Untitled - Higher Learning Research Communications

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Editorial The Editors

INDEX

ESSAY

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Becoming a Scholar: Everything I Needed to Know I learned on Sabbatical Steven Maranville

ARTICLES

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Engaging Disenfranchised Urban Youth in Science Learning

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Supporting Online faculty: Developing a Supporting Website Resource

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Tracking and Explaining Credit-Hour Completion

Luis Alberto D’Elia and Diane Wishart

Peter John Anthony and Eric Nordin

Maxwell Ndigume Kwenda

Selected Papers Presented at the "X Jornadas Internacionales de Innovación Universitaria”

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Research Skills Development in Higher Education Students El Desarrollo de la Capacidad Investigadora en Alumnos de Educación Superior Luis Alberto D’Elia and Diane Wishart

Qualitative Study of College Tutoring through the Expert Panel Method

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Estudio Cualitativo sobre Tutoría Universitaria a través del Método de Panel de Expertos Inmaculada López Martín, Ascensión Blanco Fernández, Rosa Ma. Pagán Marín, Bienvenido Gazapo Andrade, Jose Ma. de Arana del Valle, Esther Pizzarro Juanas, and Beatriz Martínez Pascual

Improving Bilingual Higher Education: Training University Professors in Content and Language Integrated Learning Victoria Bamond, Birgit Strotmann, José María López Lago, María Bailen, Sonia Bonilla and Francisco Montesinos

Emotional Intelligence vs. General Intelligence: Aspects to Consider in Teaching

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Inteligencia Emocional vs. Inteligencia General: Aspectos a Considerar en la Docencia José Luis Martínez Rubio, Esther Moraleda, Blanca Rodríguez, Lourdes García Salmones and Manuel Primo

People Power - Computer Games in the Classroom Ivan Hilliard

Multimedia Content Production Inside the Classroom. A Teaching Proposal for Journalism and Audiovisual Communication Students Producción de Contenido Multimedia en el Aula. Una Propuesta Docente para Alumnos de Periodismo y Comunicación Audiovisual Eva Herrero Curiel and Nieves Limón Serrano

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Editorial This issue of Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC) features research and teaching proposals from both sides of the Atlantic. In a globalized and interconnected world, cooperation among researchers and higher education professionals is paramount. Equally important, as Steven Maranville argues in this issue’s featured essay, is recognizing being a scholar and researcher means being first and foremost a thinker. Higher education institutions are sanctuaries of knowledge, and faculty members are key in promoting understanding and the free flow of ideas among teachers and students. In the information Age, online tools have proven vital precisely in promoting knowledge and cooperation across oceans and frontiers. As more and more higher education institutions use the Internet in order to reach a wider student audience, the new challenges of online learning require new tools for faculty communication. As such, Eric Nordin and Peter John Anthony conducted research related to the development of a support website for online faculty. Such measures seem to be necessary, as they may lead to improvements in the quality of online teaching and learning. There is another research piece included in this issue that deals as well with improving the quality of teaching and learning. Luis Alberto D’Elia and Diane Wishart have investigated on both sides of the Atlantic, in Canada and Spain, how proper teacher training at the college level may lead to better youth engagement in science classes. Faculty in Education departments must become aware of the needs and challenges youth face in science learning in order to better train the teachers that will serve them. This is why more higher education professionals should engage in high school programs that prepare students for college. Oftentimes, previous educational experiences do not properly prepare students for college life, resulting in withdrawals, longer times to degree completion, or even unwillingness to complete a degree. Maxwell N. Kwenda investigated one of these aspects by trying to track and explain college credit completion in freshmen students. His results suggest high school academic performance, GPA, and college entrance exams can indeed predict academic success, which is why it is important to engage potential college students before they graduate from high school. This tenth issue of HLRC also features selected papers presented at the X Jornadas Internacionales de Innovación Universitaria [X International Conference on Innovation in Higher Education], celebrated by the Universidad Europea de Madrid, in Spain. The aim of the Jornadas is to promote research and ground-breaking teaching proposals in higher education. The selected papers reflect current pedagogic trends and incorporate innovative teaching strategies to engage college students and promote cross-sectional competences. Among the proposals, supporting research activities among students, promoting content and language integrated learning among faculty, providing practical experiences and cooperation in communication and audiovisual programs, student tutoring, taking into account the students emotional intelligence, and even using advanced computer software to provide International Relations students with the change to manage a transition to democracy from an authoritarian regime stand out. The Editors

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Higher Learning Research Communications – March 2014

Volume 4, Number 1

Editors-in-Chief

Agueda Benito, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain Denise DeZolt, Walden University, United States Carlos Mujica, Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile

Executive Editor Managing Editor

Carmen Margarita Mendez, Laureate Education, USA Thalia N. Nazario, Consultant to Laureate Education, USA

Senior Consulting Editors

Drummond Bone, UK Joseph Duffey, USA Manuel Krauskopf, Chile

Richard Riley, USA David Wilson, USA

Editorial Advisory Board

Ana Fanelli, CEDES, Argentina

Iris Mae Yob, Walden University, USA

Claudia Uribe, Education Specialist of IDB, Washington, DC, USA Craig Marsh, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom Daniel C. Levy, University at Albany, State University of New York, USA David Lopez, National Hispanic University, United States David Post, Pennsylvania State University, USA Despina Varnava Marouchou, European University Cyprus, Cyprus German Alberto Ramirez, Laureate Education Inc., USA Graciela Risco, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas(UPC), Peru Halil Guven, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey

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Jamil Salmi, World Bank, United States José Joaquín Brunner, Universidad Diego Portales, Chile Leopoldo De Meis, UFRJ, Brazil Manuel Campuzano, Universidad Tecnológica de México, Mexico Ned Strong, Harvard University, USA Simon Cueva, Universidad de Las Américas, Ecuador Simon Schwartzman, Instituto de Estudos do Trabalho e Sociedade (IETS), Brazil Susan E. Saxton, Laureate Education, Inc., USA Rogerio Meneghini, Scielo/Bireme/PAHO, Brazil Ugur Ozdemir, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey

Higher Learning Research Communications – March 2014

X Jornadas Internacionales de Innovación Universitaria Scientific Committee

Volume 4, Number 1

Agueda Benito, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain

German Alberto Ramirez, Laureate Education Inc., USA

Begoña Learreta Ramos, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain

Joan Domingo Peña, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya,Spain

Blanca Rodríguez Polo, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain David Aguado García, Instituto de Ingeniería del Conocimiento, Madrid, Spain Emma Cuenca, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain Escolástica Macías Gómez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain Eugenia Arrés López, Winner, Innovación Docente 2012 Prize, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain

Jose Francisco Lukas, Universidad del País Vasco, Spain Juan José Escribano Otero, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain Julia González, Universidad de Extremadura, Spain Mara Sánchez Llorens, Winner, Innovación Docente 2012 Prize, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain Maria Jesús Marco, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain Pedro J. Lara Bercial, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain

Faraón Llorens Largo, Universidad de Alicante, Spain

Rosendo Vílchez, Universidad de Extremadura, Spain

Federico Borges, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain

Verónica Baena Gracia, Winner, Innovación Docente 2012 Prize, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain

Francesc Pozo, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain

Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC, ISSN: 2157-6254 [Online]) is published collaboratively by Walden University (USA), Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile), Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain) and Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey). Written communication to HLRC should be addressed to the office of the Executive Director at Laureate Education, Inc. 701 Brickell Ave Ste 1700, Miami, FL 33131, USA. HLRC is designed for open access and online distribution through http://journals.sfu.ca/liu/index.php/HLRC. The views and statements expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect the views of Laureate Education, Inc. or any of its affiliates (collectively “Laureate”). Laureate does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of those views or statements and does not accept any legal liability arising from any reliance on the views, statements and subject matter of the journal. 3

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Becoming a Scholar: Everything I Needed to Know I Learned on Sabbatical Steven Maranville Salt Lake City, United States [email protected] Abstract This manuscript discusses matters of professional development for tenured business professors at teaching-oriented universities. These faculty members are at particular risk of a career plateau accompanied by diminished productivity and satisfaction. Employing autoethnographic methods, the author reflects on his personal experience and posits initiatives for career revitalization. Keywords: professional development, scholarship, knowledge work, protean careers, autoethnography Introduction Covey (1989) calls it “sharpening the saw,” and Senge (1990) calls it “personal mastery”. Both are referring to the need for continuous professional development. While everyone needs to “keep their batteries charged,” university faculty members face their own set of challenges that require professional development. Being an academic requires a high level of mental, emotional, and physical energy. Without adequate attention to professional development, university faculty can experience boredom and burnout resulting in low or misdirected energy that can immobilize career productivity and satisfaction. The purpose of this essay is to stimulate consideration of those special professional development needs of academicians—in particular, mid-career, tenured business faculty at small, private or public, teaching-oriented colleges or universities. With reference to the Greek god Proteus who could change shape at will, Hall (1996a, 1996b) observed that, in the Twenty-first Century, careers are “Protean”-- a career that is defined by the person not the organization and that is reinvented by the person as circumstances evolve. Academic careers have always been fashioned to be Protean. Success in a Protean career requires adaptability that comes from continuous learning--acquisition of emerging knowledge and skill sets--as well as from greater awareness of one’s self. Hence, academic work is creative and boundaryless (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996). For many faculty members, these qualities make an academic career, in the words of Don Juan, “a path with a heart” (Castaneda, 1968). As with all careers though, the academic career is prone to developmental stages. Although the various models of career-stage development possess slight differences, a thematic evolutionary process is revealed across models: preparation and entry, growth and advancement, plateau and maintenance, disengagement and exit (Baldwin, 1990). Among these developmental stages, maintenance can be paramount with respect to its affect on self identity. During the maintenance stage, career goals may diminish in motivational power resulting in a professional plateau accompanied by a mid-life experience of career-related disappointment, frustration, and reassessment. During this season, what once was a path with a 4

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heart may become routine and no longer engrossing. These faculty are at special risk, because the routines they have refined through longevity may result in inertia that stymies what could continue to be a creative and boundaryless career. Social Construction Theory (Berger & Luckmann, 1966) submits that reality is formed by the meanings ascribed to experience. To some extent, the mental models established and reified by these faculty about the nature of their work end up forming psychic structures that imprison them. To realize true “academic freedom,” these faculty might improve the quality of their work experience by redefining their work. This manuscript, therefore, proposes that these faculty may benefit from reframing and refocusing their perceptions of the “real” work of a professor. Quest for Renewal I became an academician because I love to learn. I get the most excited about those things of which I know the least. I especially enjoy learning about organizational dynamics in a business context. For me, the study of strategic management strikes a chord harmonizing practical and philosophical lessons. Completing my doctoral education, I transitioned to an Assistant Professor at a “teaching” university where the School of Business was accredited but far from being regarded top tier. Because I was excited by learning, I enjoyed helping others to experience that same excitement. Consequently, I focused my energy on developing pedagogical excellence. I consider my teaching to be learning focused and the resultant learning to be of high quality. Moreover, these teaching practices have been validated with accolades and awards from both students and colleagues. Commensurate with efforts to obtain accreditation, even teaching institutions now expect faculty to publish in peer-reviewed journals. My university is no exception. Of course, I appreciate that all institutions of higher learning—even those with a teaching mission—need faculty who are intellectually active and current in their fields. Nevertheless, as more of my effort went into teaching, less effort went into research—especially after being granted promotion and tenure. In turn, the less effort I put into research, the fewer original ideas I had to share with my students in the classroom. The demands of teaching and service, though, left little spare time for doing meaningful research. Obviously, at universities with a teaching mission, teaching loads are heavy; I teach four classes each semester. That’s twelve credit hours. Time spent preparing for class meetings, teaching in the classroom, as well as evaluating student performance and counseling students adds up. Further, at a small university, the obligation to render institutional service is greater per faculty member than at larger universities simply because there are fewer faculty members to staff the same necessary committees. The most pressing need for institutional service is on time-intensive faculty governance committees that require leadership from senior faculty. Consequently, these time demands made it difficult—even seemingly impossible—to find time for doing quality research. And, if the research could not be of high quality, why should I bother? After all, this research won’t be given the Nobel Prize in Economics. So, what difference is that research going to make? And, who would really read this kind of publication anyway?

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I was caught in this vicious cycle when the Dean of a highly ranked graduate business school at a well known private university who had learned of my accomplishments in teaching extended to me the offer of a visiting professorship. I accepted the appointment for an academic year. To facilitate this opportunity, I was granted a sabbatical from my public, home university which further afforded the opportunity to step outside the boundaries of my institution and look for a solution to my dilemma. Social scientists have begun to view themselves as the phenomenon and to write evocative personal narratives with the primary purpose to understand a self or some aspect of a life lived in a cultural context. Autoethnography—an autobiographical genre of research and writing connecting the personal to the cultural (Ellis & Bochner, 2000)—is a compelling method for this form of research. Reed-Danahay (1997) renders a notable review of the evolving literature on autoethnographic methods. Autoethnographic methodology is a synthesis of postmodern ethnography and postmodern biography—ethnographic autobiography, autobiographical writing that has ethnographic interests. Originating in cultural anthropology, autoethnographic studies entail research conducted by a native of his or her own culture. Telling the story of the researcher is in the foreground with the cultural context in the background. This produces self-consciousness within the social structure resulting in a rewriting of the self and the social. The researcher encounters self discovery and creation through making sense of, and giving coherence to, life’s experiences. Hence, autoethnographic research can be approached as problem solving akin to action research (Stringer, 2008) or action science (Argyris, Putnam, & Smith, 1985) for the individual or even as therapeutic. Because the life story is contextualized by the researcher’s culture, that life experience may be generalized to a larger audience comprising that same culture. Readers are invited to use what they learn from the autoethnographic work to reflect on, understand, and direct their own lives. Autoethnography fits within the interpretive paradigm (Burrell & Morgan, 2007); human presence in the data collection and interpretation process is a central feature of the method. Beginning with the premise that social science is human research, personal experience cannot be separated from data collection and interpretation. Therefore, all research is constructed experience. Autoethnography purely makes the existence of human experience transparent through personal experience narratives. Therefore, this manuscript reports the lessons derived from the application of autoethnographic methods of data collection and analysis (Clandinin & Connelly, 1994; Ellis, 1991; Reinharz, 1979). My sabbatical experience produced substantial professional and personal growth. I underwent meaningful “professional development,” learning some lessons unique to my own situation and other lessons that are more generalizable to faculty in need of renewal—which in truth is every faculty member. Following are a few of those generalizable lessons about professional development. Some of these lessons might be the same words of advice passed along by wise mentors to their doctoral students or junior faculty. Even so, these lessons have the potential to take on a new meaning for the mid-career professor. The Knowledge Worker The “knowledge worker” (Drucker, 1992)—one who adds value through intellectual activity--is prevalent among the labor force of today’s global economy. University faculty members can claim the distinction of being the original and enduring knowledge workers. The purpose of the academy has always been to add value to society by attaining true 6

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understanding through improved quality of thought. Therefore, this essay begins with the premise that, although evaluated relative to performance in teaching, publishing, and service, a university faculty member’s real occupation is to learn. Professors are professional students, i.e., scholars. It is easy to get caught in the bi-polar struggle between being a teacher or a researcher. In actuality, effective faculty members are not teachers or researchers. They are scholars; they realize their job is to think. As thinkers, they have several venues for cultivating and distributing their thoughts. They share thoughts with future organizational leaders who are now students in educational settings. They also share thoughts with practicing organizational leaders in consultative settings. In addition, they contribute their ideas to other professional academics through the academic dialogue in journals and at conferences. None of these activities, though, will produce quality results unless the core function of thinking takes place. Faculty development is really about enhancing the quality of one’s thinking. Therefore, the following suggests ways to revitalize this essential activity. Revitalization, though, is not an event; it is a process. Faculty development is not achieved by attending a workshop, but instead by taking personal responsibility for professional development and making revitalization an integral part of continual professional improvement (Drucker, 1999). Create a Thinking Agenda Of course one is always thinking; it is not something that can be turned on and off. However, the quality of one’s thinking is affected by the attention given to what one thinks and how one thinks about it. Thinking is more productive if it is focused with purpose. Therefore, the mid-career business scholar who is recovering from distractions needs a thinking agenda—a master plan of intellectual contribution to the collective pool of thought on organizations and management (Boyer, 1990). A thinking agenda requires three pillars: 1) definition of an organization/management phenomenon that will be the focus of thought; 2) identification of a theory as the lens through which to make sense of that phenomenon; and 3) selection of a research method to empirically study the phenomenon (Guba, 1990). Given a phenomenon, a theory, and a method, what questions remain unanswered about the nature or process of this phenomenon? From a personal standpoint, what part of this puzzle warrants further examination and evokes sufficient curiosity to be the groundwork of a thinking agenda? A thinking agenda is the source of projects that address questions about the focal phenomenon. Projects are the hallmark of the knowledge worker in the professional service firm (DeFillippi & Arthur, 1996; Peters, 1992). In the professional service firm known as the university, a project is a scholarly endeavor producing insights that can be assembled and packaged in a variety of output forms. In general, the results of a scholar’s thinking should lead to the education of students and the publication of manuscripts. Working on a project, though, is not the same as working on a lecture for classroom use or on a paper for publication. A project is more encompassing than a single product. From one project, several genuinely distinct products could be generated. For example, the results of a project could be presented as a conceptual exposition, theoretical tract, methodological manual, empirical report, management translation, or pedagogical application. The selection of the right project is critical. There are two criteria to consider in making this selection. First, does the project advance the scholar’s learning as intended through the 7

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thinking agenda? Projects should remain focused on the area of knowledge that the thinking agenda is designed to construct. Effort should not be scattered across an array of activities that do not gain from the synergy of the thinking agenda. Second, does the project intellectually animate or agitate the scholar enough to incite passionate pursuit? The essence of a thinking agenda is to infuse energy into the scholar’s professional development. If not totally energized by the thought of undertaking a particular project, one should pass on it, and keep searching for a project that actually generates excitement. The mid-career, tenured scholar should avoid the snare of a curriculum vitae littered with rubbish. While one’s vita must demonstrate research activity, the scholar should not invest thinking in publications that, in spite of being published, have no worth to colleagues—not to mention oneself. Thinking should be invested in projects that lead to genuine learning—at the very least one’s own learning. Thinking The significance of a thinking agenda is determined by the extent to which the knowledge generated from its projects is insightful. To produce insight, one must be adept at critical and creative thinking. The process of thinking, though, requires some thoughts to process. To rouse thoughts, one must cultivate curiosity and be exposed to thought-provoking stimuli. Thinking is accomplished in two symbiotic stages. Thinking begins with the acquisition of existing knowledge. This is breathing in—consumption. As those bits of knowledge are classified, compared, and connected, new questions arise leading to the production of new knowledge. This is breathing out—creation. Before one can breathe out insightful ideas in the form of a project, one needs to breathe in new ideas that provide grist. This entails studying the thoughts of others who are seeking answers to the same or similar questions. Through exposure to others’ thoughts, one gains knowledge of their interpretive frameworks and methods as well as their interpretations. Further, sifting the thoughts of others kindles the discovery of one’s own thoughts. Of course, reading the academic literature that supports one’s thinking agenda is requisite. In addition, the business scholar should regularly peruse trade publications, business periodicals such as The Wall Street Journal (see Lehmann, 2000) and Business Week, as well as popular press business books to learn what is important to practicing managers and how academic research might apply. One can also gain access to new ideas through direct conversations with other faculty and practicing professionals. These conversations may even develop into collaborative projects. The scholar should cultivate a “community of practice”-- academic partners with whom to refine individual thinking (Wenger & Snyder, 2000). These colleagues might be employed at one’s home institution or at another institution. Academic partners are especially useful in discussing matters of theory and research methods. However, to think about organizational/management issues, the scholar needs more than academic partners with whom to have discussions. The scholar needs to also network with executive partners who are experiencing the phenomenon central to the thinking agenda. Such contacts could lead to an arrangement in which the executive partner’s organization becomes a learning laboratory for the scholar’s thinking agenda (see Adler, Shani, & Styhre [Eds.], 2004; Leonard-Barton, 1992). The process of translating observations into insights is the essence of thinking and requires discipline as well as spontaneity. Insights are formed according to the mind’s schedule which is at times seemingly fickle. Consequently, one must always be on alert for insights— 8

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whenever and wherever they may surface. Nevertheless, the mind’s process can be facilitated by scheduling some time every day for uninterrupted thinking (Gray, 2005). Moreover, thoughts should be captured in writing, enabling continued development of previous thoughts with each session. Present at Conferences As universities’ standards for publication rise —even at teaching-oriented schools— in response to heightened accreditation requirements, conference presentations (and inclusion in their proceedings) may not be valued as much by administration as they once were. Consequently, a conference presentation may not have any direct affect on annual evaluations. A dean might say, “That’s nice that you presented a paper; but, I’m really only interested in your publications.” In spite of the lack of credit for presentations, one should still make good use of conferences. At the typical conference, authors have several minutes to present an abstract of their research. Of course, no one in the audience has read the author’s work in advance. So, based only on the brief description, audience members ask a few questions and make a few comments. Then, at the end of the allotted time, everyone applauds politely and turns their attention to the next presenter. Given that the purpose of presenting at a conference is to get feedback on one’s thinking that will lead to better thinking and published work, this format does not seem like the most fruitful way to get feedback. However, with proper planning, a scholar can facilitate the acquisition of feedback—in spite of the format--that will be helpful in further developing research toward a published work. Conferences are invaluable, because they provide deadlines that force one to write thoughts in a manner comprehensible to reviewers. Further, the reviewers’ comments offer a perspective on the work, beyond one’s own. Although sometimes brief, vague, and blunt, reviewer comments should never be dismissed. Always assume the reviewers have a legitimate point. One’s defenses must be lowered to understand the reviewer’s point of view. When merited, the necessary changes to one’s thinking should be made. The conference date becomes another deadline for organizing one’s thoughts in preparation for the presentation. Each occasion for revisiting one’s thinking is an opportunity to rethink that thinking. At the conference, the scholar should make note of audience members who seem to show special interest in the presentation and should ask if they would be willing to read and comment on the full work. This request could lead to an extended dialogue or even a partnership on a project. The importance of giving attention to other’s comments on one’s work cannot be overstated. The scholar should actively seek other colleagues—academic and executive partners--who would be willing to examine work in progress. One way that conferences can facilitate this search for willing colleagues is through the published conference program. By perusing the program, one can identify presenters with similar research interests. Whether before or after the conference, these presenters could be contacted to discuss mutual interests and ascertain their willingness to read one’s work. Integrate Teaching, Publishing, and Service-Providing Business school faculty members are constantly juggling a portfolio of three general categories of activities which in teaching-oriented universities tend to be prioritized as teaching, 9

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publishing, and providing service to the institutional and professional communities. If illmanaged, these eclectic activities can pull a faculty member in diverse directions creating low levels of productivity. The scholar must form synergy among pedagogical, publication, and service activities. Rather than being treated as three categories of activities with separate agendas, they should be leveraged through integration with one’s thinking agenda. Teaching is, of course, the highest priority at universities with a teaching mission and, therefore, symbolically—if not substantively--takes precedence over everything else. Consequently, one will have difficulty finding time to think, if one does not manage the teaching component effectively. Conversely, one will not squeeze the full potential out of teaching unless one integrates teaching with scholarship (Andre & Frost, 1996). Teaching should always be approached as an adventure in learning—as much for the teaching scholar as for the student. Hence, scholars—especially those at teaching-oriented universities--should continually improve their pedagogical craft (see Clawson & Haskins, 2006; Vance, 1993). Scholars who approach their classes with this attitude find teaching to be an avenue for discovery rather than for merely imparting extant knowledge. To integrate teaching with a thinking agenda, the scholar could begin by experimenting with new pedagogical methods that challenge both teaching scholar and students to think. Since the scholar’s thinking agenda is grounded in projects, why should it be any different for the scholar’s students? Project-based learning is a natural extension of a scholar’s own scholarship (see Corey, 1990; Gundry & Buchko, 1996). By minimizing use of lecture notes and maximizing use of experiential vehicles for learning, the scholar creates an environment of learning by discovery. Student projects can be either applied or basic research (see Polonsky & Waller, 2010). For most effective integration, the student projects should be linked to one’s own thinking agenda. With adequate direction, even most undergraduate students are capable of making valued contributions—whether literature reviews, data collection or analysis--to one’s projects (Wisker, 2009). Another way to achieve greater pedagogical integration with one’s scholarship is to develop new courses. The momentum of teaching the same courses with the same notes and assignments creates an alluring stability that leads students as well as oneself down the undesirable path of intellectual monotony. Developing a new course requires the scholar to step outside well-worn ruts and think new thoughts. Moreover, these new courses should have a logical relationship to one’s thinking agenda. Further, while committed to teaching a certain number of courses in certain subject areas, one may have some flexibility in determining the days and times the courses are offered. If so, these courses should be scheduled at times allowing maximum productivity during one’s scheduled thinking time. Institutional service is vital to the governance and socio-cultural climate of the university. Service on faculty governance committees is an obligation for every tenured faculty member. However, it is vital to keep one’s service commitments in proportion to the size of one’s plate and the total amount of work on that plate. To be successful at any given institution, some things must always be on one’s plate—such as teaching and governance committees. In spite of the urgent pressures of classroom and committee meetings, the scholar needs to maintain time for the thinking agenda. Little time, then, remains for additional service activities. Nevertheless, a major reason many scholars chose an academic profession was because of their desire to serve others. Consequently, scholars should engage in service activities that support their thinking agendas. Following are two such examples:

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Invite a guest speaker to the university. The guest speaker could be from the private or public sector, or could be a professor from another university. The speaker, though, must be a thought leader, arousing interest among other faculty members and students. Further, to gain full advantage from this occasion, the speaker’s thoughts should relate to one’s thinking agenda. Inviting a thought leader in one’s field of interest to be a guest speaker prepares an opening for an extended conversation during the speaker’s visit. This conversation may even result in a collaborative project.



Organize a conference at the university. Making a pedagogical linkage, the conference could be a student research symposium highlighting the projects completed by students for credit in one’s courses. Yet, another type of conference could be along the lines of a traditional consortium of scholars. The conference theme could be the theme of one’s thinking agenda. Presentations at the conference could be open to all submissions pending reviewer approval or exclusive to invited submissions.

Professional service maintains the community of scholars with whom one shares a thinking agenda. Scholars should be generous in sustaining the infrastructures of the professional associations to which they subscribe. Scholars should volunteer to review for conferences or a journal if the association sponsors one. In addition to sustaining the association, reviewing the work of colleagues who have thinking agendas similar to one’s own agenda extends the scholar’s perspective and potentially reveals new insights. Further, as mentioned, professional associations are an apparent source of academic partners. Community service gives back to the community not only in which one works, but in which one lives. No different than with the foregoing types of service, universities vary in their definitions of community service and their guidelines for faculty involvement. It makes sense, though, that an important community for business school faculty to serve is the business community. Therefore, scholars should consider offering their expertise on a consultative basis or as a board member (see Barrington, 2011; Metzger, 1993). Such service facilitates one’s ability to translate academic knowledge into practical knowledge. In addition, the organizations with which one establishes associations may become “laboratories” for the collection and analysis of data relating to one’s thinking agenda. Further, the contacts made through this type of service can lead to the cultivation of executive partners who will contribute to the scholar’s thinking agenda. New Beginnings This manuscript contains the lessons revealed through an autoethnographic study of my experience as a mid-career, tenured business professor at a university with a teaching mission. At a point after being granted tenure, I had put so much emphasis on becoming a “teacher” that I neglected to develop as a “scholar.” To many—even in the academy, the term “scholarship” carries a meaning associated with—or relegated to—the publishing of academic research. This connotation, though, is unnecessarily myopic and is not the meaning of scholarship advanced in this manuscript. Scholarship derives from the act of study which is to intensely, intensively, and intentionally think profound thoughts. Neither teaching nor publishing is the essence of a selfactualized faculty member. Rather, teaching, publishing, and consulting are channels for the knowledge work of the scholar.

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The essence of being a faculty member is to be a scholar. And, the work of a scholar is to think. However, the demands of academic life correlated with mid-career concerns can form a distraction away from this essential activity. Consequently, professional development is vital at this career stage. Effective professional development, though, calls for more than attendance at a workshop; it necessitates a change of perception and work habits. Perceptions must change regarding the true work of a scholar. Work habits must change to support the work of a scholar. In sum, effective professional development must become a way of life that facilitates the work of scholarship—robust thinking. This manuscript also posits several means for assuming personal responsibility for professional development. Professional development begins with the creation of a thinking agenda that defines the scholar’s field of study and the particular projects to be studied. At the core of the thinking agenda is “breathing in”—the acquisition of grist that stimulates thinking. As ideas congeal, academic conferences serve as a vehicle for “breathing out”—putting thoughts on public display for evaluation and feedback. Finally, effective professional development is manifested by the integration of the scholar’s channels for knowledge creation and dissemination—teaching, publishing, and consulting. As a concluding note, the suggestions offered in this essay were inspired by a sabbatical experience that offered the opportunity for career reflection. Other scholars, if fitting with professional and personal plans, are encouraged to follow their institution’s procedures for taking a sabbatical (Zahorski, 1994). Time away from one’s home institution can be experienced in a variety of productive modes. For example: secure a visiting professorship at a university enabling more time for thinking, while experiencing a different institution and perhaps even a different national culture. Or, negotiate an internship with a corporation that would augment professional knowledge and skills. Although everyone does not have career plans that include a sabbatical, those who need an injection of new professional life can begin by taking responsibility for their own professional development drawing on the suggestions proffered in this manuscript.

References Adler, N., Shani, A. B., & Styhre, A. (Eds.). (2004). Collaborative research in organizations: Foundations for learning, change, and theoretical development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Andre, R., & Frost, P. (1996). Researchers hooked on teaching: Noted scholars discuss the synergies of teaching and research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Arthur, M. B., & Rousseau, D. M. (1996). Introduction: The boundryless career as a new employment principle. In M. B. Arthur & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era (pp. 3-20). New York: Oxford University Press.

Arbnor, I., & Bjerke, B. (2010). Methodology for creating business knowledge (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Baldwin, R. G. (1990). Faculty career stages and implications for professional development. In J. H. Schuster & D. W. Wheeler (Eds.), Enhancing faculty careers: Strategies for development and renewal (pp. 20-40). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Argyris, C., Putnam, R., & Smith, D. M. (1985). Action science: Concepts, methods and skills for research and intervention. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Barrington, G. V. (2011). Consulting start-up and management, a guide for evaluators and applied researchers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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Berger, P. L., & Luckmann T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Burrell, G., & Morgan, G. (2007). Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis: Elements of the sociology of corporate life. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing. (Original work published 1979) Castaneda, C. (1968). The teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui way of knowledge. Berkley, CA: Berkley, University of California Press. Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (1994). Personal experience methods. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 413-427). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Clawson, G. J. S., & Haskin, M. E. (2006). Teaching management: A field guide for professors, consultants, and corporate trainers. Boston, MA: Cambridge University Press. Corey, E. R. (Ed.). (1990). MBA field studies: A guide for students and faculty. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Division. Covey, S. R. (1989). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York: Simon & Schuster. Cummings, L. L., & Frost, P. J. (1995). Publishing in the organizational sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. DeFillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1996). Boundaryless contexts and careers: A competency-based perspective. In M. B. Arthur & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era (pp. 116-131). New York: Oxford University Press.

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Drucker, P. F. (1999). Managing oneself. Harvard Business Review, 77(2), 64-74. Ellis, C. (1991). Sociological introspection and emotional experience. Symbolic Interaction, 14(1), 23-50. doi:10.1525/si.1991.14.1.23 Ellis, C. S. & Bochner, A. (2000). Autoethnography, personal narrative, reflexivity: Researcher as subject. In Denzin, N. & Lincoln Y. (Eds.). The handbook of qualitative research (pp. 733-768). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers. Gray, T. (2005). Publish and flourish: Become a prolific scholar. Las Cruces, NM: Teaching Academy, New Mexico State University. Guba, E. G. (1990). The paradigm dialog. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Gundry, L. K., & Buchko, A. A. (1996). Field casework, methods for consulting to small and startup businesses. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Hall, D.T. (1996a). Protean careers of the 21st century. The Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), 8-15. Hall, D. T. (1996b). Introduction: Long live the career a relational approach. In D. T. Hall (Ed.), The career is dead – long live the career: A relational approach to careers (pp. 1-12). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Kirchmeyer, C. (2005). The effects of mentoring on academic careers over time: Testing performance and political perspectives. Human Relations, 58(5), 637-660. Lehmann, M. (2000). The Irwin guide to using the wall street journal. New York: McGraw-Hill. Leonard-Barton, D. A. (1992). The factory as a learning laboratory. MIT Sloan Management Review, 34(1), 23-28. Metzger, R. O. (1993). Developing a consulting practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Dowd, K. O., & Kaplan, D. M. (2005). The career life of academics: Boundaried or boundaryless? Human Relations, 58(6), 699-721.

Peters, T. (2004). The brand you survival kit. Fast Company, 83, 95-97.

Drucker, P. F. (1992). The new society of organizations. Harvard Business Review, 70(5), 95-105.

Peters, T. (1992). Liberation Management: Necessary disorganization for the nanosecond nineties. New York: A. A. Knopf.

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Polonsky, M. J., & Waller, D. S. (2010). Designing and managing a research project: A business student's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Reed-Danahay, D. (1997). Auto/ethnography: Rewriting the self and the social. Oxford: Berg.

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Stringer, E. T. (2008). Action research. Sage Publications. Vance, C. (1993). Mastering management education: Innovations in teaching effectiveness. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Wenger, E. C. & Snyder, W. M. 2000. Communities of practice: The organizational frontier. The Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 139-145.

Reinharz, Shulamit. (1979). On becoming a social scientist: From survey research and participation to experiential analysis. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wisker, G. 2009. The undergraduate research handbook. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.

Zahorski, K. J. 1994. Sabbatical mentor: A practical guide to successful sabbaticals. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company.

