schools. Their experiences demonstrate that strong leaders can be nurtured and appointed to schools and that these administrators will continue to create sct~oolswhere adul ts work together to ensure they meet the needs of al1 students.

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Wroblewski. S. S. (1987). The doctor-nurse eame: Inferred role reversal n o m s . (Doctoral dissertation. University of California at Santa Barbara 1987). Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation Services. Yunker. R. (1 977). Police field train in^: The analvsis of a socialization process. (Doctoral dissertation, Washington University, 1977). Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation Services. Zumwalt, R. L. (1 988). The e n i ~ m oa f Arnold van Gennep (1 873- 1957): Master of French folklore and hennit of Bourg-la-Reine. Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Femica.

APPENDIX A NDIVIDUAL PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION INTERVIEW FORMAT

PROTOCOLS USED FOR PRINCIPALS' INDIVIDUAL PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION NTERVTEWS Purpose: The pwpose o f this interview will be to record the principals' recollection o f their informal and formal professional socialization experiences. These questions served as guides oniy.

Can you tell me about your professional background? Why did you choose to become a teacher? Did you g o right into teaching from university? Teacher's College?

What other jobs have you had besides teaching? Did you take time out from teaching for any other reason? Were you encouraged to be a teachers? How long did you teach?

Can you tell me about the schools you worked in (You don't have to give the name of the school)?

What stands out clearly about the school(s)? What \vas the principal like? MaleEemale? Did she/he have a vision for the school? Was the principal supportive? What wadwere the vice-principal(s) like? Male? Female? What was the staff like?

Was there much working together? In the whole school? In your department?

-

Were you given any extra responsibilities?

-

Were teachers informed about what was happening in the school?

-

Was there much professional development? Who was responsible for professional development?

-

Did you have the resources you needed to do your work?

3. Could you tell me why you decided to become an administrator?

-

Was there a panicular point in your professional career when you decided you wanted to become an administrator? When?

-

How did you let people know you were interested in administration?

-

Were there any people who encouraged you to pursue your career? Who? How did they help you?

-

Did anyone try to discourage you? Who?

-

Was there an administrator whose work you admired?

-

DiC that person have a vision of what a school should be like?

-

How was that vision passed on to the staff?

3. Once you had made you decisions to become an administrator, how did you go about

preparing yourself to be an administrator?

-

Did you volunteer to serve on cornmittees?

-

Did you volunteer for special assignrnents?

-

Did you seek out a mentor? What heIp did your mentor provide?

-

When did you take the principal certification course? Where did you take it? How helpful was it?

-

Did you d o graduate work? How helphl was it?

Tell me about your expenences as vice principal? What were your responsibilities? Did you enjoy your work?

Were there differences between the role of the teacher and the role o f vice principal? What were these differences? Did the administrators work together? What was the relationship between teachers and administrators? Did you do exrra courses before applying for the principalship? Helpful?

Tell me about your experiences as principal? Have you hadl do have a vision for p u r school?

How \+-asthe \-ision developed? -

Werelare there goals for the schools in which you werdare principal? How were they developed?

-

How does the staff work to reach school goals?

8. Can you tell me about your iife outside the school?

- Do you have a fmily?

-

Do you have outside interests? Hobbies?

APPENDIX B

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP DIMENSIONS

Transformational Leadership Dimensions

The scale used for ratings of J O leadership practices was 1=strongly disagree: 2=disagree: 3=uncertain: 4=agree; 5=strongly agree that each of these practices was provided by the principal.

Provides vision/ inspiration (1 0) Demonstrates a clear understanding of school goals and how to achieve them. Gives us a sense of overall purpose. Has the capacity and judgment to overcome any obstacle. Develops Our commitment to school goals. Commands respect from everyone in the school. Excites us with visions of what we may be able to accomplish if we work together.

Determines what really is important for us to consider. Continually seeks new ways to improve Our school's programs. Fosters Our enthusiasm for Our work as educators. Makes us feel and act like leaders.

B.

Provides Appropriate Mode1 (4)

1 1.

Provides good models for us to follow.

12.

Expecis a level of performance from others that applies to own work.

13.

Symbolizes success and accomplishrnent within Our profession.

14.

Leads by 'doing' rather than simply by 'telling'.

C.

Fosters Group Goals (6)

15.

Facilitates an exchange of ideas about appropriate school goals among teachers.

16.

Frequently puts into operation suggestions from teachers without a forma1 leadership role.

17.

Provides for our participation in the process of goal formation.

1 8.

Encourages col laboration among teachers.

19.

Encourages us to become -team players'.

20.

Gets us working together for the sarne goals.

Provides Support (9) Helps us ciarify exactly what is required for implementation of school goals. Facili tates assistance and support for us from external personnel. as required. Follows through with the required for irnplementing improvements. Treats us as individuals with unique needs and expertise. Ensures oppoizunities for us to get together for the purpose of solving practical problems or overcoming obstacles. Provides us with positive feedback about our work. Considers our opinions when initiating actions. Behaves in a manner thoughtful of our persona1 needs. Takes into account our views on current education-related issues.

Holds High Performance Expectations (4) Insists on only the best performance from us. Shows us that there are high expectations for us as professionals. Will not settle for second best in performance of our work.

Provides Intellectual Stimulation (8) Provides information about the process of introducing change. Challenges us to think about old problerns in new ways. Challenges us to reexamine some basic assumptions about Our work. Provides for extended training to develop knowiedge and skills relevant to new programs. Asks questions that prompt us to think about what we are doing. Challenges us to rethink some of our own ideas which we have never questioned before. Provides information about improving Our school's programs. Stimulates us to rethink the way we do things.

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