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Engaging Disenfranchised Urban Youth in Science Learning Luis Alberto D’Elia* Faculty of Education, University of Alberta Canada [email protected] Diane Wishart Faculty of Education, University of Alberta Canada Abstract This article shows selective international perspectives on how teachers, university professors, and researchers in teacher education programs strive to support school completion for disenfranchised students. The purpose of this work was to elicit the perceptions of science and humanities educators in Spain and in Alberta, Canada, regarding enhancing opportunities to retain disenfranchised students in secondary schools. Anecdotes, comments, and opinions from those educators support the basic contention in this article. This part of the research focuses on the science education of disenfranchised students and brings insight into the crucial role that higher education professionals play in educating science teachers in the appropriate pedagogy. For the purpose of this article, disenfranchised is defined as at-risk of leaving school prior to high school completion due to personal circumstances such as poverty, family difficulties, drug addiction, and violent communities. Key words: disenfranchised urban youth; youth at risk; high school completion; student retention; pedagogy; educational policy; educational theory; science education methodology; alternative science teaching. Introduction Disenfranchised urban youth in different environments and locations are similarly disillusioned by a lack of meaningful engagement in school and by poor opportunities in the job market. Many leave school prior to completion because of difficult home environments and lack of support in schools. This work intends to contribute to a body of literature aimed at addressing ways to meet learning needs of disenfranchised students (Wishart, 2009), as well as to contribute to policy development in education in both Spain and western Canada. The purpose of this work is to elicit the perceptions of science educators in Spain and in Alberta, Canada regarding enhancing opportunities to retain disenfranchised students in secondary schools. The authors strive to bring insight and awareness into the importance of training science educators in the adequate pedagogy and in their engagement in high school programs that prepare students for college. Note that the terms "disenfranchised urban youth" and "youth at risk" will be used interchangeably in this paper. Educators, in this research, are based at university locations in both Western Canada and Spain. This paper explores the question: what do science educators understand regarding 15

*Corresponding author

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the effectiveness of pedagogical approaches designed to increase the engagement and retention of disenfranchised urban youth? Additionally, it examines the similarities and differences in pedagogical approaches in Western Canada and Spain. Specifically, science teachers may adopt remarkable techniques and strategies that not only are prone to attract students at-risk into science courses, but also encourage students to stay and engage in some way in their class activities. However, in the authors’ experience, specific pedagogic conditions ought to be considered in order to genuinely contribute to the disalienation and educational growth of those students. Methodology Sites chosen for this work are located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and in Madrid, Barcelona, and Valencia in Spain. University faculties and departments of education were chosen based on the relevancy of their work in education with disenfranchised high school students. Selective sampling was used in order to focus interviews on individuals with particular expertise on the topic and individuals who work in cooperation with colleagues engaged in similar work. The researchers both have prior experiences teaching in secondary school classrooms with student populations of disenfranchised youth. These experiences inform research interests and directions. The Alberta component of this current research involves work on policy and practice of early school leavers who have been re-engaged in alternative schooling. In Canada, education is a provincial responsibility; therefore, there is no national coordination of education programs to increase high school completion of students who have left high school prior to completion. In Alberta, alternative programs are designed to meet the educational needs of these students. Alternative programs exist in the public education system as store-front and charter schools, in the private system, and as non-formal educational programs. Enrolments in these schools are increasing. In Spain, there is a national education program relevant to at-risk youth education, the Programa de Cualificación Profesional Inicial (Initial Professional Qualification Program, known as PCPI by its initials in Spanish). The PCPI is an alternative program for those students who did not graduate within the Spanish educational system in the Compulsory Secondary Education (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria or ESO, up to the Junior level) and it offers a professional (trade) certification with the opportunity to acquire the secondary-level degree. The PCPI and its predecessor, the Social Guaranty Program (Programa de Garantía Social or PGS), are discussed in more detail later on in this paper. This work looks specifically at the experiences of educators who are working in higher education contexts, reflecting on their involvement with programs that are designed for secondary students who are at-risk of not completing high school. The authors emphasize the important role played by higher education professionals in preparing specifically science teachers in the adequate pedagogy that would retain the at-risk students in their school programs. It is the authors’ belief that the implementation of proper science teaching approaches would impact positively the students and the educational policy and practice. This work is also bounded by the research time-frame of the approved ethics report. All interviews were conducted between August 2010 and October 2011. Consistent with case study design, we conducted semi-structured interviews of six Spanish educators and two Canadian educators. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to the Spanish participants. 16

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Aspects of the Spanish Context of Educating at-Risk Youth in Spain As mentioned in the previous section, in the Spanish national system of education, there is a special national program relevant to at-risk youth education, the PCPI. The PCPI is designed to facilitate the students' employability, but also their continuation in their optional senior high school education. For Dr. Bernardo Gargallo López, who holds the Chair of Theory of Education Department, at the Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences at the University of Valencia, in Valencia, Spain, programs such as the PCPI are able to offer an effective response to those students who could end up failing or dropping out if one considers particular factors that are discussed here (personal communication, November 2, 2010). In general, noticed Gargallo López, students find the opportunity for more individualized attention without being labeled as differentiated or being special in the negative way (Gargallo López). However, for the program to work aspects of cognitive learning such as student motivation, self-esteem, self-regulation, and emotional support need to be present. Other factors include the different educational methodologies being used, which could be focused on learning or on teaching. Those methods could, in turn, include different pedagogic skills and evaluation approaches (Gargallo López). Gargallo, Sánchez, Ros, and Ferreras (2010) have categorized and described those teaching methodologies; although, the research context was on teaching done by university professors. Gargallo López concluded that, once particular factors are taken into consideration, the PCPI is an effective tool for students at risk of failing or abandoning school (personal communication, December 15, 2010). Professor Elena Giménez Urraco agreed, in some respects, with that conclusion (personal communication, November 2, 2010). Giménez Urraco has researched the PCPI's predecessor, the Social Guaranty Program or PGS (Programa de Garantía Social), which, in spite of its lack of credentialization (offered no high school diploma), still provided valuable educational opportunities for those students at risk of failing or dropping out of the regular program (Elena Giménez Urraco). Moreover, Giménez Urraco considered that programs like the PGS and the PCPI intend to tackle school absenteeism by providing smaller classes with more teacher's attention going to each student and an improved environment conducive to the learning of those that could otherwise leave their schooling. Fernando Marhuenda Fleixà argued, however, that the recent (since 2006) PCPI's higher curricular expectations on its high-school degree have affected the apparent flexibility that had been a feature of its precedingPGS, adding a third objective: The youth’s personal and maturity development (personal communication, November 2, 2010). Marhuenda Fleixà saw that the rigidity of curricular expectations on the PCIP program, besides increasing credentials, appears to sacrifice pedagogic innovation, which is important for attracting students back to complete their education. The problem is that, given a more rigid curriculum, as it is in the case of the PCPI, the teachers are constrained in their capacity to implement teaching techniques more appropriate to the needs of the students. A predictable consequence is that those students who have had difficulties in the regular program and are now being taught with traditional pedagogies are more likely to lose interest and they could end up abandoning the program. The curricular prescription in the Spanish educational system addresses objectives, content, and evaluation; the teaching methodology to be used is not prescribed in the system and it is the responsibility and the decision of the teacher. The teacher’s autonomy could be used to compensate for the inflexibility of the curriculum. Nevertheless, teachers often fold back to traditional teaching methods that may not be adequate for the at-risk students, according to Marhuenda Fleixà. 17

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Alternatively, teachers who witness decreasing enrollment may be pushed to become more pedagogically creative just to save their employment. In this case, even though the teachers may not feel obligated to explore pedagogies that are more adequate, they may do so just to be able to continue teaching in the program (Fernando Marhuenda Fleixà, personal communication, November 2, 2010). Giménez Urraco agreed with Marhuenda Fleixà in that, if the assessment of at-risk students focuses on academic skills without taking into consideration the personal context of those students, it is likely that students who belong to disadvantaged social classes and who have social difficulties end up abandoning the high school all together given that their life experiences could prevent them from reaching the schooling objectives (Elena Giménez Urraco, (personal communication, November 2, 2010). Recent (since 2006) PCPI's higher curricular expectations on its high-school degree have affected the apparent flexibility that had been the feature of the preceding PGS. This inflexible curriculum is designed for the mainstream student and does not necessarily address those students with schooling difficulties. However, Vicente Garrido Genovés thinks that, even though the program is better than leaving students outside the educational system, the program's lower standards and limited opportunities for the PCPI to fully develop the students' capabilities show important program's inadequacies (personal communication, November 2, 2010). Moreover, the students may feel unmotivated to take the program or they may not feel that they could succeed in it. In Garrido Genovés's metaphor, the students referred to the program may be in a situation where “for example if I were a person with no dancing abilities and someone invites me to take dancing classes at a dancing academy, in dancing I would look like a two-left-feet dancer unless I end up liking the academy” (Garrido Genovés, own interpretative translation). In the Spanish school system there is a major problem with academic failure. As a general average, about 33% of the school students do not graduate. For Garrido Genovés, the system does not have adequate responses to that problem (personal communication, November 2, 2010). In general the pedagogy used in the classes is traditional, with characteristic lecturing, studying from textbooks, written drills, and rote learning. In fact, there are different kinds of students that could be failing under the traditional teaching, including those who have disadvantages when entering the school, and also those who do not appear to have disadvantages but whom the school system could lose. Indeed, some students who have difficulty memorizing may not respond well to the rote learning used in traditional teaching. Gargallo López noticed, however, that those students who have had previous discouraging and inadequate educational experiences could complete their education if a program offered them adequate experiences such as teachers who demonstrate affection to them, teach them to self-regulate, to develop their capacity to plan, as well as other aspects of the pedagogy for which we find references in Piaget, Vygotsky, and others (Bernardo Gargallo López, personal communication, November 2, 2010). For students who experience learning difficulties, there are special needs educators, but also there is a program called Curricular Diversification (DC by its initials in Spanish), which adapts the curriculum to facilitate the learning of those students who potentially could fail or drop out of the educational system. Nevertheless, and as Gargallo López points out, if this curriculum diversification program appears in practice as if it were to decrease or to reduce the academic standards, we have to ask ourselves if by decreasing the academic expectations offered to those students a resulting so-called Pygmalion or Rosenthal effect could be expected to be the end result (Gargallo López). In the Pygmalion effect (also considered part of the selffulfilling prophesy phenomenon), changes in teacher expectations would likely produce changes 18

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in student achievement (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1992). In the case of adaptation programs such as the DC, lower expectations communicated to the students through lower curricular standards, would result in lower achievement by those students who are already at risk. Among the adaptations to the regular program, there are modifications such as flexible groups that organize the student's progress and that are based on the student's capacities and skills (Bernardo Gargallo López, personal communication, November 2, 2010). Also, the educational policies are integrative and they try to compensate for the diversity by way of specific interventions, such as the case of Spain’s Educational System Welcome Program (PASE, by its initials in Spanish), which has been designed to respond to the needs of immigrants who are trying to integrate into the regular school program (Gargallo López). However, according to Gargallo López, there is a difficult balance between “equity and quality (excellence)” (personal communication, November 2, 2010). Gargallo López showed optimism about the programs that are implemented with precise objectives and for specific reasons, such as to teach students who have academic and emotional difficulties. One of them is a program based in projects, from which Gargallo López has direct experience. Those programs tend to modify behaviors effectively (Gargallo López). As an example, it has demonstrated that students show interest, attend classes regularly, work with enthusiasm, and end up completing the program (Garfella & Gargallo, 1998). Gargallo López cautioned that, for the complete adequacy of the programs, they should be integrated into the educational system over the long term. These programs demonstrate the capacity to produce promising results for those students who tend to fail or to drop out of school (Bernardo Gargallo López, personal communication, November 2, 2010). Garrido Genovés noted that the system does not have adequate responses yet to the problem mentioned earlier in Spanish schools that have about 33% of academic failure and dropout rates (personal communication, November 2, 2010). International Trends in Science Teaching in Main Stream Schools and in Special Programs Some Historical Tensions in Science Teaching in North America Given the centrality of relevancy in the curricular development and pedagogy of science teaching for disenfranchised youth, this article reveals some of the tensions that are inherent in practice. Relevancy in science teaching. Early on in the history of science teaching in North America, some minimal efforts were made to consider the relevancy of science-teaching curricular content and pedagogy. Those efforts were evident in the establishment of the curriculum in USA by the National Education Association (NEA), which eventually led to the adoption of a curriculum characterized by experiential opportunities to the students (NEA, 1894). Important aspects of this reform were evident in the recommendations given by the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies to the NEA, such as urging “that the study of simple natural phenomena be introduced into elementary schools” (NEA, 1894, p. 25), as well as emphasizing on the “necessity of a large proportion of laboratory work in the study of physics and chemistry and advocates the keeping of laboratory note-books by the pupils, and … [their] use as part of the test for admission to college (NEA, 1894, p. 26). It appears that younger, not older students could have the opportunity to discover for themselves the phenomena where they naturally occur, and that mainstream schools science teaching, specifically in North 19

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America, has been challenged with the issue of relevancy. In the authors experience, their atrisk students consistently found difficulty accepting what they perceived as irrelevant learning and they legitimately questioned what they were asked to do in the laboratory that have no apparent application or usefulness in their lives. This experience correlates with some findings in the literature. For instance, according to Hostettler (1983) and Kumar et al. (2005), “if elementary education students do not believe that chemistry is related to everyday life, …they may not feel it is important to learn and understand” (as paraphrased by Durland, Karatas, & Bodner, 2010, p. 86). Furthermore, Fox (2010) pointed out that students who “don’t see the connection between the content and activities of the course and their future lives, they question what the teacher is asking them to do”. The authors stated that to maintain student interest and motivation, perceived relevance is a critical factor (Fox, 2010). The problem of relevancy could be seen as a problem with teachers' difficulty in integrating multidisciplinary aspects of the science teaching. Related to this aspect, Bektaş, Çetin-Dindar, and Çelik-Yalçin (2010), stated that “pre-service chemistry teachers have some difficulties in integrating both some chemistry concepts and physics, chemistry, and biology concepts” (p. 82). According to Bektaş, Çetin-Dindar, and Çelik-Yalçin (2010), these difficulties have also been seen in the literature, such as in cases when students “encountered chemical reactions, they thought that the chemical reactions were one way. When they learn the chemical equilibrium at their chemistry sessions, then they comment about two-way reactions” (p. 82). Also, according to Taber (2008), “they do not try to integrate among chemistry, physics, and biology concepts” (as cited in Bektaş, Çetin-Dindar, and Çelik-Yalçin 2010, p. 82). Relevancy and Disenfranchised Students. Students' perception of lack of relevancy in science learning would bear consequences for teachers and students in mainstream schools, but what about disenfranchised students? In one of the author’s experience, teaching science to at-risk students in an alternative high-school academic program in Western Canada (which included a majority of disenfranchised aboriginal and immigrant students) science classes needed to be highly relevant in order to maintain students’ attendance. Teaching plans needed to make students’ experience relevant, but also to make that experience sufficiently worthwhile so that students would resist the persistent pressure to skip classes that they frequently experience from outside school. In this regard, a search for adequate science teaching pedagogies appropriate to at-risk youth was relatively easy. In fact, new approaches in science teaching have been adopted by schools in many countries (Adams et al., 2008; Aikenhead, 1996; Farid Alatas, 2006; Bennett, Lubben & Hogarth, 2007; Bianchini & Brenner 2010; Dennis & O'Hair, 2010; Hulleman, & Harackiewicz, 2009; Kennedy, Yezierski, & Herrington, 2008; Lam, Cheng & Ma, 2009; Llewellyn, 2005; Markic & Eilks, 2010; Marín Martínez & Cárdenas Salgado, 2011; Norris, 2006; Petrosino, Martin, & Svihla, 2007; Scott, Mortimer, & Aguiar, 2006; Walker & Wood, 2008). Experiences from Higher Education Professionals in Catalonia The education and training of future science teachers in one of the prestigious universities in Spain has recently created a Master’s degree in teacher education in compulsory secondary education, post-compulsory secondary education, and professional development; its candidates are mainly professionals from different fields in science who learn the pedagogy for teaching science courses in secondary education. One of the authors of this article recently visited the program and interviewed some of its professors. This Master’s degree is a program from the Educational Sciences Institute (Instituto de Ciencias de la Educación, known as ICE by its initials in Spanish) of the Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya (UPC) in Barcelona, Spain. 20

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ICE is responsible, among other things, to take on the education of the teaching and research staff and for the improvement of its academic activity. At the same time the ICE offers activities on continuing professional development for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO), PostCompulsory Secondary Education, and Professional Development (Ignacio de Corral Manuel de Villena, personal communication, December 15, 2010; www.upc.edu/ice/lice-de-la-upc). The UPC's ICE organizes the Master’s in secondary teaching education. A strong aspect in this educational program is the teaching staff. Part of the academic staff that teaches in the Master’s program are high-school teachers who combine their teaching in secondary institutions with their teaching at the University. The pivotal axis of the Master’s degree is the Practicum that the students do in the fields of Mathematics, Technology, and Professional Development. The Practicum and the Final Master's Project amount to 1/3 of the Master's Program Syllabus. It is implemented in high school centers across all of Catalonia, including Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO), PostCompulsory Secondary Education, and Professional Development. This field experience is quite complete in terms of offering a variety of opportunities for student-teachers to experience their integration in the different areas of school activities, beyond the teaching practice itself. Within the Master’s degree, the ICE offers education in Technology, Mathematics, and Professional Development; Industrial Families, and more (http://mfp.masters.upc.edu/). It is of interest that students graduates from different specific areas in science, technology, and mathematics (for instance, many hold bachelor’s degrees in engineering, architecture, or mathematics) and who effectively, because of their prior experiences in their respective fields, come to contribute interesting ideas and initiatives that many times are taken up and utilized by educational centers or by the educational resource centers that provide teachers with materials and instrumentation (Ignacio de Corral Manuel de Villena, personal communication, December 15, 2010). According to Dr. Ignacio de Corral Manuel de Villena, the pedagogy implemented in the program follows a pragmatic criterion; it is one that effectively works and, after a reflective analysis about the didactic experiences, whatever produces (effective) results is implemented (personal communication, December 15, 2010). Experiences from Barcelona Relevant to Science Teaching at-Risk Students in Canada This open approach to teaching prospective high-school science teachers provides a valuable opportunity for this Master’s program from Barcelona, Spain, to experience and adopt novel approaches and methodologies in science teaching. However, the disadvantage could be that the strategic adoption of teaching techniques that seem to work could be missing one of the pedagogic reference framework built wisely over time by the researchers in the institution. This is a very important aspect, since, in the authors' experience, educational departments, after considering different factors and research, may recommend pedagogies more critical of, for example, the past inadequacies presented by behaviorist approaches. This expectation does not appear to be evident in the science teachers education program at the UPC. Nevertheless, it is important that some form of pedagogic preference is identified by an educator’s teaching institution based on its research and field experiences that work for all students, but especially for at-risk students. This is important since the authors know from their experience in Canada and from the literature that the lack of proper pedagogy or incentives in secondary science teaching excludes a good number of students who cannot adequately learn from that pedagogy, which is a crucial negative factor for teaching science to 21

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disenfranchised students. In fact, in the case of some Canadian disenfranchised students, an improper pedagogy has been a crucial factor in shaping students' feelings and perceptions about what the school has to offer to them, and it has been vital in their previous decisions to drop out of school (Wishart, 2009). Experiences in Costa Rica: Factors to Keep Students in: Relevancy & Methodology In contrast, in the discussion of factors that will keep students in school, the authors have included here some conclusions that come from the participation of one of the authors of this paper in the relevant workshops offered at the II International Congress on Educational Research 2011 at the University of Costa Rica (UCR). At the Congress, Arguedas Negrini (2010) presented the results of research with students, teachers, other school staff, and parents from secondary-level institutions from an area that reported high dropout rates in Costa Rica. The research related how critical factors perceived by students, such as school competencies, concept of self and self-esteem, communication with others, coping ability, and self-control, along with familial, and institutional factors help secondary students stay in school (2010, p. 1). Arguedas Negrini concluded that one has to consider that school success not only has to be related to success in academics, but to success in the socio-emotional and behavioral domains (Arguedas Negrini & Jiménez Segura, 2007; Arguedas Negrini, 2010). Arguedas Negrini and Jimémez Segura (2007) also discussed aspects of pedagogy that influence students conflictive feelings toward school. Citing findings by other authors (see Espíndola & León, 2002; Partida, 2005), Arguedas Negrini and Jimémez Segura included among these aspects: The low academic performance, institutionally unresolved “discipline” problems, inadequate and un-motivating teaching approaches, students’ apathy towards the courses that appear irrelevant to the students’ daily life, problems in the student-teacher relationships, inadequate communication between the student community and the teaching staff, as well as the manifestation of teachers’ “authoritarism” (Arguedas Negrini & Jiménez Segura, 2007, p. 7-8). Tensions in Science-Teaching Visions In teaching disenfranchised youth, pedagogic relevancy is one aspect that the authors of this paper have found to be indispensable in science-teaching. Of course, the educational vision and teaching methodology are other crucial aspects that need to be discussed. However, in addressing those aspects, the authors acknowledge an artificial separation of educational issues that are intrinsically interrelated in reality. Efforts in changing teaching approaches and visions in science teaching in the last two decades have been slow in North America. It is interesting to notice the expression used in a study about change in science teaching framework: “In order to widen the scope of science education to a broader student base, some educators have ventured away [emphasis added] from lecture-based teaching models to one that is more 'participatory' in nature” (Adams et al., 2008, p. 221). In an insightful paper, Aikenhead (2003) summarized key concepts in the research done on science teaching in the last century and described the failure of the traditional school of science to address its serious educational problems that have been ignored thanks to political decisions that followed predominant ideological points of view (p. 1-2).

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Scientific Epistemological Views It is interesting to find what Tsai (2007) discovered about teachers' scientific epistemological views (SEV) and their teaching practice. His study was done on science teachers in Taiwan. Teachers were, in general, coherent in applying their SEVs in their teaching. In fact, Tsai found that teachers whose SEV were close to positivism coherently stressed expository lectures, use of drills in delivering classes which implied, in Tsai's assessment, a more passive learning of science. In contrast, those teachers with SEV in constructivist inclinations focused more on the students' understanding and application of the scientific concepts, and used more time to engage students on science research activities or in interactive debates (Tsai, 2007). The implication of these findings to science-teaching of disenfranchised youth is that there will be an expectation in the resulting pedagogy from the teachers who hold different SEVs and this is important to consider not only because of the implications in the application of appropriate pedagogy, so important in the delicate environment of at-risk youth educational programs, but also because of the consequent teaching staff hiring criteria of the educational center. Tensions in the Approaches and Methodology of Science Teaching Vazquez Alonso and Manassero Mas (2007) effectively described great challenges in science teaching methodology, which can be applied to the different educational levels and acquire special relevance in the at-risk youth education: The propaedeutic orientation designed to educate future scientists is centered in the logic and in the transmission of the subject concepts which are predominantly cognitive, abstract and irrelevant for day-to-day life, but which are essential in the way to become a scientist. (p. 249) In research on science teaching methodology, Bencze, Bowen, and Alsop (2006) proposed that school science students can widely benefit from their participation in appropriate open science research projects. The authors discuss how science teachers' views about science either stimulate or discourage them to encourage students to carry out open science research projects appropriate to them. Moreover, the study showed that those teachers who held a social-constructivist paradigm planned and implemented an approach that engaged the students in research activities (Bencze, Bowen, & Alsop, 2006). An important conclusion from this study that should be taken into consideration in science teaching with disenfranchised students is that those teachers that used a more firm control of the knowledge construction did not hold a social-constructivism vision (Bencze, Bowen, & Alsop, 2006). In the context of teaching at-risk students in Alberta, the use of open projects became necessary, not only because it engaged them in the pedagogy and increased their motivation, but also because strategies like the open projects of scientific research provided more control on the hands of the students than in the hands of the teachers. This approach was supported by the alternative school administration in that province. Positivism, Rationalization, and the Exclusion of Social, Cultural, or Affective Values Vazquez Alonso and Manassero Mas (2007) concluded that in the curriculum, teaching materials, and learning in traditional science education there is an abuse of the empiric referent and of the logic reasoning which are the two epistemic factors of the logic positivism based on the truth and the objectivity as essential values of science (p. 248). This positivist abuse, 23

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according to the authors, results in the exclusion of social, cultural or affective values (p. 248). This unbalance of the pedagogic factors of science teaching is not acceptable for those who seek to improve pedagogy, and least when that pedagogy has to be for the service of the youth at risk of failing or abandoning school. There is a need, in the science education of these youth, to attend to those socio-cultural and affective (emotional) factors. However, the inclusion of those factors in the pedagogy for youth at risk is not enough to protect them from inadequate pedagogies, or worse, discouraging education for their continuation in the school. The reason for this highly demanding proposition is that the youth at risk, like the students at an alternative high-school academic program in Western Canada where the authors taught, are usually quite critical of schooling and society. In the authors experience. this is understandable since those students are coming from experiences where their feelings of inadequacy in the school system have made them critical of that system and of society in general. Moreover, that critic could marginalize them even further, which, in turn, makes them resist educational attitudes of control. In science classes this may be expressed as skepticism towards “truths” and scientific dogmas. Furthermore, in the authors' experience, students are critical of the adults who fail to recognize and acknowledge the critical-social intelligence that youth possess. The problem is that the youth sense that lack of recognition. Youth Questioning Educators’ Dogmatic Truths Skepticism about truths taught dogmatically is not only a characteristic of some youth in the student population, specifically the youth at risk, it is also an attribute of a number of intellectuals and educators. Recognizing that past tenets in science are vulnerable may assist us in understanding the youths’ skepticism in that regard. In fact, Foucault (1977) and other philosophers have raised deep skepticism about the capacity of the scientific method to support truth claims. They claimed that knowledge is inseparable from power. According to Foucault, knowledge is the “result of patterns of power relations in a community” (Wallace & Louden, 2000, p. 5). Moreover, the claim of dogmatic truths in science teaching has never been so difficult to sustain. In relation to the skepticism of marginalized youth, revisionist philosophers place science in a less arrogant position and as a form of knowledge “skeptical of truth claims arising outside its own Enlightenment metanarrative of a triumphant reason” (p.5). In teaching youth at risk, not only an adequate pedagogy and other conditions and attributes highlighted in this article is needed, but also teachers who humbly listen to the youths’ critique and concerns and acknowledge the value of their insight. Particularly in science teaching, teachers--without diminishing their professional expertise and wisdom--should participate in the search for truth with the students. Assessing Constructivism Observing pre-service teachers teaching science in many schools over the years, we have seen frequent planning and implementation of science classes guided by a constructivist pedagogy. Many times the use of that theoretical underpinning could be attributed to the preservice teachers’ own education, but other times that pedagogic approach was evidently recommended and supported by their mentor teachers. One of the authors incorporated class activities whose objectives follow constructivist principles. While generally following a critical pedagogy, the authors of this article recognize that some constructivist science class activities are useful instruments that could accomplish critical pedagogy objectives as well. 24

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Notwithstanding that, a critical revision of the pedagogy underpinned by constructivism is needed, especially when committing to doing the best to keep at-risk students in the school and preventing youth from failing in their schooling. In a critical review of constructivism, Cato (2006) argued that the pedagogy under the paradigm of constructivism in its two forms, trivial constructivism and radical constructivism, lacks coherence (p. 57). For Cato, the theoretical basis of trivial constructivism is indistinguishable from the traditional theory it purports to supplant. At the same time, radical constructivism is inherently self-contradictory, and as a consequence of the two theoretical problems, the resulting constructivist pedagogy (trivial or radical) is incoherent (2006, p. 57). Cato’s research provided evidence that the “constructivist pedagogy is theoretically incoherent” and its “claim to differ from traditional pedagogy” is “practically vacuous” (p. 73), and is highly important to ponder by educators who adopt a constructivist pedagogy, especially if they are teaching at-risk youth. Accessibility of Experimentation, Instrumentation, and Laboratory Methodology and the Alienation of the Marginalized Youth Science teachers who adopt techniques and strategies that attract students at-risk into science courses often engage those students in class activities leading to increased attendance. Strategies used by those teachers many times are guided by coherent and consistent theoretical foundations, that follow an educational vision sensitive to marginalized students. However, if the educational strategy has missed considering the accessibility and relevancy of experimentation, instrumentation and laboratory methodology, it could have failed to properly address the perception and actual alienation of the at-risk students. The perceived and real students' alienation will not only impact negatively their motivation to stay in the science course or in the schooling program, but also it will likely affect their perception of the sciences as an area of interest, work or career choice in their lives. In this paper, the authors define accessibility of experimentation, instrumentation, and laboratory methodology as the capacity that the experimentation practices in the science course or program have to accomplish at least two pedagogical aspects: the pedagogy has to expose the students to experimentation that is and it is perceived by the students as relevant and meaningful to them. The observation of the phenomena and the experimentation should include, in large proportion, means (e.g., material and equipment) that are taken from daily life and that could be safely replicated by students beyond the school setting, and that are, consequently, accessible to the students beyond their economic and social situation. Some Conclusions on Science Teaching for Youth at Risk This work has discussed, among others, the importance of the role that higher education professionals play not only in educating high school science teachers in the adequate pedagogy for at-risk student retention, but also in engaging themselves in programs that prepare students for college. Anecdotes, comments, and opinions from professors at different universities in Spain and Costa Rica, the review on different pedagogies used with at-risk student population drawn in the literature, and the authors’ experience in teaching those youth in Western Canada provide some conclusions.

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Recent literature has presented diverse science teaching approaches that are not only appealing, but also tend to increase the relevancy of the subject to the students and their participation level, modeled, in general, after the inquiry and constructivist concepts. However, more than hands-on activities and relevant, participatory techniques derived from those teaching approaches, at-risk students need to be given the confidence that they can control, interact, find meaning, and create new knowledge out of their encounter with the natural phenomena that (Western) science tries to measure and understand. Students control of the science experimentation occurs when the teacher removes barriers to that control. The latter could find difficulties if the experimentation has to be accessed through methods and equipment that are unfamiliar, not accessible to them (e.g., not reproducible at home) and, consequently, not relevant (alienating) to the students lives. What pedagogic philosophical approach would then adequately respond to the need of students' control, especially disenfranchised students' control of their learning, and to the problematic disconnection between what is being taught, including the teaching materials, techniques, and lab experimentation, and the students everyday-life problems and events? This is the challenge for research and teaching. Nevertheless, in the authors’ experience, the lack of students' control over their own learning, the irrelevancy of science-teaching, and the inaccessibility of instrumentation used in their classes will likely alienate particular disenfranchised youth. Moreover, the insignificance to disenfranchised students of what is being lectured, demonstrated, or practiced in laboratory in some main-stream schools could be translated into an epistemological and cultural domination, as students do not appear to gain control of their learning through that approach. Some Recommendations on Science Teaching The scientific epistemological views, the teaching theoretical approach, and methodology with its experimentation, laboratory, and materials have to address the need of self-control and disalienation experienced by marginalized students. Consequently, the planning and delivering of a science program needs to start from the students’ experiences with the phenomena, and from their own connections to the subject and with the laboratory material (e.g., materials taken from places and experiences familiar to the students). Moreover, much of the instrumentation used in science experiments has to be readily accessible to them and be (safely) reproducible by students outside the school. This is needed because the materials and science methods that connect to students lives has been, in our own experience, increasing the students own confidence in managing their learning, and consequently, inspire and motivate those students to gain control and management of their own lives.

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Marhuenda Fluixá, F., & González García, N. (Eds.). (2008). El trabajador acompañante: Nuevo perfil en las estructuras empresariales [The accompaning worker: New profile in corporate structures]. Valencia, Spain: Carena. Marhuenda Fluixá, F., Navas A., & Pinazo S. (2004). Conflicto, disciplina y clima de aula: La garantía social como respuesta al control social sobre los jóvenes [Conflict, discipline, and classroom atmosphere: Social guaranty as a response to social control over the young]. In M. Molpeceres Pastor (Coord.), Identidades y formación para el trabajo en los márgenes del sistema educativo: Escenarios contradictorios en la garantía social (pp. 255298). Montevideo: OIT/Cinterfor. Marín Martínez, N., & Cárdenas Salgado, F. A. (2011). Valoración de los modelos más usados en la enseñanza de las ciencias basados en la analogía «el alumno como científico» [Rating models most commonly used in science education based on the analogy “the student as scientist”]. Enseñanza de las Ciencias: revista de investigación y experiencias didácticas, 29(1), 35-46.

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grades 5-12 (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Wallace, J., & Louden, W. (2000). Teachers' learning: Stories of science education. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Wilkins, J. (2008). School characteristics that influence student attendance: Experiences of students in a school avoidance program. The High School Journal, 91(3), 12-24. doi:10.1353/hsj.2008.0005 Wishart, D. (2009). The rose that grew from concrete: Teaching and learning with disenfranchised youth. Edmonton, AB: The University of Alberta Press. Vulliamy, G. (2004). The impact of globalization on qualitative research in comparative and international education. Compare, 34(3), 261284. doi:10.1080/0305792042000257112 Yalnizyan, A. (2000). Canada’s great divide: The politics of the growing gap between rich and poor in the 1990s. Toronto, ON: Centre for Social Justice.

Acknowledgement Special appreciation for their highly valuable contribution goes to: Dr. Bernardo Gargallo López, Chair, Theory of Education Department, Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Professor Elena Gimenez Urraco, Dept. of Didactic and School Organization, Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Dr. Fernando Marhuenda Fluixà, Dept. of Didactic and School Organization, Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Dr. Vicente Garrido Genovés, Theory of Education Department, Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Professor Ignacio de Corral Manuel de Villena, Director of the Master in the high school teacher education of the Educational Sciences Institute (ICE, Instituto de Ciencias de la Educación) from the Universidad Politécnica de Calalunya, UPC, in Barcelona, Spain. Dr. Teresita Cordero Cordero, Director of the Institute of Educational Research (Instituto de Investigación en Educación, INIE) of the University of Costa Rica.

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Supporting Online Faculty Holistically: Developing a Support Website Resource Eric Nordin* Grand Canyon University Phoenix, Arizona [email protected] Peter John Anthony Walden University Minneapolis, Minnesota Abstract Current trends in post-secondary education enrollment indicate that colleges and universities are likely to experience an increase in the number of online students. This will likely increase the competition between colleges and universities to recruit and retain highly skilled online faculty. Providing online faculty with support websites can be a differentiation strategy to recruit and retain quality online faculty. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the type of resources and support features online faculty need, desire, and expect in a support website. Findings from the survey indicated participants agree there is a need to implement a support website. Participants indicated the support website should provide support resources, communication forums, and resources to increase connectivity to the institution. Keywords: Online faculty, online resources, faculty support, faculty needs, communication, connectivity Introduction Institutions of higher education are increasingly using online modalities to deliver education services to respond to changes in the marketplace. The changing demographics of the student population are a primary cause for increased demand for online courses (Dykman & Davis, 2005). With a large increase in non-traditional students, colleges and universities need to develop educational services to meet the needs and demands of non-traditional students (Sutherland-Smith & Saltmarsh, 2010), as many students find online education more convenient than traditional ground-based education (Kuo, Walker, Belland, & Schroder, 2013). Colleges and Universities are increasingly offering online courses and programs to respond to changing student populations, provide convenience to students, and increase enrollment. These developments are likely to increase the need to move toward an online faculty-centric model. An important development in the growth of online education has been the emerging position of online faculty. The increased use of online faculty poses challenges to colleges and universities, as colleges and universities are increasingly reliant on adjunct faculty to teach online courses (Dykman & Davis, 2008). This creates new issues for these institutions regarding how to attract, retain, and support quality online faculty. Unlike ground-based faculty, online faculty may be geographically disparate from the main campus of the institution, creating problems of integration into the institutions’ culture and standards (Hewett & Powers, 2007). 30

*Corresponding author

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This can often lead to feelings of isolation and disengagement by the online faculty, which can hurt the quality of instruction for students as well as the institutions’ reputation (Hawkins, Graham, & Barbour, 2012). Colleges and universities face critical questions of how to provide support resources to online faculty to attract and retain said faculty, and improve online student success rates. Colleges and universities may need to develop programs and resources to help support online faculty to provide optimal educational services to their students. This will require colleges and universities to develop support systems and programs that incorporate the unique issues present in online education and, more specifically, to online faculty (Simmons, Shumack, & Carpenter, 2011). There are several relevant issues with designing programs and support systems for online faculty. Colleges and universities need to examine the type of resources online faculty need to perceive support as well as the type of resources online faculty believe add value to his or her instruction (Orr, Williams, & Pennington, 2009). The central question for this study was to ascertain the type of resources and services within a support website colleges or universities could implement to help attract and retain online faculty. Purpose Statement The purpose of this study was to ascertain the resource and support needs of online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern United States. Although previous studies have indicated training and monitoring were important aspects to developing effective online faculty (Al-Salman, 2011; Green, Alejandro, & Brown, 2009; Herman, 2012; Vaill & Testori, 2012), a central purpose of this study was to determine the services colleges or universities could provide to faculty through a support website, to establish a holistic understanding of the wants and needs of online faculty. Given the increasing propensity of colleges and universities to develop and operationalize online programs, understanding the support and resource needs of online faculty is important. An additional purpose of the study was that the higher learning institution had recently developed a support website dedicated to faculty, and there was a need to understand the material a support website should contain to improve online education. The newness and flexibility of the website provided an opportunity for online faculty to participate in creating an online resource to meet the diverse needs. Garnering an understanding of support and resource needs of online faculty, the higher learning institution, as well as other colleges and universities with online programs, can better meet the needs and desire of their respective online faculty. Literature Review The following literature review contains two sections based on the general themes of current literature. The first section concerns issues of communication and connectivity as online faculty often perceive there is a lack of communication with their respective colleges and university. Improving communication and connectivity between online faculty and their colleges and universities may help improve the quality of education received by online students. Section two relates to supporting online faculty, as online faculty frequently indicate there is a lack of support from their colleges or universities. The advent of online education will likely increase the importance for colleges and universities to develop strategies to support online faculty. A review of the literature concerning supporting online faculty was instrumental in developing the questions used in the survey. General themes of the literature related to support as well as communication and connectivity. As such, the literature was useful in developing questions to elicit responses from participants 31

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relating to their thoughts regarding how colleges and universities can improve online faculty support, and engender increased communication and connectivity. Findings from questions cornering communication and connectivity received separate headings within the results section to help organize the diverse nature of responses. Communication and Connectivity Communication is a salient issue relating to supporting online faculty. Colleges and universities are struggling to communicate with online faculty, and online faculty often have issues communicating with each other. This can lead to feeling of discontent, disconnection, isolation, and a perceived lack of support by online faculty (Hawkins et al., 2011). Implementing organizational change, disseminating pertinent information, and ensuring adherence concerning teaching standards and practices requires constant communication, and online faculty are often not included in such communication (Meloncon, 2007). The breakdown of communication can have a negative effect on students, as they may perceive disconnect between the faculty and the institution, which could have a negative effect on student retention (Bekmeier-Feuerhahn & Eichenlaub, 2010). Lack of communication can produce negative results for online faculty, the colleges or university, and the student as the failure to communicate might engender negative perceptions. There is a need to create a centralized meeting point where online faculty can communicate with the college or university and with each other, and where the college or university can communicate with online faculty (Orr et al., 2009). To meet the unique needs of online faculty, communication support systems should be web-based, as online faculty are often geographically remote (Inalhan, 2009; Junk, Deringer, & Junk, 2011). A critical aspect of creating a website to support online faculty is the site must align with the specific and unique needs of online faculty. The format should be online to connect with the intended population (Simmons et al., 2011). This differs from traditional knowledge-sharing communication settings where face-to-face meetings are the primary mode of information dissemination (SutherlandSmith & Saltmarsh, 2010). Support websites should provide multiple communication options and services to mitigate the lack of face-to-face communication while still providing substantive resources and information (Schallock, 2009). An asynchronous style of communication is most likely the best option for online support forums (Wen, Cuzzola, Brown, & Kinshuk, 2012). Providing multiple communication forums can help ensure online faculty have an adequate support network, which can generate increased support for the college or university. Developing better relations with online faculty can help the college or university build its brand as well as its reputation as a leader in online education and online faculty support (Dykman, & Davis, 2008). Creating areas for online faculty to communicate can help build trust within the online setting, which is necessary for knowledge sharing (Folkers, 2005). Given the diverse and often large number of online faculty many colleges and universities employ, allowing a setting for knowledge sharing could help improve the quality of online education of the college or university. Online faculty often perceive a lack of support from their colleges and universities, by developing communication areas where online faculty can receive information about the college or university and interact with their online colleagues, to mitigate feelings of isolation and the potential for burnout. Providing Support One of the salient issues facing colleges and universities with online programs is providing support and resources to online faculty. Providing online faculty with support and 32

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resources can help improve educational outcomes, retain faculty, and improve the institutions’ image (Maddix, 2013). The ability of colleges and universities to provide support and resources to online faculty has proven problematic as support and resource needs differ between traditional ground-based faculty and online faculty (Hewitt & Powers, 2007). Colleges and universities need to develop online support and resource sharing websites to help meet the needs and demands of online faculty. Creating support systems that can provide support and resources is crucial toward improving perceived support by online faculty. Developing and maintaining support systems with resources oriented to faculty needs is essential to ensuring the system is beneficial (Murdock & Williams, 2011). The support system should also allow faculty to provide feedback and make suggestions about the resources and support they need (Wen et al., 2011). This can help to meet proactively the needs of online faculty and might eliminate the guesswork about the type of resources and support needed Developing resources to help online faculty engage in scholarly pursuits should be another primary component of an online support website. Online faculty frequently perceive their obligation in the classroom as limited to the role of facilitator, and their connection with the college or university is limited to the parameters of their contract (Simmons et al., 2011). Colleges and universities are missing a potentially rich resource to produce scholarly work, and online instructors lack areas to produce and disseminate their scholarly work, based on these perceived limitations (Way & Austin, 2012). Providing scholarly development opportunities, colleges and universities can encourage faculty engagement with the institution, and receive the benefit of a more committed online faculty population. Colleges and universities could supply online faculty academic resources and training to help improve teaching performance. Establishing and communicating best practices and providing forums within support websites for online faculty to communicate their best practices can improve educational results (Bekmeier-Feuerhahn & Eichenlaub, 2010). Another crucial area about academic resources involves implementing media and technology resources for the classroom. To help assuage online faculty concerns about implementation, colleges and universities should make emerging technologies and media resources easily accessible for their online faculty to use in their respective classrooms (Bao, 2009). Improvements in the areas of media and technology faculty support could help increase student performance and enhance online faculty connectivity to the college or university. Methods Participants The participants for this study consisted of the online faculty population at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern United States. This population was appropriate for this study as they are familiar with teaching in the online environment. The diversity of the population provided the opportunity to receive holistic feedback from survey findings, which could provide useful for developing a support website. As indicated in Table 1, most participants indicated their highest level of education was a Master’s degree and the majority of participants were adjunct faculty.

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Education Level

Responses

%

Employment Status

Responses

%

Masters Doctorate Total Responses

220 112 332

67 33 100

Full-Time Adjunct

29 305 334

9 91 100

Average Years Teaching

10.03

Table 1 Demographic and Employment Status Information about Participants

Materials and Procedures The method used to collect research findings was an online survey. All current registered online faculty in the research sites’ contact database received an invitation to participate in the survey through the institution’s e-mail system. The e-mail invited participants to participate in a 13 question survey listed in Table 2, which asked participants to rate the importance of the questions listed. Of the 2,522 survey invitations e-mailed to potential participants, 380 responded with completed surveys, providing a response rate of 15.06%. Although this was a relativity low response rate, the demographics of the respondents provided an accurate representation of the population studied. Based on literature regarding online education, the survey consisted of questions related to themes of communication, connectivity, and support. The survey used a Likert-scale format asking participants to rate the importance from 1 to 5 (1 being the least important and 5 being the most important) of potential support service and resources. Participation in the survey was voluntary; no names were required to protect participant confidentiality, and participants completed the survey using Survey Monkey to avoid internal conflicts of interest. Survey Questions 1. Easy access to the website from your classroom(s) 2. Connecting with fellow online faculty 3. Tips for effective online teaching 4. Access to content forums (forums specific to fields of study) 5. Access to University resources (Journals, resources for your students, professional development opportunities) 6. Access to websites and resources relating to online teaching 7. Postings of conferences and/or presentation opportunities 8. View best practices 9. View stories from other online faculty 10. Post my own best practices and stories 11. Receive information about Grand Canyon University Events 12. Contact information exchanges 13. Postings of seminars/professional development workshops Table 2 Survey Questions

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Results The results from the survey indicated participants believed there was a need to develop a website to provide support and resources for online faculty. These findings add to literature concerning the need for colleges and universities to develop supporting resources for online faculty. The results from the survey questions presented three separate themes as indicated by the direction of the survey questions. The first theme concerned communication between online faculty and the college or university, the second theme related to developing connections relating to online faculty and the college or university, and the third theme involved providing institutional support to online faculty. Results presented below represent the mean scores participants gave to survey questions through a Likert-scale measurement in which 5 indicated strong agreement, 4 represented agreement, 3 indicated a natural response, 2 indicated disagreement, and 1 represented strong disagreement. (See Appendix A for survey questions results). Question

Theme

Responses

Mean Score

Easy access to the website from your classroom(s) Access to content forums (forums specific to fields of study) View best practices Access to University resources (Journals, resources for your students, professional development opportunities) Tips for effective online teaching Access to websites and resources relating to online teaching Postings of seminars/professional development workshops Postings of conferences and/or presentation opportunities Connecting with fellow online faculty View stories from other online faculty Contact information exchanges Post my own best practices and stories Receive information about University Events

Support

366

4.3

Support

367

4.22

Support Connectivity

360 361

4.2 4.18

Support Support

366 366

4.13 4.08

Connectivity

357

3.98

Connectivity

365

3.97

Communication

367

3.87

Communication

360

3.84

Connectivity Communication

361 369

3.82 3.71

Connectivity

360

3.61

Table 3 Survey Results

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Support Online faculty frequently cite a lack of support from their college or university. This can have a negative effect on education services as online faculty who perceived lack of support are less likely to be engage fully in the classroom, and have an increased rate of attrition (Murdock & Williams, 2011). Having a disengaged online faculty population and needing to replace continually online faculty creates inefficiencies for colleges and universities and harms educational services (Junk et al., 2011). Providing support services can benefit online faculty, as they perceived less isolation and greater incorporation, which can allow colleges and universities to provide higher quality online education. The results from the support section of the survey questions indicated participants desired and expected to receive support from their institution, as questions relating to support issues yielded the highest mean score at 4.18. The ability to efficiently access support websites is important to online faculty, and ease of access can increase use of the support website (Wise, 2011). The results from the survey indicated participants strongly agreed access issues to a support website were important as the question had the highest mean score as participants scored this question at 4.3. Including an access prompt from the online classroom to the support website could help increase ease of access and use by online faculty. Given the heavy workload experienced by faculty (Simmons et al., 2011), convenience to the support website might be a principal concern for colleges and universities developing support websites. Online faculty have a strong desire to increase their knowledge within their respective disciplines (Wen et al., 2011). The result from the survey question about having access to content specific forums seems to correlate with previous research. The results to the question yielded a mean score of 4.22, which indicated strong support toward accessing content specific forums. This result might indicate participants want to engage with other online faculty from similar academic backgrounds, to increase knowledge in his or her academic discipline (Bakare, Zamzami, & Olowolayemo, 2011). Accessing information about best practices had a mean score of 4.2. Interestingly, this question had the highest number of agree or strongly agree responses possibly indicting an intense desire by participants regarding this resource as compared to other resources. These results may relate closely to the question about receiving information regarding effective online teaching as faculty continually strive to improve his or her performance in the online classroom. A crucial finding for colleges and universities developing and operationalizing support websites could be online faculty has a strong desire to receive information to improve their teaching within the classroom to provide optimal educational services. Receiving information about effective online teaching indicated a 4.13 mean score based on survey results. This result indicated participants had a strong desire to improve their online teaching methods, and expected their respective college or university to provide teaching resources. The result additionally signified participants viewed their position in the classroom as extending beyond a facilitator toward an educator position. Results from this survey seemed to contradict the perception online faculty are minimally involved in the classrooms (Peltier, Schibrosky, & Drago, 2007), but rather have a strong inclination to produce edifying and tangible results. The growth of online resources to help online faculty education their students has grown exponentially (Way & Austin, 2012). The results from the survey question concerning having access to websites and web-based resources received a mean score of 4.08, which indicated 36

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participants expected the support website to provide diverse online resources. Survey results indicated participants believed the institution should provide such resources to improve learning outcomes, and support websites should provide access to external resources when applicable. Providing adequate support for online faculty is a crucial element for colleges and universities developing and implementing online programs. Support websites can provide an opportunity for colleges and universities to develop and disseminate support services to online faculty (Wise, 2011). The results from the survey indicated participants’ desired support is similar to services provided to traditional ground-based faculty, but in addition desire resources unique to the online setting. Colleges and universities developing support websites, as the survey results implied, need to ensure the resources meet the demands of faculty teaching in both ground-based and online formats. Connections Developing connections between online faculty and universities and colleges is a salient issue to improve educational results. Faculty who perceive a close connection with their institution are more likely to spend more time in the classroom, and extend their efforts beyond specified requirements (Orr et al., 2009). The results for questions relating to increased connectivity yielded a mean score of 3.91. The question concerning accessing institutional resources had a mean score of 4.18, which was one of the highest mean scores. This result indicated participants have a desire to use and access institutional resources to improve their teaching performance. In addition, the results indicated participants expect their institution to provide access to academic resources. These resources could include journals, teaching resources, and professional development opportunities (Sutherland-Smith & Saltmarsh, 2010). This finding suggested colleges and universities implementing support websites should provide faculty with academic resources. Receiving information about seminars, professional development opportunities, and workshops received a mean score of 3.98, which suggested a relatively high rate of support for including this information within a support website. The results indicated participants want access to information to improve their online teaching abilities continually. Developing learning resources for online faculty could help colleges and universities improve their educational services. The question regarding receiving information about conferences and presentation opportunities received a mean score of 3.97. This result indicated participants want access to traditional ground-based academic venues to present their research. Results implied participants perceive similarities between their position and ground-based faculty, and expect access to academic opportunities. Given the growth of online education and the growth in the number of online faculty, providing opportunities for online faculty to present research at academic conferences could allow colleges and university to improve name recognition (Marek, 2009). The results from the survey indicated participants have a desire to exchange contact information with fellow online faculty. The question concerning contact exchanges received a mean score of 3.82. Although lower than other scores within the connection portion of questions, the results indicated participants believe there are potential networking opportunities through teaching online, and expect their institutions to provide areas to network within a support website. 37

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Information about institutional events had the lowest mean score based on the survey results at 3.61. This might indicate participants are more concerned with day-to-day functionality within their classrooms than receiving information about the institution, as this question yielded the second highest number of neutral responses. The results, however, still indicated participants in general wanted to receive information about institutional events. Part of the reason for the relativity low score could be an issue of proximity to the institution, given that online faculty are often geographically remote. The results from the connections portion of the survey indicated participants agreed or strongly agreed about the need to increase their connection to the institution. Increasing connections between online faculty and the college or university can help online faculty reduce perceptions of isolation and build professional networks (Hawkins et al., 2011). This increased connection between colleges and universities and online faculty might develop a more engaged online faculty population, which could produce improve educational results. Communication A difficult issue facing colleges and universities with online programs is developing effective communication with online faculty. The lack of communication between colleges and universities can lead to ineffective classroom teaching, disengaged faculty, and increased rates of attrition by faculty (Wise, 2011). Support websites can help increase frequent and effective communication with online faculty, provided the support site incorporates communication resources and forums (Bekmeier-Feuerhahn & Eichenlaub, 2010). Increased communication function within a support website can help colleges and universities provide support, resources, and increase engagement among online faculty. Results to questions relating to communication resources yielded an aggregated mean score of 3.78. The question concerning connecting with other online faculty yielded a mean score of 3.87, which based on general results, indicated a moderately strong agreement. Participants indicated there was a desire to connect with other online faculty through a support website, and this might relate to a desire to create connections between fellow online faculty. Connecting with other online faculty may indicate a desire to decrease the isolation many online faculty perceive (Hawkins et al., 2011), to develop support networks (Huang & Hsiao, 2012), and access advice of experienced online faculty members (Wen et al., 2011). Response to the question about viewing stories from other online faculty had a 3.84 mean score. The response of participants indicated a desire to view stories and experience posted by online faculty, which might indicate a desire to find commonalities. Storytelling and other forms of non-prescriptive communication can be a crucial aspect of both personal and professional development (Schallock, 2009). A storytelling and experience-sharing communication format could allow online faculty to develop deeper connections with fellow online faculty (Bao, 2009). In addition, a personal narrative forum could allow online faculty to receive edifying information in an informal manner that could reduce stress levels and increase interaction among online faculty. The question about posting personal stories, experiences, and best practices yielded a mean score of 3.71. This implied a moderately strong desire to share personal information with other online faculty in a support website forum; however, this question yielded the highest number of neutral responses that could indicate ambivalence to this type of resource. An important aspect of this result may be online faculty find sharing personal stories, experiences, and best practices to be a cathartic release, given the somewhat socially parochial nature of 38

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online teaching (Murdock & Williams, 2011), though this may not be applicable to many online faculty given the high number of neutral responses. In general, the results from survey questions relating to communication opportunities provided by a support website indicated participants desired to have a support website with communicational features and opportunities. Participants have a strong desire to communicate with fellow online faculty and reduce the isolation an online classroom can present. Providing different communication forums or channels yielded a crucial finding from the survey results. The survey results indicated participants want both passive communication channels to view other online faculty stories, experiences, and best practices, and active forums to post their own stories, experiences, and best practices. A salient finding from the survey result is universities and colleges need to provide faculty with diverse communication opportunities within a support website. Theme

Mean Score

Support Connectivity Communication

4.18 3.91 3.78

Table 4 Mean Scores of Central Themes

Discussion The responses to the survey questions indicated participants believed there is a need to develop a support website that provides holistic resources to meet the unique needs and desires of online faculty. Participants indicated the support website should provide support resources, communication forums, and resources to increase connectivity to the institution, which constitutes a desire for a more holistic approach to support than previous research has indicated. The mean score for questions relating to support resources was 4.18, which was the highest mean score. Survey results for questions relating to increased connectivity yielded a mean score of 3.91. Participants rated questions relating to communication resources at a mean score of 3.78. The mean for all questions in the survey was 3.96, which indicated a strong level of agreement relating to the type of resources and support desired within a support website. These findings signified participants believed there is a pertinent need to develop a support website, and the support website should provide diverse resources. Questions relating to support resources yielded the highest mean score, which might indicate that participants believed the primary function of a support website is to provide support resources. Given that literature about online faculty and online education has indicated online faculty perceive a detachment between themselves and their institution (Maddix, 2013), these results were not surprising. The participants rated questions about the need to provide resources to increase connectivity with the college or university second highest, indicating strong agreement. This result aligned with literature that indicates online faculty perceive isolation from their institutions (Hawkins et al., 2009). Online faculty have a strong desire to increase connectivity with his or her institution, and a support website might help increase connectivity. Responses to questions concerning providing communication resources yielded the lowest mean score, although the results still indicated agreement with the need to provide such resources. Literature relating to online faculty has indicated communication issues are present between online faculty and their colleges or universities (Wen et al., 2011).

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Several factors might have affected the strong agreement to the research questions as indicated by the survey results. The population consisted almost entirely of online faculty who may intrinsically be positive about creating a support website specifically for online faculty. A majority of the participants were adjunct faculty, and the literature indicated online faculty frequently perceive a lack of communication, connectivity, and support from their respective institutions. The mean years teaching as indicated by the participants was 10.03 years. Given the relative newness of online education, participants likely had face-to-face teaching experiences and might desire to recreate the experience in an online format in terms of connectivity, communication, and support. There is also the issue of faculty continually seeking to improve their teaching abilities through contact with their peers (Marek, 2009), and participants might perceive the services provided by a support website could allow them to emulate traditional face-to-face commutation with peers. The questions in the survey concerned providing services to online faculty, which may have yielded overtly positive responses, as participants were unlikely to deprecate additional resources. A support website could help ameliorate communication issues, and improve online faculty perceptions regarding their colleges or universities. Although past studies indicated that faculty monitoring and training were crucial elements to developing effective online education (Al-Salman, 2011; Green et al., 2009; Herman, 2012; Vaill & Testori, 2012), a critical differentiation in this study was the focus on providing holistic support and resources for online faculty, and the level of intensity faculty held toward particular resources or support systems. The results from this survey indicated a high level of engagement by participants with their institution, and participants have a desire to increase such engagement. To help increase engagement, colleges and universities can develop and implement support websites that include resources to provide support, increase connectivity, and improve communication with service extending beyond training and monitoring. By providing these recourses to online faculty, colleges and universities can build holistic support and resource websites, which can help attract and retain high quality online faculty. This in turn can improve both institutional and student performance, and help the institution establish a superior reputation in the postsecondary online education milieu. The findings of this survey can help colleges and universities design the resources available through support websites to meet the diverse needs and desires of their online faculty population. Limitations The population of this study was from a single institution, which might present a limitation relating to issues of transferability. The response rate was low at 15.06%, which might present issues of receiving response representational of the overall population. Using a survey data collection instrument may also present limitations in the results garnered. The ability of the participants to comprehend the intention of the question is a possible limitation, as the data collection process did not provide an opportunity to provide clarification about the questions. An additional limitation is the questions may not have generated a holistic understanding of online faculty needs and desires. The accuracy of the results required participants to provide honest answers, which might present a limitation, as strategies for ensuring participants answered honestly were not included in the data gathering process. A lack of available follow-up questions, and opportunities to gather in-depth explanations to the questions might have limited the depth of the results, as participants were not able to expand upon their answers.

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Future Research Although the results aligned with much of the previous research, possible future research could include a more in-depth analysis of the needs and desires of online faculty, beginning with an examination of whether the discipline or area of expertise of online faculty has an effect on the type of support and resources they need. Further research could extend into a detail examination of each of the survey questions exploring predictive percentage sources and possible causations. Future researchers might also focus on how the type of courses online faculty teach could influence the type of resources and support they perceive to need. The number of courses taught by online faculty might affect the type of support and resources they perceive to need, and an area for future research could be to discover whether the amount of classes taught concurrently affect support and resource expectations. Additional research areas might include the effect of demographics on support and resources needs as issues of age, gender, and experience teaching online may be salient toward resource and support needs and could produce interesting areas for research. In addition, future researchers could examine the differences and similarities concerning resource and support needs, desires, and expectations between ground-based faculty and online faculty. Conclusions Current trends in post-secondary education indicate there will likely be an increase in the number of online students enrolled at colleges and universities. As such, the need for online faculty will increase, as well. This will probably intensify the competition between colleges and universities to recruit and retain highly skilled online faculty. Providing online faculty with a support website operated by the college or university that provides holistic support and resources can be a differentiation strategy to help recruit and retain quality online faculty. The results from the survey indicated a website should provide support resources, increase connectivity between online faculty and the institution, and provide opportunities for increased communication. This might signified participants wanted support and resources from their college or university that extended beyond training and mentoring toward a more holistic paradigm of support and resource options. Providing holistic support resources and understanding the type of support and resources desired by online faculty could help colleges and universities to improve the quality of teaching provided by online faculty, which might improve education results and the student experience. Integrating a connectivity component within the support website could help to build an online community within the online faculty population. Colleges and universities that implement communication resources in support websites are likely to decrease the amount of isolation perceived by online faculty as well as increase the quality of online education. The development and operationalizing of support websites can be a difficult process given the diversity of online faculty and their various needs and desires, and the diverse collection of possible resources and support services to provide through support websites. Colleges and universities that can successfully establish support websites that meet the needs and demands of online faculty, however, can achieve a competitive advantage over competing institutions and improve educational results.

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Sciences, 50(4), 275-290. Retrieved from http://www.alise.org/jelis Meloncon, L. (2007). Exploring electronic landscapes: Technical communication, online learning, and instructor preparedness. Technical Communication Quarterly, 16(1), 3153.Retrieved form http://www.attw.org/

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Sutherland-Smith, W., & Saltmarsh, S. (2010). Minding the ‘P’s for implementing online education: Purpose, pedagogy, and practicalities. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(7), 64-77. Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/ Vaill, A.

Murdock, J. L., & Williams, A. M. (2011). Creating an online learning community: Is it possible? Innovation in Higher Education, 36(5), 305315. doi:10.1007/s10755-011-9188-6 Meyer, K. A., & McNeal, L. (2011). How online faculty improve student learning productivity. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 15(3), 37-53. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/jaln_ main?page=1 Orr, R., Williams, M. R., & Pennington, K. (2009). Institutional efforts to support faculty in online education. Innovation in Higher Education, 34(4), 257-268. doi:10.1007/s10755-009-9111-6 Peltier, J. W., Schibrosky, J. A., & Drago, W. (2007). The interdependence of the factors influencing the perceived quality of the online learning experience: A casual model. Journal of Marketing Education, 29(2), 140-153. doi:10.1177/0273475307302016

Way, A. D, & Austin, C. M. (2012). The epersona: Improving online communication, and developing friendships. Business Education Innovation Journal, 4(2), 58-65. Retrieved from http://www.beijournal.com/ Wen, D., Cuzzola, J., Brown, L., & Kinshuk. (2012). Instructor-aided asynchronous question answering system for online education and distance learning. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 13(5), 103-125. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl Wise,

Schallock, D. R. (2009).A space for gray: The dialogue between diverse voices. The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, 9(5), 1-12. Retrieved from http://ijd.cgpublisher.com/ Simmons, K. D., Shumack, K., & Carpenter, L. (2011). Practical techniques for teaching online: Lessons from the trenches. National Teacher Education Journal, 4(4), 47-54. Retrieved from http://www.ntejournal.com/

L., & Testori, P. A. (2012). Orientation, mentoring, and ongoing support: A threetiered approach to online faculty development. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(2), 111-119. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/jaln_ main

A. (2011). Supporting future faculty in developing their teaching practices: An exploration of communication networks among graduate teaching assistants. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 23(2), 135149. Retrieved from http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/

Wood, B. J. G., Tapsall, S. M., & Soutar, G. N. (2005). Borderless education: Some implications for management. The International Journal of Education Management, 19(5), 428-436. doi:10.1108/09513540510607752

Appendix A 1. Easy access to the website from your classroom(s) Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Options Disagree 5 7 33 151

43

Strongly Agree 170

Mean Score 4.3 Answered Question Skipped Question

Response Count 366 366 14

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2. Connecting with fellow online faculty Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Options Disagree 4 14 88

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Agree 180

Strongly Agree 81

Mean Score 3.87 Answered Question Skipped Question

Response Count 367 367

Mean Score 4.13 Answered Question Skipped Question

Response Count 366 366

Mean Score 4.22 Answered Question Skipped Question

Response Count 367 367

13

3. Tips for effective online teaching Answer Options

Strongly Disagree 3

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

6

51

187

Strongly Agree 119

14

4. Access to content forums (forums specific to fields of study) Answer Options

Strongly Disagree 3

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

4

40

181

Strongly Agree 139

13

5. Access to University resources (Journals, resources for your students, professional development opportunities) Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Mean Response Options Disagree Agree Score Count 3 5 42 185 126 4.18 361 Answered 361 Question Skipped 19 Question 6. Access to websites and resources relating to online teaching Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Mean Response Options Disagree Agree Score Count 3 7 54 196 106 4.08 366 Answered 366 Question Skipped 14 Question 7. Postings of conferences and/or presentation opportunities Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Mean Response Options Disagree Agree Score Count 6 10 73 176 100 3.97 365 Answered 365 Question Skipped 15 Question 8. View best practices Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Mean Response 44

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Options

Disagree 2

4

36

9. View stories from other online faculty Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Options Disagree 2 12 98

10. Post my own best practices and stories Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Options Disagree 2 14 128

11. Receive information about University events Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Options Disagree 10 19 125

12. Contact information exchanges Answer Strongly Disagree Options Disagree 3 13

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196

Agree 176

Agree 158

Agree 154

Neutral

Agree

97

181

13. Postings of seminars/professional development workshops Answer Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Options Disagree 5 11 58 196

45

Agree 122

Strongly Agree 72

Strongly Agree 57

Strongly Agree 52

Strongly Agree 67

Strongly Agree 87

Score 4.2 Answered Question Skipped Question

Count 360 360

Mean Score 3.84 Answered Question Skipped Question

Response Count 360 360

Mean Score 3.71 Answered Question Skipped Question

Response Count 359 359

Mean Score 3.61 Answered Question Skipped Question

Response Count 360 360

Mean Score 3.82 Answered Question Skipped Question

Response Count 361 361

Mean Score 3.98 Answered Question Skipped Question

Response Count 357 357

20

20

21

20

19

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Tracking and Explaining Credit-Hour Completion Maxwell Ndigume Kwenda Director of Institutional Research, Black Hills State University Spearfish, South Dakota [email protected] Abstract This study highlights those factors associated with changes in earned hours for two cohorts of incoming freshmen during their first year at Cameron University. The objectives of this study are twofold: (a) to derive model(s) regressing the cumulative hours earned and differential hours earned on student demographic, socioeconomic, and academic characteristics; and (b) to provide succinct conclusions that will increase students’ satisfactory academic progress (SAP) based on the results. The study found that there have been changes at Cameron University related to the freshman first year experience, while there were no significant differences detected between the 2010 and 2011 cohorts. In addition, demographic variables (age, sex, race, and years since high school graduation) generally did not significantly explain earned hours or changes in earned hours. The significant predictors were generally tied to a student academic standing or factors for which the institution can exercise some control. Keywords: Predictive modeling, earned hours, credit hours, retention Introduction The value of college education is realized when a student graduates. Graduation represents the fulfillment of the requirements set out by an institution’s governing body. One of the key elements to graduation is successfully earning and accumulating enough credit hours. Students are required to have earned at least 128 hours in order to graduate with a bachelor’s degree at Cameron University. Starting in the 2013-14 academic year, the threshold will go down to 124 hours because of an approved policy change. Although there are students who graduate with exactly the minimum number of hours required, many do not. There are anecdotal and commonly accepted explanations as to why students may end up with more hours than the minimum required: changing major and minor fields of study (especially later in one’s academic career), having transfer courses not subject to course substitution, and not taking courses that meet more than one requirement. In addition, if there are a disproportionate number of students taking remedial classes, it follows that many of them will graduate with earned hours beyond the minimum. Background Having more attempted hours than earned hours is problematic to a university as it affects the institution’s graduation rate – a key measure of organizational effectiveness. It is also costly to students in terms of time and money. Financial aid policies are increasingly being tied to satisfactory academic progress standards (US Department of Education, 2013). In 2004, the Council of State Governments in Florida reported that an estimated 20% of students in that 46

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state take more classes than they need in order to fulfill graduation requirements. Overall, this represented approximately 720,000 extra credit hours costing the state $62 million (The Council of State Governments, 2004). There are various ways of studying the differential outcomes in hours attempted and hours earned1. First, one can simply subtract earned hours from attempted hours and come up with “wasted hours” (Marsh, Vandehey, & Diekhoff, 2008). Second, dividing the number of earned hours by the minimum number of hours required for graduation, in this case 124 hours, gives the rate of progress. However, the rate of progress indicator becomes less intuitive when many students graduate with hours beyond the minimum. This measure is somewhat similar to the percentage displayed by DegreeWorks – a commercial degree audit system. Third, one can compute a ratio of degree completion efficacy by dividing cumulative hours earned by cumulative attempted hours. The ideal completion ratio should be equal or close to 1.0. This measure is helpful to the extent that there is a general expectation that a student’s completion rate should increase each subsequent semester. A limited amount of published research exists which uses the credit hour as the outcome variable. This may partly be the result of the fact that many of the studies are internal institutional reports. Most publicly available documents utilizing this variable are in the form of frequency counts that are useful as descriptive statistics with limited explanatory power 2 . Boughan (1999) contended that the credit hour has many potential uses because of its general utility. This type of investigation yields positive outcomes for students in that they favorably consider the idea of shortening degree completion time as something that shows their academic success (Hargrove & Ding, 2004). Research shows that the vast majority of discontinuance occurs within the first two years of collegiate experience (Levitz, Noel, & Richter, 1999; Marsh, Vandehey, & Diekhoff, 2008; Tinto, 1987). This has led to a proliferation of first-year-experience (FYE) programs to counter this adverse trend. However, these first year experiences programs generally target retention with little emphasis on academic success (Graunke & Woosley, 2005; Marsh, Vandehey, & Diekhoff, 2008). This study focuses on the first year of collegiate experience. The study institution, Cameron University, has two-year, four-year, and a limited number of graduate programs. The university has an open admissions system that allows for the recruitment of students who otherwise would have had a low chance of attending college. Smittle (1995) stated that having an open admission attracts a diverse student body with varying levels of academic preparation. Thus, it places a greater responsibility on the institution to identify at-risk students and provide reasonable assistance early in their college career (Maxwell, 1994; Smittle, 1995). This often results in remediation programs for students less prepared for college.

1

This paper highlights three methods with the tacit acknowledgement that there may be other ways of studying the difference between hours earned and hours attempted.

2

Explanatory power = when the variation in the outcome variable (earned hours or difference in earned hours) is clarified by its covariation with an independent variable (predictor variable). 47

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This study highlights factors associated with changes in attempted over earned hours for two cohorts of incoming freshmen during their first year at a university in the South Central United States. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1. To derive model(s) regressing the cumulative hours earned and differential hours earned on student demographic, socioeconomic, and academic characteristics; and 2. To provide succinct conclusions that will increase students’ satisfactory academic progress based on the results. Data and Methodology The Office of Institutional Research, Assessment, and Accountability at Cameron University derived the data from multiple administrative sources. The study sample of 1,598 cases is made up of the remaining students from two cohorts of first-time, four-year degreeseeking students at Cameron University who started in the Fall semesters of 2010 and 2011, respectively. The analytical sample included only those students who persisted to the following Spring semester: 783 from 2010 Fall to 2011 Spring, and 815 from 2011 Fall to 2012 Spring. There are two measures of the dependent variable: Cumulative hours earned and the difference in earned hours between the Fall and Spring semesters. In this study, multiple linear regression was used to explain these outcome variables using a student’s demographic, socioeconomic, and academic characteristics:  =  Where, Y is either the cumulative earned hours after the first Spring semester or the gained earned hours between the Fall and Spring semesters. X represents the set of independent variables as listed the Table 1. βk are the unstandardized parameter estimates for each independent variable including the constant.

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(N=1,598)

 

σ

Dependent Variables End of First Spring Cumulative Earned Hours Fall-to-Spring Gained Earned Hours

16.83 7.39

12.12 5.62

Independent Variables3

Socioeconomic/Background Factors

Demographic Characteristics

Year Age Sex

- 2010 Cohort - 2011 Cohort

- Female - Male Race - Non-Hispanic White - Non-Hispanic Black - Hispanic/Latino - Multiple Race Identification - Other Race/Unknown Race Years since high school graduation Military Status – No - Yes Aid/Grants - No - Yes Concurrent - No - Yes th ACT Composite - 26+ (80 percentile) th - 21—25 (50—80 percentiles) th - <20 (Below 50 percentile) - Unknown/NA Hours Prior to First Fall High School GPA - 3.00+ - 2.00—2.99 - 0.00—1.99 - Unknown/NA High School - Other Location - Lawton/Fort Sill High School

0.49 0.51 21.02 0.61 0.39 0.43 0.17 0.11 0.13 0.16 2.36 0.92 0.08 0.38 0.62 0.87 0.13 0.08 0.23 0.50 0.19 1.23 0.37 0.22 0.02 0.39 0.65 0.35

3

5.77

5.36

3.91

Many of the continuous or scale variables are categorized in order to utilize sample characteristics so that cases with missing values for some of the variables are not left out of the multivariate analyses. The cutoff points are meant to be based on standard practice or to be somewhat intuitive. For example, the Composite ACT score is categorized by establishing cutoff points using reported percentiles (80th percentile and above, 50th to 80th percentiles, and less than 50th percentile) (ACT, 2013). 49

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Institutional /Academic Factors

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Tuition Code - In-state 0.92 - Out-of-state 0.08 Declared Major - No 0.23 - Yes 0.77 Part-time - No 0.90 - Yes 0.10 Immediate educational goal - Bachelor’s 0.71 - Associates’ creditable toward BS 0.17 - Associates’ not wholly creditable 0.12 toward BS Original type of admission - Baccalaureate 0.57 seeking - Associates’ seeking 0.29 - Other 0.14 Campus Resident First Fall - No 0.80 - Yes 0.20 Month enrolled - March 0.16 - April 0.11 - May 0.14 - June 0.15 - July 0.17 - August/September/October 0.27 First Fall GPA 2.29 In UNIV1001 First Fall - No 0.76 - Yes 0.24 Remedial Math - No 0.48 - Yes 0.52 Remedial English - No 0.62 - Yes 0.38 Remedial Reading - No 0.83 -Yes 0.17 Cumulative Spring attempted hours 25.22  is the arithmetic mean and σ is the standard deviation. Note: Where, 

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1.29

4.39

4

Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for Analytical Variables

Students included in the analysis had an average of 16.83 (σ=12.12) earned hours and gained an average of 7.39 (σ=5.62) hours between their first Fall and Spring semesters. The average cumulative attempted hours for the two semesters was 25.22 (σ=4.39) hours. The 2011 cohort makes up 51% of the sample. Sixty-one percent of the sample is female. The average age is 21.06 (σ=5.77) years, which parallels with 2.36 (σ=5.36), the average number of posthigh school years before enrollment. It is apparent that many of the students are not immediately opting for university education once they finish high school. Over one third of the students (35%) graduated from high schools in the Lawton/Fort Sill area. Thirteen percent were concurrently enrolled when they were still in high school. The average number of hours 4 The mean for categorical variables (those with more than one level) represents the proportion in each category of the variable. There are no standard deviation computations for categorical variables. 50

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attempted prior to the Summer before starting at Cameron University were 1.23 (σ=3.91) credit hours. Half of the sample has an ACT Composite score below 20 even though 37% reported a high school GPA at or above 3.00. Non-Hispanic White students constituted 43% of the sample. Only 8% of the sample had some military connection—either as active duty or as a dependent family member. Sixty-two percent received financial aid or grants. The vast majority of the students (92%) paid their tuition as in-state residents. Only 10% of the students were enrolled as part-time (less than 12-credit hours). Twenty percent of the students resided on campus during their first Fall semester. The majority of students (71%) reported that their immediate educational goal was a bachelor’s degree and 57% were originally admitted as baccalaureate degree seeking. Seventyseven percent had declared a major area of study. Nearly 30% of the retained students enrolled in classes during the months of August, September, and October. Twenty-four percent were enrolled in UNIV 1001 Introduction to University Life. Of all the remedial classes, math had the most enrolled (52%). The average first Fall semester GPA was 2.29 (σ=1.29). This variable was not categorized, as was that for high school GPA, since there were no students with an “unknown” Fall GPA value. Results Preliminary regression models were run including as many predictor variables as were available in the student management system. After checking for collinearity issues and efficacy of the models, the final two models are presented in Table 2. The inclusion of separate ACT scores for English, Math, Reading, and Science did not improve the predictive efficacy of the model. Final models contain only the categorized Composite ACT score. Although entering blocks of variables in developing the models did improve the rsquared value at each stage, the overall objective of the study was to identify any significant predictors rather than detecting the relative importance of demographic, socioeconomic, or academic/institutional factors. It was evident that there was no need to run separate cohort models since the combined models showed no significant difference by cohort. The adjusted r-squared values for the two models are provided in order to counter the argument that this study contains “kitchen sink” regression analyses that use a long list of independent variables in an attempt to find any that would explain the dependent variables. The independent variables used in the models were included given the current state of knowledge in higher education research when examining student outcomes. The levels of the categorical variables were properly constituted through a deliberate effort. The methodology influenced the results rather than vice versa. It can be observed that the adjusted r-squared values in both models (0.77 and 0.53, respectively) are more or less similar to the r-square values (0.77 and 0.54, respectively) indicating that the regression equations do not have limited generalizability. The supporting Ftests indicate that both models are significantly explaining the variance in the dependent variables. However, it does appear that the predictor variables account for more variance in explaining earned hours (model 1) compared with explaining the variance in the difference in gained earned hours (model 2).

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Predictor Variable Levels/Categories

Constant Year Age Sex

Model 1: Earned Hours -14.53***

Model 2: Gained Earned Hours -8.97***

0.39 0.03

0.36 -0.04

0.38

0.18

-0.61 -0.12 -0.19 -0.83* 0.02

-0.35 0.09 0.07 -0.41 0.06

Ϯ

2010 Cohort 2011 Cohort Ϯ

Female Male Race Ϯ Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic or Latino Multiple races Other/unknown Years Since High School Graduation Military status Ϯ Non-military Military Aid or Grants? Ϯ No Yes Concurrently Enrolled Ϯ No Yes ACT Composite Score Ϯ Unknown/NA 26+ (80%+) 21-25 (50-80%) <20 (<50%) Hours Prior to First Fall High School GPA Ϯ Unknown/NA 3.00+ 2.00-2.99 0.00-1.99 High School Location Ϯ Other HS location Lawton/Fort Sill location Tuition Code Ϯ In-state (OK) Out-of-state Declared Status Ϯ Undeclared Major declared Part-Time/Full-Time Ϯ Full-Time Designation Part-Time

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1.76*** -0.98***

1.16*** -0.58**

0.02

0.30

4.07*** 1.70** 0.57 1.04***

1.57*** 1.10** 0.65 0.04

0.19 -0.99** -0.68

0.70*** -0.47 -0.36

1.01***

0.19

2.56***

2.22***

0.08

3.48***

Maxwell Ndigume Kwenda – Tracking and Explaining Credit-Hour Completion

-0.09

2.80***

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Immediate Educational Goal

Ϯ

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Bachelor's

Associate creditable toward BS

0.61

0.46

Associate not wholly creditable toward BS Original Type of Ϯ Regular baccalaureate Admission seeking Regular associate seeking Other Campus Resident First Ϯ No Fall Yes Month Enrolled First Ϯ Aug/Sep/Oct Time

-0.35

-0.29

-1.01 -0.16

-0.57 -0.09

March April May June July First Fall GPA In UNIV1001 First Fall Remedial Math

0.88**

0.34

2.94*** 1.98*** 1.67*** 1.18** 0.69 3.25***

1.57*** 0.91** 1.10*** 1.12*** 0.51 1.42***

Ϯ

No Yes

-0.54

-0.26

-3.06***

-0.80***

-2.76***

-0.75***

-1.93*** 0.89***

-0.65** 0.51***

Ϯ

No Yes Remedial English Ϯ No Yes Remedial Reading Ϯ No Yes Fall-Spring Total Attempted Hours

Model 1: = .

;  = .

; (,) = . ∗∗∗ ǁ Model 2: = .  ;  = . ; (,) = .  ∗∗∗ Ϯ —Reference category; *—0.05≤p<0.10; **—0.01≤p<0.05; ***—p<0.01

Table 2. Multiple Regression Models of First Year Earned Hours and Fall-to-Spring Gained Earned Hours

Demographic Characteristics. Results from the multivariate analyses show that those of other or unknown race earn on average 0.83 credit hours less than non-Hispanic White students. This significant relationship goes away when explaining changes in hours earned between the Fall and Spring semesters. Race, like the other demographic variables of cohort, age, sex, and years since high school graduation does not significantly predict both outcome variables. Socioeconomic Background. Those with some military affiliation earn 1.76 more credit hours compared to those without any military affiliation. They also gain 1.16 credit hours more compared to students without any military affiliation between the Fall and Spring semesters. These results indicate there are characteristics associated with military affiliation that lead to 53

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acquiring more earned hours that translate to gaining significantly more hours between the first two semesters of enrollment at Cameron University. Students who receive financial aid or grants earn 0.98 credit hours less than those who do not. They also earn 0.58 credit hours less than non-recipients of financial aid or grants do between the two first semesters. Graduates of Lawton/Fort Sill area high schools are likely to earn 1.01 credit hours more than those from other locations do. This significant relationship goes away when it comes to semester-to-semester earned hours. For every credit hour taken prior to the Summer before enrolling at Cameron University, a student earned 1.04 credit hours. Again, this significant relationship vanishes when it comes to semester-to-semester earned hours. Models 1 and 2 show that the academic performance of students while in high school significantly predicts hours earned in the first year of college. Students with an ACT Composite score of 26 or higher earn more than 4 credit hours and gain 1.57 credit hours between the first two semesters compared to those whose ACT Composite score is unknown or not available. Having a high ACT Composite score of 26 or more contributes the highest earned hours. Even those with ACT Composite score between 21 and 25 earn and gain more credit hours than those whose score are unknown or not available. A surprising result is that students with a high school GPA between 2.00 and 2.99 earn 0.99 credit hours less than those whose high school GPA is unknown. Those whose high school GPA is above 3.00 gain on average 0.7 credit hours compared to those whose high school GPA is unknown. These counterintuitive results may be the function of the 39% proportion of students whose high school GPA is unknown (see Table 1). Academic and Institutional Factors. Out-of-state students earn 2.56 credit hours more than in-state students do; they gain significantly more credit hours, 2.22. It may be that the outof-state designation induces those students to work harder and thus earn more hours. Since out-of-state students pay more in tuition, they may be compelled to complete quickly their studies and hence the finding that they have one of the highest semester-to-semester gained earned hours. Campus residents receive 0.88 credit hours more than those who did not live on campus during their first Fall semester at Cameron University. Part-time students compared to full-time students earn 3.48 credit hours more and gain 2.8 credit hours from one semester to the next. Part-time students compared to full-time students have the highest gains in credit hours from one semester to the next. They also have the second highest earned credit hours. It is an interesting finding to the extent that it appears that those who choose to be part-time students make steady progress toward degree completion. Full-time students may be attempting more hours than they are capable of earning. The month when a student enrolled for Fall classes is a significant predictor of both hours earned and semester-to-semester gained hours. For example, students who enrolled in March earned 2.94 credit hours more than those who enrolled in the Fall months of August, September, or October. The same students who enrolled in March gained on average 1.57 credit hours more than those who registered in the Fall. For each credit hour a student attempted, he or she earned 0.89 credit hours and gained 0.51 credit hours between the Fall and Spring semesters.

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Students who succeed as reflected by their first Fall GPA also earn and gain more credit hours. For every unit increase in a student’s GPA, earned hours increase by 3.25 and gained earned credit hours increase by a factor of 1.42. The analyses show that students who are in remedial classes earn and gain less credit hours compared to those not taking any remedial classes. Students who are in remedial Math courses earn the least hours compared to those enrolled in remedial English or Reading courses. This is an intuitive result since remedial hours do not count toward degree completion. Conclusion Although there have been changes at Cameron University when it comes to the first year experience, there were no significant differences detected between the 2010 and 2011 cohorts. In sum, the findings of this study have been: Military affiliated students earn and gain more hours than those without any military affiliation. • Students who receive some sort of financial aid and/or receive grants earn less and gain less credit hours than those who do not. • High school academic performance as shown by high school GPA and ACT composite score predict satisfactory academic progress in college. Superior academic performance in college also results in more earned and gained hours. • Local high school graduates earn more credit hours than those who graduated from high school outside the Lawton/Fort Sill area. However, out-of-state students also earn more hours than in-state students do. • The more hours a student attempts, the more likely he or she is to earn and gain more credit hours. • Any remediation results in fewer earned or semester-to-semester gained hours. In addition, it can be of some solace to decision makers to note that demographic variables (age, sex, race, and years since high school graduation) generally do not significantly explain earned hours or changes in earned hours. The significant predictors are generally tied to a student academic standing or factors for which the institution can exercise some control. •

References ACT. (2013). National Ranks for Test Scores and Composite Score. Retrieved from http://www.actstudent.org/scores/norms1.ht ml

of aggregate course hour analysis. 26th Annual Conference Proceedings (pp. 27-37). Newport, RI: North East Association for Institutional Research.

Bahr, P. R. (2009). Educational attainment as process: Using hierarchical discrete-time event history analysis to model rate of progress. Research in Higher Education, 50, 691-714. doi: 10.1007/s11162-009-9135-x

Graunke, S. S., & Woosley, S. A. (2005). An exploration of factors that affect the academic success of college sophomores. College Student Journal, 39, 367-76.

Bivin, D., & Rooney, P. M. (1999). Forecasting credit hours. Research in Higher Education, 40(5), 613-32. doi: 10.1023/A:1018704712802

Hargrove, K. S., & Ding, D. (2004, October). An analysis of BSIE degree completion time at Morgan State University. Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Engineering Education, Gainesville, FL.

Boughan, K. (1999). Above the bottom line: Assessing academic through-put by means

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Levitz, R. S., Noel, L., & Richter, B. J. (1999). Strategic moves for retention success. New Directions for higher education, 99(108), 3149. doi: 10.1002/he.10803. Marsh, C. M., Vandehey, M. A., & Diekhoff, G. M. (2008). A Comparison of an introductory course to SAT/ACT scores in predicting student performance. The Journal of General Education, 57(4), 244-255. doi: 10.1353/jge.0.0024 Maxwell, M. (1994). From access to success. A book of readings on college developmental education and assistance programs. In M. Maxwell (Ed.), Are the skills we are teaching obsolete? A review of recent research in reading and study skills (pp. 161-67). Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing.

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Smittle, P. (1995). Academic performance predictors for community college student assessment. Community College Review, 23(2), 37-47. The Council of State Governments. (2004). Florida looks to cut excess credit hours to save money. State News (Council of State Governments), 47(10), 5. Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college. Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. US Department of Education. (2013). Staying Eligible | Federal Student Aid. Retrieved from http://studentaid.ed.gov/eligibility/stayingeligible

Note: The Office of Institutional Research, Assessment, and Accountability (IRAA) at Cameron University provided data for this study. The contents of this document, including analytical assumptions and conclusions, are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of IRAA or Cameron University.

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El Desarrollo de la Capacidad Investigadora en Alumnos de Educación Superior Tiziana Priede Bergamini* Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Universidad Europea de Madrid [email protected] Cristina López-Cózar Navarro Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Resumen En el marco de la educación superior, y concretamente en el área de ciencias sociales, es necesario el desarrollo de competencias individuales y grupales en los estudiantes para que puedan desempeñar con éxito su desarrollo profesional. Sin embargo, existen pocas ocasiones en las cuales se promueven actividades orientadas específicamente a la investigación aplicada. El presente estudio propone una metodología basada en el desarrollo de un proyecto de investigación en la asignatura “Administración de la Empresa Familiar” de tercer curso, mediante la cual se fomenta de forma específica la capacidad investigadora de los alumnos. Con ello, se pretende mejorar las cualificaciones individuales e involucrarlos en la labor investigadora. La administración de la empresa familiar es un área de carácter fundamental en el marco del estudio de la administración de empresas, sin embargo la investigación sobre la misma no se desarrolla al mismo ritmo que su nivel de relevancia. Así pues, la presente actividad plantea el desarrollo de una labor investigadora por parte de los alumnos de dicha asignatura, con el doble objetivo de fomentar sus capacidades de análisis crítico e investigación, así como aumentar el conocimiento existente sobre esta materia. Palabras clave: Empresa familiar, iniciativa, investigación, análisis, trabajo en equipo Introducción Es ampliamente conocido el profundo cambio en los métodos tradicionales de enseñanza que la puesta en marcha del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES) ha provocado. La comunidad académica, en general, reconoce y acepta las grandes ventajas que supone para el estudiante el empleo de nuevas metodologías que favorezcan no solo su propio proceso de aprendizaje, sino también el desarrollo de diversas competencias. En este contexto, una competencia se define como el conjunto de capacidades, habilidades, conocimientos y responsabilidades que describen los resultados del aprendizaje de un grado, o de una determinada asignatura o curso (González &Wagenaar, 2006b). Para conseguirlo, ha sido preciso llevar a cabo una modificación en la conducta y la actitud tanto de profesores como de alumnos; a saber, el profesor asume el rol de orientador y el alumno, por su parte, debe asumir la responsabilidad de aprender, pues el nuevo modelo educativo centra la base de la formación en su propio trabajo (Benito Hernández, López-Cózar Navarro, & Priede Bergamini, 2010; Cano, 2009; Cuadrado Gordillo & Fernández Antelo , 2008; Martínez, 2009).

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Así, el desarrollo competencial del alumno se ha convertido en el gran objetivo del aprendizaje, impulsando la utilización de nuevas y diferentes actividades formativas, y afectando a los propios sistemas de evaluación (González & Wagenaar, 2003). Entre estas actividades formativas, una de las que mayor aceptación están teniendo es el aprendizaje cooperativo (Johnson & Johnson, 1999; Slavin, 1996). Esta herramienta, desarrollada en la década de los 60 del siglo anterior, ha ido evolucionando a lo largo de los años y se ha ido adaptando a las diversas necesidades educativas de las distintas áreas de conocimiento en las que se aplica. Está sustentada en la creencia de que la interacción alumno-alumno y alumnoprofesor que se produce en el aula, da lugar a un intercambio de habilidades y conocimientos que logran mejorar el aprendizaje del grupo en su conjunto (Serrano, 1996). De esta manera, con el aprendizaje cooperativo, se pretende desarrollar una interdependencia positiva, mejorar la interacción cara a cara, fomentar la responsabilidad individual y perfeccionar las habilidades sociales (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). En la literatura existen numerosos trabajos que estudian el aprendizaje cooperativo, mostrando las bondades de esta estrategia docente desde la experiencia (Domingo, 2008). Sin embargo, existen pocas ocasiones en las cuales se promueven actividades de este tipo, orientadas específicamente a la investigación aplicada. El presente estudio propone una metodología basada en el desarrollo de un proyecto de investigación en la asignatura “Administración de la Empresa Familiar” mediante la cual se fomenta de forma particular la capacidad investigadora de los alumnos. Bajo estas premisas se plantea esta experiencia que se desarrolla en la asignatura de 6 créditos ECTS Administración de la Empresa Familiar de primer semestre de los alumnos de tercero del grado de Dirección y Creación de Empresas, cuya duración es de aproximadamente 12 semanas de clases. Las autoras consideran que esta es una experiencia interesante para la comunidad universitaria, pues se trata de una actividad que se puede adaptar a otras asignaturas de los Grados relacionados con el área de empresa, e incluso a asignaturas de cualquier otro Grado. Justificación y Objetivos Las denominadas empresas familiares, pese a su relevancia, resultan en muchos casos desconocidas. Dada la importancia de estas organizaciones en el tejido empresarial de la mayoría de las economías, no es de extrañar que en los últimos años haya crecido el interés por su estudio. Según datos del Instituto de la Empresa Familiar (IEF), en España existen 2,9 millones de empresas familiares, lo que representa un 85% del total de empresas, las cuales generan aproximadamente el 70% de los puestos de trabajo en el sector privado y aportan el 70% del PIB y de las exportaciones (IEF, 2009, p.19). Se puede definir, de forma general, como aquella en la que los miembros de una o varias familias participan de manera importante en su capital, intervienen de forma activa en la dirección, y tienen intención de transmitir el negocio a las futuras generaciones (Astrachan, Klein, & Smyrnios, 2002; Claver, Rienda, & Quer, 2009; Gallo, 1995; López-Cózar Navarro & Priede Bergamini, 2009; López-Cózar Navarro, Priede Bergamini, & Benito Hernández, 2013; Martín & Cabrera, 2007). A pesar de su importancia, la investigación científica y académica sobre la empresa familiar en España no se ha desarrollado hasta hace muy pocos años. A través del Instituto de Empresa Familiar, las Cátedras desarrolladas por diversas universidades, así como determinadas publicaciones específicas, se han realizado diversos proyectos de investigación encaminados a describir, conocer y comprender las peculiaridades de este tipo de empresas. Además, el nuevo Espacio de Educación Superior ha permitido a las Universidades incorporar 58

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en sus planes de estudio asignaturas específicas de administración de la empresa familiar. Una de las principales conclusiones obtenidas en los análisis sobre este tipo de empresas es su alta tasa de mortalidad, de hecho, según Instituto de la Empresa Familiar , la vida media de una empresa familiar es de 30 años frente a los 40 de una no familiar (2009, p. 19), y sólo entre el 10% y el 15% de las empresas consiguen superar el traspaso a la tercera generación (Bañegil Palacios, Barroso Martínez, & Tato Jiménez, 2011; Gallo, 1998; López-Cózar Navarro & Priede Bergamini, 2009). La Universidad española no puede permanecer ajena a este contexto y, más concretamente, los estudios de Administración y Dirección de Empresas deben profundizar en el estudio y el conocimiento de los problemas que afectan a la empresa familiar. Resulta pues muy oportuno ampliar el conocimiento existente para contribuir a comprender las variables que generan dicha mortalidad y mejorar el rendimiento general de las empresas familiares. Por otra parte, en línea con lo anteriormente expuesto, existe una carencia en el desarrollo de actividad investigadora en aquellos alumnos en áreas de ciencias sociales en el marco de la Educación Superior. Por ello, la presente actividad plantea el desarrollo de una labor investigadora por parte de los alumnos de la asignatura de tercer curso Administración de la Empresa Familiar, con el doble objetivo de fomentar sus capacidades de análisis crítico e investigación, así como también ampliar el conocimiento existente en este sector. La actividad que se presenta persigue despertar en los estudiantes el interés por la investigación científica de la empresa familiar. Los alumnos deben realizar una investigación relacionada con algún tema de interés de este tipo de organizaciones y entregar un artículo que siga las pautas de las revistas científicas en la materia. Posteriormente, se exponen los principales resultados de sus investigaciones en una clase convertida en un Seminario sobre Empresa Familiar. Tras la realización de esta práctica, el estudiante deberá ser capaz de: • Profundizar sobre algún aspecto concreto de la empresa familiar. • Aplicar los conocimientos adquiridos a lo largo de la asignatura. • Aprender a realizar un trabajo de investigación científico. • Exponer ideas y resultados de la investigación. Descripción de la Experiencia Docente: Investigación Científica de la Empresa Familiar La asignatura Administración de la Empresa Familiar es optativa y se imparte en el tercer curso del Grado en Dirección y Creación de Empresas. Se desarrolla durante 12 semanas a lo largo de un trimestre completo. Durante las primeras seis a ocho semanas de clase, el profesor sensibiliza a los alumnos sobre el concepto de empresa familiar, sus principales características y procesos específicos. Estas primeras sesiones teórico-prácticas son necesarias para sentar las bases que permitan a los estudiantes poder desarrollar posteriormente el trabajo práctico de investigación científica de la empresa familiar. Para desarrollar esta actividad es necesaria la formación de grupos de trabajo, los cuales deben estar compuestos por no más de seis alumnos. Los mismos pueden ser constituidos libremente, si bien, una vez creados los equipos, deberán contar con la aprobación del profesor, con el fin de conseguir grupos homogéneos. Para poder iniciar la investigación, es importante la selección de los temas a tratar, los cuales deben ser originales y serán elegidos por los alumnos con la supervisión del profesor tras una labor de búsqueda y lectura de artículos por parte de los miembros del grupo. El profesor debe realizar en este momento una importante tarea de orientación facilitando material de lectura, así como orientando la búsqueda de información. El docente debe cuidar este 59

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primer proceso de toma de contacto, para evitar que los estudiantes se pierdan y se desmotiven, incluso proponiendo la asistencia y apoyo del personal de la biblioteca en la labor de búsqueda. Elegidos los temas y organizados los equipos de trabajo, se entrega a los alumnos la rúbrica de la actividad, en la que se especifica que el trabajo debe cumplir con los requisitos mínimos de un trabajo de divulgación científica y que consta de dos partes. La primera es un breve artículo escrito de unas cinco a ocho páginas, en el que debe figurar obligatoriamente: un resumen –en español y en inglés- unas palabras clave, la revisión de la literatura, el cuerpo de la investigación, los resultados, las principales conclusiones obtenidas, las limitaciones del estudio y las futuras líneas de investigación. Este artículo escrito deberá cumplir con los requerimientos formales generalmente exigidos por las revistas científicas. Esto es así para que los alumnos se enfrenten a esta situación y comprendan que cuando se realiza una investigación de cierto nivel, es importante lo que se dice, pero también cómo se dice, y que si no reúne los requisitos mínimos, no será nunca aceptado por la comunidad académica. Inculcar en los alumnos seriedad y rigor en lo que hacen les ayuda a madurar y a convertirse en mejores profesionales. En esa misma línea, se especifica que el contenido copiado de una fuente de información deberá ir en cursiva o entrecomillado y correctamente citado. En este caso, es imprescindible hacer una referencia al final del párrafo de las fuentes de información de las que se ha copiado el contenido, y por supuesto deberá figurar en la bibliografía. Se enfatiza en el hecho de que cualquier contenido copiado sin citar será motivo de suspenso, intentando con ello eliminar la costumbre adquirida por la mayoría de los alumnos de “cortar y pegar”, presentando como propio contenido plagiado. Otro de los puntos relevantes de la investigación es la elección de la metodología para realizar la investigación, lo cual resulta complejo puesto que los alumnos están aún en tercer curso y no poseen amplios conocimientos metodológicos. No obstante, se debe fomentar el esfuerzo por buscar métodos que estén a su alcance, pero que al mismo tiempo se consideren dignos y aceptados. La segunda parte del trabajo consiste en una breve presentación oral en la que se exponen los principales resultados de la investigación y las aportaciones más relevantes. Estas presentaciones tienen lugar todas juntas en forma de seminario o congreso, incluso juntando a los alumnos de grupos de clases distintos, ya que esta práctica se desarrolló de forma paralela por los profesores que impartían la asignatura simultáneamente. El seminario llevó por título La Empresa Familiar en el Siglo XXI y tuvo lugar en la última semana de clase. En la última semana los alumnos reciben la calificación final de la actividad, cuya evaluación se describe a continuación, y se realiza una sesión de cierre y principales conclusiones obtenidas, y los alumnos tienen la oportunidad de evaluar la actividad realizada a través de un cuestionario de satisfacción presentado por el profesor. Método de Evaluación Como se acaba de comentar, la actividad consta de dos partes claramente especificadas: el artículo escrito y la exposición oral, cada una de las cuales serán evaluadas independientemente. Respecto al artículo escrito, que debe cumplir con los contenidos teóricos y con los aspectos formales que previamente se han detallado, la nota obtenida será común a todos los integrantes del equipo. En lo que se refiere a la exposición oral, dicha presentación debe cumplir las especificaciones que se han detallado y se realizará en la fecha previamente 60

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establecida por el profesor. La nota de esta parte será individual a cada estudiante. Esta actividad se evalúa sobre la base de cuatro aspectos fundamentales: Capacidad de comunicación escrita. Se evalúa a partir del documento entregado por cada equipo y se valoran aspectos tales como la correcta identificación de la finalidad o propósito del trabajo y el conocimiento sobre lo que resulta realmente importante a la hora de escribir sobre el tema; la organización, coherencia y estructura del texto; ausencia de erratas o errores gramaticales o de ortografía; la presencia clara de una perspectiva teórica y metodológica y el desarrollo de las conclusiones, entre otros. Capacidad de comunicación oral. Se busca que la exposición sea clara, concisa y en el tiempo estipulado. Dicho tiempo es cronometrado por el profesor con el fin de evitar que los grupos se extiendan demasiado. Se valorarán aspectos tales como el contacto con los ojos de las personas que conforman la audiencia, la seguridad y claridad de la exposición oral, la postura y los gestos corporales durante la exposición de los trabajos. Desarrollo del trabajo en equipo y cooperación. Se valora el resultado del trabajo global del equipo. En las exposiciones orales se valorará la coordinación entre los miembros del equipo y la manera de organizarse y de realizar las transiciones entre ellos. Se hacen preguntas concretas a cada componente del grupo con el fin de determinar su grado de implicación en el resultado global. Por otra parte, también se valora el resultado del trabajo escrito entregado, analizando aspectos como la estructura, aspectos formales, y la expresión, entre otros, para determinar si se alcanzan los niveles de coherencia, uniformidad y sentido al trabajo de grupo requeridos. Desarrollo de la innovación y la creatividad. Se trata de una competencia directamente relacionada con la actividad. La creatividad e iniciativa se evaluará a través del análisis de la calidad de las fuentes de información propuestas por los alumnos para la elaboración del artículo. Se valorará también la creatividad en la exposición oral del trabajo ante la comunidad universitaria. Serán mejor valoradas aquéllas presentaciones más atractivas y diferentes. La calificación final del trabajo en equipo para cada alumno será la media aritmética de la nota obtenida en el documento escrito y la de la exposición oral. A su vez, la calificación global obtenida con el desarrollo de esta actividad representará el 30% de la nota final de la asignatura. Resultados y Conclusiones La actividad fue evaluada por los alumnos a través de una encuesta de satisfacción realizada por medio de internet, de la cual se obtuvieron 12 respuestas1. El cuestionario se basa en una serie de variables a valorar -basadas en los objetivos antes planteados- en una escala Likert de 1 a 5. En concreto, se pedía su opinión sobre los aspectos que se presentan en la figura 1 y los resultados de la encuesta se presentan a continuación.

1

A priori resulta un número reducido de respuestas; no obstante, es preciso aclarar que sólo los estudiantes de una de las clases implicadas han podido participar en el cuestionario. Así pues, se trata de 12 respuestas sobre un total de 26 alumnos, lo cual supone el 46% de los estudiantes. 61

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Figura 1. Nivel de Satisfacción con la actividad descrita.

A la vista de los datos presentados se observa que, de e una forma general, la mayoría de los alumnos valoró la práctica muy positivamente. Los alumnos considera consideraron ron importante el aprendizaje obtenido sobre el tema analizado. Destaca la alta valoración de la utilidad de la práctica por la mayoría de los estudiantes. Los alumnos han sabido apreciar, igualmente, el aprendizaje obtenido en el desarrollo de un trabajo de investigación científica, lo cual constituía el objetivo principal de la actividad docente. El desarrollo de competencias ha sido también muy valorado; el trabajo en equipo, la iniciativa y la orientación a resultados d destacan estacan entre las más valoradas aunque, en general, se considera que con esta práctica se ofrece la oportunidad de desarrollar diversas competencias de forma satisfactoria. Cabe destacar también la labor del profesor en el seguimiento de los trabajos, muy valorada por los estudiantes. Finalmente Finalme debe subrayarse que no figuró ninguna variable con la calificación de “muy baja”, lo cual demuestra la satisfacción general de los alumnos con todos los aspectos desarrollados con esta iniciativa. En la encuesta se proveyó un apartado para comentarios y recomendaciones con el fin de que los alumnos pudieran opinar de forma libre. Los comentarios han destacado fundamentalmente los aspectos positivos de la práctica, agradeciendo la iniciativa y remarcando su utilidad. Cabe hacer mención a uno concretamen concretamente te que hace una propuesta interesante y con visión de futuro: ““mayor mayor motivación a los alumnos, quizás con una revista interna, o con la posibilidad de publicar directamente en otros lugares lugares”. ”. Este estudiante propone que se ponga en marcha una revista dentro de la Universidad en la que los alumnos puedan publicar sus investigaciones, o en su defecto, que se les apoye para poder publicarlos externamente en alguna revista de interés. Se recoge la idea, ya que podría elegirse el mejor trabajo y con el apoyo del profesor, podría intentar enviarse a alguna revista para que los alumnos conocieran la experiencia. Con relación a los temas de investigación planteados por los alumnos, en primer lugar se cita el “Análisis Análisis de grado de conocimiento que tienen los estudiantes de la UEM sobre la empresa familiar y sus principales características características”,, con el que se pretendió demostrar a través de una encuesta realizada a los estudiantes del propio campus, la fal falta ta de conocimiento y el 62

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concepto erróneo que los estudiantes tienen sobre las empresas familiares y su importancia en la economía. En segundo lugar se presenta el “Análisis del traspaso de primera a segunda generación de la empresa familiar española: Claves para su continuidad sobre la base del caso Codorniu”, estos estudiantes profundizaron sobre uno de los problemas más importantes a los que se enfrenta la empresa familiar: el traspaso generacional, y lo hicieron con el estudio de una de las empresas familiares españolas más antigua e interesante. En tercer lugar se presentó un interesante y oportuno trabajo sobre “El uso de la tecnología en la Empresa Familiar: análisis de su influencia en época de crisis”, el cual mostró el estado actual de las empresas familiares en cuanto al uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación a través de un estudio empírico, llegando a muy interesantes conclusiones. Finalmente se cita el “Estudio de caso: ¿Cuándo es el mejor momento para la integración de la profesionalización en una empresa familiar?”, cuyo objetivo se centró en investigar y analizar la profesionalización de la empresa familiar, realizando encuestas directamente a directivos de empresas familiares, concluyendo que la mejor solución sobre la profesionalización depende de las situaciones y posibilidades en que se encuentre cada empresa. Las calificaciones obtenidas fueron muy altas y oscilaron entre 8 y 9,5 en los trabajos escritos, y 8 y 10 en las presentaciones orales. El día de la presentación, la clase se convirtió en un verdadero congreso de expertos sobre la materia y los alumnos disfrutaron mucho de su participación y la experiencia de otros. En definitiva, se trata de una propuesta docente muy interesante y recomendable, ya que, como se ha puesto de manifiesto, el alumno aprende a enfrentarse a la realización de un trabajo de investigación de verdad, lo cual le permite madurar y aprender de una forma muy activa, lo que repercute de forma muy positiva en su formación global. Se trata de una asignatura optativa de tercer curso cuyo temario se presta perfectamente a la innovación educativa y al desarrollo de alternativas docentes en un momento idóneo para que los estudiantes aprendan a investigar. Con el desarrollo de esta iniciativa docente se han conseguido los siguientes objetivos: que los alumnos se familiaricen con la investigación científica, que sean capaces de buscar información en fuentes primarias, que los alumnos apliquen los conocimientos adquiridos a lo largo de la asignatura y sean capaces de profundizar en aquellos aspectos que consideren más interesantes, que los alumnos sean responsables, capaces de establecer objetivos y planificar el trabajo necesario para alcanzarlos, que sean capaces de resumir ideas y exponerlas de forma argumentada, que aprendan de las experiencias y conocimientos de otros y sean capaces de sintetizar toda esa información. En definitiva, que los alumnos se conviertan en el centro de su propio aprendizaje. Ha sido una interesante experiencia, muy enriquecedora tanto para todos los alumnos implicados como para los docentes. Sin duda, se repetirá con algunos elementos de mejora en cursos posteriores.

Referencias Astrachan J., Klein S., & Smyrnios K. (2002). The FPEC scale of family influence: A proposal for solving the family business definition problem. Family Business Review 15(1), 4558. doi:10.1111/j.1741-6248.2002.00045.x Bañegil Palacios, T. M., Barroso Martínez, A., & Tato Jiménez, J. L. (2011). Profesionalizarse, emprender y aliarse para que la empresa 63

familiar continúe. Revista Familiar, 1(2), 27-41.

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Benito Hernández, S., López-Cózar Navarro, C., & Priede Bergamini, T. (2011). Propuesta de una investigación participativa para la asignatura “Administración de la empresa familiar”: Utilización del análisis comparativo y la entrevista en profundidad. RED Revista de Educación a Distancia, 2, 1-24.

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Cano González, R. (2009). Tutoría universitaria y aprendizaje por competencias. ¿Cómo lograrlo? Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 12(1), 181-204. Cuadrado Gordillo, I., & Fernández Antelo, I. (2008). Nuevas competencias del profesor en el EEES: Una experiencia de innovación docente. Revista Electrónica Teoría de la Educación. Educación y Cultura en la Sociedad de la Información, 9(1), 197-211. Claver, E., Rienda, L., & Quer, D. (2009). Family firms’ international commitment: The influence of family-related factors. Family Business Review, 22(2), 125-135. Domingo, J. (2008). El aprendizaje cooperativo. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social, 21, 231-246.

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Instituto de Empresa Familiar [IEF]. (2009). El Instituto de la Empresa Familiar [Folleto]. Madrid, España: IEF. Acceso a través de http://www.iefamiliar.com Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1989). Cooperative learning: What special education teachers need to know. Pointer, 33(2), 5-11. doi:10.1080/05544246.1989.9945370 Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1999). Aprender juntos y solos: Aprendizaje cooperativo, competitivo e individualista. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Aique. López-Cózar Navarro, C., & Priede Bergamini, T. (2009). Empresa familiar: Claves para su supervivencia en un mundo cambiante. La Coruña, España: Netbiblo.

Gallo, M. (1995). The role of family business and its distinctive characteristic behavior in industrial activity. Family Business Review, 8(2), 83-97.

López-Cózar Navarro, C., Priede Bergamini, T., & Benito Hernández, S. (2013). Influencia de la deuda en la estrategia de exportación de la empresa familia. Revista de Empresa Familiar, 3(1), 31-46.

Gallo, M. (1998). La sucesión en la empresa familiar. Colección estudios e informes, núm. 12. Barcelona, España: Caja de Ahorros y Pensiones de Barcelona.

Martín, J. y Cabrera, K. (2007). La gestión del marketing estratégico en la pequeña empresa familiar. Cuadernos de Gestión, 7(1), 85-100.

González, J., & Wagenaar, R. (2003). Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Bilbao, España: Universidad de Deusto. González, J., & Wagenaar, R. (Eds.). (2006a). Tuning educational structures in Europe II: La contribución de las universidades al proceso de Bolonia. Bilbao, España: Publicaciones Universidad de Deusto. Acceso a través de http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/

Martínez, M. (2009). Análisis de las competencias desarrolladas en el aprendizaje autónomo y en el presencial: construyendo la autonomía del alumno universitario. Revista de Enseñanza Universitaria, 34, 4-14.

González, J., & Wagenaar, R. (Eds.). (2006b). Una introducción a Tuning educational structures in Europe: La contribución de las universidades al proceso de Bolonia. Bilbao, España: Publicaciones Universidad de Deusto. Acceso a través de http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/

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Serrano, J. M. (1996). El aprendizaje cooperativo. En J. L. Beltrán Llera y C. Genovard Roselló (Eds.), Psicología de la instrucción I. Variables y procesos básicos (pp.217-244). Madrid: Editorial Síntesis. Slavin, R. E. (1996). Research for the future: Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21(1), 43-69.

Tiziana Priede Bergamini y Cristina López-Cózar Navarro – El Desarrollo de la Capacidad Investigadora en Alumnos de Educación Superior

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---English translation--Research Skills Development in Higher Education Students Tiziana Priede Bergamini* Social Sciences Faculty European University of Madrid [email protected] Cristina Lopez-Cozar Navarro Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineering Polytechnic University of Madrid Abstract In the context of higher education, specifically in the social sciences area, developing individual and group skills in students is necessary for them to successfully reach their professional development. However, there are few occasions when activities specifically oriented to applied research are promoted. This study proposes a methodology based on the development of a research project for a Family Business Management third year course, which specifically promotes research skills in students. This is intended to improve individual skills and involve students in research tasks. Family business management is an area of fundamental importance within the study of business administration; however, research on this topic is not pursued at the same level of relevance. Thus, this activity proposes the development of a research project by students of this subject, with the dual purpose of promoting their critical analysis and research skills, as well as increasing their knowledge on this subject. Keywords: Family business, initiative research, analysis, team work Introduction The profound changes in traditional teaching methods as a result of the implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) are widely known. The academic community generally recognizes and accepts the big advantages students have in using new methodologies that promote, not only their own learning process, but also the development of different competences. In this context, competence is defined as the set of skills, abilities, knowledge, and responsibilities that describe learning outcomes of a degree, or a particular subject or course (Gonzalez & Wagenaar, 2006b ). To achieve this, it has been necessary for both teachers and students to change their behaviors and attitudes; in other words, teachers assume the role of mentors and students, in turn, must take responsibility for their own learning as the new educational model focuses the basis for knowledge in their own work (Benito Hernandez , Lopez- Cozar Navarro, & Priede Bergamini, 2010; Cano, 2009; Cuadrado Gordillo & Fernandez Antelo, 2008; Martínez , 2009). Competence development in students, thus, has become the great learning objective, promoting the use of new and different formative activities and influencing evaluation systems themselves (Gonzalez & Wagenaar, 2003). Among these formative activities, one of the most accepted is cooperative learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1999; Slavin, 1996). This tool, developed during the 1960s, has been evolving through the years and adapting to the diverse educational 65

*Corresponding author

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needs of the different knowledge areas where it has been applied. It is supported by the belief that student-student and professor-student interaction inside the classroom results in an exchange of skills and knowledge that improve group learning as a whole (Serrano, 1996). Thus, cooperative learning seeks to develop a positive interdependency, to enhance face-toface interaction, encourage individual responsibility, and improve social abilities (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). There are numerous studies in the literature related to cooperative learning, showing the benefits of this teaching strategy from experience (Domingo, 2008). Nonetheless, there are few occasions in which such activities are promoted, specifically designed to promote applied research. This study proposes a methodology based on the development of a research project on the subject “Family Business Management”, which encourages in a particular way research skills in students. Based on these principles, the authors propose this experience, developed through the 6 ECTS, first semester, third year course Family Business Management, for students enrolled in the Management and Entrepreneurship program, which lasts approximately 12 weeks. The authors believe this to be an interesting experience for the university community, as it is an activity that can be adapted to other subjects in degrees related to Business, and even subjects of any other degree. Justification and Objectives The so-called family businesses, despite their importance, are in many cases unknown. Given the importance of these organizations in the entrepreneurial fabric of most economies, it is not surprising that in recent years there is growing interest in their study. According to the Family Business Institute in Spain (Instituto de la Empresa Familiar, IEF by its initials in Spanish), there are 2.9 million family businesses in Spain, representing 85% of all enterprises, which generate about 70% of jobs in the private sector and contribute 70% of GDP and exports (IEF, 2009, p.19). In general terms, they can be defined as a business in which members of one or more families participate significantly in its capital, are actively involved in the management, and intend to pass on the business to future generations (Astrachan, Klein, & Smyrnios, 2002; Claver, Rienda, & Quer, 2009; Gallo, 1995; Lopez-Cozar Navarro & Priede Bergamini, 2009; Lopez-Cozar Navarro, Priede Bergamini, & Benito Hernández, 2013; Martin & Cabrera, 2007). Despite their importance, scientific and academic research on family businesses in Spain was not being developed until a few years ago. Through the Family Business Institute (IEF), lectures and professorships developed by various universities, as well as certain specific publications, there have been several research projects aimed to describe, identify, and understand the peculiarities of these businesses. In addition, the new Higher Education Area has allowed universities to incorporate into their curricula specific subjects related to family business management. One of the main conclusions gathered from the analyses of these businesses is their high mortality rate. In fact, according to the Family Business Institute, the average lifespan of a family business is 30 years compared to 40 for a nonfamily business (2009, p 19), and only 10% and 15% of companies manage to achieve transfer to the third generation (Bañegil Palacios, Barroso Martínez, & Tato Jimenez, 2011; Gallo, 1998; LopezCozar Navarro & Priede Bergamini, 2009). Spanish universities cannot remain aloof from this context and, more specifically, Business Administration studies should extend learning and knowledge of the issues affecting family businesses. It is therefore very appropriate to deepen existing knowledge to help understand the variables that generate such mortality and improve the overall performance of family businesses. Moreover, in line with the above, there is a shortage in the development of 66

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research activities for students in the social sciences in the context of higher education. Therefore, this activity presents the development of a research project by third year students in a Family Business Management course, with the dual purpose of promoting their critical analysis and research, as well as expand knowledge existing in this sector. This activity seeks to awaken in students an interest in scientific research related to family businesses. Students must undertake research related to a topic of interest of such organizations and deliver an article that follows the guidelines of scientific journals in the field. Subsequently, the main results of their research are presented in a specific class turned into a Family Business Seminar. Following the completion of this task, students should be able to: • Reflect on some specific aspect of the family business. • Apply the knowledge acquired throughout the course. • Learn to carry out scientific research. • Present ideas and research results. Teaching Experience Description: Scientific Research of Family Businesses The Family Business Management course is optional and is taught in the third year of the Management and Entrepreneurship degree. It takes place during 12 weeks over a full quarter. During the first six to eight weeks of class, the teacher introduces students to the concept of family business, their main characteristics, and specific processes. These first theoretical-practical sessions are necessary to lay the foundation that will enable students to later develop the practical work of scientific research of the family business. To perform this activity, the formation of working groups is necessary, which should consist of no more than six students. They can be formed freely, but once created teams must be approved by the teacher in order to obtain homogeneous groups. To initiate the investigation, the selection of topics is important, which must be original and will be chosen by students with teacher supervision after group members undertake a literature research to find and read articles. The teacher should assume the critical task of offering reading materials and providing guidance for information research. The teacher should also be mindful during this first contact step, to prevent students from being lost and demotivated, even proposing the assistance and support of the library staff for research tasks. Once topics are chosen and work teams organized, students are handed a rubric for the activity, which specifies that the research work consists of two parts and it must meet the minimum criteria of scientific publication. The first part is a short written article of about five to eight pages, which necessarily must include: an abstract -in Spanish and English- key words, literature review, research body, results, main findings and conclusions, study limitations, and future research. The article written must meet the formal requirements generally required by scientific journals. This is so that students are faced with this situation and understand that when an investigation of certain level is performed, what you say is important but also how you say it, and that if it does not meet the minimum requirements, will not be accepted by the academic community. Instilling in students seriousness and rigor in what they do helps them mature and become better professionals. On the same note, it is specified that content copied from a source of information should be in italics or inside quotation marks and properly cited. In such cases, it is essential to include a reference at the end of the paragraph with the information pertaining to the sources that have been used, and of course they must be included in the bibliography. There is an emphasis on the fact that any copied content without proper citations 67

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will be grounds for suspension, thereby attempting to eliminate the habit acquired by most students to cut and paste, presenting plagiarized content as original. Another relevant point regarding the investigation is the choice of methodology for conducting research, which is complex because students are still in their third year and do not have a broad methodological knowledge. However, efforts to find methods available to them should be encouraged, but at the same those methods should be deemed worthy and acceptable. The second part of the project consists of a brief oral presentation in which the main results of the research and main contributions are presented. These presentations take place all together in the form of a seminar or conference, even bringing together students from different class groups, as this practice was developed in parallel by the teachers who taught the same subject. The seminar was titled The Family Business in the XXI Century and took place during the last week of the course. During that last week, students receive the final grade for the activity, the evaluation described below, a closing session is conducted where conclusions are presented, and students have the opportunity to evaluate the activity through a satisfaction questionnaire presented by the professor. Evaluation Method As just mentioned, the activity consists of two clearly specified parts: writing an article and an oral presentation, each of which will be evaluated independently. Regarding the written article, which must comply with previously detailed theoretical content and formal aspects, the grade obtained will be common to all team members. In regards to the oral presentation, it must meet the detailed specifications and will take place on a date previously set by the teacher. The grade for this part will be individual to each student. This activity is evaluated based on four fundamental aspects: Written communication skills. They are evaluated from the document delivered by each team, and value is placed on aspects such as: the correct identification of the objective or purpose of the project and knowledge about what is really important when writing on the subject; text organization, coherence, and structure; absence of typos or grammatical or spelling errors; the clear presence of a theoretical and methodological perspective and development of findings, among other. Oral communication skills. It is intended so that the exposition is clear, concise, and within the stipulated time. The given time is measured by the teacher in order to prevent each group’s presentation to extend too long. Aspects valued during the presentations include eye contact with the audience, assurance and clarity of the oral presentation, and posture and body language. Team work development and cooperation. The result of the overall team work is valued. For the oral presentation part, value was placed on the coordination among team members, as well as how they organized themselves and made transitions among presenters. Specific questions were asked to each member of the group in order to determine their degree of involvement in the overall project. Moreover, the result of the written work is also assessed by analyzing features such as structure, formal aspects, and expression, among other, to determine whether the levels of consistency, uniformity, and meaning were achieved through the required team work. 68

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Development of creativity and innovation innovation.. This competence is directly related to the activity. Creativity and initiative will be evaluated through the analysis of the quality of information sources proposed by the students for the preparation of the article. The creativity in the oral presentations of the work to the university community will also be assessed. assessed The more appealing and distinctive presentations will receive higher valuations. Final grading of the team work for each student will be the arithmetic mean of the grade obtained in the written article and the oral presentation. In turn, the overall grade obtained with the development of this activity will represent 30% of the course’s final grade. Results and Conclusions The students evaluated the activity through a satisfaction survey conducted via the Internet, and 12 responses were obtained2. The questionnaire is based on a series of variables to be valued –based based in the objectives presented before before- in a Likert-scale scale from 1 to 5. Specifically, respondents were asked their opinion on the issues that are presented in Figure 1, which presents the results of the survey.

Figure 1. Satisfaction level with the described activity.

In view of the data presented, it can be observed that, in general, most students valued the activity in a very positive way. Students considered learning from the subject analyzed as important. The high valuation of the usefulness of the practice by most students stands out. Students have been able to appreciate as well learning from the development of a scientific research work, which was the main objective of this pedagogic activity. Competence development has also been highly valued; teamwork, initiativ initiative, e, and focus on results stand out among the most valued, although it is generally considered that this practice provides the opportunity to develop various competences satisfactorily. Also noteworthy is the work of the professor in following up with the pr projects, ojects, which was highly valued by the students. Finally, it

2

A priori it seems ms to be a reduced number of responses; however, it is necessary to clarify that just students in one of the courses could participate in the questionnaire. Thus, it is 12 responses out of 26 students, which comprises 46% of students. 69

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should be stressed that no variable showed a “very low” rating, which shows the overall student satisfaction with all the aspects developed in this initiative. A section for comments and recommendations was provided in the survey so that students could freely present their point of view. Comments have mainly emphasized the positive aspects of the project, welcoming the initiative and highlighting its usefulness. A specific comment should be mentioned, as it brings an interesting proposal for the future: “more motivation to students, perhaps with an internal magazine, or with the possibility of directly publishing to other places." This student proposed to launch a magazine within the University, in which students can publish their research or, alternatively, to receive support in order to be able to publish externally in a journal of interest. The idea has been well received as the best article could be selected and, with the support of the professor, sent to a journal so that students go through that experience. With respect to research topics proposed by students, the “Analysis of the degree of knowledge UEM students have regarding the family business and its main characteristics” is first cited, which sought to demonstrate through a student survey on campus the lack of knowledge and misconceptions students have about the family business and its importance in the economy. In second place, there was an “Analysis of transfer from first to second generation in the Spanish family business: Keys to continuity on the basis of the Codorniu case,” in which the students delved into one of the most important issues that family businesses face: generational transfer, and they did so with the study of one of the most ancient and interesting Spanish family businesses. Thirdly, an interesting and opportune work was presented regarding “The use of technology in the family business: Analysis of its influence in times of crisis”, which showed the current state of information and communication technology use in family businesses through an empirical study, reaching interesting conclusions. Finally, there was a “Case study: When is the best time for integrating professionalism in a family business,” which focused around the objective of investigating and analyzing the professionalization of family businesses, conducting surveys directly with family business managers, and concluding that the best solution regarding professionalism depends on the situations and possibilities of each enterprise. The scores obtained were very high and ranged between 8 and 9.5 in writing assignments, and 8 and 10 in oral presentations (on a 1-10 scale). The day of the presentation, the class became a true congress of experts on the subject and the students thoroughly enjoyed their participation and each others’ experience. In sum, this is a very interesting and recommended pedagogic proposal since, as shown, students learn to cope with the completion of a real research project, allowing them to grow and learn in a very active way, which impacts in a very positive way on their overall training. This was for a third-year elective course with an agenda that is ideally suited to educational innovation and the development of educational alternatives, in an ideal time for students to learn to investigate. With the development of this educational initiative, the following objectives have been achieved: to familiarize students with scientific research; make sure students are cable of finding information through primary sources; to have students apply the knowledge acquired during the course and be able to delve into the aspects they find most interesting; to promote responsibility in students, so they are capable of setting goals and planning the necessary work to achieve them; to cultivate in students the capacity to summarize ideas and expose them in a reasoned way; to have students learn from the experiences and knowledge of others; and to develop in students the capacity to synthesize all that information. Ultimately, the students become the center of their own learning. It has been an interesting experience, very enriching 70

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for both all students and professors. Undoubtedly, it will be repeated with some improvements in subsequent courses.

References Astrachan J., Klein S., & Smyrnios K. (2002). The FPEC scale of family influence: A proposal for solving the family business definition problem. Family Business Review 15(1), 4558. doi:10.1111/j.1741-6248.2002.00045.x Bañegil Palacios, T. M., Barroso Martínez, A., & Tato Jiménez, J. L. (2011). Profesionalizarse, emprender y aliarse para que la empresa familiar continúe [Becoming professional, entrepreneurship and alliances for the continuance of the family business]. Revista de Empresa Familiar, 1(2), 27-41. Benito Hernández, S., López-Cózar Navarro, C., & Priede Bergamini, T. (2011). Propuesta de una investigación participativa para la asignatura “Administración de la empresa familiar”: Utilización del análisis comparativo y la entrevista en profundidad [Proposal for a participative investigation for a “Family business management” course: Using comparative analysis and in-depth interviews]. RED Revista de Educación a Distancia, 2, 1-24. Cano González, R. (2009). Tutoría universitaria y aprendizaje por competencias. ¿Cómo lograrlo? [College tutoring and competence learning. How to achieve it?]. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 12(1), 181-204. Cuadrado Gordillo, I., & Fernández Antelo, I. (2008). Nuevas competencias del profesor en el EEES: Una experiencia de innovación docente [New teacher competences in the EHEA: An experience in teaching innovation]. Revista Electrónica Teoría de la Educación. Educación y Cultura en la Sociedad de la Información, 9(1), 197-211. Claver, E., Rienda, L., & Quer, D. (2009). Family firms’ international commitment: The influence of family-related factors. Family Business Review, 22(2), 125-135. Domingo, J. (2008). El aprendizaje cooperativo [Cooperative learning]. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social, 21, 231-246. Gallo, M. (1995). The role of family business and its distinctive characteristic behavior in 71

industrial activity. Family Business Review, 8(2), 83-97. Gallo, M. (1998). La sucesión en la empresa familiar [Succession in family business]. Colección estudios e informes, núm. 12. Barcelona, Spain: Caja de Ahorros y Pensiones de Barcelona. González, J., & Wagenaar, R. (2003). Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Bilbao, Spain: Universidad de Deusto. González, J., &Wagenaar, R. (Eds.). (2006a). Tuning educational structures in Europe II: Universities’ contributions to the Bologna Process. Bilbao, Spain: Publicaciones Universidad de Deusto. Retrieved from http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/ González, J., & Wagenaar, R. (Eds.). (2006b). Universities’ contributions to the Bologna Process - An introduction. Bilbao, Spain: Publicaciones Universidad de Deusto. Retrieved from http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/ Instituto de Empresa Familiar [IEF]. (2009). El Instituto de la Empresa Familiar [The Family Business Institute] [Brochure]. Madrid, Spain: IEF. Retrieved from http://www.iefamiliar.com Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1989). Cooperative learning: What special education teachers need to know. Pointer, 33(2), 5-11. doi:10.1080/05544246.1989.9945370 Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1999). Aprender juntos y solos: Aprendizaje cooperativo, competitivo e individualista [Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive and individual learning]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Aique. López-Cózar Navarro, C., & Priede Bergamini, T. (2009). Empresa familiar: Claves para su supervivencia en un mundo cambiante [Family business: Keys for its survival in a changing world]. La Coruña, Spain: Netbiblo. López-Cózar Navarro, C., Priede Bergamini, T., & Benito Hernández, S. (2013). Influencia de la deuda en la estrategia de exportación de la empresa familia [The influence of debt in the

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exportation strategy of family businesses]. Revista de Empresa Familiar, 3(1), 31-46.

college students]. Revista de Enseñanza Universitaria, 34, 4-14.

Martín, J. y Cabrera, K. (2007). La gestión del marketing estratégico en la pequeña empresa familiar [Strategic marketing management in small family businesses]. Cuadernos de Gestión, 7(1), 85-100.

Serrano, J. M. (1996). El aprendizaje cooperativo [Cooperative learning]. In J. L. Beltrán Llera y C. Genovard Roselló (Eds.), Psicología de la instrucción I. Variables y procesos básicos (pp.217-244). Madrid, Spain: Editorial Síntesis.

Martínez, M. (2009). Análisis de las competencias desarrolladas en el aprendizaje autónomo y en el presencial: construyendo la autonomía del alumno universitario [Analysis of developed competences in autonomous and classroom learning: Building autonomy in

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Slavin, R. E. (1996). Research for the future: Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21(1), 43-69.

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Estudio Cualitativo sobre Tutoría Universitaria a Través del Método de Panel de Expertos Inmaculada López Martín* Departamento de Enfermería Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud Universidad Europea de Madrid España [email protected]

Bienvenido Gazapo Andrade Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Universidad Europea de Madrid, España José Ma. De Arana del Valle Escuela de Arquitectura Universidad Europea de Madrid, España

Ascensión Blanco Fernández Facultad de Ciencias Biomédicas Universidad Europea de Madrid, España

Esther A. Pizarro Juanas Facultad de Artes y Comunicación Universidad Europea de Madrid, España

Rosa Ma. Pagán Marín Facultad de Ciencias Biomédicas Universidad Europea de Madrid, España

Beatriz Martínez Pascual Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud Universidad Europea de Madrid, España Resumen

La implantación de un plan de acción tutorial (PAT) de calidad, en el cual la formación integral del alumnado sea lo principal, es un tema de actualidad en el entorno universitario español. El presente trabajo persigue identificar las acciones contempladas en los PAT de diferentes universidades españolas, así como catalogar los diferentes tipos de actividades realizadas por los profesorestutores en el contexto de la acción tutorial. Para ello se realizó un análisis cualitativo basado en paneles de expertos. Como resultado, se extrajeron tres vectores principales: Elementos habituales en un PAT universitario; Aspectos críticos desde los tutores y gestores de la acción tutorial; y Acciones en tutoría con sello de calidad. Del análisis realizado se concluyó que la acción tutorial de calidad es la base de la excelencia académica. Su consecución requiere clarificar y reconocer el papel del tutor, ajustar las proporciones de tutelados asignados de manera adecuada y potenciar el desarrollo de competencias transversales en el alumno. Para ello, se propone la coordinación transversal entre el profesorado, así como con servicios de orientación y apoyo; la formación y profesionalización de los tutores; y la aplicación de métodos de trabajo que permitan la adecuada orientación y seguimiento del alumnado. Palabras clave: Tutoría universitaria, metodología cualitativa, innovación docente, panel de expertos, plan de acción tutorial Introducción La implicación del estudiante con un proyecto académico y profesional propio, marca la frontera entre un aprendizaje adulto, comprometido y autónomo y un aprendizaje infantil, incapaz de percibir el sentido último de las propias acciones y esfuerzos (Paricio, 2005). Esta convicción nace de la experiencia que aporta la convivencia estrecha con los estudiantes universitarios que reclaman, no sólo la adquisición de conocimientos teóricos, sino de 73

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competencias que les capaciten de cara al ejercicio profesional. Por ello, la afirmación “el estudiante en el centro y su formación integral” (Universidad Europea de Madrid, 2011) es el primer pilar del Plan de Acción Tutorial (PAT) de la Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM). Ésta se concreta en trabajar las siguientes áreas competenciales: 1) habilidades para el trabajo intelectual; 2. actitudes hacia el trabajo (responsabilidad en el trabajo que se realiza, motivación e iniciativa); y 3. actitudes hacia la cooperación y el trabajo con otros (UEM, 2006). Esta nueva forma de ejercicio de la acción tutorial es compleja, en cuanto que es “una actividad de carácter formativo, que incide en el desarrollo integral de los estudiantes universitarios en su dimensión intelectual, académica, profesional y personal” (Ferrer, 2003). Esta acción compromete por igual a estudiantes (que reciben del tutor información y orientación para la toma de decisiones personales), a profesores (que participan en la toma de decisiones de los estudiantes) y a la misma institución universitaria (que detecta necesidades e insuficiencias, tanto globales como de los estudiantes en su desarrollo personal y profesional). Las dificultades que aparecen son múltiples, y se diferencian entre las que nacen de lo ambicioso del proyecto y las que proceden de fuera del mismo (García Nieto,1996), según citado en el trabajo de García Nieto, Asensio Muñoz, Carballo Santaolalla, García García, & Guardia González (2005). Entre las primeras, se encuentran: • Unificar el proceso educativo, evitando su fragmentación, para conseguir una verdadera educación integral; • Garantizar la adecuada formación académica del estudiante; • Formar en valores; y • Sensibilizar al profesorado. Según García Nieto et at. (2005), esto es un requisito imprescindible para que el profesorado se adapte de manera real al nuevo contexto universitario. Entre las segundas: • La diversidad de los estudiantes, creando un conjunto abigarrado de diferentes aptitudes e intereses; • Los intereses institucionales y disponibilidad de recursos; y • Las resistencias al cambio. Desde la implicación de los autores de este trabajo en la acción tutorial, parecía preciso preguntarse si los tutores estaban ofreciendo lo que necesitan y demandan los estudiantes para desarrollar sus capacidades y para orientar de forma acertada su formación en la universidad. En esta línea de indagación, los objetivos de esta investigación son: • Identificar las acciones contempladas en planes de acción tutorial de diferentes universidades españolas. • Catalogar los diferentes tipos de actividades realizadas por los profesores-tutores en el contexto de la acción tutorial. Metodología En el marco de una investigación de innovación educativa de diseño mixto (cualitativa y cuantitativa), iniciado en el año 2010, este estudio constituye la fase final del proyecto “La tutoría personalizada como motor de desarrollo de competencias en los alumnos de nuevo ingreso en la Universidad Europea de Madrid” (FASE II: Prórroga proyecto 2010-2011). 74

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Mediante un enfoque interpretativo, y por lo tanto enmarcado en un diseño cualitativo, se ha utilizado el panel de expertos como estrategia de recogida de información. El Panel de Expertos: Un Método de Consenso En los contextos de investigación cualitativa, el interés está puesto en el discurso de los participantes. El marco de referencia es el lenguaje, la semántica o significados, buscando determinar los sentidos de los fenómenos sociales analizados. Las técnicas o métodos de consenso, como la técnica Delphi, el Brainstorming, y el grupo nominal o panel de expertos, pretenden obtener “el grado de consenso o acuerdo de los especialistas sobre el problema planteado, utilizando los resultados de investigaciones anteriores, en lugar de dejar la decisión a un solo profesional” (Pérez, 2000, p. 320) . Según Pérez (2000), la diferencia entre el Delphi y el panel de expertos reside en que en el primero los miembros del grupo nunca llegan a reunirse y no se conocen, y los segundos se reúnen en un grupo de trabajo y por lo tanto interaccionan. Dada la variabilidad entre los diferentes métodos llamados de consenso, y conceptualizaciones de los paneles, los autores del presente trabajo entienden al panel de expertos como un grupo de especialistas, independientes del equipo de investigadores, que mediante su intervención activa y grupal, emiten una opinión colectiva sobre el tema a tratar (López, 2013). En este estudio, los autores optaron por un el panel de expertos de tipo informal, y el análisis que se realizó de lo aportado por los participantes se llevó a partir de la grabación de sus opiniones, percepciones e información sobre sus respectivos entornos académicos. Se organizaron dos paneles, uno con seis participantes externos (una hora y media de duración) y otro con seis profesores internos, tutores de la UEM (una hora). El panel de expertos externos encontró correspondencia con el grupo focal, el cual “constituye una técnica especial dentro de la más amplia categoría de entrevista grupal, cuyo sello característico es el uso explícito de la interacción para producir datos que serían menos accesibles sin la interacción en grupo” (Morgan, 1988; según parafraseado por García Calvente & Mateo Rodríguez, 2000, p. 181). El panel de expertos interno, según las fuentes consultadas, se correspondería con el concepto de grupo de discusión. García y Mateo (2000, p. 181), argumentan, basándose en los trabajos de Alonso (1994) y Canales (1994), que este “está diseñado para investigar los lugares comunes de un grupo de personas que, colocadas en una situación discursiva (conversación), tienden a representar discursos más o menos tópicos de los grupos sociales a los que pertenecen”. Perfil de los Participantes Las técnicas de consenso no precisan de un diseño de muestra estricto, ni en número de participantes, ni en cuanto a la selección de las personas (Pérez, 2000). La selección de la muestra se realizó mediante muestreo teórico, por lo tanto intencionado, mediante informantes clave relacionados con el ámbito de la acción tutorial universitaria. Los criterios que guiaron la selección, en el caso del panel externo, fue la representatividad en el grupo de diferentes universidades con trayectoria en proyectos de acción tutorial, públicas o privadas, del entorno español. Y en el caso del panel interno, la elección de profesores-tutores con experiencia de 75

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varios años en el ejercicio de la tutorización de estudiantes, de diferentes facultades de la UE Madrid. Perfil de integrantes del panel de expertos externo. Gestores académicos de acción tutorial/servicio de orientación, en las siguientes universidades: Universidad de Extremadura, Universidad de Cádiz, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Madrid), Universidad Politécnica de Barcelona y UEM. Perfil de integrantes del Panel de expertos internos. Profesores-tutores de las siguientes áreas académicas de la UEM: Ciencias de la Salud, Ciencias Biomédicas, Escuela Politécnica, y Actividad Física y Deportes. Procedimiento de Trabajo en los Paneles de Expertos Se les presentó a los participantes un extracto con los objetivos generales del estudio y resultados preliminares. Con anterioridad y en el momento de la propuesta de participación en el panel, se les había explicado el objetivo de la reunión y la temática sobre la cual se les solicitaba su opinión. El planteamiento de la reunión fue abierto, y a partir de dos preguntas: • ¿Qué acciones se están contemplando desde los PAT para desarrollar competencias transversales en los estudiantes de nuevo ingreso?; • ¿Qué acciones deberían / podrían realizar los tutores para influir o promover el desarrollo de competencias transversales en los estudiantes tutelados? Cada panel o grupo fue moderado por un miembro del equipo investigador con experiencia en la realización de grupos focales, mientras que otro investigador asumió el papel de observador. Proceso de Análisis El discurso grupal fue grabado y transcrito para su posterior análisis. La lectura y procesamiento inicial del discurso se realizó de forma individualizada por varios investigadores del equipo, con el objetivo de identificar fragmentos de significado a los que se les otorgó un código preliminar. En una segunda lectura (análisis avanzado), se refinaron los códigos iniciales y se reunificaron en códigos avanzados. La fase final del proceso de análisis conllevó un tercer análisis, en el que investigadores expertos consensuaron la agrupación de los códigos avanzados en diferentes categorías, de las cuales finalmente emergieron vectores o dominios transversales. Resultados y Discusión Tras un análisis avanzado de las transcripciones de los paneles interno y externo, los códigos avanzados obtenidos fueron agrupados en cinco categorías principales (Tabla 1). Categorías Acciones contempladas en los Planes de Acción Tutorial

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Códigos Avanzados – Definición, funciones y tareas del tutor – Formas de asignación de tutelados – Formación del tutor – Seguimiento del alumno en función del curso y necesidades – Diferentes modalidades de tutoría

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– Evaluación: Métodos cuantitativos – Obligatoriedad/voluntariedad Difusión de la tutoría Utilidad de la tutoría

Inquietudes del tutor en la práctica de la acción tutorial

– – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Buenas prácticas en tutoría

Utilización del foro, en línea, en clase Resolver problemas de adaptación del primer curso Acompañamiento Identificación de problemas Solución de conflictos Gestión del tiempo Apoyo personal/moral Autoevaluación Proporción de tutelados Coincidencia del tutor con el profesor de primer curso Reconocimiento de la tutoría como docencia Formación y profesionalización de los tutores Motivación del alumno hacia la tutoría Obligatoriedad/voluntariedad

– Análisis de necesidades del alumnado como punto de partida – Presencia del tutor – Número de tutelados (mínimo/máximo) – Criterios de asignación adecuados – Desarrollo académico y personal del tutelado – Desarrollo de competencias transversales en tutoría – Tutorías con contenido – Coordinación transversal del profesorado – Formación adecuada de los tutores – Servicio de orientación y apoyo a tutores y alumnos

Tabla 1. Consenso de Categorías y Códigos Avanzados Asociados tras el Análisis Cualitativo Avanzado

Asimismo, de la fase final del análisis cualitativo del panel de expertos, y como resultado de la reorganización de las categorías y códigos avanzados, emergieron tres vectores o dominios (Tabla 2). En estas grandes áreas, se reunieron acciones contempladas en los planes de acción tutorial de diferentes universidades españolas, así como actividades realizadas por los profesores-tutores de diversas áreas de conocimiento de la UEM. Vectores Elementos habituales en un programa de acción tutorial universitario

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Categorías -Acciones contempladas en los Planes de Acción Tutorial -Difusión de la tutoría

Códigos Avanzados -Formas de asignación de tutelados -Definición, funciones y tareas del tutor -Formación como tutor -Diferentes modalidades de tutoría -Formas de convocatoria -Seguimiento del alumno en función del curso y necesidades -Evaluación: Métodos cuantitativos

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Aspectos críticos identificados por los tutores y gestores de acción tutorial

-Inquietudes del tutor en la práctica de la acción tutorial -Buenas prácticas en tutoría

Acciones en tutoría con “sello de calidad”

-Buenas prácticas en tutoría -Utilidad de la tutoría

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- Proporción alta de tutelados - ¿Tutor de carrera o tutor de curso lectivo? - Reconocimiento de la tutoría como docencia - Formación y profesionalización de los tutores - Motivación del alumnado hacia la tutoría -Obligatoriedad/voluntariedad de la tutoría -Desarrollo de competencias transversales en tutoría -Servicio de orientación y apoyo a tutores y alumnos -Coordinación transversal del profesorado -Racionalizar la proporción de alumno-tutor -Análisis de las necesidades del alumnado como punto de partida -Seguimiento/Acompañamiento -Método en tutoría: Análisis-Metas-AcciónSeguimiento (A.M.A.S)

Tabla 2. Vectores y Categorías Definidas tras el Análisis Avanzado

Elementos Habituales en un Programa de Acción Tutorial (PAT) Universitario Se entienden como elementos habituales en un programa de acción tutorial (PAT) universitario todos aquellos aspectos descritos en los documentos de acción tutorial que organizan y estructuran el programa de tutorías, de forma que constituya el marco y guía para el desarrollo de la acción tutorial de los profesores. Existe coincidencia entre los elementos asociados al PAT que emergen de los discursos recogidos en ambos paneles de expertos y los descritos por otros autores (Gairín, Feixas, Franch, Guillamón, & Quinquer, 2003). Los participantes expresaron disparidad de criterios a la hora de asignar tutor dependiendo de la Universidad o área de la que procedían. Por ejemplo, un participante expresó que “Es muy difícil la tutoría si no veo a los tutelados. Me parece que tenemos que trabajar en quién asigna, cómo se asigna…También el alumno tiene que poder escoger con quién se compenetra mejor. A lo mejor dejar un porcentaje de alumnos que a partir de segundo puedan escoger, siempre que todos tengamos un mínimo” (panel externo). Por otro lado, los participantes en ambos paneles destacaron la importancia de definir la figura del tutor, especificar cuáles son sus funciones, así como las tareas que debe desarrollar para llevar a cabo una tutoría efectiva y de buena calidad. Esta cuestión ha surgido en estudios anteriores realizados sobre la labor del tutor en la UEM (López Martín et al., 2008). Como indicó otro de los participantes, “Es muy importante que el alumno tenga claro para qué sirve el tutor” (panel interno). Igual de importante se considera el estudio de las vías y recursos que se habilitarán para la formación del profesorado universitario como tutor. Las universidades contemplan diferentes modalidades de tutoría (presencial/online, individual/grupal, de desarrollo de competencias...) que pueden ser requeridas por el alumnado o por la modalidad de enseñanza, así como establecer las posibles formas de convocatoria (a través de foros, on-line, presencial...) de las que dispondrán los diferentes profesores tutores, para establecer el contacto con el alumnado (UEM, 2011). En palabras de un participante, “Lo que se nos pauta el protocolo...es comunicarnos con los alumnos, convocándoles vía correo electrónico o a través 78

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del aula o a través del foro del tutor o por los pasillos” (panel interno). En este sentido, existe cierto consenso en que las funciones del tutor deben ser difundidas entre el alumnado tutelado, como elemento imprescindible en el marco de la aplicación del PAT universitario. Por último, otro punto codificado que resaltaron los integrantes de los paneles fue el tipo de seguimiento del alumno tutelado que se debería realizar, contemplando tanto las necesidades y características individuales como las grupales. En este sentido, este estudio pone en evidencia que las necesidades de los alumnos varían ampliamente en función del curso y de la capacidad de adaptación individual. Por tanto, los requerimientos son diferentes entre el alumnado y deben tenerse en cuenta para el abordaje de la acción tutorial. Asimismo, es necesario establecer un método cuantitativo de evaluación apropiado que permita estimar de forma objetiva cuales son los beneficios que aporta la tutoría. Aspectos Críticos Desde los Tutores y Gestores de Acción Tutorial Los aspectos críticos identificados por los tutores y gestores del PAT quedaron definidos como una serie de inquietudes que surgen durante la práctica de la acción tutorial, que podrían comprometer la calidad, el empleo de buenas prácticas en tutoría e incluso la viabilidad del cumplimiento de los objetivos propuestos (Tabla 3).

Aspecto Crítico

Citas en los Paneles Externos (Panel Ext.) e Internos (Panel Int.)

Proporción alta de tutelados

No podemos tener cuarenta. Yo no puedo gestionar cuarenta alumnos (panel int.)

¿Tutor de carrera o tutor de curso lectivo?

Estaría muy bien que el profesor sea un acompañante del alumno toda su carrera (panel int.). Fíjate que yo me planteaba no asignar un tutor a un alumno que tuviera clase con él, intenté que estuvieran des-vinculados para que el alumno estuviera más suelto, lo mismo estaba equivocada pero así lo hice (panel ext.).

Reconocimiento de la tutoría como docencia

En un principio sí que tuvo una descarga docente (el tutor), luego eso se quitó cuando empezaron los recortes, lo primero que se quitó fue la descarga docente por tutoría (panel ext.)

Formación y profesionalización de los tutores

Tenemos sesenta horas de formación y no te han enseñado a gestionar conflictos (panel int.). Dan cursos de formación para profesores-tutores y a veces no se cubren, la realidad es que los profesores no están demasiado a favor de “perder tiempo” (panel ext.).

Motivación del alumnado hacia la tutoría

Llenar de contenido la tutoría es importante para que el alumno acuda y se desarrolle en competencias (panel int.) Cuando a ellos les interesa la cosa funciona, el problema es cuando no le[s] ofreces algo por eso fue por lo que nosotros pensamos en dotar de contenido (panel ext.)

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Obligatoriedad /voluntariedad de la tutoría

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El alumno tiene que venir porque son las tres obligatorias pero el rendimiento que se llevaba esa tutoría era bajo, generalmente se hacían grupales porque el profesor no podía “dar abasto” a una tutoría individual (panel ext.) Si la tutoría fuera obligatoria perdería importancia (panel int.)

Tabla 3. Citas Sobre Aspectos Críticos en la Acción Tutorial

Acciones en Tutoría con “Sello de Calidad” Los participantes, especialmente los del panel externo, opinaron que la tutoría debe ser un espacio de desarrollo de las competencias transversales de los estudiantes, entre las que se destacan identificación de problemas, gestión del tiempo y solución de conflictos. Para ello se requiere analizar las necesidades individuales del alumnado como punto de partida. Los servicios de orientación y apoyo pueden ser un excelente recurso para asesorar a los tutores, así como dar respuesta a las dificultades pedagógicas detectadas en los alumnos. No obstante, la coordinación transversal entre el profesorado juega un papel primordial para detectar situaciones y ofrecer orientación bien articulada. Para todo ello, la proporción alumnos/tutor debe permitir tiempo de dedicación al estudiante, con el consiguiente reconocimiento de esta actividad docente en el profesorado. Todos estos elementos permitirán el seguimiento y acompañamiento de forma periódica y eficaz con objeto de poder reanalizar los objetivos iniciales planteados, evaluar las metas conseguidas y replantear otras nuevas metas y acciones de manera continuada hasta alcanzar la formación integral del alumno, tanto académica, como en valores. Una experiencia también muy positiva en nuestra universidad, genérica para el campus de Cáceres y Badajoz para alumnos de primero, un taller exclusivo en formación en competencias transversales concretas. (Panel externo) El servicio de orientación es la referencia cuando detecto que un alumno tiene problemas, son los que han ayudado en el desarrollo de competencias y habilidades, […] tienen una sesión maravillosa que los chavales salen encantados. (Panel externo) Conclusiones La acción tutorial es una realidad necesaria y altamente valorada y reconocida tanto por alumnos como profesores. Se considera la base de la excelencia académica y se torna imprescindible para la creación de una formación completa e integral de los estudiantes universitarios. Existe un consenso entre los expertos en tutoría y los profesores universitarios, en la necesidad de clarificar el rol del tutor/mentor, en la necesidad del reconocimiento de dicha labor y en el ajuste del número de tutelados por profesor. El alumno debe conocer con antelación la relación existente entre él y su tutor, así como, sus funciones. La tutoría de calidad contempla el desarrollo de competencias transversales, incidiendo en la identificación de problemas, gestión del tiempo y solución de conflictos. Para ello, se requiere el análisis de las necesidades del alumno como punto de partida de la tutoría, así 80

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como la aplicación de un método de abordaje personalizado de la tutoría, que permita establecer objetivos y realizar un seguimiento de las acciones emprendidas por el estudiante. Asimismo parece necesario disponer de un servicio de orientación tanto para el profesorado como para el alumnado. Por último, la coordinación transversal del profesorado repercute positivamente en el desarrollo de buenas prácticas en tutoría.

Referencias Ferrer, J. (2003). La acción tutorial en la Universidad. En F. Michavila F., García J. (Eds.), La tutoría y los nuevos modos de aprendizaje en la Universidad (pp. 67-84). Madrid, España: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Cátedra UNESCO) & Comunidad de Madrid. Gairín, J., Feixas, M., Franch, J., Guillamón, C., & Quinquer, D. (2003). Elementos para la elaboración de planes de tutoría en la universidad. Contextos Educativos, 6-7, 2142. García Calvente, M. M., & Mateo Rodríguez, I. (2000). El grupo focal como técnica de investigación cualitativa en salud: Diseño y puesta en práctica. Atención Primaria, 25(3), 181-186. García Nieto, N., Asensio Muñoz, I., Carballo Santaolalla, R., García García, M., & Guardia González, S. (2005). La tutoría universitaria ante el proceso de armonización europea. Revista De Educación (Madrid), 337, 189-210. López Martín, I., Blanco Fernández, A., Icarán Francisco, E. M., Velasco Quintana P. J., Castaño Perea, E., & Pagola Aldazabal, I. (2008). La figura y cualidades del tutor en la Acción Tutorial desde la percepción de los

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estudiantes de la Universidad Europea de Madrid. En O. García & E. Icarán (Coords.), V Jornadas de Innovación Universitaria. Madrid, España: UEM. Acceso a través de www.uem.es López Martín, I. (2013). La tutoría/mentoría como espacio para el desarrollo de competencias transversales en los estudiantes. Serie de Webinars en Innovación Educativa. Disponible en imy.laureate.net Paricio, J. (2005). Objetivos y contenidos de la acción tutorial en el ámbito de las titulaciones universitarias. Zaragoza, España: Instituto de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Zaragoza. Pérez, C. (2000). ¿Deben estar las técnicas de consenso incluidas entre las técnicas de investigación cualitativa? Revista Española de Salud Pública, 74, 319-321. Universidad Europea de Madrid [UEM]. (2006). Plan de Aprendizaje Personalizado 2006 [sin publicar]. Acceso a través de http://www.uem.es/ Universidad Europea de Madrid [UEM]. (2011). Plan de Acción Tutorial 2010/11 [sin publicar]. Acceso a través de http://www.uem.es/

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---English translation--Qualitative Study of College Tutoring Through the Expert Panel Method Inmaculada López Martín* Nursing Department Faculty of Health Sciences European University of Madrid Spain [email protected]

Bienvenido Gazapo Andrade Faculty of Social Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain José Ma. De Arana del Valle School of Architecture European University of Madrid, Spain

Ascensión Blanco Fernández Faculty of Biomedical Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain

Esther A. Pizarro Juanas Faculty of Arts and Communication European University of Madrid, Spain

Rosa Ma. Pagán Marín Faculty of Biomedical Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain

Beatriz Martínez Pascual Faculty of Health Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain Abstract

The implementation of a quality Tutorial Action Plan (TAP), in which the integral formation of students is the main objective, is a topical issue in the Spanish university environment . This paper aims to identify the actions contemplated in the TAPs of different Spanish universities and catalog the different types of activities performed by the teachers-tutors in the context of tutorial action. To achieve this, the authors conducted a qualitative analysis based on expert panels. As a result, three main vectors were extracted: Standard elements in a college TAP, critical aspects from tutors and managers of tutorial actions, and tutorial actions with a seal of quality. From the analysis it was concluded that quality tutorial action is the basis for academic excellence. Its achievement requires to clarify and recognize the role of the tutor, adjust appropriately the ratio of students allocated per tutor, and promote the development of transversal skills in students. For this, the authors propose a cross-coordination among teachers, as well as counseling and support; tutor training and professionalism; and the application of working methods that allow proper guidance and monitoring of students. Keywords: College tutoring, qualitative methodology, pedagogic innovation, expert panel, tutorial action plan Introduction Student involvement with an academic and professional project of their own marks the boundary between adult learning, committed and autonomous, child learning, unable to perceive the ultimate meaning of their own actions and efforts (Paricio, 2005). This conviction is born out of the experience that comes with the close coexistence with college students claiming, not only the acquisition of theoretical knowledge, but also skills that enable them to face a profession. Therefore, the statement "the student at the center and comprehensive training" (Universidad Europea de Madrid, 2011) is the first pillar of the Tutorial Action Plan or TAP (Plan 82

*Corresponding author

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de Acción Tutorial or PAT, by its initials in Spanish) of the Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM). This foundation is fullfilled by working the following competency areas: 1) intellectual work skills; 2) attitudes toward work (responsibility for the work done, motivation, and initiative); and 3) attitudes toward cooperating and working with others (UEM , 2006). This new form of exercise of the tutorial action is complex in that it is “a formative activity, which affects the overall development of college students in their intellectual, academic, professional, and personal dimension” (Ferrer, 2003 [translated]). This action commits equally students (who receive from the tutor information and guidance for personal decision making), faculty (who participate in the students’ decision making), and the very university (which detects needs and shortcomings, both globally and in students in their personal and professional development). The difficulties encountered are many and differ from those born from the ambition of the project and those from outside it (García Nieto, 1996), as cited in the work of García Nieto, Asensio Muñoz, Carballo Santaolalla, García García , Guard & González (2005). Among the former are: • Unifying the educational process, avoiding its fragmentation, in order to achieve a truly comprehensive education; • Ensuring the students’ adequate academic training; • Values education; and • Sensitize the faculty. According to García Nieto et at. (2005), this is a must for teachers to adapt to the new way of actual university context requirement. Among the latter: • Student diversity, creating a variegated set of different skills and interests; • The institutional interests and availability of resources; and • Resistance to change. Since the involvement of the authors of this work in tutorial action, it seemed appropriate to ask whether the tutors were offering what students need and require in order to develop their skills and to successfully guide their training in college. In this line of inquiry, the objectives of this research are: • Identify actions under tutorial action plans of different Spanish universities. • Cataloging the different types of activities undertaken by class teachers in the context of the tutorial. Methodology As part of a mixed design investigation of educational innovation (qualitative and quantitative), launched in 2010, this study is the final phase of the project La tutoría personalizada como motor de desarrollo de competencias en los alumnos de nuevo ingreso en la Universidad Europea de Madrid (FASE II: Prórroga proyecto 2010-2011) [Personalized tutoring as motor for competence development in freshmen students in the Universidad Europea de Madrid - PHASE II: Extension project 2010-2011]. Using an interpretive approach, and therefore framed in a qualitative design, the authors used a panel of experts as a strategy for gathering information.

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The Panel of Experts: A Consensus Method In the context of qualitative research, the interest is on the participants dialogue. The framework is language, semantics or meanings, seeking to determine the meanings of the analyzed social phenomena. Consensus techniques or methods, such as the Delphi Method, brainstorming, and nominal group or panel of experts seek to obtain “the degree of consensus or agreement of the specialists on the problem posed, using the results of previous research, rather than leaving the decision to a single professional” (Pérez, 2000, p. 320 [translated]). According to Perez (2000), the difference between the Delphi Method and the expert panel is that, in the first group, members never meet and are do not know each other, and in the second they meet in a workgroup and therefore interact. Given the variability between the different methods called consensus, and the conceptualizations of panels, the authors of this study understand the panel of experts to be a group of specialists, independent from the research team, that through their active and group intervention emit a collective opinion on the topic at hand (López, 2013). In this study, the researchers chose a panel of experts of the informal type, and the participants’ contributions analysis was made from recording their opinions, perceptions, and information about their respective academic environments. Two panels were organized, one with six external participants (one and a half hours long) and one with six internal faculty, which were UEM tutors (one hour long). The panel of outside experts found connection with the focus group, which "constitutes a special technique within the broader category of group interview, whose hallmark is the explicit use of interaction to produce data that would be less accessible without the interaction group" ( Morgan, 1988, as paraphrased by García Calvente & Mateo Rodríguez, 2000 , p. 181 [translated]). The panel of internal experts, according to sources consulted, would correspond to the concept of group discussion. García & Mateo (2000, p. 181 ) argued, based on the works of Alonso (1994) and Canales (1994), that this "is designed to investigate the commonplaces of a group of people that, placed in a discursive situation (conversation), tend to represent dialogues more or less topical of the social groups to which they belong” [translated]. Profile of Participants Consensus techniques do not require a strict sample design, neither in the number of participants nor in terms of their selection (Perez, 2000). The sample selection was performed using theoretical sampling, thus intentional, through key informants related to the field of university tutorial action. The criteria that guided the selection, in the case of the external panel, were based on the representativeness in the group, from different universities, whether public or private, with experience in tutorial action projects within the Spanish context. And, in the case of the internal panel, the choice of teachers-tutors with several years experience in the practice of tutoring students, from different faculties within the UEM. Profile for members of the external experts panel. Academic managers of tutorial action/counseling services from the following universities: University of Extremadura, University of Cádiz, University of Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Madrid), Polytechnic University of Barcelona, and UEM. 84

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Profile for members of the internal experts panel. Teachers-tutors from the following academic areas within the UEM: Health Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Polytechnic School, and Athletics and Exercise. Working Procedure in Expert Panels Participants were presented with a synopsis of the overall objectives of the study and preliminary results. Prior to, and at the time of the proposal to participate in the panel, the researchers explained the purpose of the meeting and the topic on which they would be asked their opinion. The approach of the meeting was opened, and based on two questions: • What actions are being considered from the TAP to develop transferable competences in freshmen?; and • What actions should /could tutors make to influence or promote the development of transversal competences in students tutored? Each panel or group was moderated by a member of the research team with expertise in conducting focus groups, while another researcher assumed the role of observer. Analysis Procedure The group dialogue was recorded and transcribed for later analysis. Reading and initial processing of the speech was made individually by several researchers in the team, with the aim of identifying fragments of meaning, which were granted a preliminary code. In a second reading (advanced analysis), initial codes were refined and were reunited in advanced codes. The final stage of analysis entailed a third analysis, in which expert researchers agreed on the grouping of advanced codes into different categories, from which finally emerged vectors or transverse domains. Results and Discussion After a thorough analysis of the transcripts from the internal and external panels, the advanced codes obtained were grouped into five major categories (Table 1). Categories Contemplated actions within Tutorial Action Plans

Dissemination of tutorials Usefulness of tutorials

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– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Advanced Codes Tutor definition, functions, and tasks Ways to assign tutees Tutor’s training Student progress tracking according to course and needs Different forms of tutoring Evaluation: quantitative methods Mandatory/voluntary tutoring Forum use, online, in class Solve first-year adaptation problems Accompaniment Problem recognition Conflict resolution Time management Personal /moral support Self assessment

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Tutor concerns regarding the tutorial action practice

– – – – – –

Tutee ratio Matching tutors with first year faculty Recognizing tutoring as teaching Tutor training and professionalization Student motivation towards tutoring Mandatory/voluntary tutoring

Good practices in tutoring

– – – – – –

Student analysis as starting point Tutor presence Amount of tutees (minimum/maximum) Adequate assignment criteria Tutee’s academic and personal development Development of transversal competences through tutoring Tutoring with contents Cross-faculty coordination Adequate tutor training Counseling and support services for tutors and students

– – – –

Table 1. Advanced Categories and Associated Codes Consensus After an Advanced Qualitative Analysis

In addition, from the final phase of the expert panel qualitative analysis, and as a result of the reorganization of categories and advanced codes, three vectors or domains emerged (Table 2). These broad areas encompass actions contemplated in the tutorial action plans of different Spanish universities, as well as activities carried out by teachers-tutors in several knowledge areas within the UEM. Categories

Advanced codes

Common elements in a university tutorial action plan

Vectors

– Actions contemplated in Tutorial Action Plans – Dissemination of tutorials

Critical aspects identified by tutors and tutorial action managers

– Tutor concerns regarding the tutorial action practice – Good tutoring practices

Tutorial actions with a “seal of quality”

– Good tutoring practices – Usefulness of tutoring

– Ways to assign tutees – Tutor definition, functions, and tasks – Tutor training – Different forms of tutoring – Ways to convene – Student progress tracking according to course and needs – Evaluation: quantitative methods – High tutee ratio – Career tutor or academic year tutor? – Recognizing tutoring as teaching – Tutor training and professionalization – Student motivation towards tutoring – Mandatory/voluntary tutoring – Development of transversal competences through tutoring – Counseling and support services for tutors and students – Cross-faculty coordination – Normalize the student-tutor ratio – Student needs analysis as starting point – Follow-up/accompaniment – Method in tutoring: Analysis-Goals-ActionTracking

Table 2. Vectors and Categories Defined After the Advanced Analysis 86

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Common Elements in a University Tutorial Action Plan (TAP) Common elements in a college Tutorial Action Plan (TAP) are understood as all aspects described in the tutorial action documents that organize and structure a tutoring program, so that they are the framework and guidance for the development of the faculty’s tutorial action. There is an overlap between elements associated with the TAP that emerge from discussions gathered in both panels of experts and those reported by other authors (Gairín, Feixas, Franch, Guillamón, & Quinquer, 2003). Participants expressed a difference of opinion when assigning tutors depending on the university or subject area. For instance, one participant said “Tutoring is very difficult if I cannot see the tutees. It seems to me we need to work on who assigns, how to assign... Also the student must be able to choose with whom they better identify. Perhaps allow a percentage of second year students to choose, as long as we all have a minimum” (external panel; translated). Furthermore, participants in both panels stressed the importance of defining the tutor and specify his/her functions, as well as the tasks to be carried out to develop effective and good quality tutoring. This issue has arisen in previous studies related to the tutor’s work in the UEM (Martín López et al. , 2008). As another participant indicated, “It is very important for students to be clear about what is the tutor’s purpose” (inner panel; translated). Studying the ways and resources made available for the training of university faculty as tutors is considered equally important. Universities consider different tutoring modalities (faceto-face/online, individual/group, competence development...) that may be required by students or by the teaching modality, as well as the possible means made available to teacher-tutors to establish calls or invitations (through forums, online , in class...) in order to make contact with students (UEM, 2011). In the words of one of the participants, "What the protocol establishes... is to communicate with students, summon them via email or in classroom or through the tutor’s forum or the hallways" (inner panel; translated). In this sense, there is some consensus in that the functions of the tutor must be disseminated to the students tutored as an essential element in the framework of the implementation of the university’s TAP. Finally, another codified point highlighted by members of the panels was the type of student follow-up that should be performed, taking into account both individual and group needs and characteristics. In this sense, this study shows that the needs of students vary widely depending on the course and the ability of individual adaptation. Therefore, the requirements are different among students and should be considered in addressing tutorial action. It is necessary as well to establish a suitable quantitative evaluation method to estimate objectively which are the benefits of tutoring. Critical Aspects from Tutors and Tutorial Action Managers The critical areas identified by the tutors and TAP managers were defined as a series of concerns that arise during the tutorial action practice, which could compromise the quality, the use of best practices in tutoring, and even the viability of meeting the objectives proposed (Table 3). Critical aspect High tutee ratio Career tutor or academic 87

Quotes from external (ext. panel) and internal panels (int. panel) We cannot have forty. I cannot manage forty students (int. panel). It would be nice if the professor accompanied the

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year tutor?

student throughout the entire career training (int. panel).

Recognizing tutoring as teaching Tutor training and professionalization

Notice that I posed myself not to assign a tutor to a student who was taking a course with him, I tried for them to be unrelated so that the student felt freer, I might as well been mistaken but that’s how I did it (ext. panel). In the beginning they did have a teaching role (tutors), then it was eliminated when the cutbacks started, the first thing that was eliminated was the teaching function in tutoring (ext. panel). We have sixty hours in training but they do not teach us conflict management (int. panel).

Student motivation towards tutoring

They offer training courses for teachers-tutors and sometimes they are not completed, the reality is faculty are not too much in favor of “wasting time” (ext. panel). Pack tutoring sessions with content is important so that students attend and develop competences (int. panel).

Mandatory/voluntary tutoring

When they are interested the thing works, the problem arises when you don’t offer them something which is why we thought about providing content (ext. panel). The student must come because the three are mandatory but the performance of that tutoring was low, generally they were in groups because the professor could not “deliver enough” individual tutoring (ext. panel). If tutoring was mandatory it would lose importance (int. panel).

Table 3. Quotes on Critical Issues in Tutorial Action

Tutoring Actions with a "Seal of Quality" Participants, especially from the external panel, felt that tutoring should be a space for the development of transferable skills in students, among which stand out problem identification, time management, and conflict resolution. This requires analyzing the individual needs of students as a starting point. Counseling and support services can be an excellent resource to advise the tutors, as well as to respond to the difficulties encountered in teaching students. However, the cross-coordination among faculty plays a key role in detecting situations and providing well-articulated counseling. For this, the student/tutor ratio should allow for time to be dedicated to students, resulting in the recognition of this teaching activity by the faculty. All these elements would allow for regular and effective tracking and monitoring in order to reanalyze the initial proposed objectives, to evaluate the goals achieved, and continuously rethink new goals and actions up to the integral formation of students, both academically and in values. Also a very positive experience in our university, common for freshmen students in the Cáceres and the Badajoz campuses, an exclusive training workshop in specific transversal skills. (External panel)

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The counseling service is the benchmark when I detect a student has problems, they are the ones who have helped in the development of skills and abilities, (...) they have a wonderful session and youngsters leave delighted. (External panel) Conclusions Tutorial action is a necessary reality, highly valued and recognized by both students and faculty. It is considered the basis of academic excellence and it becomes essential in order to give university students a complete and comprehensive training. There is a consensus among tutoring experts and college faculty regarding the need to clarify the tutor/mentor role, the need to recognize such work, and the adjustment in the amount of tutees per teacher. Student must know in advance the relationship between them and the tutors, as well as their functions. Quality tutoring involves the development of transversal skills, focusing on the identification of problems, time management, and conflict resolution. For this, an analysis of student needs is required as the starting point of tutoring, as well as the application of a method of personalized approach to tutoring that allows establishing goals and tracking actions taken by students. It also seems necessary to have a counseling service for both faculty and students. Finally, the cross-faculty coordination has a positive impact on the development of good practices in tutoring.

References Ferrer, J. (2003). La acción tutorial en la Universidad [Tutorial action in the university]. In F. Michavila F., García J. (Eds.), La tutoría y los nuevos modos de aprendizaje en la Universidad (pp. 67-84). Madrid, Spain: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Cátedra UNESCO) & Comunidad de Madrid. Gairín, J., Feixas, M., Franch, J., Guillamón, C., & Quinquer, D. (2003). Elementos para la elaboración de planes de tutoría en la universidad [Elements for the preparation of tutoring plans in college]. Contextos Educativos, 6-7, 21-42. García Calvente, M. M., & Mateo Rodríguez, I. (2000). El grupo focal como técnica de investigación cualitativa en salud: Diseño y puesta en práctica [Focus groups as a qualitative research method in health: Design and implementation]. Atención Primaria, 25(3), 181-186. García Nieto, N., Asensio Muñoz, I., Carballo Santaolalla, R., García García, M., & Guardia González, S. (2005). La tutoría universitaria ante el proceso de 89

armonización europea [University tutoring in the face of the European harmonization process]. Revista De Educación (Madrid), 337, 189-210. López Martín, I., Blanco Fernández, A., Icarán Francisco, E. M., Velasco Quintana P. J., Castaño Perea, E., & Pagola Aldazabal, I. (2008). La figura y cualidades del tutor en la acción tutorial desde la percepción de los estudiantes de la Universidad Europea de Madrid [The figure and attributes of the tutor in the tutorial action from the perception of the European University of Madrid students]. In O. García & E. Icarán (Coords.), V Jornadas de Innovación Universitaria. Madrid, Spain: UEM. Retrieved from www.uem.es López Martín, I. (2013). La tutoría/mentoría como espacio para el desarrollo de competencias transversales en los estudiantes [Tutoring/mentoring as a space for the development of transversal competences]. Webinars series in teaching innovation. Retrieved from imy.laureate.net

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Paricio, J. (2005). Objetivos y contenidos de la acción tutorial en el ámbito de las titulaciones universitarias [Goals and contents of the tutorial action in the context of college degrees]. Zaragoza, Spain: Instituto de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Zaragoza. Pérez, C. (2000). ¿Deben estar las técnicas de consenso incluidas entre las técnicas de investigación cualitativa? [Should consensus techniques be included among qualitative

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research methods?] Revista Española de Salud Pública, 74, 319-321. Universidad Europea de Madrid [UEM]. (2006). Plan de aprendizaje personalizado 2006 [Personalized learning plan 2006; unpublished]. Retrieved from http://www.uem.es/ Universidad Europea de Madrid [UEM]. (2011). Plan de acción tutorial 2010/11 [Tutorial action plan 2010/11; unpublished]. Retrieved from http://www.uem.es/

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Improving Bilingual Higher Education: Training University Professors in Content and Language Integrated Learning Birgit Strotmann* Language Center Faculty of Arts and Communication European University of Madrid, Spain [email protected] Victoria Bamond Faculty of Arts and Communication European University of Madrid, Spain Jose Maria Lopez Lago Faculty of Arts and Communication European University of Madrid, Spain

Maria Bailen Faculty of Biomedical Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain Sonia Bonilla Faculty of Biomedical Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain Francisco Montesinos Faculty of Biomedical Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain

Abstract With increasing international mobility, higher education must cater to the varying linguistic and cultural needs of students. Successful delivery of courses through English as the vehicular language is essential to encourage international enrollment. However, this cannot be achieved without preparing university professors in the many intricacies delivering their subjects in English may pose. This paper aims to: share preliminary data concerning Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) at Laureate Network Universities worldwide as few studies have been conducted at the tertiary level, reflect upon data regarding student and teacher satisfaction with CLIL at the Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM), and to propose improvements in English-taught subjects. Key words: Bilingual education, tertiary CLIL, EMI, language learning, UEM Introduction and Objectives Universidad Europea, in its desire early on to become a truly international institution, began in 2006 to implement an academic model whereby communicating in English became a cross-curricular competency. English language instruction was included as a mandatory subject in all degree programs and students were expected to reach a level of English that would allow them to function in any modern, international context. In addition to this, English was embedded into daily university life, in the way of campus-wide events, activities in Spanish-taught classrooms, English medium instruction courses, and a number of fully English-taught degrees. This has resulted in a heightened awareness among the entire university community of the importance of having English skills in today’s world, as well as a potential for increasing international enrollment due to a greater offer of degree programs and courses in English. However, this has also resulted in a higher demand for professors qualified in English language skills as well as training in pedagogies for integrating content and language. The university, in its continuous desire for improving educational quality and reaching excellence, has initiated quality processes through its Language Center, which has begun assessing English language instruction institution-wide in an attempt to detect and propose good practices. In 2011, The Language Center carried out a preliminary survey following the theoretical background for needs analysis (NA) in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) 91

*Corresponding author

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established by Ruiz-Garrido and Fortanet-Gómez (2009), seeking to collect information about the kinds of obligatory courses offered in English at the Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM), offering teachers a space to share their perceptions and experiences, and identifying the types of support that would help improve the current CLIL offer for both teachers and students. Important data points from the survey included the following: 35% of CLIL teachers did not feel that they had received adequate training to teach in English, 35% stated they would like a preservice intensive training course, 25% a year-long training course in CLIL methodology, and 37% were interested in an online collaborative space. In the open answer sections, teachers explained that mixed-level groups, classroom management vocabulary and interaction, and the amount of time necessary to plan lessons were some of the most pressing issues, which match up with three of the eight areas of competence for CLIL teachers established by the Socrates-Comenius Project “CLIL across Contexts: A scaffolding framework for teacher education: interaction, planning, and cooperation and reflection” (Hansen-Pauly, 2009). This perception coincided with the research findings of Dafouz and Núñez (2009) on the difficulty with non-subject specific interactions (negotiating deadlines, jokes, eliciting student opinions, etc.). Subject literacies, another of the eight areas of competence identified by the aforementioned project, takes on additional weight in a higher education context as student skills become more subject specific (45% of UEM CLIL teachers were interested in support for creating technical glossaries and procedural materials). The current study aims to gather and share data concerning CLIL in higher education at UEM and within the Laureate network. In Spain, bilingual education is given considerable importance at both the state and private level, but few studies have been conducted at the tertiary level. The researchers therefore aim to fill this gap by finding out the levels of satisfaction of teachers and students with the implementation of CLIL at UEM, in order to propose improvements in the teaching of English-taught subjects, including progressive curricular immersion into the second language (L2), defining specific learning outcomes and objectives, and designing a syllabus for a future blended learning tertiary CLIL teacher training program, to be developed in a follow-up project. Literature Review and Scope Content and Language Integrated Learning, or CLIL, is one of the key educational methodologies that respond to the need to internationalize education. “In a Europe which is moving slowly towards integration, CLIL has been highlighted as a key tool for intercultural learning, one which allows us to transform knowledge into understanding” (Hansen-Pauly, 2009). According to the literature, the term CLIL was coined in 1994 in Europe (Mehisto, Marsh, & Frigols, 2008), and since then it has been defined and redefined several times by different sources (see Brinton et al., 1989; Marsh, 2002; Wesche, 1993). For the purposes of this study, the definition chosen has been "a dual-focused approach in which an additional language is used for the learning and teaching of both content and language” (Marsh, Mehisto, Wolf, & Martin, 2010, p. 2). One of the great difficulties involved when researching literature on CLIL is the great many homologous terms that exist for the same (or very similar) methodology. According to One 92

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Stop English, an English teacher’s resource site published by Macmillan English Campus, there are fourteen terms under the umbrella term CLIL, including Content-based Instruction (CBI) used in the United States and Canada, or English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) used in Asia, parts of Europe and sometimes in the US (www.onestopenglish.com). However, a closer look at terms such as CBI or EMI will show that they are most often used within a context of language learning where the objective tends to be rapid acquisition of a language through the learning of authentic material. These and other such terms do not place the same emphasis on the integrative nature of multilingual education that CLIL does, where there is clearly a dual aim: learning content and learning a foreign language, as proposed by Coyle’s 4Cs Framework (Coyle, 1999, 2007). Furthermore: The 4Cs Framework takes account of integrating learning (content and cognition) and language learning (communication and cultures). The 4Cs Framework suggests that it is through progression in knowledge, skills, and understanding of the content, engagement in associated cognitive processing, interaction in the communicative context, developing appropriate language knowledge and skills as well as acquiring a deepening intercultural awareness through the positioning of self and “otherness”, that effective CLIL takes place. From this perspective, CLIL involves learning to use language appropriately whilst using language to learn effectively. (Coyle, 2006, p.9) As far as preparing teachers to be qualified CLIL practitioners, the literature coincides in that integrating content and language poses unique challenges to instructors, who are normally either content or language specialists, but rarely both. A good CLIL instructor must be able to both transmit the knowledge and skills students need to learn in a particular subject and help them improve their language level. Met, as far back as 1999, proposed that in order to be successful, CLIL teachers need to have skills in a great many areas, including content knowledge, content pedagogy, understanding of language acquisition, language pedagogy, knowledge of materials development and selection, and understanding of student assessment. The Socrates-Comenius 2.1 Project enumerated eight CLIL teacher competences, which include planning, multimodality, interaction, subject literacy, evaluation, cooperation and reflection, context and culture, and learner needs (Hansen-Pauly, 2009). It also mentioned the importance of spaces for teachers to collaborate and reflect on their work. Marsh et al. (2010) also made reference to the difficulty involved in teaching content in English: Teachers undertaking CLIL will need to be prepared to develop multiple types of expertise: among others, in the content subject; in a language; in best practice in teaching and learning; in the integration of the previous three; and, in the integration of CLIL within an educational institution. (p. 5) CLIL goes further beyond other methodologies, as it focuses just as heavily on the acquisition of language as on the learning of content. This poses major challenges for higher education institutions, which need to put into practice training programs that will assure the language level of professors teaching content in English, ensure their subject literacy not only in their native language but also in English, choose the subjects that will be taught in English according to pre-established criteria, and provide ongoing training and support in multilingual classrooms. The overall major challenge, in the development and implementation of a teacher education curriculum in CLIL, is its integrative nature. This is the case at all levels of education – primary, secondary, tertiary, vocational and adult. CLIL seeks to teach two subjects in one – a 93

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content subject and a language. Content subjects, such as mathematics and an additional language, are usually taught separately (Marsh et al., 2010). CLIL teachers need to know how to write a course description, a course syllabus, and lesson plans, among other, using the proper vocabulary for skills and grammatical structures. They need to know the rules of pronunciation to be able to pronounce their terminology (of vital importance in students’ learning in order to be understood within their field), and above all, CLIL teachers need the resources to be able to handle problems encountered when there is not a language expert present to help. The general opinions and perceptions of CLIL instructors presented in the literature consulted is corroborated by the results obtained from UEM professors’ responses to the questionnaires regarding CLIL practice at this university. The results, as will be seen in the section dedicated to such, support the idea that CLIL instructors need greater support on the part of institutions, more in-depth training into the intricacies posed by integrating content and language in the classroom, and collaborative spaces where they may interact, share ideas, and reflect upon their teaching. Methodology and Quantitative Study To survey the teacher profiles and experiences in CLIL courses at the tertiary level within the Laureate network, a questionnaire and brief description of the project and its objectives were emailed to all teachers at UEM listed as having taught content courses in English in the last academic year, and to all the Language Center directors within the Laureate Universities network with instructions to pass the questionnaire along to the CLIL teachers at their respective universities. The questionnaire chose not to consider teachers who teach the subject of English, but rather those teachers specifically involved in the teaching of content subjects through English. The questionnaire was reviewed by several members of the UEM Language Center with knowledge of CLIL practices but not directly involved in the project, and piloted by academics enrolled in a CLIL training course at UEM. The online questionnaire contained factual questions and questions looking for evaluative responses, and included a title, a brief introduction, and some instructions for filling it in. The questionnaire was two pages long and was divided into six sections: • Biographical/Teacher profile, with eight items: self-assessed language level, age, years of experience teaching, years of experience teaching subjects in English, languages used for instruction, name(s) of the university/universities, academic department(s), and whether or not the English level of the teachers was sufficient to teach in English. There were three closed and five open questions. • Student profile, with two items: individual English levels and class English levels. All questions were closed, evaluative responses to a positive statement rated on a five-point Likert scale. • Content assessment, classroom management and preparation, with seven items: influence of student English levels on teaching, influence of mixed student English levels on teaching, influence of student English levels on material adaptation, the amount of preparation time needed to prepare a class in relation to one taught in the teacher’s native language, kinds of assessment used, and a comparison between assessment criteria used for classes taught in English and other languages. There were six closed questions and one open question. • Language use, with three items: English language assessment in the content course, use of languages other than English with students in the classroom, and use of 94

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languages other than English with students outside the classroom. All questions were closed. Teacher motivation, with four items: agency in teaching in English, enjoyment teaching in English, satisfaction with compensation for teaching in English, and reasons for teaching in English. All questions were closed, with the last question allowing multiple responses and a text box to add additional responses not listed. Training and support, with six items: the kind of training desired, the duration of said training, the format of said training, kinds of support desired, satisfaction with the English and pedagogical training received at the university, and the kind of training received. There were five closed and one open question. One closed question included a text box for types of support desired but not listed.

The questionnaire results were exported to Excel and analyzed using statistical software. Results The questionnaire was answered by 168 teachers, with 79% of responses (n=133) coming from four universities: UEM, INTI International, Les Roches Jin Jiang, and Istanbul Bilgi. Teacher profile: 80% (n=133) self-assessed their English level at C1 or above. Seventysix percent (n=127) were between 26-45 years old. The mean teaching experience was 9.5 years; 36% (n=60) of respondents had 5 years or less teaching experience. Sixty-three percent (n=106) reported having 5 years or less experience in teaching in English. Eighty-five percent (n=129) agreed or strongly agreed that their English level was sufficient to teach in English. Student profile: teachers didn’t agree that student English levels were adequate (x̅ = 2.71, n=152) nor that student English levels were homogenous (x̅ = 2.2, n=152). Content assessment and classroom management: teachers didn’t agree that student English levels and mixed-level classrooms had no effect on their teaching (x̅ = 2.38, x̅ = 2.13, n=152). Sixty-four percent (n=97) agreed that they adapted their class material to student English levels. Fifty percent (n=76) responded that classes took longer to prepare, with 64% (n=49) reporting that classes took at least one and a half times longer to prepare. Fifty-eight percent (n=148) agreed that they used the same assessment criteria regardless of the language of instruction, with presentations(82%), writing (76%), teamwork (63%), and case studies (59%) being the most popular forms of assessment. Classroom language: 34% (n=51) were neutral on assessing language in the classroom; 43% (n=65) reported never using languages other than English in the classroom, as opposed to 30% outside of the classroom. Twenty-two percent (n=33) reported using languages other than English frequently or very frequently outside the classroom. Teacher motivation: 50% (n=76) said teaching in English was their own decision; 80% (n=120) enjoyed teaching in English; 44% (n=66) didn’t agree that they were compensated fairly for their CLIL classes; 51% (n=77) answered that the reason they were teaching in English is because they were asked to by their superiors; the second and third most popular reasons were a love of languages (43%, n=65), and that they enjoyed teaching students from other cultures (43%, n=65). 95

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Training and needs: teachers would prefer to receive training in speaking (46%, n=70) and academic English (45%, n=69); 27% (n=41) were interested in receiving CLIL training; 10% (n=17) wouldn’t like to receive any training at all. Six percent (n=6) preferred intensive pre- or post-session training, and face-to-face (54%, n=82) and blended (45%, n=69) formats were preferred to online (23%, n=35). Fifty-three percent (n=81) expressed interest in an online collaborative space, 42% (n=64) in shared resource repository, and 40% (n=60) an opportunity to publish good practices. Satisfaction with English training was mixed (x̅ = 2.93, n=149), and 26% (n=40) have received no training at their university. Only 7% (n=11) mentioned receiving CLIL or academic English training. Discussion and Further Research The present paper is based on an online survey provided to CLIL teachers of the Laureate Universities network, i.e., on a quantitative instrument. To ensure reliability and representativeness, the following additional data collection activities are being carried out: 1) classroom observations (taped interactions, field notes, short semi-structured interviews with teachers); 2) focus group discussions with CLIL teachers; 3) student-centered data collection: survey, focus groups; and 4) expanded research inside and outside of the Laureate network. As a result of the insights gained, the researchers intend to propose a tailor-made CLIL teacher training program for both UEM specifically and the wider community of tertiary level CLIL teachers. The following aspects of the survey carried out will be taken into consideration when designing the CLIL course: 1. Teacher profile: The survey indicates that CLIL teachers tend to be relatively young (under 45), with a high level of English proficiency (according to their self-assessment), with little teaching experience in general and even less in teaching through English. This profile suggests a need for general methodological training in addition to specific CLIL training, as well as training in specific rather than general English skills, such as EAP and ESP. This analysis is supported by items 21 and 24, in which teachers ask for specific rather than general support. 2. Student profile: Responses suggest that either low English level or mixed level classes are common and are considered a challenge to the teacher. Training teachers in scaffolding and classroom management seems to be indicated to improve the situation, as well as, on the part of the institution, ensuring students reach an adequate level of English by the time they start CLIL classes. In addition, institutions might consider scaffolding classes themselves, i.e., considering a progression from soft into hard CLIL as students move up through the curriculum. 3. Teacher motivation: In spite of additional preparation time and other challenges of the CLIL classroom, teachers seem surprisingly positive and enjoy teaching CLIL classes. Institutions might consider adding extrinsic motivational elements to the clearly existing intrinsic ones. 4. Teacher training: Results indicate a preference for pre-session, face-to-face, or blended training including opportunities for collaboration in a community of practice. 5. Assessment: Respondents do not feel comfortable with assessing language as well as content. Researchers recommend institutional support by establishing ground rules for assessment, as well as collaborations with the Language Center for joint assessment. Assessment tools show a distribution across different testing tools focusing on knowledge, progress, and competences. 96

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6. Classroom language: Teachers feel more comfortable with using their first language (L1) outside the classroom than inside it. A clear language policy, as well as awarenessraising regarding the appropriateness of L1 as a support in class, especially in soft CLIL environments, is recommended. Conclusions This preliminary phase of the research project, in which quantitative data has been analyzed, shows that CLIL teachers are intrinsically-motivated, language proficient, and aware of the need to adapt material to the bilingual classroom. In the second, qualitative phase of the project, issues regarding English language assessment, use of L1 in the classroom and scaffolding will need to be analyzed in depth in order to propose guidelines for future good practices and bilingual teacher training.

References Brinton, D. M., Snow, M. A., & Wesche, M. B. (1989). Content-based second language instruction. New York, NY: Harper/Newbury. Coyle, D. (1999). Supporting students in content and language integrated contexts: Planning for effective classrooms. In J. Mash (Ed.), Learning through a foreign language – Models, methods and outcomes (pp.46-62). Lancaster: CILT. Coyle, D. (2006). Content and language integrated learning: Motivating learners and teachers. Scottish Languages Review, 13, 1-18. Coyle, D. (2007). The CLIL quality challenge. In D. Marsh & D. Wolff (Eds.), Diverse contexts – Converging goals (pp. 47-58). Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Dafouz E., & Núñez, B. (2009). CLIL in higher education: Devising a new learning landscape. In E. Dafouz & M. Guerrini (Eds.), CLIL across Educational Levels: Experiences from Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Contexts (pp. 101-112). Madrid, Spain: Richmond-Santillana. Hansen-Pauly, M. A. (Coord.) (2009). Teacher education for CLIL across contexts: From scaffolding framework to teacher portfolio for content and language integrated learning. Retrieved from http://clil.uni.lu Marsh, D. (2002). Content and language integrated learning: The European dimension - Actions, trends and foresight potential. In D. Marsh (Ed.), CLIL/EMILE – The European 97

dimension: Actions, trends and foresight potential. Strasbourg: European Commission. http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languag es/index.html Marsh, D., Mehisto, P., Wolff, D., & Martin, M. F. (2010). European framework for CLIL teacher education: A framework for the professional development of CLIL teachers. Retrieved from http://encuentrojournal.org Mehisto, P., Marsh, D., & Frigols, M. (2008). Uncovering CLIL: Content and language integrated learning in bilingual and multilingual education. Oxford, UK: Macmillan Education. Met. M. (1999, January). Content-based instruction: Defining terms, making decisions. NFLC Reports. Washington, DC: The National Foreign Language Center. Ruiz-Garrido, M., & Fortanet Gómez, I. (2009). Needs analysis in a CLIL context: A transfer from ESP. In D. Marsh, P. Mehisto, D. Wolff, R. Aliaga, T. Asikainen, M. J. Frigols-Martin… G. Langé (Eds.), CLIL practice: Perspectives from the field (pp. 179-188). Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä. Wesche, M. B., (1993). Discipline-based approaches to language study: Research issues and outcomes. In M. Kreuger & F. Ryan (Eds.), Language and content: Discipline- and content-based approaches to language study. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.

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Inteligencia Emocional vs. Inteligencia General: Aspectos a Considerar en la Docencia José Luis Martínez-Rubio* Departamento de Educación y Desarrollo Profesional Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Universidad Europea de Madrid España [email protected]

Blanca Rodríguez Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Universidad Europea de Madrid, España Lourdes García-Salmones Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Universidad Europea de Madrid, España

Esther Moraleda Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Universidad Europea de Madrid, España

Manuel Primo Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Universidad Europea de Madrid, España Resumen

Para el desarrollo de esta investigación, se suministraron dos cuestionarios a estudiantes de la Universidad Europea de Madrid. Concretamente, los estudiantes cumplimentaron el cuestionario TEIQue (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire) para la medición de la Inteligencia emocional y la escala R del Test PMA (Primary Mental Abilities) para la valoración del factor de razonamiento. Los resultados de esta investigación, aunque no han permitido establecer una vinculación clara entre Inteligencia Emocional e Inteligencia General, han permitido vislumbrar algunas tendencias que relacionan las subescalas del cuestionario TEIQue con el factor razonamiento de los estudiantes. A través de esta relación, se han podido establecer perfiles y, a partir de ellos, se han identificado las metodologías docentes más adecuadas para mejorar los resultados académicos de los estudiantes. Palabras clave: Inteligencia emocional, inteligencia general, metodologías docentes Introducción El constructo Inteligencia Emocional (IE) tiene sus orígenes en los estudios de Edward Thorndike (1920) sobre la Inteligencia Social, definida como la capacidad para comprender y dirigir a las personas y gestionar sus relaciones. Más tarde, Gardner (1983) abundó en los conceptos de inteligencia interpersonal e intrapersonal señalando que la primera, la inteligencia interpersonal, denota la capacidad para comprender las intenciones, motivaciones y deseos de los demás para trabajar eficazmente con ellos y, la segunda, la inteligencia intrapersonal, como la capacidad para comprenderse a uno mismo de forma efectiva. No fue hasta Salovey y Mayer (1990) cuando se realizaron las primeras investigaciones relevantes sobre este concepto. Estos autores se enfocaron en componentes afectivos, emocionales, personales y sociales (sin menospreciar los cognitivos) que suponían un factor clave de éxito en los diferentes ámbitos de la vida (Bar-On & Parker, 2000, 2006; Shapiro, 1997). Sin embargo, fue Goleman (1995) quien realmente popularizó la IE identificando los atributos necesarios para triunfar en la vida y ser feliz. Además, explicó como la IE no es un factor inamovible sin capacidad de modificación, sino que es un constructo que es posible desarrollar y potenciar a lo largo de la vida. 98

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Han sido múltiples las investigaciones que han vinculado la IE con diferentes aspectos de la vida, incluido el contexto educativo (Fernández-Berrocal & Ruíz Aranda, 2008). Concretamente, Extremera y Fernández-Berrocal (2004), señalaron que los déficits en las habilidades vinculadas con la IE afectan a los estudiantes dentro y fuera del contexto escolar fundamentalmente en cuatro aspectos: • Niveles de bienestar • Relaciones interpersonales • Rendimiento académico • Conductas disruptivas Inteligencia Emocional y Rendimiento Académico La investigación realizada para analizar la vinculación existente entre IE y rendimiento académico ha encontrado resultados contradictorios. Por un lado, se ha encontrado una relación directa entre IE y rendimiento académico, en el que las puntuaciones de los estudiantes en IE predecían sus resultados académicos (Schutte et al., 1998). Y, por otro, otras investigaciones no encontraron esta vinculación cuando se examinó la relación entre IE y rendimiento académico de forma global (Newsome, Day, & Catano, 2000). Incluso, la investigación de Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan y Majeski (2004) no encontró la vinculación entre IE y rendimiento académico al analizar la IE de forma global. Sin embargo, sí halló relación entre ambas cuando de analizaron las escalas de forma independiente en alguna de ellas (intrapersonal, manejo del estrés y adaptabilidad). Una de las explicaciones de estos resultados contradictorios se fundamenta en pensar que la relación entre IE y rendimiento académico no es lineal, sino que pueden estar influyendo otro tipo de variables (Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera, & Ramos-Díaz, 2003). En este sentido, algunos de los resultados obtenidos mostraron que en estudiantes con bajo cociente intelectual (CI), la IE podría estar actuando de moderador para paliar el déficit de CI y compensar sus efectos, consiguiendo un mayor rendimiento académico (Petrides, Frederickson, & Furnham, 2004). La presente investigación tiene como principal objetivo analizar el modo en el que las competencias emocionales (IE) de los estudiantes se vinculan con su inteligencia general (IQ) y cómo del cruce de ambas medidas determinan su rendimiento académico. Además, se analiza la interacción de otras variables moduladoras en la relación entre IE e IQ (edad, sexo, experiencias internacionales, convivencia en pareja y la nota obtenida en selectividad). Método Participantes La muestra está compuesta por 58 alumnos universitarios con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 51 años, de los cuales el 76% son mujeres y el 24% son hombres. Todos los participantes son estudiantes universitarios en el Grado en Magisterio en la Universidad Europea de Madrid. El 31% de la muestra informó haber vivido en algún momento en otros países (gran parte en países europeos), mayoritariamente por razones académicas o de estudio. Con relación a la variable vivir en pareja, el 48% de los encuestados respondió afirmativamente. Se consideró importante conocer la nota previa de selectividad de los 99

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participantes de este estudio, aunque sólo el 47% recordaba esta información. En este caso, la nota media de los encuestados fue de 6,53 (sobre 10 puntos). Instrumentos Para el desarrollo de esta investigación, se han aplicado dos pruebas. Por un lado, se suministro el cuestionario TEIQue (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire) y, por otro, la escala R del Test PMA (Primary Mental Abilities). Evaluación de la IE. Para su análisis, en las investigaciones en el ámbito educativo se emplean tres procedimientos de evaluación de la IE (Extremera & Fernández-Berrocal, 2003; Fernández-Berrocal & Extremera, 2004): • Instrumentos clásicos basados en cuestionarios y auto-informes cumplimentados por el propio estudiante; • Medidas de observadores externos basadas en cuestionarios que son cumplimentados por compañeros del estudiante o el profesor; y • Medidas de habilidad en IE. En la presente investigación, se ha optado por el primero de los procedimientos y, concretamente, por el cuestionario TEIQue (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire). Este cuestionario consta de 153 preguntas que identifican un total de 15 sub-escalas agrupadas en cuatro factores: bienestar, habilidades de autocontrol, habilidades emocionales y habilidades sociales (Pérez, Petrides, & Furnham, 2005). La puntuación de esta prueba se realiza a través de una escala tipo likert de 1 a 7 puntos, donde 1 es “totalmente en desacuerdo” y 7 “totalmente de acuerdo”. Los factores que se miden a través de este instrumento son los siguientes: a) Factor global IE. La puntuación del factor global IE proporciona una imagen emocional general. Es decir, una visión de la propia capacidad para comprender, procesar y usar la información sobre las emociones propias y sobre las de los demás. b) facetas: • • •

Factor bienestar. Este factor describe el bienestar general. Se compone de tres Felicidad: en qué grado se siente bien y contento con el presente; Optimismo: en qué grado es positivo sobre el futuro; y Autoestima: en qué grado es seguro de sí mismo y sus niveles de amor propio.

c) Factor autocontrol. Este factor describe cómo regula la presión externa, el estrés y los impulsos. Se compone de: • Regulación emocional: su capacidad para regular sus emociones, permanecer centrado y mantenerse calmado en situaciones irritantes; • Control de la impulsividad: si piensa antes de actuar, si se rinde a sus impulsos, o si toma decisiones precipitadas; y • Gestión del estrés: cómo gestiona la presión y el estrés.

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d) Factor emocionalidad. Este factor describe la capacidad para percibir y expresar emociones y cómo las usa para desarrollar y mantener relaciones con los demás. Se compone de: • • • •

Empatía: su capacidad para comprender los puntos de vista de otras personas y para tener en cuenta sus sentimientos; Percepción emocional: su capacidad para comprender sus propias emociones y las de los demás; Expresividad emocional: su capacidad para expresar sus emociones; y Relaciones: su capacidad para crear y mantener relaciones plenas tanto dentro como fuera del trabajo.

e) Factor sociabilidad. Este factor describe la capacidad para socializar, gestionar y comunicarse con los demás. Se compone de: • Gestión de la emoción: su capacidad para gestionar los estados emocionales de otras personas; • Asertividad: cómo es de comunicativo y el grado en el que defiende sus propios derechos; y • Conciencia social: su capacidad para sentirse a gusto en contextos sociales y cómo se comporta en presencia de personas que no conoce bien. Evaluación de la inteligencia: razonamiento. Para la evaluación del factor razonamiento de la inteligencia, se ha utilizado el test PMA en su escala R. El Test PMA consta de cinco factores en la medición de la inteligencia: Comprensión verbal, fluidez verbal, facilidad numérica, razonamiento y visualización espacial (Thurstone, 1947). El factor utilizado en esta investigación es el factor de razonamiento, que implica la capacidad inductiva (capacidad para inferir de los casos particulares la norma general) y la deductiva (capacidad para extraer de las premisas una conclusión lógica). Esta escala está compuesta de 30 ítems relacionados con una secuencia lógica de letras, que los participantes deben completar en un tiempo de 6 minutos. Procedimiento Inicialmente, todos los participantes fueron informados del objeto de la investigación y se les invitó a participar de forma voluntaria. Una vez obtenido su consentimiento, se procedió a la explicación del proceso. 1. En primer lugar, los participantes contestaron a una serie de preguntas sociodemográficas. 2. A continuación, se cumplimentó la escala R del Test PMA (Primary Mental Abilities) para la valoración del factor de razonamiento (6 minutos). 3. Posteriormente, se completó el cuestionario TEIQue (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionaire) para evaluar el factor Inteligencia Emocional (sin tiempo específico). Resultados Análisis Descriptivo La puntuaciones medias que se han obtenido en los diferentes factores de la IE se describen en la Figura 1. 101

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Figura 1. Puntuación media en los distintos factores de IE IE.

La media obtenida en la nota de selectividad es de 6,40 (de 0 a 10) y la nota media obtenida en la prueba PMA-R R es de 15,40 (de 0 a 30) 30). Interacción con la Variable Sexo exo No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los diferentes factores del IE ni en la puntuación global de la IE entre hombres y mujeres. Sin embargo, se observaron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres en la prueba PMA-R (Razonamiento), siendo superior en las mujeres (U de Mann-Whitney= Whitney= 418; p<0.044) (Tabla 1).

PMA-R Global

Sexo Hombre Mujer

N 14 44

Media 13,79 15,91

SD 2,694 3,523

Tabla 1. Medidas descriptivas de la variable Razonamiento (PMA (PMA-R) en función del sexo

nternacional Interacción con Experiencia Internacional Se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre los estudiantes que han tenido experiencias internacionales y los que no las han tenido tanto en el factor IE de Sociabilidad (U de Mann-Whitney= Whitney= 495; p<0.023) como la puntuación global de IIE (U de Mann--Whitney= 481; p<0.041) (Tabla 2). En el resto de factores no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos.

Factor sociabilidad Puntuación global IE

Experiencia periencia internacional No Sí No Sí

N

Media

SD

40 18 40 18

4,4667 4,9294 4,7515 5,0072

0,66848 0,67737 0,56667 0,34540

Tabla 2. Medidas Descriptivas escriptivas de Sociabilida Sociabilidad d y Puntuación Global de IE en Función de la Experiencia Internacional

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Interacción con IE Un primer análisis muestra cómo los factores incluidos en IE tienen correlaciones significativas entre sí, siendo la más alta la que se establece entre el Factor Bienestar y el Factor Emocionalidad (Correlación= 0.626; p<0.000) (Tabla 3). Factores Factor bienestar Factor emocionalidad Factor bienestar Factor sociabilidad Factor bienestar Factor autocontrol Factor Factor sociabilidad emocionalidad Factor Factor autocontrol emocionalidad Factor sociabilidad Factor autocontrol

Correlación 0,626

Significación 0,000

0,507 0,313 0,442

0,000 0,017 0,001

0,395

0,002

0,285

0,030

Tabla 3. Correlación Entre los Distintos Factores de IE (nivel de significación p<0.05)

Interacción con PMA-R No se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre el factor Razonamiento (PMA-R) y los factores de la IE (bienestar, emocionalidad, sociabilidad, autocontrol), ni con su puntuación global. Cabe destacar que, aun no siendo una correlación significativa, la nota de selectividad correlaciona negativamente con el factor PMA-R (correlación= -0.256; p<0.197). Interacción con la Nota de Selectividad En este mismo sentido, cabe destacar que la nota de selectividad no correlacionó significativamente con ninguno de los factores de la IE. Sin embargo, se encontró una correlación significativa entre la nota de selectividad y la puntuación global de IE (correlación= 0.391; p<0.044). Conclusiones Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que no existe una relación directa entre la inteligencia emocional y la inteligencia general. No obstante, es importante tener en cuenta el tamaño de la muestra, ya que supone grandes limitaciones a la hora de interpretar los resultados. En futuras investigaciones, se hace necesario ampliar el tamaño de la muestra e incluir estudiantes de diferentes áreas de conocimiento. Un hallazgo importante es la interacción encontrada entre un indicador del rendimiento, como puede ser la nota de selectividad, y la puntuación global de la IE. Estos resultados van en la línea de los encontrados por Schutte et al. (1998). Este resultado es más significativo, si cabe, al observar que la nota de selectividad obtuvo una correlación negativa (relación inversa) con la puntuación en la prueba PMA-R (Razonamiento). Es decir, los resultados parecen indicar que la IE es un mejor pronosticador del rendimiento académico que el propio factor de razonamiento. Con relación a las variables que influencian los factores de IE, destaca la realización o no de experiencias internacionales. En este sentido, el haber realizado estancias en el 103

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extranjero (independientemente el motivo) parecen incidir positivamente en tener una mayor puntuación en la IE (en general) y en el Factor Sociabilidad. Bar-On, R., & Parker, J. D. A. (Eds.). (2000). The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Referencias Bar-On, R (2006). The Bar-On model of emotionalsocial intelligence. Psicothema, 18(Supp.), 13-25. Extremera, N, & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2003). La inteligencia emocional en el contexto educativo: Hallazgos científicos de sus efectos en el aula. Revista Educación, 332, 97-116. Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2004). El papel de la inteligencia emocional en el alumnado: Evidencias empíricas. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 6(2). Fernández-Berrocal, P., Extremera, N., & RamosDíaz, N. (2003). Inteligencia emocional y depresión. Encuentros en Psicología Social, 1(5), 251-254. Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Extremera, N. (2004). Inteligencia emocional, calidad de las relaciones interpersonales y empatía en estudiantes universitarios. Revista de Psicología Clínica y Salud, 15(2), 117-137. Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Ruíz Aranda, D. (2008). La inteligencia emocional en la educación. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Psicoeducativa, 6(2), 421-436 Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books. Goleman, D. P. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ for character, health and lifelong achievement. New York, NY: Bantam Books. Newsome, S., Day, A. L., & Catano, V. M. (2000). Assessing the predictive validity of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(6), 1005-1016. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00250-0

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Parker, J. D. A., Summerfeldt, L. J., Hogan, M. J., & Majeski, S. A. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academia success: examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(1), 163-172. doi:10.1016/S01918869(03)00076-X Pérez, J. C., Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2005). Measuring trait emotional intelligence. In R. Schulze & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), International handbook of emotional intelligence. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber. Petrides, K. V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(2), 277-293. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00084-9 Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185-211. Shapiro, L. (1997) La inteligencia emocional de los niños. Una guía para padres y maestros. Bilbao, España: Grupo Zeta. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., &Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(2), 167-177. doi:10.1016/S01918869(98)00001-4 Thorndike, E. L. (1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper’s Magazine, 140, 227-235. Thurstone, L. L. (1947). Multiple factor analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

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---English translation--Emotional Intelligence vs. General Intelligence: Aspects to Consider in Teaching Jose Luis Martinez-Rubio* Department of Education and Professional Development Faculty of Social Sciences European University of Madrid Spain [email protected]

Blanca Rodríguez Faculty of Social Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain Lourdes García-Salmones Faculty of Social Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain

Esther Moraleda Faculty of Social Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain

Manuel Primo Faculty of Social Sciences European University of Madrid, Spain Abstract

In order to carry out this research, two questionnaires were administered to students from the Universidad Europea de Madrid. Specifically, students completed the TEIQue (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire), which measures emotional intelligence, and the PMA (Primary Mental Abilities) Test in its R scale, which measures the reasoning factor. Although the results of this research failed to establish a clear link between Emotional Intelligence and General Intelligence, they have shown some trends that relate the TEIQue subscales with the reasoning factor in students. Through this relationship, it has been possible to establish profiles and, from them, to identify the most appropriate teaching methodologies in order to improve the students’ academic performance. Keywords: Emotional intelligence, general intelligence, teaching methodologies Introduction The Emotional Intelligence (EI) construct has its origins in studies conducted by Edward Thorndike (1920) regarding social intelligence, defined as the capacity to comprehend and guide people and manage their relationships. Afterward, Gardner (1983) further elaborated on the concepts of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence, pointing out that the former (interpersonal intelligence) denotes the ability to understand other people’s intentions, motivations, and desires in order to work effectively with them; and the later (intrapersonal intelligence) reflects the capacity to understand oneself in an effective manner. It was not until Salovey and Mayer (1990) that the first relevant research regarding this concept appeared. These authors focused on the affective, emotional, personal, and social components (without underestimating the cognitive ones), which involved a key success factor in different spheres of life (Bar-On & Parker, 2000, 2006; Shapiro, 1997). However, it was Goleman (1995) who actually popularized EI by identifying the attributes needed to succeed in life and be happy. He also explained how EI is not a fixed factor without modifiability, but a construct capable to be developed and improved throughout life.

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There have been multiple studies that have linked EI with different aspects of life, including the educational context (Fernández-Berrocal & Ruiz Aranda, 2008). Specifically, Extremera and Fernández-Berrocal (2004) noted that the deficits in the skills associated with EI affect students inside and outside the school context, mainly in four aspects: • Wellness levels • Interpersonal relationships • Academic performance • Disruptive behavior Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance Research conducted to analyze the link between EI and academic performance have found conflicting results. On the one hand, a direct relationship has been found between EI and academic performance, in which student scores in EI predicted academic outcomes (Schutte et al., 1998). And, on the other hand, different studies did not find this correlation when examining the relationship between EI and academic performance overall (Newsome, Day, & Catano, 2000). Furthermore, research conducted by Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan, and Majeski (2004) found no link between EI and academic performance by analyzing overall EI. However, they did find a relationship between the two when some scales were analyzed independently (intrapersonal, stress management, and adaptability). One explanation for these conflicting results is based on a view that the relationship between EI and academic performance is not linear, but rather other variables might be influencing factors (Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera, & Ramos-Diaz, 2003). In this regard, some of the results showed that in students with a low intelligence quotient (IQ), the EI could be acting as a regulator in order to overcome the IQ deficit and offset its effects, achieving greater academic performance (Petrides, Frederickson, & Furnham , 2004). The main objective of the research presented here is to analyze the way in which emotional competencies (EI) in students are linked to general intelligence (IQ), and how the crossing of the two measurements determine their academic performance. Moreover, the interaction of other modulating variables is analyzed according to how they relate to EI and IQ (age, gender, international experiences, domestic partnership, and the score obtained in selectivity). Method Participants The sample consists of 58 university students between 18 and 51 years old, of which 76% are women and 24% are men. All participants are college Education major students at the Universidad Europea de Madrid. Thirty-one percent of the sample reported having lived some time in other countries (mostly European countries), mainly for academic or educational reasons. Regarding the cohabitation variable, 48% of respondents said yes. It was considered important to know the previous selectivity score of the study participants; although, only 47% recalled this information. In this case, the average score among respondents was 6.53 (on a 10 point scale). 106

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Instruments To develop this research, two tests were applied. First, the TEIQue (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire) assessment was administered and, secondly, the R scale of the PMA Test (Primary Mental Abilities). IE evaluation. For its analysis, research in the educational field employs three procedures for assessing EI (Extremera & Fernández-Berrocal, 2003; Fernández-Berrocal & Extremera, 2004): • Classic Instruments based on questionnaires and self-reports completed by the student; • Measurements by outside observers based on questionnaires completed by fellow student or the professor; and • EI competence assessments. For this investigation, the first procedure was selected, particularly using the TEIQue (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire) assessment. This questionnaire consists of 153 questions that identify a total of 15 subscales, grouped into four factors: wellness, selfmanagement skills, social skills, and emotional skills (Pérez, Petrides, & Furnham, 2005). The score for this test is obtained through a Likert scale of 1 to 7 points, n which 1 equates “strongly disagree” and 7 “strongly agree”. The factors measured by the instrument are as follows: a) EI overall factor. The overall EI score provides a general emotional impression. That is, a vision of a person’s ability to understand, process, and use information about his/her own emotions and those of others. b) Wellness factor. This factor describes the overall wellness. It consists of three aspects: • Happiness: to which extent the person feels good and happy at a given moment; • Optimism: to what degree the person feels positive about the future; and • Self-esteem: self-esteem levels and to what extent the person is self-confident. c) Self-control factor. This factor describes how a person regulates external pressures, stress, and urges. It consists of: • Emotional management: the ability to regulate emotions, stay focused, and remain calmed in exasperating situations; • Impulsiveness control: thinking before acting, yielding to urges, or taking hasty decisions; and • Stress management: how to manage pressure and stress. d) Emotionality factor. This factor describes the ability to perceive and express emotions, and how to use them to develop and maintain relationships with others. It consists of: • Empathy: the ability to understand the views of others and to take into account their feelings; • Emotional awareness: the capacity to understand one’s emotions and those of others; • Emotional expressiveness: the ability to express one’s emotions; and • Relationships: the capacity to create and maintain fulfilling relationships both inside and outside the work sphere. 107

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e) Sociability factor.. This factor describes the ability to socialize, manage, and communicate with others. It consists of: • Emotions management: the ability to manage emotional states of others; • Assertiveness: how communicative is the person and the degree to which he/she defends his/her own rights; and • Social awareness: the ability to feel comfortable in social contexts and how one behaves in the presence of people not well known. Intelligence evaluation: reasoning. In order to evaluate the reasoning intelligence factor, the PMA Test has been used in its R scale. The PMA Test consists of five intelligence assessment factors: verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, facility with numbers, reasoning, and spatial visualization (Thurstone, 1947). The factor used in this research is the reasoning factor, which involves the inductive ve capacity (the ability to infer from the particular to the general) and deductive capacity (the ability to attain from premises a logical conclusion). This scale consists of 30 items related to a logical sequence of letters, which participants must complete compl within a 6minute timeframe. Procedure Initially, all participants were informed of the purpose of the investigation and were invited to participate voluntarily. After obtaining consent, the researchers proceeded to explaining the process. 1. First, participants answered a series of socio socio-demographic questions. 2. Then, the R scale of the PMA Test (Primary Mental Abilities) was administered in order to assess the reasoning factor (6 minutes). 3. Subsequently, the TEIQue (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questio Questionnaire) nnaire) assessment was administered to evaluate the emotional intelligence factor (no allotted time). Results Descriptive Analysis The mean scores obtained from the different EI factors are described in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Mean score of the different nt EI factors. 108

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The main selectivity score obtained was 6.40 (on a scale from 0-10), and the PMA-R mean score was 15.40 (on a scale from 0-30). Interaction with the Sex Variable No significant differences were found for the EI different factors or in the overall EI score between men and women. However, significant differences were observed between men and women in the PMA-R Test (Reasoning), being higher in women (Mann-Whitney U test = 418; p <0.044) (see Table 1).

Overall PMA-R

Sex Men Women

N 14 44

Mean 13.79 15.91

SD 2.694 3.523

Table 1. Descriptive Scores for the Reasoning Variable (PMA-R) According to Sex

Interaction with International Experience There were significant differences between students who have had international experiences and those who have not, both in the sociability EI factor (Mann-Whitney U = 495; p <0.023) and in the overall EI score (Mann -Whitney U = 481; p <0.041) (see Table 2). In all other factors no significant differences between both groups were found.

Sociability factor Overall EI score

International experience No Yes No Yes

N

Mean

SD

40 18 40 18

4.4667 4.9294 4.7515 5.0072

0.66848 0.67737 0.56667 0.34540

Table 2. Descriptive Scores of the Sociability Factor and Overall EI According to International Experiences

Interaction with IE A first analysis shows how the factors included in EI have significant correlations with each other, being the highest the one established between the wellness and emotionality factors (Correlation=0.626; p <0.000) (Table 3). Factors Wellness factor Emotionality factor Wellness factor Sociability factor Wellness factor Self-control factor Emotionality factor Sociability factor Emotionality factor Self-control factor Sociability factor Self-control factor

Correlation 0.626 0.507 0.313 0.442 0.395 0.285

Significance 0.000 0.000 0.017 0.001 0.002 0.030

Table 3. Correlation Among the Different EI Factors (significance level p<0.05)

Interaction with PMA-R No significant correlations were found between the reasoning factor (PMA-R) and the EI factors (wellness, emotionality, sociability, self-control), or their overall score. It should be noted 109

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that, although it does not show a significant correlation, the selectivity score correlates negatively with the PMA-R factor (correlation = -0.256; p <0.197). Interaction with the Selectivity Rating In this regard, it is noteworthy that the selectivity score did not significantly correlated to any of the EI factors. However, a significant correlation between the selectivity score and the overall EI score was found (correlation = 0.391, P <0.044). Conclusions The results show that there is no direct relationship between emotional intelligence and general intelligence. However, it is important to consider the size of the sample, since it presents great limitations when interpreting the results. In future research, it is necessary to expand the sample size and include students from different areas of study. An important finding is the interaction found between a performance indicator, such as the selectivity score, and the overall EI score. These results are in line with those found by Schutte et al. ( 1998 ). This result is even more significant, if possible, when realizing the selectivity score showed a negative correlation (inverse relationship) with the score on the PMAR (Reasoning) test. That is, the results seem to suggest that EI is a better predictor of academic performance than the reasoning factor itself. Regarding the variables influencing EI factors, having or not international experiences stands out. In this sense, having made trips abroad (regardless of the reason) seems to have a positive impact on having a higher EI score ( in general) and the sociability factor .

References Bar-On, R., & Parker, J. D. A. (Eds.). (2000). The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Bar-On, R (2006). The Bar-On model of emotionalsocial intelligence. Psicothema, 18(Supp.), 13-25. Extremera, N, & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2003). La inteligencia emocional en el contexto educativo: Hallazgos científicos de sus efectos en el aula [Emotional intelligence in the educational context: Scientific findings of its effects inside the classroom]. Revista Educación, 332, 97-116. Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2004). El papel de la inteligencia emocional en el alumnado: Evidencias empíricas [The role of emotional intelligence in students: Empiric 110

evidence]. Revista Electrónica Investigación Educativa, 6(2).

de

Fernández-Berrocal, P., Extremera, N., & RamosDíaz, N. (2003). Inteligencia emocional y depresión [Emotional intelligence and depression]. Encuentros en Psicología Social, 1(5), 251-254. Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Extremera, N. (2004). Inteligencia emocional, calidad de las relaciones interpersonales y empatía en estudiantes universitarios [Emotional intelligence, interpersonal relationships quality and empathy in college students]. Revista de Psicología Clínica y Salud, 15(2), 117-137. Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Ruíz Aranda, D. (2008). La inteligencia emocional en la educación [Emotional intelligence in education]. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Psicoeducativa, 6(2), 421-436

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Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books. Goleman, D. P. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ for character, health and lifelong achievement. New York, NY: Bantam Books. Newsome, S., Day, A. L., & Catano, V. M. (2000). Assessing the predictive validity of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(6), 1005-1016. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00250-0 Parker, J. D. A., Summerfeldt, L. J., Hogan, M. J., & Majeski, S. A. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academia success: examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(1), 163-172. doi:10.1016/S01918869(03)00076-X Pérez, J. C., Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2005). Measuring trait emotional intelligence. In R. Schulze & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), International handbook of emotional intelligence. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.

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Petrides, K. V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(2), 277-293. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00084-9 Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185-211. Shapiro, L. (1997) La inteligencia emocional de los niños. Una guía para padres y maestros [Emotional intelligence in children. A guide for parents and teachers]. Bilbao, España: Grupo Zeta. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., &Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(2), 167-177. doi:10.1016/S01918869(98)00001-4 Thorndike, E. L. (1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper’s Magazine, 140, 227-235. Thurstone, L. L. (1947). Multiple factor analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

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People Power – Computer Games in the Classroom Ivan Hilliard Department of Economics and International Relations Faculty of Social Sciences European University of Madrid [email protected] Abstract Computer simulations have strong potential as learning tools, both to deepen theoretical understanding and for skills development. However, it is important to understand the different factors that may affect the success of this relatively new classroom tool. This article is based on a computer simulation workshop for International Relations students, where the objective is to manage a transition to democracy from an authoritarian regime. Keywords: Computer games, computer simulation, workshop, edutainment, international relations Introduction As the great science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov (1950) once wrote “new problems, and a new series of wars”. A comment on the foolishness of humanity, and its continual regression into warfare to solve problems, it also points to the uniqueness of each conflict. No two are the same, and a wide range of overlapping issues may be relevant to any analysis. These can include instrumental concepts such as resource use and distribution, corruption, and inequality; and more symbolic concepts such as group identity, feelings of relative deprivation, and historical relativism. Underlying many of these conflicts may be questions of basic human needs fulfillment, fundamentally different worldviews, and access to political power, all of which tend to make conflicts extremely complex, and seemingly intractable. Clearly, any attempt to understand such complex and intertwined issues can be greatly enhanced through experience, not always possible in the classroom. For that reason, the subject of international conflict, which usually forms part of International Relations undergraduate degree programs, is both an interesting and complex one. As a result, in recent years students at the Universidad Europea de Madrid have worked with a computer simulation game to aid in their understanding of the field. This paper sets out to explain how the game has been used, the advantages it offers, as well as the problems related to the introduction of what is a very different learning system. The first part of the paper discusses the advantages of computer games in the classroom, followed by an identification of problems that may arise from their use, as well as a brief breakdown of the most common types of games used in classrooms. The second part describes one particular game and outlines how it was used in an undergraduate degree course. Then, the results of a short student survey on the game are presented, and the article finishes by analyzing how the problems and issues mentioned in the first part of the paper were dealt with. 112

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Objectives The principal objective of this activity was to offer students an opportunity to understand the dynamics of social conflicts, in a format not possible in a traditional classroom setting. For that purpose, a workshop was set up using the computer simulation People Power, a game developed by the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict, a US-based organization. The game revolves around the management of conflict scenarios based on real-life situations, with the ultimate objective of resolving them in a nonviolent manner. Different decisions and tactics used lead to consequences which change the sociopolitical landscape as the game progresses, and the student has the opportunity to study and experience the conflict from the inside, as well as being required to analyze in depth the multiple social factors at play. A secondary objective was to provide the opportunity to apply theoretical concepts, both in the field of conflict and conflict resolution, and demonstrate the knowledge gained during the course. Thirdly, by working in groups where a high level of decision-making and collaborative effort were necessary (the game is highly complex and contains streams of information that needs to be constantly revised, and requires decision-making on hundreds of tactics), the activity provides ample opportunities to practice the competencies of teamwork, responsibility, decision-making, and leadership. Computer Games in the Classroom The use of computer games in the classroom has grown extensively in recent years, mainly due to the massive increase in their use and popularity outside the classroom, and as a result, increasing research is being conducted regarding their impact as learning tools (Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2003; Prensky, 2005; Rapeepisarn, Wong, Fung, & Khine, 2006). It can be argued that computer games, like every experience in life, can serve to educate, yet questions arise as to how much can be learned, in what way, and how effectively (EgenfeldtNielsen, 2006). Advantages of Computer Games in the Classroom The popularity of computer games suggests that there may be clear gains from using them. Practically all commentators emphasize (or take for granted) the increased freedom and participation available through their use, as well as the control which the student gains over their own learning. On a more specific level, a key advantage is that games offer a structure of rules, penalties, and objectives, meaning that while they can incorporate flexibility and decisionmaking on the part of the player, they also provide a type of roadmap for both teacher and student (Lee, Luchini, Michael, Norris, & Soloway, 2004). Games can rapidly identify mistakes and miscalculations, and through a trial and error approach, enable the player to learn quickly while maintaining interest (Garcia, 2005). A second advantage is the entertainment nature of such programs, hence the common term ‘edutainment’ (Garcia, 2005; Rapeepisarn et al., 2006). For example, one study by the British Education and Technology Agency (BECTA) in 2002 found that while teachers were 113

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sometimes frustrated by the level of non-relevant content in the games, they understood that it was useful in attracting the attention of students, being similar to the games they are accustomed to playing outside school hours (BECTA, 2002). Generally, such design has a positive impact on the student and, as a result, can lead to improved motivation and immediate reward (Shade, 1994). Another plus is the link with the professional world. As pointed out by Floeter (2009), game-based learning is becoming increasingly common as a vehicle for company training (principally due to cost and flexibility gains, particularly in large multinational firms), so naturally the incorporation of such technologies into the educational development of future employees should be considered a positive advance. Disadvantages of Computer Games in the Classroom A number of issues remain to be resolved, and require further attention and research. Firstly, there are issues regarding the teacher’s competencies –the capacity of each one to choose relevant games, how to effectively link the game to the academic objectives, and the correct evaluation weight to apply to the gaming activity (Williams, Boone, & Kingsley, 2004). As a result, it may be harder to adapt them to the learning objectives due to their structured nature, highlighting the importance of choosing well. This brings us to the second issue, regarding the quality of games. It appears that the rigorous quality control processes used by editorial companies for their “traditional” educational products (principally books) have not always been applied in the development of educational games (Shiratuddin & Landoni, 2002; Williams, Boone, & Kingsley, 2006). The two issues are clearly related, as the reduced emphasis on suitability at the design level often means less guidance and flexibility available to the teacher at the moment of incorporating the game into the course program. Thirdly, partly due to the explosive growth in software games generally in society, efforts to introduce any material of such a nature may face skepticism from both students and faculty. In many ways it has been assumed that students would always react in a positive way to such a development, yet it appears that a number of conditions need to be taken into account. One of these is time constraints, due to both course and class length, where the time required to learn how to play the game or use the software may be limited, meaning that the student is immediately learning, and may not have time to master all the controls (Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2003). Compounding this is the fact that many students will be aware of a game’s potential (it is common for games to unlock extra features as the game progresses) and may wish to continue playing, and not doing so may lead to a loss of learning momentum and create resistance to future instances where game playing is offered (Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2003). Some other issues that need to be taken into account include the different skill levels among students of the same group (meaning that some may pick up the game intricacies more quickly than others); the levels of compatibility and licensing issues between the academic institution and the game producers; the quality of the school’s hardware (improving graphics often require quite recent software which the school may not have or be willing/able to purchase); and the need to differentiate between learning how to use the game, and learning from using the game. Based on the above, it could be said that the gains possibility outweigh the problems that may be faced, but that more work needs to be done. For example, there appears to be a 114

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limited number of studies comparing learning outcomes in the same course, where computer games were and were not used with different groups (Egenfeldt-Nielsen, 2006). Positive Aspects Providing a structured framework Entertainment value and motivational appeal Link to professional level training

Negative Aspects Choosing right game, and effective incorporation into course Design issues, and quality control in regards to learning effectiveness Time and space considerations Legal and compatibility issues

Table 1. Issues Surrounding the Use of Computer Games in the Classroom

Types of Computer Games in the Classroom The study by the British Education and Technology Agency (BECTA) mentioned above identified a number of different types of computer games and hardware used in classrooms (BECTA, 2002). There was a distinction made between games with an educational emphasis, and what the authors refer to as “pure games”. Generally, the pure games were used more as a reward tool for good behavior or outstanding performance (and were more likely to be available in console format), whereas the educational games were mostly simple simulations, and used in PC format. People Power - The Game of Civil Resistance People Power is the second generation of a game developed by a New York based company, York Zimmermann, in association with the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict. The principal objective is to teach players the skills and techniques of a non-violent resistance strategy. Each player (or group of players) is in effect the strategic coordinator behind a popular movement in conflict with an oppressive political regime. Players don’t appear in the game but instead control the tactics of the different groups (and their leading members). These tactics are based on the influential teachings of the scholar Gene Sharp, considered by many to be one of the fathers of non-violent civil resistance. The game contains a number of scenarios, each one representative of a real civil conflict where issues may include religious, ethnic, and cultural differences, competition for valuable resources, and asymmetrical political access and control. For example, one scenario appears to reflect a transition to democracy in Cuba, another is based on the struggle for equality in a theological Islamic state, and a third deals with the problems of entrenched corruption in Central Asian former Soviet states. Within each scenario there is a detailed breakdown of the society and its key groups, including the government, police and military institutions, business, religious and media associations, political parties, student groups, and non-governmental organizations. For each of these groups, data is provided on their level of support both for the regime and the opposition, their viewpoints on key issues, the resources they control, and their influence over other groups. Each of these groups is also represented by their leading members, and there is also a mine of information available on individual skill levels and competencies, their motivational levels, and their social contacts with other groups and individuals.

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The broad outlines of the conflict are given, but it requires a substantial amount of research (inside the game) by the player to analyze and interpret the information outlined above. Players need to set specific objectives, prepare a political manifesto, and develop a strategic plan before beginning to take action. Each action (be it a meeting, a social or fundraising event, or more direct action such as a demonstration or sit-in) requires time, money, people, and certain competencies, and will create some impact, giving instant feedback to the player. Consequences can range from loss of popular support or falling motivation by activists due to a badly planned or executed activity, through to suppression, imprisonment, and ultimately death for those involved. The main objective is to bring individuals and groups into the opposition camp through a carefully coordinated strategy of continuous action, thus weakening government support and resolve, to the point where they are forced to concede the objectives set at the start of the game. Playing the Game Due to the games complexity, and also to avoid the problem of a loss of learning momentum, it was decided to play the game in a day-long (8 hour) workshop format. A computer lab was prepared several weeks beforehand, which meant that each team of four students had access to a number of computers, being able to have the game open on several monitors as the same time, playing on one while using the others to constantly revise information (individual and group resources, competencies, political affiliations, etc.) as their strategy and tactics evolved. Based on personal experience playing, plus trails with a small number of students from an earlier course who took the game home, it was estimated that the timeframe would be sufficient to reach the objectives chosen within each scenario. There would also be enough time for those who made serious strategic errors (with the game ending quickly and unsuccessfully), to reactivate the scenario, work with the same or a slightly modified strategic plan, and use a new combination of tactics. The date of the workshop was published in Moodle early on in the course so that students could resolve any timetabling issues, and one class of 2 hours in the days before the workshop was dedicated to learning how to use the software. The software comes with a useful tutorial on how one might play a scenario (there is a separate mini-scenario used for the tutorial), as well as a detailed glossary of what each heading means (e.g., each person has a fear level, and the higher the level the less likely they are to engage in public demonstrations of discontent with the regime, even though privately they may support the aims of the opposition). The morning of the workshop (11am-2pm) was set aside for analysis and strategic planning, and the afternoon (3pm-8pm) for playing. Evaluation Process Firstly, attendance was obligatory for the 2-hour preparation class as it was felt that anyone who turned up for the workshop without understanding how to play the game would negatively impact the team’s performance, due to the game’s complexity and high level of decision-making required throughout the activity. It was also felt that this would reinforce the fact that the activity was a team-based one, and hence each player was also partially responsible for the learning process and evaluation grade of the others. 116

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This, plus a general observation of each person’s behavior and attitude during the workshop by the teacher, made up 15% of the total grade. The remaining 85% of the grade was in the form of a report compiled piled during the activity and handed in at the end of the workshop. The report obliged each group to do a number of things: • Demonstrate knowledge gained during the course firstly by identifying a real and ongoing ngoing conflict with similar characteristics to ea each of the scenarios.. (This also meant they had to read the outline of each scenario before they chose which one they wanted to play). Secondly, explain in detail the conflict chosen using different theoretical concepts presented during the course (e.g. (e.g., instrumental and symbolic lic theories of ethnic conflict, resource scarcity and resource abundance conflict theories). • Analyze in depth the social panorama by preparing a detailed SWOT analysis for both the regime and the opposition, and then using this to wri write te the opposition manifesto, as well as a short description of the perceived legitimacy levels of the movement they were coordinating. A related question asked them to jus justify tify the positions taken in the manifesto, which meant linkage to the SWOT analysis. • Identify mistakes they had made and consider what they would do differently next time. In this way they were obliged to consider what they had learned playing the game. It is important to note that the grade was in no way determined by how far into the game g a team got, or how successful they were in reaching the objectives they’d set. Each member of the team received the same grade for the report, and an individual grade for the 15% related to attendance in the training session and general behavior on the day of the workshop. The activity formed part of the subject Theory and Analysis of International Conflict, and was worth 25% of the total subject evaluation. Outcomes and Student Perceptions At the end of the workshop, and after handing in the group re report, port, the 24 participants (6 groups) were asked to complete a short survey of the activity. The survey was divided into three areas: the game itself, skill development development, and the workshop organization. The results were as follows:

Figure 1 .

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Figure 2.

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Figure 3 3. Figures 1-3. The Game.

Figure 4.

Figure 5.

Figure 6.

Figure 7.

Figures 4-7. Skills and competencies.

Figure 8. 118

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Figure 10 10. Figures 8-10. Organization.

There is clearly a very strong relation between the activity and the course content, as well as a strong feeling that it works well as a learning tool and is enjoyable (over 50% of responses for these two questions were high or very high). In skills and competencies development, the scores for team work are extremely positive (over 90% rated it as high or very high), and the scores for both practical know know-how how and leadership were good (with over 60% high or very high for both). The he scores for cross cross-cultural understanding were more modest, perhaps due to the fact that each group, although studying all the scenarios early on in the game, spent 90% of the workshop focused on one specific one. The organization seemed to be spot on, w with ith both the preparation time and the weight of the activity scoring over 85% in the “about right” category. Only the length of the workshop was disputed, with about 20% preferring a shorter time frame, and about the same percentage wishing they could have played more. Conclusions Returning to the positive and negative issues of video games mentioned in the first section, it could be argued that the People Power workshop took advantage of the positive aspects, without suffering from the negative ones. The game contains a solid structure and requires players to prepare a political manifesto and a strategic plan, which means studying in depth the conflict parameters before beginning to play. In terms of entertainment and motivation, both the survey results and teacher observation suggest students strongly enjoyed the activity (for example, bathroom visits and breaks were kept to a minimum despite students being allowed freedom of movement due to the length of the activity). The evaluation of the activity was intentionally separated from progress in the game, which meant that the success achieved by some groups (a number of them succeeded in reaching all the objectives) was based on intrinsic motivation, rather than any desire to improve their grade. Concerning the first of the negative points, increasingly game game-makers makers are producing high-quality quality games tailored to specific learning objectives. People Power has been used by the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict to train civil society groups in countries such as Tunisia and Egypt, and therefore the issue of the teacher’s effectiveness in choosing a relevant game was minimal. As the game was designed by experts in the field, with the specific intention of being used as an educational tool, the design issue was not a problem either (the very high survey results for the first question reflect both these points).

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The points regarding spatial and time issues, and legal and compatibility problems, were not a problem –the game was installed on the flexible cloud laboratory of the university, MyLabs, which meant that all the students had access. Being an educational game created by a nongovernmental organization, the university was granted a license for a large number of users. Finally, the positive response in the survey to the length of the workshop, and the fact that a number of groups achieved their objectives, suggest that loss of learning motivation was not an issue. Broadly speaking, there are four learning theories in the field of game playing, namely behaviorism, cognitivist, constructionism, and the socio-cultural approach (see EgenfeldtNielsen, 2006). A game such as People Power is located somewhere between the cognitivist and the constructionist approaches. (As mentioned by the author, both approaches have a lot in common). It increasingly appears that these types of games, correctly used, can provide highly effective learning experiences. Rather than reward a certain type of behavior (not necessarily the learning objective aimed for), and focusing on extrinsic motivation, these games draw in the player and create intrinsic motivation through combining learning and the game experience itself. From a cognitive perspective, such games challenge a player’s perceived mind-frame. In the case of international conflict studies, where every social conflict is a unique set of dynamic variables, yet students will often have strong (theoretical) experience of a reduced number of conflicts (Cold War, War on Terror, Israel-Palestinian conflict), such a learning experience can be enormously useful. From a constructionist approach, the game obliges the player to interact with the material, discuss it, and use it to build knowledge. In the case of People Power, the constant debates and discussions during play revolved around the long tactics list, and the impact of each one, with the game allowing the players to see the outcomes of their discussions, in a very different format to that possible in a theoretical class.

References Assimov, I. (1950). I, robot. New York, NY: Bantam Dell. British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTA). (2002). Curriculum software initiative: Computer Games in Education (CGE) Project. Available from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S. (2006). Overview of research on the educational use of video games. Digital Kompetanse, 1(3), 184-213. Floeter, A. (2009). The Effectiveness of Game-based Learning. UW-Stout Journal of Student Research (8th ed), 1-8. Retrieved from http://www.uwstout.edu/rs/journal-of-studentresearch.cfm Garcia, G. (2005). Digital game learning. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. San Diego, CA: San Diego 120

State University, Department of Educational Technology. Retrieved from http://www.etc.edu.cn/eet/eet/ Kirriemuir, J., & McFarlane, A. (2003). Use of computer and video games in the classroom. In Proceedings of the Level Up Digital Games Research Conference, Universitet Utrecht, Netherlands. Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (200l). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. In E. DykstraErickson & M. Tscheligi (Eds.), CHI'04 extended abstracts on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1375-1378). New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). Prensky, M. (2005). Computer games and learning: Digital game-based learning. In J. Raessens

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& J. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of computer game studies (pp. 97-122). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Rapeepisarn, K., Wong, K. W., Fung, C. C., & Khine, M. S. (2008). The relationship between game genres, learning techniques and learning styles in educational computer games. In Z. Pan, X. Zhang, A. El Rhalibi, W. Woo, & Y. Li (Eds.), Technologies for elearning and digital entertainment : Proceedings of the Third International Conference: Edutainment 2008, Nanjing, China, June 25-27, 2008 (pp. 206-217). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

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Shade, D. D (1994). Computers and Young Children: Software Types, Social Contexts, Gender, Age, and Emotional Responses. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, v5 n2 p177-209 Shiratuddin, N., & Landoni, M. (2002). Evaluation of content activities in children's educational software. Evaluation and Program Planning, 25(2), 175-182. doi:10.1016/S01497189(02)00011-3 Williams, D. L., Boone, R., & Kingsley, K. V. (2004). Teacher beliefs about educational software: A Delphi study. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(3), 213-229.

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Producción de Contenido Multimedia en el Aula. Una Propuesta Docente para Alumnos de Periodismo y Comunicación Audiovisual. Eva Herrero Curiel* Departamento de Periodismo y Comunicación Audiovisual Facultad de Humanidades, Comunicación y Documentación Universidad Carlos III de Madrid [email protected] Nieves Limón Serrano Departamento de Periodismo y Comunicación Audiovisual Facultad de Humanidades, Comunicación y Documentación Universidad Carlos III de Madrid [email protected] Resumen Durante el curso académico 2012/2013 se llevaron a cabo en el grado de Periodismo y Comunicación Audiovisual dos actividades docentes, de forma independiente, en dos grupos prácticos. Ambas experiencias (A y B) utilizaron, como parte de sus programas, herramientas para la creación de contenidos multimedia. En la experiencia A se utilizaron diferentes dispositivos de grabación y software de edición y postproducción audiovisual con la intención de que los alumnos produjeran pequeñas piezas audiovisuales. En la experiencia B, los alumnos tenían que elaborar un reportaje multimedia a partir de una herramienta de “curaduría” de contenidos en el entorno de la web 2.0 (Storify). A la vista de estas primeras actividades, se diseñó un ejercicio en el que converjan los contenidos producidos en ambos grupos, de manera que la experiencia B se nutra del contenido multimedia producido por los estudiantes de otra asignatura y que, a su vez, ofrezca a la experiencia A una plataforma de difusión digital. Con esta propuesta se pretende fomentar la colaboración y el trabajo en equipo entre los alumnos, mientras se incide en la necesaria transversalidad de los contenidos en el área de comunicación. Palabras clave: Periodismo, audiovisual, convergencia tecnológica, multimedia, docencia Introducción El nuevo escenario universitario exige una mayor dedicación a los contenidos prácticos por parte de profesores y alumnos. Para los estudiantes de grado, especialmente en el área de comunicación, estas prácticas desarrolladas en el aula y fuera de ella son fundamentales para completar su formación académica. De este modo se presenta el siguiente trabajo, que trata de analizar a partir de dos experiencias docentes prácticas, las posibilidades que ofrecen a profesores y alumnos unas herramientas audiovisuales que servirían para aplicar los conocimientos adquiridos en las clases magistrales. Los principales objetivos de este trabajo son presentar y describir dos experiencias multimedia llevadas a cabo en dos grupos prácticos de los grados de periodismo y comunicación audiovisual. Partiendo del análisis DAFO de ambas experiencias, se propone 122

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una actividad para el aula en la que converjan parte de los contenidos trabajados de forma autónoma en los dos grupos. Por otra parte, se reflexionará sobre la aplicabilidad de esta actividad académica teniendo en cuenta las necesidades de un entorno profesional que exige destrezas en la creación de contenidos multimedia. En primer lugar, se contextualiza la inserción de los conocimientos prácticos en un modelo como el académico, eminentemente teórico. Continúa con la descripción y potencialidades de las herramientas utilizadas en ambas experiencias docentes y, tras describir estas actividades concretas y analizar sus debilidades y fortalezas, se discuten los resultados obtenidos y se hace una propuesta final que incluye los contenidos de ambas actividades. Práctica en el Aula: La Teoría Aplicada Los Estudios de Comunicación Como se señaló en la introducción de este texto, una de las principales innovaciones en el terreno de la educación superior (dentro del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior [EEES]), pasa por los cambios en la impartición de las clases. Fruto de una concepción de la enseñanza que valora como positiva la práctica de aquello aprendido, podría decirse, de forma teórica, que hay tres pilares en el actual escenario académico: una mayor participación del estudiante en la dinámica docente, el aumento del trabajo autónomo del alumno tutorizado por el profesor y, sumada a la asistencia a clase, la elaboración de ejercicios eminentemente prácticos que muestren la aplicación de los conocimientos teóricos adquiridos y que serán parte cuantificable del proceso de evaluación del estudiante (Herrero, 2009, p.2). Obviando, por el momento, la complicada aplicación que estas exigencias académicas están teniendo en la universidad española (como deficiencias presupuestarias y laborales derivadas del escaso apoyo estatal necesario para asegurar un cambio efectivo que, en ningún caso, excluya una formación teórica exigente y exigible), y los intereses comerciales identificados en la aplicación de algunas de estas directrices, lo cierto es que, en ciertas disciplinas, algunos de los cambios propuestos eran necesarios. Es el caso, como ya se habrá supuesto, de las llamadas ciencias de la comunicación y de la información o, para ser más preciso, de los actuales grados de periodismo y comunicación audiovisual. Con un perfil muy dinámico y práctico, algunas de las asignaturas que componen el currículum académico de ambas enseñanzas han sido reformuladas con la intención de responder a nuevos conocimientos, pero también de reforzar destrezas clásicas aún poco valoradas en el entorno universitario español. Mientras las nuevas herramientas de difusión de contenido audiovisual y periodístico imponen retos educativos que deben abordarse si se quiere fomentar una educación efectiva, la producción y edición de este material no es, superada la evidente obsolescencia de las herramientas técnicas con que se realiza, ninguna novedad en el estudio de estas disciplinas. Grabación de noticias, realización de programas documentales o informativos, toma de fotografías, edición y posproducción de material, entre otros, están presentes, con mayor o menor desarrollo, en los planes de estudio desde hace años. Esto no responde exclusivamente a las necesidades de adaptación de tales áreas a un escenario profesional cada vez menos claro y solvente, sino a las exigencias de conocimiento teórico y práctico que implican tanto el periodismo como la comunicación audiovisual desde el 123

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momento en que se imparten en centros de reflexión y pensamiento crítico como son (o deberían ser) las universidades. Por decirlo claramente, el conocimiento periodístico y audiovisual pasa por el control de destrezas prácticas que revierten en competencias intelectuales. Escribir (bien), construir discursos noticiosos o ensayísticos, saber cubrir un hecho informativamente relevante o llevar a cabo una entrevista son, como es evidente, algunas de ellas. Producir y difundir material audiovisual son otras destrezas ineludibles. El cambio reside, por tanto, en la eficiencia a la hora de impartir esos conocimientos (teniendo en cuenta el escenario en el que se desarrollan) y en la necesaria coherencia entre dos disciplinas claramente relacionadas (ver Arroyo, 2002; García Garrido, 2002; Gutiérrez, 2002; Gutiérrez Martín, 2003; Vilches Norat, 2002). Descripción de las Herramientas Partiendo de lo anteriormente expuesto, se describirán ahora las herramientas utilizadas para, en primer lugar, producir material audiovisual (es decir, grabar y editar clips audiovisuales) y, después, difundir este contenido. Grabación Digital y Edición No Lineal de Contenidos Audiovisuales La variedad de dispositivos que permiten la grabación de material audiovisual y su posterior edición es muy numerosa. Actualmente pueden encontrarse en el mercado una incontable gama de cámaras de vídeo, fotográficas o software de postproducción y edición cuyo manejo se ha simplificado enormemente con el paso del tiempo. Esta gran oferta, que a simple vista supone una ventaja, tiene también grandes inconvenientes para los usuarios, más acuciantes, si cabe, en un campo como el educativo: su obsolescencia o la incompatibilidad entre dispositivos son más que conocidas, pero también es muy sencillo encontrar, entre esa inabarcable oferta, herramientas adecuadas para casi cualquier tipo de necesidad audiovisuales. Además, es preciso notar la convergencia de funciones entre estos dispositivos y el desarrollo de aplicaciones móviles que permiten, con un único terminal, grabar o fotografiar para, poco después, editar esas imágenes completando en un breve espacio de tiempo un proceso de producción de material audiovisual que antes implicaba largos periodos y complejas tareas (ver Herrero, 2009, p. 130-134). Estas herramientas son, en muchos casos, de tamaño reducido, manejo sencillo y costes relativamente asequibles (por ejemplo, los teléfonos móviles), lo que supone una facilidad a la hora de obtener imágenes y ensamblarlas en un montaje. Y ha redundado, por tanto, en el exagerado aumento de material audiovisual que existe en la actualidad. Si se suma a esto las facilidades de Internet para difundir imágenes, gracias también a la evolución de los sistemas de compresión de vídeo, se tiene como resultado un panorama totalmente predispuesto a la producción masiva de contenido audiovisual (ver Willem, 2009, p. 49-66). El uso de estas herramientas de grabación y softwares de edición (ver Montoya, 2005, p. 11) en disciplinas como el periodismo y la comunicación audiovisual son imprescindibles: gran parte de los discursos (informativos, documentales, de ficción…) que se construyen en ambas áreas pasan por la correcta utilización del hardware y software adecuado. Pero la alfabetización audiovisual (la educación en y con los medios como auxiliares didácticos, 124

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ámbitos de estudio y técnicas de trabajo [Pérez Rodríguez, 2004, p. 179]), comprende otras competencias teóricas que hacen que la práctica docente en estas áreas deba conseguir un equilibrio entre la enseñanza técnica de todos estos dispositivos y numerosos conocimientos teóricos. Las destrezas de grabación y edición se asientan, inevitablemente, en el visionado continuo de un amplio abanico de material audiovisual (productos informativos, reportajes, películas, nuevos formatos audiovisuales) y la consulta de la literatura teórica pertinente (Delors, 1996). Es necesario recordar que la calidad de todos estos procesos pasa por dedicar el tiempo adecuado a cada una de las tareas, máxime cuando son los estudiantes los que están aprendiendo a manejar un aparataje relativamente novedoso para ellos. Además, si se quieren desempeñar estas funciones con diligencia, se debe dedicar tiempo al conocimiento de la narrativa audiovisual requerida para cada fin (no es lo mismo producir una pequeña pieza de ficción, que cubrir un hecho noticiosos con un dispositivo móvil o hacer una crónica audiovisual tomando fotografías). Por tanto, las herramientas mínimas necesarias para impartir este tipo de clases, además de los visionados y textos, son: cámaras MiniDV (con las cintas adecuadas), o cámaras fotográficas digitales réflex o automáticas con tarjetas de memoria o dispositivos móviles de grabación; trípodes; micrófonos de solapa (con el material fungible adecuado) y los dispositivos de sonido integrados en cada cámara; software de edición no lineal con el hardware adecuado; y demás accesorios e insumos (fuentes de iluminación, cablería…) (ver Espinosa & Abbate, 2005). Curadores de Contenidos: Storify La web 2.0, basada en el intercambio de contenidos (de cualquier naturaleza) en tiempo real y bajo unos parámetros de usabilidad que permiten a cualquier usuario participar de sus potencialidades, ha proporcionado numerosas herramientas y aplicaciones de fácil manejo. Esto permite a cualquier persona generar contenido, publicarlo y compartirlo con otros internautas. Todo ello, sin que sea necesario un conocimiento profesional del tema en cuestión. Los últimos datos, publicados en diversos informes de referencia sobre el estado de la sociedad de la información, indican que la penetración de las redes sociales entre los internautas españoles de edades comprendidas entre los 19 y 24 años es de casi un 90% (Fundación Telefónica, 2012, p. 82) , el 45% de los usuarios de Internet en el mundo tiene menos de 25 años (García Hervás, 2012, p. 8) y el 98,4% de las personas con estudios de educación superior universitaria que tienen menos de 45 años son internautas (Observatorio Nacional de Telecomunicaciones y de la Sociedad de la Información, 2013, p. 17). De esta forma, se puede afirmar que los jóvenes universitarios invierten una gran cantidad de tiempo en navegar, compartir contenidos y consultar las redes sociales. Este es el principal motivo por el que se hacen necesarias herramientas y recursos que sirvan al usuario habitual de Internet para descartar informaciones, filtrar y tener parámetros que le ayuden a seleccionar el contenido más relevante y acorde con sus criterios de búsqueda. El software Storify es una herramienta de “curaduría de contenidos” (Content Curator) que ayuda a filtrar y seleccionar, bajo unos criterios algorítmicos, los contenidos más relevantes encontrados en las redes sociales. De esta forma, el usuario de la plataforma puede construir historias integrando todas las narrativas generadas en el entorno digital de una manera periodística y alternativa a lo que hasta ahora habían ofrecido otros canales. 125

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La plataforma se centra en las redes sociales más populares, pero también en aquellas cuyo potencial radica en el contenido que sus usuarios cuelgan o comparten, como son Flickr o Instagram que se han convertido en auténticos archivos digitales fotográficos. Storify permite a cualquier usuario abrir una cuenta y comenzar a publicar. El usuario puede acceder a través de su cuenta de Twitter, sin necesidad de registrar de nuevo todos sus datos. Desde la plataforma se ofrecen unas claves de uso para construir historias, claves que son coherentes con los criterios que cualquier estudiante de periodismo debe tener a la hora de redactar una noticia: • Tener claro qué se va a contar y cómo. • No hacer historias de algo general, buscar temáticas más específicas. • Al hacer la selección de contenidos buscar lo "mejor de lo mejor". No elegir los primeros resultados que la búsqueda ofrece. • Intercalar fotos, texto, video, audios y más. Tratar de mantener dos o tres recursos multimedia. • Revisar la ortografía y elegir un buen titular para la historia. Cuando el usuario va a crear una historia, la aplicación le facilita el uso de módulos (a modo de cajas de texto) donde lo primero que debe hacer es colocar el título e inmediatamente se genera una dirección web para esa historia. El usuario puede hacer búsqueda en las diferentes redes sociales, en Google o en las webs que prefiera sobre un determinado tema que introducirá en el motor de búsqueda de Storify. A continuación la plataforma le devuelve unos resultados (textos, tuits, fotos o vídeos) y el autor seleccionará aquellos que más le interese y los arrastrará a los módulos que tiene a su izquierda debajo del título de la historia. El orden de las cajas y por tanto de la narración se puede ir modificando en función de los criterios del creador. Metodología Descripción de la Experiencia A Contando con 30 estudiantes y 14 sesiones docentes, esta experiencia pretendía dotar a los alumnos de los conocimientos básicos para la construcción de dos ejercicios audiovisuales: en primer lugar, cada uno de ellos tenía que grabar una entrevista de 3 minutos a un personaje noticioso en el ámbito académico y, después, debían construir en grupo una pequeña pieza documental de, como máximo, 5 minutos de duración. Para ello, tras la explicación de los criterios de evaluación y el sistema de trabajo, se comenzó dedicando dos clases al conocimiento de la narrativa audiovisual más sencilla (tipos de planos, tipos de montaje audiovisual, terminología…). Las clases, que comprendían análisis de visionados y apoyos textuales, se completaron con el reparto a los estudiantes de la bibliografía específica para completar estas tareas. Acto seguido, se procedió a la enseñanza del manejo de las cámaras de grabación de las que dispone la universidad (cámaras MiniDV y HDV) con las que se grabaría el primer ejercicio en las instalaciones de la universidad y se ensayaron rutinas básicas de grabación: encendido de cámara, ajuste de parámetros, captación de sonido e imagen en interior y exterior, etc. Así se pudo, en las clases número cinco y número seis, organizar las grabaciones de cada pequeña entrevista en el plató de fotografía la universidad. Al no necesitar edición alguna, ese material se importó y guardó, y el alumno obtenía su primer ejercicio que era evaluado conjuntamente en el aula en un visionado colectivo donde se comentaban las posibilidades, errores y aciertos de cada entrevista. 126

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Tras esto, se dedicaron tres clases a la enseñanza de uno de los softwares de edición digital no lineal con los que cuenta la universidad y se editaron pequeños clips de vídeo ya transferidos y almacenados para ensayar algunas de las posibilidades técnicas que ofrece el programa. Comenzó entonces el proceso de guionización de la pieza documental en grupo, material que los alumnos grababan fuera del aula y con cualquier dispositivo de grabación o fotográfico fomentando el uso más creativo y libre de estas herramientas. Acordada previamente una fecha tope para la entrega de material, se importaron y guardaron esas imágenes y se procedió a la edición para, al igual que se había hecho con el primer ejercicio, entregar finalmente la pieza audiovisual que fue analizada colectivamente. Todo este trabajo se acompañó de las tareas de producción que los alumnos debían ejercitar por su cuenta para posibilitar las grabaciones, contando con el apoyo y tutorización del docente. Descripción de la Experiencia B Se propuso a los alumnos que se organizasen en grupos de tres o cuatro miembros. Eligieron un tema a tratar, se les recomendó que se encontrara dentro de la temática que se ha había visto en el curso, y se registraron en la plataforma. El objetivo final de la práctica era construir una noticia a partir de diferentes contenidos multimedia encontrados en la plataforma, y se evaluaría la originalidad de la historia, así como la adecuada utilización de los criterios periodísticos que han dado en otras asignaturas. Los resultados que se pretendían obtener tras la realización de la tarea eran que los alumnos reflexionaran sobre el uso de las redes sociales en el trabajo periodístico, pusieran en práctica el concepto de “curador de contenidos” y fueran capaces de elaborar un reportaje periodístico multimedia. Además, al finalizar el ejercicio se les pidió una reflexión grupal sobre el uso de la plataforma como futuros periodistas. Algunas de las reflexiones que hicieron fueron: Una ventaja a la hora de utilizar Storify es diferenciar lo relevante, separar el ‘ruido’ de lo realmente importante, lo que hace que aquel que consulte lo que escribimos vea exactamente lo que quiere. La interacción es vital, ya que se añade lo que se dice en las redes sociales, la participación es evidente ya que lo que escribimos se confecciona, en parte, gracias a lo que los usuarios comentan sobre dicha noticia. (Grupo 3, experiencia A de alumnos de grado de Periodismo y Comunicación Audiovisual) Como futuros periodistas la capacidad de esta aplicación de agregar contenidos a nuestras historias es de gran importancia, se pueden agregar hipervínculos, insertar textos, vídeos, contenidos agregados por otros usuarios, estudios, artículos y fotos en perfecto orden cronológico; a esto sumamos la posibilidad de crear trabajos en colaboración con otros usuarios, lo que fomenta el trabajo en equipo. (Grupo 4, experiencia A de alumnos de grado de Periodismo y Comunicación Audiovisual) Integración de la Experiencia A y la Experiencia B Tras la puesta en marcha de las dos experiencias docentes, y después de constatar que los estudiantes son capaces de adaptarse con facilidad a las dinámicas de trabajo que incluyen labores de grabación, edición y difusión de contenidos periodísticos, se propone la 127

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convergencia de ambas acciones formativas del siguiente modo: en primer lugar, se abrirá un foro común en el espacio web de la universidad al que cada estudiante tiene acceso; los alumnos de ambas experiencias propondrán allí los temas en los que trabajarán de forma simultánea. Mientras los alumnos de la experiencia A producen los contenidos, abrirán un blog grupal en el que, tras grabar y editar los contenidos, deberán alojar las diferentes piezas audiovisuales y fotográficas para que dicho material sea seleccionado por los estudiantes de la experiencia B en la elaboración de sus reportajes periodísticos multimedia. Análisis DAFO INTERNOS Debilidades • Escasa motivación para trabajar en grupo. • Escasa tolerancia a la frustración. • Escaso conocimiento previo del medio. • Falta de adaptación a situaciones complejas. Fortalezas • Alta predisposición de los estudiantes para producir contenido audiovisual. • Motivación a la hora de utilizar nuevas tecnologías. • Facilidad en el aprendizaje y uso de tecnologías coetáneas. • La posibilidad de poner en marcha procesos creativos.

EXTERNOS Amenazas • Debilidades técnicas de software y hardware. • Inversión requerida para los recursos técnicos. • Escasa flexibilidad de los cronogramas. • Demanda de tiempo extra para el docente. Oportunidades • Favorece el proceso de evaluación continua exigido por el EEES. • Favorece la transversalidad de contenidos entre asignaturas. • Fomenta el trabajo en grupo. • Potencia la organización y responsabilidad a la hora de abordar un trabajo audiovisual y periodístico.

Conclusiones A la vista de la descripción de ambas experiencias y del posterior análisis DAFO de la propuesta docente, se puede concluir que la convergencia entre contenidos teóricos y prácticos dentro del entorno audiovisual y periodístico responde a las exigencias de las propias asignaturas y facilita la adaptación de estas a las demandas del EEES. La acción docente que se propone en el artículo pasa por crear vínculos entre asignaturas, de forma que ayuden a evitar la ilusión en el alumno de que los conocimientos se encuentran en compartimentos estancos sin relación alguna. Además, el alumno adquirirá un mayor conocimiento y contacto con algunas de las funciones que podrá desempeñar en su futuro profesional. Referencias Arroyo, C. (2002). El impacto de las nuevas tecnologías en la enseñanza superior. En C. Alba Pastor (Coord.), Perspectivas de aplicación y desarrollo de las nuevas 128

tecnologías de la educación. Unión Europea, América Latina y Caribe (pp. 37-43). Madrid, España: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte/Universidad de Murcia.

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Delors, J. (Coord.). (1996). La educación encierra un tesoro. Informe a la UNESCO de la Comisión Internacional sobre la educación para el siglo XXI. Madrid, España: Santillana/Ediciones UNESCO. Espinosa, S., & Abbate, E. (2005). La producción de vídeo en el aula. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Colihue. Fundación Telefónica. (2012). La sociedad de la información en España 2012. Barcelona, España: Editorial Ariel. Acceso a través de http://elibros.fundacion.telefonica.com/sie12/ García Garrido, J. L. (2002). Aprendizaje permanente y nuevas tecnologías: una unión necesaria”. En C. Alba Pastor (Coord.), Perspectivas de aplicación y desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías de la educación. Unión Europea, América Latina y Caribe (pp. 9-21). Madrid, España: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte/Universidad de Murcia. García Hervás, J. M. (Ed.) (2012). eEspaña: Informe anual 2012 sobre el desarrollo de la sociedad de la información en España. Madrid, España: Fundación Orange. Acceso a través de http://www.proyectosfundacionorange.es Gutiérrez, M. (2002). Alfabetización Tecnológica: Competencias básicas para una nueva cultura. En C. Alba Pastor (Coord.), Perspectivas de aplicación y desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías de la educación. Unión Europea, América Latina y Caribe (pp. 23-30). Madrid, España: Ministerio de

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Educación, Cultura y Deporte/Universidad de Murcia. Gutiérrez Martín, A. (2003). Alfabetización digital. Algo más que ratones y teclas. Barcelona, España: Gedisa. Herrero, J. C. (Ed.) (2009). Manual de teoría de la información y de la comunicación. Madrid, España: Univérsitas. Montoya, N. (2005). La comunicación audiovisual en la educación. Madrid, España: Ediciones del Laberinto. Observatorio Nacional de Telecomunicaciones y de la Sociedad de la Información [ONTSI]. (2013). Perfil sociodemográfico de los internautas. Análisis de datos INE 2012. Madrid, España: ONTSI/Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Pérez Rodríguez, M. A. (2004). Los nuevos lenguajes de la comunicación. Enseñar y aprender con los medios. Barcelona, España: Paidós. Vilches

Norat, Y. (2002). La alfabetización tecnológica. Un planteamiento humanista. En Perspectivas de aplicación y desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías de la educación. Unión Europea, América Latina y Caribe. Madrid, España: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte/Universidad de Murcia.

Willem, C. (2009). La web audiovisual. En Grané, M. y Willem, C. (Eds.). Web 2-0: Nuevas formas de aprender y participar. Barcelona, España: Laertes.

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---English translation--Multimedia Content Production Inside the Classroom. A Teaching Proposal for Journalism and Audiovisual Communication Students. Eva Herrero Curiel* Departamento de Periodismo y Comunicación Audiovisual Facultad de Humanidades, Comunicación y Documentación Universidad Carlos III de Madrid [email protected] Nieves Limón Serrano Departamento de Periodismo y Comunicación Audiovisual Facultad de Humanidades, Comunicación y Documentación Universidad Carlos III de Madrid [email protected] Abstract During the 2012/2013 academic year, two teaching activities were carried out, independently, in two training groups within the Journalism and Audiovisual Communications program. Both experiences (A and B) used, as part of the program, tools for multimedia content creation. For experience A, diverse recording devices and editing and audiovisual postproduction software were used, so that students could produce short audiovisual pieces. During experience B, the students had to prepare a multimedia report using a content curation tool within the Web 2.0 environment (Storify). In view of these early activities, an exercise was designed so that the content produced in both groups be combined, and in that way the multimedia content produced by students in another course enriched experience B and, in turn, it offered a digital broadcast platform for experience A. This proposal aims to encourage collaboration and teamwork among students, while having an influence in the needed cross section of contents in the area of communication. Keywords: Journalism, audiovisual, technological convergence, multimedia, teaching Introduction The new university scene requires more dedication to practice content by faculty and students. For graduate students, especially in the area of communication, these exercises in the classroom and beyond are essential to complete their education. As such, this paper tries to analyze, from two teaching experiences, the possibilities audiovisual tools offer to faculty and students, which could serve to apply the knowledge acquired in lectures. The main objective of this article is to present and describe two multimedia experiences carried out during two practice groups in the Journalism and Audiovisual Communications program. Based on the SWOT analysis of both experiences, a classroom activity is proponed, in which part of the contents developed independently by the two groups converge. On the other hand, this piece reflects on the applicability of this academic activity, taking into account the needs of a professional environment that requires skills in multimedia content creation. 130

*Corresponding author

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First, the inclusion of practical knowledge as an academic model, eminently theoretical, is contextualized. Then, a description and potential of the tools used in both teaching experiences follows and, after describing these specific activities and analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, the results obtained are discussed and a final proposal that includes the contents of both activities is made. Practice Inside the Classroom: Applied Theory Studies in Communications As noted in the introduction, a major innovation in the field of higher education (within the European Higher Education Area [EHEA]), involves changes in teaching courses. Result of a conception of education that values as positive practicing what has been learned, it could be argued, theoretically, that there are three pillars in the current academic scene: an increase in student participation in the teaching dynamics; an increase in the independent work of the student, supervised by the professor; and, together with class attendance, preparing practice exercises that could serve to apply the theoretical knowledge acquired and that would be a quantifiable part of the student assessment (Herrero, 2009, p.2). Notwithstanding, for the moment, the complicated application of these academic demands within the Spanish university system (such as budget and labor deficiencies arising from the scant and needed government support in order to ensure an effective change that will not exclude in any case a demanding and enforceable theoretical training), and the commercial interests identified in the implementation of some of these guidelines, the fact is that, in certain disciplines, some of the proposed changes were necessary. This is the case, as supposed, of the so-called Information and Communication Sciences or, to be more precise, current programs in journalism and audiovisual communication. With a dynamic and practical profile, some of the courses in the curricula of both subject areas have been reformulated with the intent to include new knowledge, but also to strengthen classical but still undervalued skills in the Spanish university environment. While new dissemination tools for audiovisual and journalistic content impose educational challenges that must be addressed, if the idea is to promote effective education, producing and editing this material is, once the apparent obsolescence of the technical tools used is overcome, nothing new in the study of these disciplines. News recordings, making documentaries or informative programs, shooting, editing, and post-producing, among others, have been present with varying degrees of development in the curricula for years. This is not solely driven by the adaptation needs of such knowledge areas to a professional scenario, increasingly less clear and solvent, but by the demands of theoretical and practical knowledge involving both journalism and audiovisual communications, from the moment they are taught in centers of reflection and critical thinking, as universities would (or should) be. To be clear, journalistic and audiovisual knowledge goes through the control of practice skills, which turn into intellectual skills. Writing (well), developing news or essay dissertations, knowing how to cover relevant events in an informative way, or conducting interviews are, evidently, some of them. Producing and disseminating audiovisual materials are other unavoidable skills. The challenge resides, therefore, in the efficiency in imparting that knowledge (taking into account the scenario in which they develop) and the needed coherence between two disciplines clearly 131

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related (see Arroyo, 2002; Garcia Garrido, 2002; Gutierrez, 2002; Gutierrez Martin, 2003; Vilches Norat, 2002). Description of the Tools Based on the above, the tools used to, first, produce audiovisual material (i.e., recording and editing audiovisual clips), and then transmit this content will be described. Digital Recording and Non-Linear Editing of Audiovisual Contents The variety of devices that allow audiovisual recording and editing is extensive. Currently, the market provides a countless array of video or photographic cameras, and postproduction and editing software, whose management has been greatly simplified over time. This great offer, which at first glance seems an advantage, also causes problems for users, who may linger in a field like education: obsolescence or incompatibility between devices is well known, but it is also very simple to find, in the endless supply, suitable tools for almost any type of audiovisual needs. It is also necessary to note the combination of functions between these devices and the development of mobile applications that make it possible to record or photograph with a single terminal and, soon after, edit these images within a short period of time, when it used to take longer and involved more complex tasks (see Herrero, 2009, p. 130-134). These tools are, in many cases, reduced in size, easy operation, and relatively affordable (e.g., mobile phones), which makes it easy to obtain images and combine them into a montage. And, this has therefore resulted in the exaggerated increase in audiovisual material in existence today. Added to Internet access for disseminating images, and the development of video compression software, it results in a scenario where massive amounts of audiovisual content is produced (see Willem, 2009, p. 49-66 ). The use of these recording tools and editing software (see Montoya, 2005, p. 11) in disciplines such as journalism and audiovisual communication is essential: most communications (informative, documentary, fictional...) composed in both areas go through the proper hardware use and appropriate software. But media literacy (education about and with media as teaching aids, areas of study, and work techniques ([Perez Rodriguez, 2004, p. 179]), includes other theoretical skills that suggest teaching in these areas should achieve a balance between technical education in all these devices and ample theoretical knowledge. Recording and editing skills rely, inevitably, in the continuous screening of a wide range of audiovisual material (information products, reports, films, new media formats) and seeking the relevant theoretical literature (Delors , 1996). It must be remembered that the quality of all these processes depends on devoting adequate time to each of the tasks, especially when the students are learning to handle what to them is relatively new equipment. Furthermore, if these tasks are to be performed diligently, time must be devoted to understanding the different audiovisual narratives (producing a short piece on fiction is not the same as covering the news with a mobile device or taking pictures for an audiovisual chronicle). Therefore, the necessary and minimal tools to provide such lessons, in addition to screenings and texts, are: MiniDV cameras (with the appropriate tapes), or digital SLR or automatic cameras with memory cards or mobile recording devices; tripods; lavalier microphones (with the appropriate consumables) and sound devices integrated in each camera; 132

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nonlinear editing software with the appropriate hardware; and other accessories and supplies (light sources, cables...) (see Espinosa & Abbate, 2005). Content Curation: Storify The Web 2.0, based on the exchange of contents (of any kind) in real time and under usability parameters that allow any user to participate in its potentials, has provided many userfriendly tools and applications. This allows anyone to create content, publish, and share it with other Web surfers. All this without it being necessary to have a professional knowledge on the subject matter. The latest data, published in various reports regarding the state of the information society, indicate that the penetration of social networks among Spanish Internet users aged between 19 and 24 years old is nearly 90% (Fundacion Telefonica, 2012, p. 82), 45% of Internet users in the world are under 25 years old (Garcia Hervas, 2012, p. 8), and 98.4% of those with a college education that have less than 45 years old are Internet users (Observatorio Nacional de Telecomunicaciones y de la Sociedad de la Informacion, 2013, p. 17). Thus, it can be said that university students spend a lot of time surfing, sharing content, and consulting social media. This is the main reason why tools and resources that serve the common Internet user are needed, in order to discard information, filter, and select parameters that aide in selecting the most relevant content according to the specified search criteria. The Storify software is a content curation tool that helps filter and select, under some algorithmic criteria, the most relevant content found in social networks. In this way, the platform user can create stories integrating all the narratives generated within a digital environment in a journalistic manner, different to what had been offered so far through other means. The platform focuses on the most popular social networks, but also in those whose potential lies in the content their users post and share, such as Flickr or Instagram, which have become true photographic digital archives. Storify allows any user to open an account and start publishing. Users can login through their Twitter account, without having to register again all their details. The platform offers usage tips for creating stories, keys that are consistent with the criteria any journalism student should consider when writing a story: • Be clear about what to narrate and how. • Do not create stories about generalities, but rather look for specific topics. • When selecting content search the "best of the best." Do not choose from the first search results. • Collate photos, text, video, audio, and more. Try to keep two or three multimedia resources. • Check spelling and choose a good headline for the story. When the user creates a story, the application provides modules (as text boxes or fields) in which the first thing to be done is to write a title, and immediately a web address is generated for that particular story. The user can search through different social networks, Google, or other websites by entering a given topic in the Storify search engine. Next, the platform shows some results (texts, tweets, photos, or videos), and the author can select those of interest and drag the modules available to the left under the title of the story. The order of the fields and, therefore, the story can be modified depending on the criteria of the creator.

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Methodology Description of Experience A Having 30 students and 14 teaching sessions, this experience meant to equip students with the basic knowledge for the construction of two audiovisual exercises: first, each student had to record a 3 minute interview of someone newsworthy within academia and, then, create a short documentary piece of 5 minutes at most. For this, after explaining the evaluation criteria and the working system, two classes were devoted to understanding the simplest audiovisual narratives (types of planes, kinds of audiovisual montage, terminology...) . The classes, which included analysis of screenings and supporting texts, were completed with students sharing the specific bibliography to complete these tasks. Faculty then proceeded to teach students how to manage the recording cameras provided by the University (MiniDV and HDV cameras), which were to be used in recording the first exercise at the university campus, as well as rehearse some basic recording routines: turning on the camera, set parameters, sound and image capture indoor and outdoor, etc. In this way, during class sessions five and six, the recordings of the short interviews were conducted at the University’s photography set. Since there was no need for editing, this material was imported and saved, and students accomplished their first exercise, to be evaluated during a group screening in classroom in which the potential, successes, and failures of each interview were discussed. Afterward, three class sessions were devoted to the teaching of a non linear digital editing software used in the university, and already transferred and stored short video clips were edited to practice some of the technical possibilities offered by the program. This was followed by the screenwriting the documentary piece in group, and the students then proceeded to record the required materials outside the classroom with any recording or photographic devices, encouraging a more creative and free use of these tools. After agreeing on a delivery deadline, these images were imported and stored to proceed then with the editing and, as previously done with the first practice exercise, finally screen the audiovisual pieces to be analyzed collectively. All these tasks were accompanied by the production tasks that students had to accomplish on their own to obtain the recordings, with the support and mentoring of the faculty. Description of Experience B Students were asked to organize into groups of three or four members. They chose a topic within the themes discussed in class, as recommended, and enrolled to use the software. The ultimate goal of the practice exercise was to produce a story from different multimedia contents found within the platform, and its originality and appropriate use of journalistic standards covered in other courses were to be evaluated. The intended results after the completion of the task were for students to reflect on the use of social media in journalism, to implement content curation, and to be able to develop a multimedia newspaper report. In addition, at the end of the exercise, students were asked to present a group reflection on the use of the platform as future journalists. Some of the remarks made were: 134

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An advantage when using Storify is it differentiates what is important, separates the “noise” of what really matters, what makes someone seeing what we write exactly as they want to see it. Interaction is vital, as it adds what is said in social networks, participation is evident as what we write is constructed, in part, by what users comment about the news piece. (Group 3, Experience A, Journalism and Audiovisual Communication students) As future journalists the capacity of this software to add content to our stories is of great importance, you can add hyperlinks, insert text, videos, content added by users, studies, articles, and photos in perfect chronological order; to this the possibility to produce work in collaboration with others is added, which encourages teamwork. (Group 4, Experience A, Journalism and Audiovisual Communication students) Integrating Experience A and Experience B After launching the two teaching experiences, and observing that students were able to easily adapt to the work dynamics, including recording, editing, and disseminating news content, the combination of both training activities is proposed as follows: first, open a common forum in the University’s Web space, where students from both experiences propose the topics to be worked simultaneously. While students from experience A produce content, they should create a group blog and, after recording and editing the content, upload the different audiovisual and photographic materials there so that students from experience B can select content to produce their multimedia news reports. SWOT Analysis

INTERNAL Strengths • Students’ high willingness to produce audiovisual content. • Motivation for using new technologies. • Ease of learning and use of simultaneous technologies. • The possibility to implement creative processes. Opportunities • It favors the continuous evaluation process required by the EHEA. • It favors content cross-section among courses. • It encourages teamwork. • It promotes organization and responsibility when undertaking audiovisual and journalistic work.

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EXTERNAL Weaknesses • Low motivation to work in groups. • Low frustration tolerance. • Scant prior knowledge of the medium. • Lack of adaptation to complex situations.

Threats • Software and hardware technical difficulties. • The required investment for technical resources and equipment. • Limited calendar flexibility. • Requires extra time on the part of the faculty.

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Conclusions In view of the description of both experiences and subsequent SWOT analysis of the teaching proposal, it can be concluded that the convergence of content and skills in audiovisual and journalistic settings responds to the courses’ demands and facilitates their adaptation to the EHEA requirements. The academic activities proposed in this article aim to create links between different courses in order to help students avoid the false impression that different knowledge areas are compartmentalized and unrelated. In addition, students should acquire greater knowledge and get acquainted with some of the functions they may assume in their future careers.

References Arroyo, C. (2002). El impacto de las nuevas tecnologías en la enseñanza superior [The impact of new technologies in higher education]. In C. Alba Pastor (Coord.), Perspectivas de aplicación y desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías de la educación. Unión Europea, América Latina y Caribe (pp. 37-43). Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte/Universidad de Murcia. Delors, J. (Coord.). (1996). Learning: The treasure within. Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the 21st Century. Paris, France: UNESCO. Espinosa, S., & Abbate, E. (2005). La producción de vídeo en el aula [Video production inside the classroom]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Colihue. Fundación Telefónica. (2012). La sociedad de la información en España 2012 [The information society in Spain 2012]. Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Ariel. Retrieved from http://elibros.fundacion.telefonica.com/sie12/ García Garrido, J. L. (2002). Aprendizaje permanente y nuevas tecnologías: Una unión necesaria [Permanent learning and new technologies: A necessary union]. In C. Alba Pastor (Coord.), Perspectivas de aplicación y desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías de la educación. Unión Europea, América Latina y Caribe (pp. 9-22). Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte/Universidad de Murcia. García Hervás, J. M. (Ed.). (2012). eEspaña: Informe anual 2012 sobre el desarrollo de la sociedad de la información en España [e136

Spain: Annual report 2012]. Madrid, Spain: Fundación Orange. Retrieved from http://www.proyectosfundacionorange.es Gutiérrez, M. (2002). Alfabetización tecnológica: Competencias básicas para una nueva cultura [Technological alphabetization: Basic skills for a new culture]. In C. Alba Pastor (Coord.), Perspectivas de aplicación y desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías de la educación. Unión Europea, América Latina y Caribe (pp. 23-30). Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte/Universidad de Murcia. Gutiérrez Martín, A. (2003). Alfabetización digital. Algo más que ratones y teclas [Digital alphabetization: More than mice and keyboards]. Barcelona, España: Gedisa. Herrero, J. C. (Ed.) (2009). Manual de teoría de la información y de la comunicación [Manual on information and communication theory]. Madrid, Spain: Univérsitas. Montoya, N. (2005). La comunicación audiovisual en la educación [Audiovisual communication in education]. Madrid, Spain: Ediciones del Laberinto. Observatorio Nacional de Telecomunicaciones y de la Sociedad de la Información [ONTSI]. (2013). Perfil sociodemográfico de los internautas. Análisis de datos INE 2012 [Sociodemographic profiles of Web surfers. INE 2012 data analysis]. Madrid, España: ONTSI/Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Pérez Rodríguez, M. A. (2004). Los nuevos lenguajes de la comunicación. Enseñar y aprender con los medios [The new languages in

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Unión Europea, América Latina y Caribe (pp. 31-36). Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte/Universidad de Murcia.

communication. teaching and learning with media]. Barcelona, Spain: Paidós. Vilches

Norat, Y. (2002). La alfabetización tecnológica. Un planteamiento humanista [Technological alphabetization. A humanist approach]. In C. Alba Pastor (Coord.), Perspectivas de aplicación y desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías de la educación.

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Willem,

C. (2009). La web audiovisual [The audiovisual web]. In Grané, M. & Willem, C. (Eds.). Web 2-0: Nuevas formas de aprender y participar. Barcelona, Spain: Laertes.

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